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1) With a labelled diagram,explain the dark reaction on C4 plants.


The pathway or the ixation o carbon dioxide(C!") in C4 plants is known as the #atch$%lack pathway. C!" rom atmosphere di &ses into the protoplast o mesophyll cells in the lea o C4 plants.C!" combines with a '$carbon molec&le, phosphoenol pyr&(ate()*)), to prod&ce oxaloacetate catalysed by )*) carboxylase. !xaloacetate is then red&ced to malate by recei(ing + hydrogen atoms rom ,-.)#. /alate is transported to b&ndle sheath cells thro&gh the plasmodesmata. /alate is oxidised to orm pyr&(ate by remo(ing + hydrogen atoms and C!". This increases the concentration o C!" in the stroma o the chloroplast in b&ndle sheath cell. )yr&(ate di &ses into the mesophyll cells and is phosphorylated to regenerate phosphoenol pyr&(ate. C!" in chloroplast o b&ndle sheath cell then enters the Cal(in cycle. 0n the C!" ixation phase, C!" binds with 1&2)(rib&lose biphosphate) catalysed by 1&2) carboxylase. -n &nstable 3$carbon s&gar is ormed. The

glycerate$'$phosphate recei(es a phosphate gro&p rom -T) to orm glycerate$1. glycerate$1.-. . 0n(ol(es the mo(ement o (esicles towards the preaynaptic membrane. The action potential generated is sel propagating. .'$diphosphate then combines with + hydrogen atoms rom . -rri(al o imp&lse on the axon does not ca&se the mo(ement o calci&m ions into the ne&rone. 0n the regeneration o C!" acceptor phase. it spreads to the ad7acent patch. while the pre(io&s patch becomes repolarised. 0n the prod&ct synthesis phase. the sodi&m (oltage gated channels in a certain patch o axon will open to allow the di &sion o sodi&m ions into the axoplasm.ter one patch is polarised. 2oth in(ol(e the mo(ement o molec&les across the cell membrane. The mo(ement o sodi&m ions into the axoplasm stim&lates the opening o sodi&m (oltage gated channels on the ad7acent patch o axon membrane. . (b) 0mp&lse transmission across the synapse -rri(al o imp&lse to the synapse ca&ses calci&m ions to di &se into the ne&rone.(5m) (b) Compare the mechanisme o imp&lse transmission across synape and along axon. glycerate$ '$phosphate. Then. glyceraldehyde$'$phosphate + o&t o 1+ molec&les are 7oined in a complex process to orm organic molec&les s&ch as gl&cose.)#. .e&rotransmitters are emptied into the synaptic cle t.3$carbon molec&le splits into + molec&les o '$carbon molec&le. + (a) *xplain how an imp&lse is transmitted along the axon. .oes not in(ol(e the mo(ement o ne&rotransmitters. 0mp&lse transmission across the axon. a triose phosphate. some o the glyceraldehyde$'$phosphate 16 o&t o 1+ molec&les are rearranged in a series o complex reactions and the phosphate gro&p is added rom -T) to regenerate 1&2). .oes not in(ol(e the mo(ement o (esicles.(16m) (a) When a part o the axoplasm is stim&lated. and releases a phosphate gro&p to orm glyceraldehyde$'$ phosphate()4-5). %odi&m ions that ha(e entered the axoplasm ca&ses positi(e eedback to open more sodi&m (oltage gated channels on this patch o axon membrane. in the red&ction phase.'$diphosphate.epolarisation occ&rs to regenerate the action potential. 2oth are in(ol(ed in the coordination o actions body.

+) . progesterone. .0n(ol(es the mo(ement o ne&rotransmitters across the synaptic cle t. The corp&s l&te&m prod&ced then secretes . 0n(ol(es the attachment o ne&rotransmitters to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane.isc&ss the &nctions o hormones in(ol(ed in the menstr&al cycle o h&mans. 0ncrease in the concentration o oestrogen &ntil the 1' th day o the menstr&al cycle stim&lates the secretion o 5# rom the anterior pit&itary glands (ia the positi(e eedback mechanism. oestrogen also inhibits the secretion o 9%# (ia the negati(e eedback mechanism to pre(ent the de(elopment o new ollicles in the o(ary.oes not in(ol(e ne&rotransmitters. 5# stim&lates o(&lation in which secondary oocyte is released rom 4raa ian ollicles in the o(ary into the 9allopian t&be.The &nction o oestrogen is to repair and maintain the de(elopment o endometrial walls a ter menstr&ation. . The concentration o oestrogen increases rom menstr&ation &ntil its peak on the 1'th day o the menstr&al cycle. 5# also stim&lates the de(elopment o corp&s l&te&m in the o(ary. The concentration o 5# peaks on the 14th day o the menstr&al cycle. %odi&m (oltage gated channels on the postsynaptic membrane open as a res&lt o chemical stim&lation( attachment o ne&rotransmitters on the receptor).o en8ymes are in(ol(ed in hydrolysis as no ne&rotransmitters are &sed. %odi&m (oltage gated channels along the axon open as a res&lt o electrochemical stim&lation. ollicle stim&lating hormone(9%#) and l&teinising hormone(5#).(15m) #ormones in(ol(ed in the reg&lation o the menstr&al cycle are oestrogen.oes not in(ol(e the mo(ement o ne&rotransmitters.0t stim&lates thede(elopment o primordial ollicles into 4raa ian ollicles in the o(ary.9%h stim&lates the secretion o oestrogen rom mat&ring ollicles in the o(ary (ia the positi(e eedback mechanism. 0n(ol(es the action o en8ymes to hydrolyse ne&rotransmitters a ter depolarisation. . Concentration o 9%# secreted rom the anterior pit&itary gland increases steadily rom menstr&ation &ntil the 14th day o the menstr&al cycle.

ragments will orm a geonomic library......synthesis. red&cing the concentration o progesterone .....are mixed together in a test t&be..The red&ced le(el o progesterone ca&ses the breakdown o the endometri&m...library or h&mans is prepared. c.. 1e(erse .by a method called complementary . genomic library and c. .ragments and the cloning (ector .. The bacteria cells with the r...rom a speci ic cell is isolated and &sed as a template to make .will be c&lt&red in a medi&m containing anti$biotics. /enstr&ation begins. 4enomic library is a collection o clones that consists o all the . )rogesterone together with oestrogen maintains the de(elopment and thickening o the endometri&m..(3m) (a) 4ene bank is a stored copy o genetic in ormation o a species in a pre erred en(ironment or conser(ati(e p&rposes. (c) The r. The concentration o progesterone increases steadily a ter o(&lation &ntil the end o the menstr&al cycle. The decreased le(el o progesterone also stilm&lates the secretion o 9%# and the cycle is repeated.-).cloning (ector s&ch as the plasmid is c&t with the same restriction en8yme.('m) (b)*xplain how genomic library or h&mans is prepared.e ine gene isolated rom h&man cells and c&t with speci ic restriction en8yme..(3m) (c) *xplain how c...library is a collection o clones that contains only the coding region o a genome. 0 ertilisation does not occ& o a species.. 2oth the . *ach colony contains h&man .progesterone.ligase is added to 7oin the two parts to orm recombinant . 4(a).( will be introd&ced into host cells s&ch as Escherichia coli bacteria.. )rogesterone inhibits the secretion o 9%# to pre(ent the de(elopment o ollicles in the o(ary d&ring l&teal phase.. the corp&s l&te&m degenerates at the end o the menstr&al cycle. (b) Total n&clear . .. )rogesterone also inhibits the secretion o 5# to pre(ent o(&lation d&ring l&teal phase.

-) rom the m1. .-(r. (1+m6 (b)%tate ' types o protein and their &nctions.-. . Collagen is a .. The r... The se:&ence o amino acids is &ni:&e or each type o polypeptide.. ..... 5(a) 2y &sing speci ic examples. The do&ble strand . )rimary str&ct&re consist o a linear se:&ence o amino acids 7oined by peptide bonds to orm a polypeptide is c&t with a speci ic restriction en8yme.. 9or example. The se:&ence o amino acids is determined by speci ic genetic codes in the .polymerase is &sed to synthesise the complementary ... *xample is beta$ polypeptide o haemoglobin. tertiary and :&aternary str&ct&res. 2oth the ..are mixed together in a test t&be..transcriptase catalyses the re(erse transcription o complementary single strand .o&ble or triple helix consist o + or more polypeptide chains coiled to orm ibro&s protein. polypeptide chain coiled to orm simple alpha$ helix shape maintained by hydrogen bonds..cloning (ector s&ch as the plasmid is c&t with the same restriction en8yme.ragments and the cloning (ector .('m) (a) The 4 le(els o protein str&ct&res are primary.-).. keratin is a do&ble helix ibro&s protein o&nd in hair and nails.will be c&lt&red in a medi&m containing antibiotics..ligase is added to 7oin the two parts to orm recombinant . m1.o the cell. The bacteria cells with the r.strand to will be introd&ced into host cells s&ch as the Escherichia coli bacteria. The collection o colonies containing the coding region o the coding region o the genomo orms a c.... The se:&ence o amino acids determines con ig&ration o the other le(els o proteins. 9or secondary str&ct&re.-(c. secondary.library. explain the o&r le(els o protein str&ct&res. degraded with ribon&clease or an alkaline sol&tion..

The con ig&ration o the tertiary str&ct&re is maintained by hydrogen bonds. #aemoglobin is the transportation o oxygen and carbon dioxide. ionic<polar bonds. /yoglobin is an oxygen storage in m&scle cells. non$polar attraction and =an der Waals orces. held together by hydrogen bonds. Two o the tertiary str&ct&re proteins are made o alpha$ polypeptide o haemoglobin and another two are made o beta$polypeptide o haemoglobin. myoglobin and antibodies. hydrogen bond and (an der Waals orces. which is in(ol(ed in contraction and relaxation o m&scle. *xample. . Tertiary str&ct&re is a speci ic coiling and olding o secondary str&ct&re to orm a glob&lar shaped protein. -ntibodies are in(ol(ed in the mechanism that destroys oreign antigens that enters the body in body de ence mechanism. #eat. haemoglobin is made o the binding o o&r tertiary str&ct&re con7&gated glob&lar proteins. dis&lphide bonds.triple helix ibro&s protein o&nd in tendon. *xample. Tertiary str&ct&re con ig&ration o protein changes the proteins to become non$ &nctional. 2eta$pleated sheets in which polypeptide chain are arranged parallel to each other. >&arternary str&ct&re consists o more than one tertiary str&ct&re protein which combine together to orm a large complex protein. -ctin and myosin are ibro&s protein in m&scle. The tertiary str&ct&res in the :&aternary str&ct&re proteins are held together by weak bonds s&ch as ionic bond. p# or chemicals changes can ca&se the denat&ration o protein. ibroin in silk. Coiling and olding are ca&sed by bonds ormed between amino acids in the polypeptide. 4lob&lar con ig&ration is important or the &nctions o sol&ble proteins s&ch as en8ymes. *n8ymes are organic catalysts. ligament and skin. hormones. b) *n8ymes are organic catalyst that increases the rate o biochemical reactions in li(ing organisms.

*n8ymes are not damaged or destroyed by reactions it catalyses. 9actors that .(5m) (c) *xplain mechanism o en8yme action.3(a) .e ine the term en8yme. *n8ymes ha(e high t&rno(er rate. *n8yme actions are &s&ally re(ersible as it can catalyse reactions in both directions. con ig&rations. T&rno(er rate is the n&mber o s&bstrate molec&le catalysed by an en8yme per min&te. *n8yme actions are highly speci ic beca&se en8ymes ha(e acti(e sites and only catalyse a reaction when the s&bstrate ha(e complementary con ig&ration with acti(e site.(?m6 (a) -n en8yme is biological organic catalyst prod&ced by li(ing cells that speeds &p the rate o biochemical reactions. (b) *n8ymes are glob&lar proteins with precise '.(1m) (b)%tate the characteristics o the en8ymes.

p# (al&e and temperat&re. %&bstrate has a complementary con ig&ration and charges with the acti(e site complex.enat&ration o en8ymes by en(ironmental actors s&ch as p#.a ect the en8yme actions are en8yme concentration. 4lycolysis occ&rs in the cytoplasm o cells and does not re:&ire oxygen. temperat&re and chemicals alters the speci ic con ig&ration o en8ymes. which are then released rom the acti(e site o en8yme. orming an en8yme$s&bstrate complex. . s&bstrate concentration. %&bstrate in the en8yme$s&bstrate complex goes thro&gh reaction into one or more prod&cts. Certain groo(es on the en8yme str&ct&re acts as an acti(e site. con ig&rations. pre(enting ormation o en8yme$s&bstrate complexes th&s red&cing the rate o the en8yme catalysed reaction. The rate o reaction o an en8yme catalysed reactions may be decreased or stopped by the competiti(e or non$ competiti(e inhibitors. *n8yme action is speci ic as only s&bstrates with complementary con ig&ration and charges can bind to the acti(e site o an en8yme. This is explained by the @lock and keyA hypothesis in which the con ig&ration o s&bstrate that acts as the @keyA its into the acti(e site o an en8yme that acts as the @lockA. The acti(e site o an en8yme cointains amino acid side chains with the acti(e site o en8yme. . *xamples o bonds are ionic bonds. Certain en8ymes re:&ire co actors to &nction e iciently. The s&bstrate is a molec&le that an en8yme acts on. (5m) (a) 4lycolysis is the breakdown o gl&cose in a series o en8yme catalysed reaction to orm two molec&les o pyr&(ate. hydrogen bonds.(16m) (b) *xplain how energy can be prod&ced rom triglyceride and proteins. dis&lphide bonds and (an der Waals orces. B(a)*xplain how gl&cose is con(erted into + pyr&(ates in cells. *n8ymes that are not altered or destroyed is released and can be re&sed to catalysed another reaction. (c) -n en8yme is glob&lar protein with speci ic '. non polar attractions. %peci ic con ig&ration o en8yme is maintained by speci ic bonds in the tertiary str&ct&re.

4l&cose is phosphorylated by recei(ing a phosphate gro&p rom -T) thro&gh s&bstrate le(el to orm gl&cose$3$phosphate. which is then red&ced to . r&ctose$3$phosphate. 4l&cose$3$ phosphate is then con(erted to its isomer. which enters into the Erebs cycle. 9r&ctose$3$phosphate is then phosphorylated by recei(ing a phosphate gro&p rom -T) phosphorylation to orm r&ctose$1.-.3$diphosphate is split to orm two triose phosphates. Then. 4lycerol is phosphorylated into glyceraldehyde$'$phosphate(triose phosphate). (b) Triglycerides can be hydrolysed into glycerol and atty acids. two pyr&(ate and two . which then enters glycolysis process.ihydroxyacetone phosphate is also con(erted into phosphoglyceraldehyde()4-5). . -cetate is then attached to coen8yme . %econd s&bstrate le(el phosphorylation occ&rs by trans erring phosphate gro&p rom each )*) to orm -T) and pyr&(ate.'$ diphosphate by releasing + hydrogen atoms(+#) to . The atty acids prod&ced are transported into the mitochondrion and metabolised to orm acetate. The amino acids prod&ced rom the hydrolysis o proteins goes thro&gh deamination to prod&ce ammonia and an organic compo&nd. F(a) *xplain the importance o blood circ&lation in animals.-. *ach )4-5 is then phosphorylated by recei(ing phosphate gro&p()i) and then is oxidised into glycerate$1. *ach 4) is rearranged and a water molec&le is remo(ed to orm phosphoenolpyr&(ate()*)) molec&le. .-.C. phosphoglyceraldehyde()4-5) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. (a) Transport digested ood rom digesti(e tract<ile&m to tiss&e< organ< cell. a +$carbon molec&le.# are ormed rom each gl&cose molec& orm acetyl Co-. The organic compo&nd prod&ced then can enter the respiratory pathway s&ch as the Erebs cycle. Transport carbon dioxide rom tiss&e< cell to l&ngs. Transport oxygen . 9r&ctose$1.3$diphosphate.&ring glycolysis.# D #C.(5m) (b)*xplain how one cardiac cycle occ&rs. s&bstrate le(el phosphorylation occ&rs when a phosphate gro&p is trans erred to -.'$diphosphate to orm two -T) molec&les and two molec&les o glycerate $'$phosphate (4)).) rom each glycerate$1. a net o two -T).

releases the excitatory contractile wa(e. Then. -=. ?(a) *xplain the importance o transpiration in plants. -=. re:&iring no imp&lse rom the central ner(o&s system(C. The excitatory contractile wa(e then stim&lates the atrio(entric&lar node(-=. !xygenated blood rom the le t (entricle is p&mped to body tiss&es thro&gh aorta.rom l&ngs to tiss&e< cell. Transport blood clotting actors to red&ce blood loss in case o in7&ries.%). (entric&lar systole occ&rs. -&ricle cardiac m&scles contract sim&ltaneo&sly prod&cing a&ricle systole. which are highly interconnected by intercalated disk and cross bridges. The spread o the excitatory contractile wa(e is acilitated by the cardiac m&scle cell. be ore the cycle is repeated. which then spreads to all the cardiac m&scle ibres o both a&ricles. Transport hormones rom endocrine glands to target organs< cells< tiss&es. The (entricle m&scles contract rom bottom &pwards.istrib&te heat in the body to maintain body temperat&re. which act as phagocytes and lymphocytes that prod&ce antibodies. then tho&gh )&rkin7e ibres o (entricle. %-. 2lood rom the a&ricle is p&mped into the (entricle thro&gh the atrio(entric&lar (al(es(bic&spid (al(e and tric&spid (al(e).) located on sept&m. 9&nction in the body de ence system by transporting white blood cells. while deoxygenated blood rom the right a&ricle is p&mped to l&ngs thro&gh p&lmonary artery. The heartbeat is started by the sinoatrial nodes(%-.) located on the right a&ricle wall. (b) Cardiac m&scles are myogenic beca&se it contracts and relaxes nat&rally. . Transport excretory waste prod&cts< &rea rom cell< tiss&e to excretory organ.(5m) . a&ricle and (entricle diastole occ&rs as both a&ricles and (entricles m&scles relax. then releases a excitatory contractile wa(e that spreads thro&gh the le t and right b&ndles o #is. delays the spread o excitatory contractile wa(e to (entricle m&scles.

(b)*xplain the orces that acilitate o transpiration in plants. )ro(ides cooling e ect to the plant. b) Transpiration is a process by water loss by e(aporation in plants. Transpiration is acilitated by root press&re. 1oot press&re is ca&sed by water that is acti(ely orced o&t rom the li(ing cells into the xylem (essels. *ndodermis cells acti(ely loads salt into the xylem (essels to lower the water potential o the xylem (essel. )ro(ides water to cells to &nction in the metabolic pathways s&ch as in hydrolysis and photosynthesis.(16m) (a) Transport water and ions rom the roots to the lea(es. . the contin&o&s stream o water rom the soil to the lea(es is prod&ced. between water molec&les in the xylem (essels. /ore water enters the xylem (essel thro&gh the xylem (essel o stems. %ince the xylems o lea(es are contin&o&s rom the xylem o roots. which is the orce o attraction between like molec&les. s&ch as. Transpiration p&ll is the combined s&ction orce exerted by all the lea(es in a plant when it transpires. -dhesion orce. Cohesion$tension theory in(ol(es cohesion orce. )ro(ides water or prod&ction o t&rgor press&re in cells. .&ring transpiration. Transport water sol&ble organic prod&cts s&ch as hormones. s&ch as. between water molec&le and the xylem (essel walls. Cohesion$tension theory explains the ascent o water in tiny xylem (essels o plants. the loss o water rom the mesophyll cells thro&gh the stomas &ltimately s&cks the water rom the xylem (essels o lea(es. which &nctions as a s&pport or the plants. capillary action and transpiration p&ll. which is the orce o attraction between &nlike molec&les.

/ore water is reabsorbed rom the distal con(ol&ted t&b&le and collecting d&ct into the blood capillaries. in the distal con(ol&ted t&b&le. *xample o toxic s&bstances that are excreted o&t rom blood capillaries into glomer&lar iltrate are nitrogeneo&s waste( &rea. The contents o the glomer&lar iltrate are the same as those in blood. except they do not ha(e plasma proteins.small . reabsorption and secretion. Gltra iltration. This is created by increasing a:&aporins arranged on the plasma membrane o t&b&le epithelial cells acing the l&men o the t&b&le. all thro&gh acti(e transport and acilitated di &sion. ammonia. hormone and dr&gs. and then lows into the &reter as &rine. the diameter o the a erent arteriole. (itamins and hormones. the glomer&lar iltrate lows into the collecting d&ct where more reabsorption o water occ&rs. is bigger than the e erent arteriole. -. which are &ltra iltration. This creates a high hydrostatic press&re in the glomer&l&s. 1eabsorption. which transports blood into the glomer&l&s. -cti(e secretion. red blood cells and platelets. amino acids. 0n the loop o #enle. selecti(e reabsorption occ&rs. hydrogen ions. &ric acid). .# increases the permeability o the distal con(ol&ted t&b&le and collecting d&cts towards water molec&les. which transports blood o&t o the glomer&l&s. (b) When the water potential o blood decreases. The res&lting l&id in 2owmanAs caps&le is the glomer&lar iltrate. . which cannot be iltered o&t. osmoreceptors in the hypothalam&s detect the changes and an imp&lse is sent to the pit&itary gland.#. reabsorption o water occ&rs thro&gh the process o co&nter c&rrent m&ltiplier.#(-ntidi&retic hormone) is secreted by the posterior pit&itary gland into the blood.aC ions thro&gh acti(e transport and water thro&gh osmosis. *xample o s&bstances absorbed are 166H o n&trients s&ch as gl&cose. %elected s&bstances rom the glomer&lar iltrate are reabsorbed into blood capillaries (perit&b&lar capillaries) that s&rro&nd the proximal con(ol&ted t&b&le.16(a)*xplain brie ly &rine prod&ction in the kidney. acti(e secretion o toxic s&bstances rom blood capillaries into the t&b&le occ&rs.(16m) (b) *xplain the mechanism o action o the proximal con(ol&ted t&b&le. 9rom the distal con(ol&ted t&b&le. -. The blood contents in the glomer&l&s are iltered into 2owmanAs caps&le thro&gh &ltra iltration.(5m) (a) Grine ormation in the kidney occ&rs thro&gh three s&ccessi(e processes.

5ess postganglion ner(es rom each ganglion. The e ects prod&ced by the sympathetic and parasympathetic ner(o&s system are antagonistic(opposite). decreases the rate o heartbeat. )reganglion ner(es are long. *ach in(ol&ntary str&ct&re in the body is connected to the ner(es rom the sympathetic ner(o&s system and parasympathetic ner(o&s system. 2oth systems contain motor(e erent) ner(es originating rom the central ner(o&s system and are connected to e ectors. 4anglions do not connect to orm plex&s. decreases peristalsis and dilates the p&pil.(5m) (b)Compare the two types o a&tonomic ner(o&s system. . )arasympathetic ner(o&s system 4anglion located ar rom the spinal cord. The e ect is more distrib&ted. )reganglion ner(es are short. 4anglions connect with larger ganglions to orm plex&s. postganglion ner(es are long. The e ect is more localised. 0t consists o the sympathetic ner(o&s system and the parasympathetic ner(o&s system. away rom the e ectors. 11(a) *xplain how the a&tonomic ner(o&s system is organised.(ol&me o concentrated &rine is prod&ced. increases the rate o heartbeat. Gse norepinephrine as ne&rotransmitters in postganglion ner(es. postganglion ner(es are short. The water potential o blood increases back to the normal range. (b) %ympathetic ner(o&s system 4anglion located near the spinal cord. increases peristalsis and constricts the p&pil. /ore postganglion ner(es rom each ganglion. The synapse o the ner(es de(elops ganglion. Gse acetylcholine as ne&rotransmitters in postganglion ner(es. *xamples. b&ried in the e ectors. *xamples.(16m) (a) The a&tonomic ner(o&s system controls in(ol&ntary (&nconscio&s) acti(ities in body.

The &nctions o gibberellin is promote stem elongation by stim&lating cell elongation and cell di(ision in the stem. gibberellin. gibberellins and cytokinins. abscisic acid and ethene. To promote r&it growth and inhibit the abscission o lea(es and lowers. The &nctions o ethene is promote the ripening o r&it by stim&lating the breakdown o cell walls to make the r&it so ter. To ind&ce partenocarpy by stim&lating the de(elopment o the r&it witho&t ertilisation to prod&ce seedless r&its. cytokinin. To ca&se tropism in plants. To antagonise the e ects o a&xin. The &nctions o abscisic acids is promote dormancy in b&ds and seeds. To ind&ce senescence and ca&ses the lea to all.(15m) *xamples o plants hormones are a&xin. . To ind&ce root initiation to orm ad(entitio&s roots. To inhibit apical dominance and promote the de(elopment o lateral b&ds. promoting the growth o the lea and lower. breakdown o chlorophyll in the epidermis to change the colo&r o r&it and the con(ersion o starch into simple s&gar to make the r&it sweet. To ca&se the clos&re o stomata by stim&lating di &sion o water o&t o g&ard cells. To promote etiolation.1+) . The &nctions o a&xin is ind&ce growth by increasing the rate o cell elongation in the cell elongation 8one. To inhibit apical dominance by promoting the de(elopment o side shoots lateral b&ds. To promote partenocarpy in the presence o a&xin. *xplain the &nctions o each type o plant hormone. 4ibberellins acti(ate the ale&rone layer in monocotyledon seeds or the cotyledon in dicotyledon seeds to prod&ce hydrolase en8ymes d&ring germination. To stim&late and acti(ate the meristem. yellowing o plants i kept in prolonged darkness. To delay senescence(aging) in lea(es. To inhibit the growth o roots. %ecreted by the embryo in the seed to stim&late germination.ame 5 plant hormones. To inhibit the de(elopment o lateral b&ds(promotes apical dominance). To inhibit the ormation o lateral roots. To promote de oliation (ia the breakdown o middle lamellae. The &nctions o cytokinin is promote cell di(ision and cell di erentiation in the presence o a&xin or gibberellins.

while the other with a long stamen and a short style. #eterostyle mechanism plants &s&ally prod&ce two types o lower. %el $ ertilisation method. .thepollen that alls on the stigma o the same plant will not germinate or the stigma becomes dry and withers.ichogamy mechanism. #eterostyle mechanism. (b)(i) !(ipary is a type o de(elopment in which the yo&ng hatch rom the eggs laid o&tside the motherAs body. )rotandry occ&rs i the anther mat&res earlier than stigma. 9or example.male and emale lowers are located on di erent plants o the same species. the stamen is located o&tside the lower. or the stigma is protected by petals. di erent lengths o the reprod&cti(e organs in the same lower pre(ents sel $ ertilisation. *xamples o s&ch organisms are birds. while the carpel is located inside the lower. one type with long style and a short stamen. )rotogyny occ&rs i the stigma mat&res earlier than anther. the stamen and carpel are located ar apart. . stigma and anther lowers at di erent times. presence o nat&ral barries between the stamen and carpel. 0n some plants.1'(a) *xplain how plants can pre(ent sel $ ertilisation. . #erchogamy mechanism.ioecio&s plant.(16m) (b)*xplain the ollowing terms. (i)Oviparity(+m) (ii)Ovoviviparity(+m) (iii)Viviparity(+m) (a) )lants can pre(ent sel $ ertilisation by &sing the ollowing methods.

permits passage o materials. )arenchyma cells are &nspecialised cells with (ariety o They are isodiametric cells and &nction as packing tiss&e and storage tiss&e. Iylem (essels consist o dead cells with no protoplasm. The ligni ied walls strengthen the (essels and pre(ent them rom collapsing when water lows thro&gh the (essels &nder high press&re. )arenchyma can became specialised to carry o&t speci ic &nctions s&ch as epidermis. Cells are loosely packed with many large intercell&lar spaces. Chloroplasts present in some cells s&ch as in petals attract insects or pollination. /ore water can low thro&gh the hollow (essels with less obstr&ction. This pro(ides space or storage o s&bstances. They ha(e thin cell&lose cell wall which is permeable. 5arge cells with large (ac&oles. mesophyll. endodermis and aerenchyma. =essels are thin and narrow. The walls are transparent and permit entry o light in photosynthesis cells. *xamples o s&ch organisms are rats and h&mans. the end walls dissol(ed or per orated to orm a contin&o&s t&be. The ligni ied walls pre(ent water escaping except thro&gh certain regions s&ch as pits to the s&rro&nding li(ing cells. (a) &nctions. *ntry o water ca&ses (ac&ole to expand and cells become t&rgid. (b) Iylem (essels consist o long. . help to p&ll water &p by capillarity. This permits di &sion o gases.(ii) !(o(i(ipary is a type o de(elopment in which the yo&ng hatch rom eggs that are retained in the motherAs &ter&s. (iii) =i(ipary is a type o de(elopment in which the yo&ng are born ali(e a ter ha(ing been no&rished in the &ter&s by blood rom placenta. hollow xylem elements(xylem cells) 7oined end to end. 14) *xplain how the str&ct&res o (a)parenchyma. *xamples o s&ch organism are g&ppies ( ish) and certain types o li8ards. The xylem walls are impregnated with lignin o di erent patterns. and (b)xylem tiss&es are s&ited to their &nction. When mat&re. gi(ing s&pport to herbaceo&s plants.

The lea has one or ew rows o (erticaly orientated closely packed col&mn$shaped cells to trap most o the incoming light.15) *xplain how the external and internal str&ct&re o a dicotyledono&s lea . a palisade cell and a chloroplast are adapted to their roles in photosynthesis. )alisade cells ha(e many chloroplasts which may be carried by cytoplasmic streaming to maximi8e light absorption. )resence o n&mero&s stomata in the epidermis permit di &sion o gases into and o&t o the lea .ine network o small (eins enable a constant s&pply o water to the lea and remo(al o organic molec&les prod&ced by photosynthesis. The dicotyledono&s lea has a large s&r ace area and is held perpendic&lar to recei(e maxim&m ill&mination. accessory pigments and electron carries in(ol(ed in the light dependent reactions. %pongy mesophyll consists o loosely packed irreg&larly shaped cells with ewer chloroplasts. The inely branched (ein network. The lea lamina is thin and lat or light to reach the lower layers and rapid di &sion o gases. . *pidermis has no chloroplasts. *pidermis is co(ered with a c&ticle layer to red&ce water loss. 4&ard cells ha(e thinner o&ter walls and thicker inner walls. The large intercell&lar air spaces allow or &ninterr&pted di &sion o gases between the atmosphere and the mesophyll. The hydrophobic phytol chain o the chlorophyll molec&le is embedded in the phospholipid thylakoid membrane while the porphyrin ring which is . sclerenchyma tiss&e and t&rgidity o the mesophyll cells pro(ide a s&pporting ramework to the lamina. The membrane proteins &se the -T) to p&mp EC ions rom ad7acent s&bsidiary cells th&s lowering the water potential o the cell sap. The thylakoid membranes and grana increase the s&r ace area or attachment o chlorophyll molec&les. Gne(en thickening o the cell walls help to reg&late the si8e o the stomatal pore. 0t is transparent to allow light thro&gh to the mesophyll layer. Chloroplasts in the g&ard cells generate -T) d&ring photosynthesis.

The chlorophyll pigments are gro&ped into two photosystems to boost the photoacti(ated electrons to a higher energy le(el to be accepted by . . %troma contains en8ymes which catalyse light$independent reactions.). The cloroplast en(elope consists o a permeable o&ter membrane and a selecti(ely permeable inner membrane to reg&late the mo(ement o s&bstances across the membrane. This increases the chances o collision o the reactants o photosynthesis.-. The antenna pigment molec&les increase the s&r ace area and the range o wa(elengths in the (isible light spectr&m rom which light energy can be absorbed.o&tside the membrane is &sed or light absorption. The electron low along the electron carrier chain pro(ides energy to bring abo&t chemiosmotic synthesis o -T). #igh concentration o photosynthetic reactants are o&nd in the chloroplasts.