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So the third frontier I want to discuss today is really exciting and very, very important, also clinically, is what

we call brain machine or brain computer interface. The interface between the brain, which is a machine but a very special machine and the machines we build for doing that, for being able to interact with the brain, certainly the anatomy is not enough. Okay, anatomy is a static thing. The anatomy may change in terms of structure, and we'll show you later on when I talk about plasticity in the brain. I'll show you that when you learn, there are changes, anatomical changes in your brain. But in order to interact with the brain online, I need to read the signals within the brain. Not only the anatomy, so I need to read the electrical signals in the brain. So, on top of the anatomy, on the foundation which is anatomical, there are all these signals. We'll talk about, about the electrical signals in the brain, what type of signals, all the signals are running, so to speak, on the circuit, and these signals stand for something that the circuit wants to convey. So a particular circuit, when there are particular signals, it means that I need to move my hand to the right and so on. So in order to really read out what is happening in the circuit in terms of information, I need to read the electrical signals. And as I said, we'll focus a lot about the electrical signals in lesson three and four. So how do they look, these electrical signals that are being used to process information to send commands to my hand, or to my mouth, or to my thought, or to my feeling. So the idea is the following, you go to a particular brain region, let's say here. You know, that this particular brain region from previous studies is responsible, let's say for movement. If you would zoom into this brain region, of course, you would see networks, networks and anatomical networks of neurons. If you zoom out, you see a big network, many, many, many, many, many cells, billions of cells within this network.

If this your outer regions or particular picture. But each cell has its own particular kind of spiking activity. the common language that we should talk a lot about the signal that insert the common language are the spikes. if you would recall. very fine electrodes that implant or in pain into this region into this particular one cell. And when it generates this electrical activity. overall the message to move my hand up or down is running in these spikes. if you want to call it this way. And so the brains using spikes to represent the word. in this case in the cortex. If it is in my visual cortex. [NOISE]. very. Of course. So here is how it looks. there are no movies in my brain. This is so to speak. . And overall. to the electrical activity of this one cell. and so forth. noisiness of the network. when the animal is doing something. And you may listen. So. we call it fires. but you just saw the spikes that a single cell generates. and when it generates this electrical activity. for many many of them. a complete noisy. so to speak. you will hear a complete music. you would hear what you heard[NOISE]. some electrical activity. but the. there is no sound within the brain. But if I connect it to a loud speaker. If this is in the mortal cortex of the particular feeling. This signals do not make sounds just change electrical activity. So you see that the brain fires. We call them spikes. Each cell generates its own spiking activity. so. So this is the electrical activity of one cell in the brain of a mammalian. We can put into a. I'm moving my hand. My brain generates this electrical activity. So there is no music in my brain. There will be a whole lesson about spikes.And you may record using electrode. So all these spikes stand for a particular movement. a loud speaker and you can hear. there is no movement in my brain. I believe that there is a movie there. the bar code of the brain.

so that's it. as they said are tied. Separate it from the monkey. So I want to show you an example of doing exactly that. if I can read them correctly. so the robotic arm is on the side. analyse them in real time. use the signals online in real time using many. So there is a particular region in the brain here. activate a robotic arm. when this region is active. So this is a kind of a sketch summary of what I said. but I don't have limbs. It goes through my spinal cord. here is the monkey. And there will be food coming here. But I can also use the same signals. Typically. many. and eventually. we can do that. let's say activate a robotic arm directly from the brain. So the. Because. the network. when there is a spinal cord injury. the signals. because there is something attractive there. He wants to move his hand. so to speak. this is the region. Let's say the motor region.So spikes are very important. let's say spinal cord injury. Here is a robotic arm. And I need to be able to read them somehow in order to interact with the machine that I want to. because there is this cut. and so. so it cannot move. today. That's the normal case. or when I'm amputee. the region that activates movement. so the fibers that goes from this region go through the spinal cord and activate and movement. The monkey can see the food and he wants to eat. His hands. So we can. the signal are being generated in the brain but nobody listens. analyze what they mean to say. the hands of the monkeys are tied. and then activate the robotic arm. This is extremely useful when there is. Andrew Schwartz from University of Pittsburgh can read online hundred and hundred of sense together. many recording electrodes from a particular network. so he generates the sequence which we can read. and activate the robotic arm. recording from the brain of a monkey in this case. . So. now it's active. the signals are going into my limbs.

so he activates the fingers from. with the heart. You can see that he uses the fingers. So here is the food. That's brain machine interface self-feeding with a robot and useful for cases of amputees or spinal cord injury. And he moves the robotic arms directly from the brain to pick up this little piece of food. And this came. This is brain machine interface. eventually. how was it developed. and I show you now how. And when you record from this area with several electrodes. And. This is Hagai Bergman from the Hebrew University. So there is a pacemaker. a third electrode. The monkey thinks about the movement. you can see the normal electrical activity in this region of . which is a machine activates the particular brain region. There is a brain. that's amazing. pacemaking problem with the. The heart is sputtering. but deep inside the deep region of the brain. or the idea came actually already from a machine activating our heart. there is a machine. some people who have pace. you can record electrically from there. and. And this goes in a most beautiful. So in this case. there are already people going with this technology with electrode implanted in the brain and eating. That's. the basal ganglia. another electrode. And actually. not in the cortex. this is one electrode. basically. Before I show you how the brain activate a machine. The opposite direction. the robotic fingers. inject electrical activity. That's very impressive. he activates their limbs and so on. the robotic arm is activated directly from the brain of the monkey. but I'm going to show you the same technique and walk through the brain.Let's see how it goes. now. generates this electrical activity. smooth way. the other direction of brain machine interface is from the machine to the brain. and the brain activates the machine. and moving a robotic arm. he gets the food very smoothly. in this case a battery. there is a recording deep. I want to show you how a machine.

Each one with its own electrical music. stop. In Parkinson. one cell is doing[NOISE]. . you want to somehow affect. Parkinsonian patient. symptomatically.[NOISE]. here is a patient. very. almost completely repair the Parkinsonian symptoms in some patients. this oscillatory activity in the brain. stop. Another cell is firing more vigorously. You can see that he has all these very.[NOISE]. Not only that. and it's very. so to speak. So. inject into this region. is to take this pacemaker. you want to intervene. you from the outside. So. the manifestation of feed. fire. I'll show you in a second. So the idea was. And so. that is implanted here below the skin to generate signals in the battery. and the third cell is doing it less. Why does this signal that. this battery. stop. very difficult and very. suddenly. the output of feed. bound of the manifestation is this tremor in Parkinson patients. So this is the normal brain in this region. And this wrong code. very effective today in many. actually very young person. You can say a wrong electrical code. And so. though they were different here. when you are sick with Parkinson. why does it work so well. which you can manipulate. very sad symptoms that it's very difficult for him to generate movement. You can see[NOISE]. [NOISE] with a particular frequency and strength. stop. and we don't completely understand to the end. where you have a wrong code. they're sent to synchronize together. but in a very different pattern. all of them.several cells. already about after 10 years of Parkinson's. but the cells seems to fire similarly alike here. many hospitals.[NOISE]. the whole network is doing like this fire. the cells in the region are generating different electrical activity. stop. stop. And inject this current into this region that I just show you. this machine from the outside. apparently. suddenly. Because. the cells are starting to fire these spikes. like a machine gun.[NOISE] very strongly. this same region. wrong electrical activity if you are Parkinsonian patient.

this is beautiful. because Parkinsonian people cannot do that. that will record the electrical activity of many. and the person really can walk. And I just want to show you. he cannot drive like this. Of course. He's a very. just to complete this part. one new technology that we call. and really can drive and. So you don't want to put wires in electrodes. So one challenge is to interact with the brain In a telemetric way. And this is really a direction that we go. now receiving this pacemaking from this battery. the deep brain stimulation. and you can see how well this person. So it's activated now. you want to put some kind of a chronic recorder or chronic probe that will listen. it's the same person some months after the operation. So lets stop this for a second and see this same person. the question is. Of course. many cells. very sick patient.He cannot coordinate movements like this. It's very hard for him to go to the grocery. untypical to Parkinsonian patients. what to do? And as I said. So this is a very sick type patient. You can see that he's doing things that are very. the Parkinson's symptoms will come back immediately. the future challenges of brain machine interface. is to stimulate the brain deeply into this region and try to repair symptomatically these symptoms. when you turn off the machine. because we want to repair brains and we want to end pain to the brain. this is the intervention. so to speak. And so. The. In order to put chronically a little piece of machine into the brain that will telemetrically send the signal outside of . this is the interaction between the machine and the brain. it's a symptomatic repair. after 10 years of medication. So. You can see how difficult it is for the patient to do something like that. that we do so simply. The Parkinson and the. So. at least symptomatically. So let's see what happens to him after the operation. the machine fixed. you want to use nanotechnology. First of all. So. and I mean the quality of life is now really improved dramatically. look.

you saw before. but I also get information about that it's a plastic. I get also feedback from the fact that they touch. I can do that. And finally. So this is the future challenges from brain machine interface. And if you have million of signals. somatosensing. that it's soft. and it's very. if we can do it to a particular region. This means that you'll be able to analyze all the signals in the real time and which is a. . but not all. Then of course. and that. So this is another challenge. We don't yet have robots as sophisticated in terms of arm movement. not only I move. so it's a real time signal analysis. you need to do it in real time. the analysis of the signal has to do in the real time. very important when I'm moving my hand and my. touching something. you do not need to wait an hour. So this telemetric communication with a brain both from the brain outside.the skull. but also maybe to stimulate the brain telemetrically. but there are developments towards this direction. So the monkey or the person thinks about movement. is. sensors. This is the future it does not exist yet. So we need to put in this robot. I not only move. the sensing cyst region. real time. so I'm touching this bottle now. that it's cold. So I. All this information comes from sensors in my hand. Obama's project is to have million or billion of signals simultaneously. Some of it exists. you need to now move the hand. so to speak. When the robot will. there should be an information closing the loop. so our arm is very sophisticated with many degrees of freedom. So movement and closing the loop in terms of touching. it's a challenge for signal processing community. in my fingers. the challenge is to develop a robotic arm that is very sophisticated. to develop these methods. sensors that are going to another region in the brain. That's another challenge. The next challenge is to really analyze. touch a bottle or a glass or somebody else.