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o An imaginary island, represented by Sir Thomas More, in a work called Utopia, as enjoying the greatest perfection in politics, laws, and the like. o the concept of utopia was devised by the philosopher sir Thomas More in a book published in 1516. In the book, Utopia is the name of a fictional island in the Atlantic which supports an ideal community with a seemingly perfect social, political, and legal system. It is significant that utopia was conceived as an island; the perfect society had to be isolated from the rest of the world to avoid being corrupted by it. o Crucially, more did not believe that such an ideal society was possible – it was a purely philosophical concept. In fact, the word utopia comes from the greek term ‘no place’, indicating that for more utopia was an impossible dream. o Religios Utopia Religious utopias can be intra-religious or inter-religious. The interreligious utopia borders on a concept like Polyculturalism and is not deemed possible in the near future or the near-far future. Fledgling theories are generally canceled as impossible, but the ideology of God and Religion used in inter-religious utopia is commonly stated by many people as their view of God. In more extended theories it goes up to the level of different religious leaders setting aside their differences and accepting harmony, peace and understanding to unite all religions within one another, thereby forming a utopian religion or a religion of Humans with God any type of force that reigned before the birth of the universe. Religion and God being used as a self-motivating factor for people to believe in and raise themselves out of difficult situations.
1803. however. many radical religious groups formed utopian societies in which all aspects of people's lives could be governed by their faith. especially in their folk-religious forms. They postulate freedom from sin. Intra-Religious utopias are based on religious ideals. The Harmony Society was a Christian theosophy and pietist group founded in Impingent. Jewish. the society moved to the United States on October 7. pain. This enlightenment promises exit from the cycle of life and death. among others. and death. relating back to the concept of utopia. In the United States and Europe during the Second Great Awakening of the 19th century and thereafter. implying an existence free from worry in a state of bliss or enlightenment. A number of religious utopian societies from Europe came to the United States from the 18th century throughout the 19th century. The Islamic. Due to religious persecution by the Lutheran Church and the government in Württemberg. and Christian ideas of the Garden of Eden and Heaven may be interpreted as forms of utopianism. Their members are usually required to follow and believe in the particular religious tradition that established the utopia. others (such as the Community at Qumran) do not. Some permit non-believers or non-adherents to take up residence within them. Utopia is not a place but a state of mind. which originated in England in the 18th century but moved to America shortly afterward. Germany. A belief that if we are able to practice meditation without continuous stream of thoughts. Such religious utopias are often described as "gardens of delight". and often assume communion with beings such as angels or the houri. and the Harmony Society. Among the best-known of these utopian societies were the Shakers. we are able to reach enlightenment. in 1785. they. In Hinduism or Buddhism. and are to date those most commonly found in human society. 1805. the Ephrata Cloister. settled in Pennsylvania. including the Society of the Woman in the Wilderness (led by Johannes Kelpius). In a similar sense the Hindu concept of Moksha and the Buddhist concept of Nirvana may be thought of as a kind of utopia. and on February 15. together . poverty.
founded by John Humphrey Noyes in Oneida. or a new Earth without sin. manufacturer of refrigerators and household appliances. The Amana Corporation. A wide variety of intentional communities with some type of faith based ideas have started across the world. after Satan and evil are defeated. making it one of the longest-running financially successful communes in American history. but instead an incorporeal place for souls. The Oneida Community. It can be assumed that it will something like the Garden of Eden before the fall. for example. Canada. formally organized the Harmony Society. when it is believed that advanced science and technology will allow utopian living. The book of Revelation in the Christian bible depicts a better time. Other examples include a society where humans have struck a balance with technology and it is merely used to enhance the human living . in the future. like sleep. The Amish and Hutterites can also be considered an attempt towards a better world to live in. o Science and technology Scientific and technological utopias are set in the future. changes in human nature and the human condition. was a utopian religious commune that lasted from 1848 to 1881. Another possibility is that heaven will not be a physical realm. The details of this new Earth where God and Jesus rules is not made clear. which lasted from 1855 to 1932. started by radical German pietists. it was one of the longestrunning communes in American history. New York. have been replaced by artificial means. Technology has affected the way humans have lived to such an extent that normal functions.with about 400 followers. The Amana were communal settlements in Iowa. Other examples are Fountain Grove. The group lasted until 1905. was originally started by the group. placing all their goods in common. One interpretation is that there will eventually be heaven on Earth. Although this utopian experiment is better known today for its manufacture of Oneida silverware. as well as Sointula in British Columbia. eating or even reproduction. the absence of death and suffering. Riker's Holy City and other Californian utopian colonies between 1855 and 1955 (Hine).
Authors such as John Zerzan and Derrick Jensen consider that modern technology is progressively depriving humans of their autonomy. in favor of small-scale organization. One notable example of a technological and socialist utopia is Scottish author Iain Banks' Culture.condition (e. cause environmental damage or even humanity’s extinction. as a necessary path to avoid the threat of technology on human freedom and sustainability. In place of the static perfection of a utopia. Opposing this optimism is the prediction that advanced science and technology will. Critics. which have explored some of these topics. through deliberate misuse or accident. Star Trek).g. such as the classics Brave New World and Nineteen Eighty-Four. raising questions on responsibility and freedom brought by division of labour. and advocate the collapse of the industrial civilization. Buckminster Fuller presented a theoretical basis for technological utopianism and set out to develop a variety of technologies ranging from maps to designs for cars and houses which might lead to the development of such a utopia. such as Jacques Ellul and Timothy Mitchell advocate precautions against the premature embrace of new technologies. libertarian transhumanists envision an "extropia". . There are many examples of techno-dystopias portrayed in mainstream culture. evolving society allowing individuals and voluntary groupings to form the institutions and social forms they prefer. an open.
Howard’s solution to the related <<Garden City Concept by Howard . (2) The planning of a compact town surrounded by a wide rural belt. containing proportionate areas of residences. planned cities that would combine the amenities of urban life with the ready access to nature typical of rural environment. (4) The limitation of the extent of town and prevention of encroachment upon the rural belt. & agriculture within the town. problems of rural depopulation and the runaway to growth of great towns and cities was the creation of a series of small. self-contained surrounded by ‘greenbelts’ (parks). The main features of Howard’s scheme were: (1) The purchase of large area of agricultural land within a ring fence. Naturally people preferred the third one namely garden city. (3) The accommodation of residents. Garden city is an impressive diagram of the ‘three magnets’ namely the town magnet. The concept of garden cities is to produce relatively economically independent cities with short commute times and the preservation of the countryside. and (5) The natural rise in land values to be used for the town’s own general welfare.KINDS OF UTOPIAN CITY CONCEPTS A. GARDEN CITY Garden cities were intended to be planned. industry. industry and agriculture. country magnet with their advantages and disadvantages and the third magnet with attractive features of both town and country.
C. an intended to build civic virtue in the poor through important monumental architecture. . SATELLITE CITY Satellite city is a concept in urban planning that refers to essentially to miniature metropolitan areas on the fringe of larger ones. . Satellite towns are smaller municipalities that are adjacent to a major city which is the core of a metropolitan area. David Burnham is widely credited as being the “father of city beautiful”. The McMillan Plan was an architectural plan for the development of Washington. formulated in 1902 by the Senate Park Commission of the District of Columbia. Although he worked with others including Frederick Olmsted.. They differ from mere suburbs. conceptually.B. They were also strongly influenced by the City Beautiful movement. cities and urban centers would descend into filth. subdivisions and especially bedroom communities in that they have municipal governments distinct from that of the core metropolis and employment bases sufficient to support their residential populations. D. CAPITOL is the origin which both the quadrants of the districts are divided and city was planned. along with unwitting inhabitants. CITY BEAUTIFUL City beautiful was an architectural manifestation of the social response to falling urban life. C. It was a response to what had been learned – that if not planned and designed for public health and be benefit.
000 inhabitants situated on a area in southeasr france on a plateau with high land a lake to the north. additional sectors would be added to the end of each band. the city would run parallel to the river and be built so that the dominant wind would blow from the residential areas to the industrial strip. technical and educational institutions -a greenbelt or buffer zone with major highway -a residential zone.satellite cities could be self-sufficient communities outside of their larger metropolitan areas. the sectors of a linear city would be: -a purely segregated zone for railway lines -a zone of production and communal enterprises. Une cite industrialle is a well coordinated and monumentally conceived plan placed in a park like setting where both the classical spirit of the academic tradition and the primitive simplicity of utopian ideas is demonstrated. The city would consist of a series of functionally specialized parallel sectors. INDUSTRIAL CITY Garnier’s proposal was an industrial city for approx 35. a band of residential buildings. without growing wider. sp that the city would become even longer. D. Generally. with related scientific. a valley and river to the south. In his proposal. It may involve consciously planned cities to act as spiller or dormitory towns. including a band of social institutions. LINEAR CITY The Linear city was an urban plan for an elongated urban formation. a satellite city experiences cross-commuting. and a “children’s band’ -a park zone & -an agricultural zone with gardens and state-run farms As the city expanded. However. functioning as part of a metropolis. garnier tried to take into account all . E.
and at the top. and agriculutural practices. The public area at the heart of the city was grouped into 3 sections: administrative services. residential. but the city of today! The centrepiece of this plan was the group of sixty-story. smaller low-story. symmetrical geometrical skyscrapers. as well as highway intersections. The residential districts are the 1st attempt towards passive solar architecture. rectangular park-like green spaces. le Corbusier insisted. He had the fanciful notion that commercial airliners would land between the huge skyscrapers. assembly halls. The various functions of the city were clearly related. F. cruciform skyscrapers were set within the large. zigzag apartment blocks (set far back from the street amid green space.Contemporary City Laid out in a rigidly symmetrical grid pattern. but separated from each other by location and patterns. This was not the city of the future. Garnier had energy efficiency in mind as the city was to be powered by a hydroelectric station with a dam which was located in the mountains along with the hospital. housed the inhabitants.aspects of the city including governmental. Le Corbusier segregated pedestrian circulation paths from the roadways and glorified the use of the automobile as a means of transportation. an airport. The city was completed by a railroad station to the east. The residential area is made up of rectangular running east-west which gives the cityh its characteristics elongated form. Le corbusier’s villa contemporaine plan for paris 1992 . museum collections and sports facilities. the city consisted of neatly spaced rows of identical. At the center was a huge transportation hub that on different levels included depots for buses and trains. As one moved out from the central skyscrapers.
The spine of the town is parkway. It was designed by Perry to act as a framework for urban planners attempting to design functional. H. surrounded by a rural belt. a central mall or scenic parkway. It continues to be utilised as a means of ordering and organising new residential communities in a way which satisfies contemporary “social.G. . self-contained and desirable neighborhoods in the early 20th century in industrialising cities. the whole of the land being in public ownership. Every road has a wide grass verge. The garden cities and town planning association had defined a garden city as: “A town designed for healthy living and industry of a size that makes possible a full measure of socil life but not larger. Howard had called for the creation of planned towns that were to combine the benefits of the city and the countryside and to avoid the disadvantages of both. is an early diagrammatic planning model for residential development in metropolitan areas. or held in trust for the community” The town is laid out along tree lined boulevards with a neo-georgian town centre. The concept of the neighbourhood unit. administrative and service requirements for satisfactory urban existence. NEIGHBORHOOD UNIT. along a mile long. Older houses are on the west side of parkway and newer houses on the east side. crystallised from the prevailing social and intellectual attitudes of the early 1900s by Clarence Perry. WELWYN Welwyn garden city – it was founded by sir Ebenezer Howard in the 1920s following his previous experiment in Letchworth garden city. The view along parkway to the south was once described as one of the world’s finest urban vistas.
in areas in which a street hierarchy has replaced the traditional grid. arterial or circulating routes rather than by local streets. sports complexes require superblocks. For example. The jeld wen field stadium in portland. NEW URBANISM CONCEPTS Within the concept of new urbanism today. Cultural complexes. cities should also de-emphasize the car by placing garages behind homes or in alleys. and is typically bounded by widely spaced. such as the Lincoln centre in ny. as in Boston and toronto. This means that no resident should need a car to get anywhere in the community and they should be no more than a five minute walk from any basic good or service. In a residential area of a suburb. where they are more often associated with institutional. regional general hospitals or specialized medical centres. The first of these is to ensure that a city is walk able. Just as the coliseum in ancient rome. Superblocks are also used when functional units such as rail yards or shipyards. inherited from the 19th and early 20th centuries. These centres can range in area from one to ten city blocks J. single . are too big to fit in an average city block. for example.I. the interior of the superblock is typically served by cul-de-sac or looped streets. a small townhouse can be placed next to a larger. planned cities. echoing the large gallerias of the 19th century. A recent superblock user is the merchandise distribution centre. instead of large parking lots. convention and exhibition centers. size. In addition to actively promoting walking. communities should invest in sidewalks and narrow streets. SUPER BLOCK A superblock is much larger than a traditional city block. There should also only be on-street parking. Superblocks are often associated with suburbs. high-speed. Another core idea of new urbanism is that buildings should be mixed both in their style. price and function. Superblocks can also be found in central city areas. A contemporary function which reflects ancient practices that also requires larger than typical blocks is the sports stadium or arena. Other contemporary institutions. often occupy a superblock achieved through the consolidation of regular city blocks. recreational and corporate rather than residential uses. educational. as the one in Toronto and Boston. there are four key ideas. with greater setback for buildings. that is. and downtown enclosed shopping malls such as Eaton centre in Toronto. establishments or functions that require superblocks are: city halls. and the urban renewal of the mid-20th century. To achieve this. takes up six normal city blocks as does the equally large Greensboro coliseum in north carolina.
This means maintaining connections between people with high density. England. The land used was purchased by Quakers who had intended to farm the area and build a Quaker community. informal street layouts. 3000 acres (1200 Ha) for Agriculture. alongside city life. is a town and civil parish in Hertfordshire. & 1500 acres (600 Ha) for city proper. open spaces and community gathering centers like a plaza or neighborhood square. o Finally. It was built in an area of 4500 acres(1800 Ha). parks. the design was supported by the Arts and Crafts the movement and Quakers. 2. The current town was laid out by Ebenezer Howard in 1903 using his radical new garden city approach which incorporated elements of the country. The plan was a combination of landscaping. <-Letchworth Garden City shown within Hertfordshire . a new urbanist city should have a strong emphasis on the community.family home. Mocked in the press at the time.600. main axis focusing on a town center. o The town's name is taken from one of the three villages it surrounded (the other two being Willian and Norton) . Mixed-use buildings such as those containing commercial spaces with apartments over them are also ideal in this setting. with a population of 33. What is Letchworth? Letchworth o 1st developed Garden city started in 1902 & designed by Raymond Unwin & Barry Parker. o Correctly titled Letchworth Garden City.all of which featured in the Domesday Book.
Lordship and Manor Park . Certainly for a period that has a reputation for poor town and residential planning it is remarkably well executed piece of urban design.various different construction methods were tried. Willian School. and has been tried in New Towns elsewhere. The idea is not unique to Jackmans. This resulted in dwellings with large amounts of internal space. sheltered housing. and public house.which in turn is crossed by a series of underpasses. Almost all residential housing on Jackmans is in a series of cul-de-sacs with access off a single feeder road .perhaps harking back to the Cheap Cottages Exhibition 60 years before . Bordered by major roads this almost self-contained community developed a reputation as being slightly cut-off from the rest of the town and tends to be overlooked in most studies of Garden City development. and children's playgrounds.Letchworth today Several housing estates have been added to Letchworth since its inception. Most houses do not open onto streets with passing traffic. This is an unfortunate oversight as the plan of the estate (based on the "Radburn principle" pioneered in Radburn. To the north of the town The Grange began construction in 1947 and to the south east Jackmans was built from 1961. including the pre-fabrication of some houses at a shipyard in Sunderland. The estate is crossed by a series of footpaths. and matched most Garden City principles. These were council / municipal housing estates with many residents originally coming from the London overspill. which had closed in 1991 when school rolls in the town had begun to fall. but of variable build quality . along with two primary schools (Lannock and Radburn) had been built as part of the Jackmans Estate.appropriately called Radburn Way . The effect is to largely separate pedestrians from motor traffic.a town whose design was itself inspired by the original Garden City) was an impressive and largely successful addition to the town. New Jersey . library. but rarely so successfully. particularly on land adjacent to Jackmans on the sites of a former creamery and the Willian Secondary School. Two more prosperous (and private) estates . Smaller areas of in-fill housing also appeared in the 1990s. but onto pedestrian squares. but also shops. which was constructed with not only its own schools. green areas.were built from in 1971 to the south west. In some cases the housing itself varied in quality as . community centre.
Although a small parade of shops and a community centre flourish. The path. later the Gateway) in 1998. in 1980. On 1 October 1995. A further major programme to improve and update facilities in the town centre . and its public library in 2006.began in 2009. a free hospital (the Ernest Gardiner Day Hospital) in 1984. Standalone Farm. 'Foundation day' was shortly an annual event for around 5–6 years. the 'Foundation day' event took place celebrating the 100 year anniversary of the establishment of Letchworth. The Foundation later celebrated the town's centenary in 2003 by building a landscaped path for walkers and cyclists. its public house (initially called the Carousel. where tribute bands would performed and a fireworks display was held. the estate lost of its secondary school (Willian) in 1988. the smaller of the two. and major refurbishment of the town's cinema and shopping centre in 1996 and 1997. in July 2009. leading to investment in a number of town amenities: a working farm. The Garden City estate began to turn a profit in the 1970s.(particularly. Radburn Primary remains in operation. Other parts of the estate used more traditional methods. and after a brief consultation the county council closed Lannock Primary School. a leisure centre and a theatre named Plinston Hall in 1982. Markets and stalls ran throughout the day. Over time increased mobility and changing age profiles has reduced the need for the estate to have its own facilities. forms a 20 km loop around the town. it is alleged.entirely funded by the Foundation . whilst a fun fair was erected in Norton Common. known as the Greenway. for houses whose panels were constructed on Friday afternoons). By 2007 the two primary schools on the estate were both running at under 50% capacity. .
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