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SUDI ’12

Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment


Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment
Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment.......................................................................................................1 War turns environment........................................................................................................................................... 2 *Air Pollution........................................................................................................................................................... *Ama!on.................................................................................................................................................................. " *#ees........................................................................................................................................................................ $ *#iodiversit%............................................................................................................................................................ & *'oral....................................................................................................................................................................... ( *Dead )ones........................................................................................................................................................... 1* *+ono,ulture.......................................................................................................................................................... 11 *-,eans.................................................................................................................................................................. 12 *-il De.enden,%.................................................................................................................................................... 1 *-il S/o,0s............................................................................................................................................................. 1" *-!one.................................................................................................................................................................... 1$ *-1%gen.................................................................................................................................................................. 1& *Pesti,ides 2Endo,rine disru.tors3........................................................................................................................14 *Pollution............................................................................................................................................................... 2* *P/%to.lan0ton...................................................................................................................................................... 22 *****Warming 5rontline....................................................................................................................................... 2" E1t 61 – ,an’t solve innovation s/aring................................................................................................................2$ E1t 62 – no one will model.................................................................................................................................... 2& E1t 6 – Warming is natural ,%,le........................................................................................................................ 2( E1t 6" – 7oo 8ar gone............................................................................................................................................ *

SUDI ’12

Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment


War turns environment
War destroys the environment McNEELY 2002 29e88re%: '/ie8 S,ientist at IU';: 'onserving t/e Pea,e:**2/envse,<,onserving<overview..d83 War: and .re.arations 8or it: /as negative im.a,ts on all levels o8 =iodiversit%: 8rom genes to e,os%stems. 7/ese im.a,ts ,an =e dire,t>su,/ as /unting and /a=itat destru,tion =% armies>or indire,t: 8or e1am.le t/roug/ t/e a,tivities o8 re8ugees. Sometimes t/ese im.a,ts ,an =e deli=erate: and a new word /as =een added to t/e militar% vo,a=ular%? @e,o,ide:A t/e destru,tion o8 t/e environment 8or militar% .ur.oses ,learl% deriving 8rom t/e @s,or,/ed eart/A a..roa,/ o8 earlier times. Westing 21(&$3 divides deli=erate environmental mani.ulations during wartime into two =road ,ategories? t/ose involving massive and e1tended,ations o8 disru.tive te,/niBues to den% to t/e enem% an% /a=itats t/at .rodu,e 8ood: re8uge: ,over: training grounds and staging areas 8or atta,0sC and t/ose involving relativel% small disru.tive a,tions t/at in turn release large amounts o8 @dangerous 8or,esA or =e,ome sel8D generating. An e1am.le o8 t/e latter is t/e release o8 e1oti, mi,roDorganisms or s.reading o8 landmines 2o8 w/i,/
over 1** million now litter a,tive and 8ormer war !ones around t/e world>Strada: 1(($3.

Nuclear war destroys the environment NI ANI !""2 2+oti: Pro8essor at Wa%ne State: Eives in t/e #alan,e?

7/e 'old War and Ameri,an Politi,s 1("FD1((1: /tt.?//'G2./tml3 7/ere will =e 8ewer .eo.le and less industrial and ,ommer,ial a,tivit% long a8ter t/e war: /en,e some serious environmental t/reats will =e ameliorated. #% 0illing =illions and destro%ing industrial in8rastru,tures: nu,lear war mig/t: 8or instan,e: /alt or slow down t/e sus.e,ted trend o8 glo=al warming. -n =alan,e: /owever: t/e warHs overall environmental im.a,t will almost ,ertainl% =e on t/e negative side. Iadioa,tive

8allout will ,ontaminate soils and waters. We s/all .ro=a=l% learn to adJust to t/ese new ,onditions: .er/a.s =% s/unning ,ertain regions or =% ,arr%ing radioa,tivit% meters ever%w/ere we go t/e wa% our an,estors ,arried s.ears. Still: t/is will lower t/e Bualit% o8 /uman li8e. ;u,lear e1.losions mig/t ,reate immense Buantities o8 dust and smo0e. 7/e dust and smo0e mig/t =lan0et: dar0en: and ,ool t/e entire .lanet. Alt/oug/ t/e e1tent o8 t/e damage is un,lear: 2" it would =e 8ar more severe during t/e growing seasonDlate s.ring and summer in t/e nort/ern latitudes. -ne 'assandran and ,ontroversial .redi,tion sounds a =it li0e t/e eerie twilig/t des,ri=ed in G. K. WellsH The Time Machine. 7/is Lnu,lear winterL .roJe,tion 8ore,asts 8ree!ing summertime tem.eratures:2F tem.orar% ,limati, ,/anges 2e.g.: violent storms: dramati, redu,tions in rain8all3: lower e88i,ien,ies o8 .lant ./otos%nt/esis: disru.tion o8 e,os%stems and 8arms: loss o8 man% s.e,ies: and t/e deat/ o8 millions o8 .eo.le 8rom starvation and ,old. Gowever: even t/ese .essimists e1.e,t a return to normal ,limati, ,onditions wit/in a 8ew

SUDI ’12

Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment

#Air $ollution
Alt causes – $a%istan Clean Air Initiatives Last date cited 2006 2@Pa0istan’s air .ollution levels on t/e riseA /tt.?//www.,,aiasia/1"12/arti,leD&1"
a,,essed $/2(/*(3 S' 2./tml

Air pollution levels in Pakistan’s highly populated cities are among the highest in the world. And the levels are on the rise, raising health concerns, says a Pakistan government report. The levels of ambient particulates, smoke particulates and dust, which cause respiratory diseases, are twice the world’s average and more than five times as high as that in industrialised and Latin American countries , says the Economic urvey
of Pakistan !""#$!""%, released in &une. The survey found that pollution levels in Pakistan’s cities had either crossed safe limits or reached the threshold value, with the presence of suspended particulate matter 'spm( in the ambient air being very high. The

report says the ma)or sources of spm in the country are vehicles, industry, burning of

solid waste, brick kilns and natural dust.

*rowing energy demand, increasing industrial and domestic demand and a fast growing transport sector contribute to the pollution. +n cities, widespread use of low ,uality fuel, combined with a dramatic e-pansion in the number of vehicles on roads, is a ma)or contributor. The number of vehicles has )umped from ".. million to about /." million in !" years 0 an overall increase of over /"" per cent, the report says. ince 12.", a ma-imum growth has been seen in two$stroke vehicles and a !"" to 3"" per cent increase in diesel trucks and buses. uspended particles were primary pollutants with ground level o4one being a secondary pollutant, says 5ohammad A,ib, coordinator of Pakistan 6lean Air 7etwork. 8arachi alone has 3#,""" registered and !#,""" unregistered two$stroke rickshaws plying on the roads. An estimated #"",""" rickshaws ply all over the country.

Even & air 'ollution is im'ossi(le to %ee' in chec% with unilateral action let alone the glo(al sco'e) $ollution (lows into our country *rom others Stricherz 4 2Min,e: s,ien,e aut/or 8rom t/e universit% o8 Was/ington’s o88i,e o8 ;ews and In8ormation @Dirt% air 8rom Asia ,an .us/ U.S. air .ollution to un/ealt/%
levelsA N/tt.?//news.=ioDmedi,,"44D1/O 5e=ruar% 1 a,,essed $/2(/*(3 S'

+ncreasing evidence clearly documents that air pollution from Asia can get caught up in an e-press transport system and cross the Pacific 9cean to the :est 6oast of 7orth America in a matter of days. 7/oug/ su,/ events /a..en in8reBuentl%: when large pockets of Asian pollution do make it across, the effects on air ,uality this side of the Pacific can be dramatic : said Daniel 9a88e: an environmental s,ien,e .ro8essor at t/e Universit% o8 Was/ington: #ot/ell. The most pronounced effects can push the levels of atmospheric o4one and small particulates beyond limits set by the ;. . Environmental Protection Agency, which raises health issues 8or t/ose wit/ res.irator% .ro=lems: 9a88e said 5rida% during a .resentation at
t/e Ameri,an Asso,iation 8or t/e Advan,ement o8 S,ien,e meeting in Seattle. W/en .arti,ulates get as small as 1* mi,rons: a=out oneDtent/ t/e widt/ o8 a /uman /air: t/e% are small enoug/ to .ass t/roug/ t/e nose and into t/e res.irator% s%stem. At 2.F mi,rons or smaller t/e% ,an =egin to /ave noti,ea=le /ealt/ e88e,ts: .arti,ularl% 8or .eo.le wit/ ,onditions su,/ as ast/ma. L7/is ,learl% /as /ealt/,ations: =ut itHs a rare event:L 9a88e said. LGow rare we donHt 0now 8or sure: =ut 8rom t/e re,ord it loo0s li0e itHs somet/ing on t/e order o8 t/ree o,,urren,es ever% 8ive %ears.L -ne su,/ event /a..ened last summer: w/en .ollution 8rom Si=erian 8orest 8ires ,rossed t/e Pa,i8i, and =oosted levels o8 atmos./eri, o!one: an im.ortant summertime .ollutant: at stations in Was/ington state and #ritis/ 'olum=ia. 5rom +a% 2& t/roug/ 9une (: sur8a,e o!one levels e1,eeded t/e longDterm average 8or +a% and 9une. -n 9une $: Enum,law: Was/.: a=out F miles sout/east o8 Seattle: re,orded an eig/tD/our average o8 ($ .arts .er =illion: well =e%ond t/e EPA limit o8 4* .arts .er =illion. 7/e data: w/i,/ /as not %et =een .u=lis/ed: indi,ates t/at t/e .lume 8rom t/e Si=erian 8ires ,ontri=uted a=out 1F .arts .er =illion to t/at reading. Anot/er o,,urren,e ,ame in 2**1: w/en windstorms 0i,0ed u. dust 8rom t/e Ko=i Desert in +ongolia and .us/ed it to more t/an 1*:*** 8eet in altitude: w/ere it ,ould =e ,a.tured =% strong winds and .us/ed dire,tl% a,ross t/e Pa,i8i,. In t/at event: re.orted last ;ovem=er in a .u=lis/ed in t/e Journal E-S 7ransa,tions: /al8 t/e .arti,ulate matter was smaller t/an 2.F mi,rons and /al8 was 2.F to 1* mi,rons. +easurements were ta0en at 11* sites in t/e Interagen,% +onitoring Program 8or im.roved Misual Environments networ0: t/roug/out t/e United States in relativel% .ristine environments: su,/ as national .ar0s and wildli8e re8uges. Ieadings on 1*: 2**1: averaged a,ross t/e ,ountr% gave a value o8 nine mi,rograms .er ,u=i, meter 8or .arti,ulates 1* mi,rons or smaller. #% 1$: t/e average rea,/ed 1$ mi,rograms: even t/oug/ measuring stations tend to =e 8ar 8rom industrial .ollution sour,es. L'learl% =% 1$: t/at dust 8rom Asia was all over t/e United States: and it didnHt dissi.ate immediatel%:L 9a88e said. LIt didnHt go =a,0 down to nine until +a%: and t/ere were several .us/es o8 it ,oming a,ross.L #e8ore 2**1: .arti,ulate

Asian pollution comes across on winds pulled by a sort of high$speed conveyor belt, with a low$pressure system over the Aleutian +slands and a high$pressure cell near <awaii acting like twin gears that propel the air mass. =arious forces over the Pacific can affect the altitude at which the pollution enters 7orth America, =ut eventuall% it drops low enough, =etween ground level and :F** 8eet: to have an impact on air ,uality. In t/e 2**1 event: t/e e88e,ts were
measurements 8rom t/e 11* interagen,% networ0 sites dating =a,0 to t/e midD1(4*s s/ow Just one ,om.ara=le event: in 1((4.

more dramati, in some ur=an settings t/at alread% /ad mu,/D/ig/er =a,0ground levels o8 .arti,ulate matter in t/e air: sin,e t/e% were su=stantiall% ,loser to industrial .ollution sour,es. 5or instan,e: 7u,son: Ari!.: measured .arti,ulates o8 1*Dmi,rons or smaller at 4F mi,rograms .er ,u=i, meter on 1& and 14: w/ile Savanna/: Ka.: registered an 4F on 2*. Salt Ea0e 'it%: WinstonDSalem: ;.'.: and As.en: 'olo.: all /ad measurements in t/e &*s at some .oint during t/e event: and Atlanta registered a $& on 2*. A=out /al8 t/e .arti,ulates measured in t/ose areas ,ame 8rom Asian dust and /al8 ,ame 8rom lo,al .ollution sour,es: 9a88e said. LI8 %ou were driving in t/is: %ouHd wonder w/at was going on. ItHs a noti,ea=le aerosol loading:L /e said. Ge noted t/at .arti,ulates o8 2.F mi,rons or smaller ,an =egin /aving /ealt/ e88e,ts at ,on,entrations o8 "* mi,rograms .er ,u=i, meter. Sin,e roug/l% /al8 t/e .arti,ulates arriving 8rom Asia were t/at small: t/at would mean ,ities w/ere .arti,ulates o8 1* mi,rons or smaller registered 4* or a=ove would /ave /ad enoug/ small .arti,ulates 8or residents wit/ res.irator% .ro=lems to 8eel t/e e88e,ts. 9a88e said t/e 2**1 and 2**

L+t>s gone from a geophysical curiosity to a point where we can now say that, >?es, this occurs at large$enough levels o,,asionall% that it can affect our air ,uality:HL /e said.
events /ave given greater gravit% to a ./enomenon /e 8irst re.orted in 1((4.

LI8 %ou want to .eans D t/at great s%stem o8 o./ /as /el.ed t/e .SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment " #Ama+on ../tml3 L-ne o8 t/e sim. 7/e% are ver%**&/*41*Dama!on<de8orestation. LIn 8a./aos t/at leads to un.ed .ording to 8igures released =%* e3'orts destroying the Ama+on now4they don5t solve6enter *or International 7orestry 1esearch: "/2/2*08 2/tt.le sense: s/ows %ou w/atHs wrong wit/ all t/e s. 8rom 2**$ w/en F:"1( sB ml 21":*"* sB 0m3 were lost 22**$ 8igures were re.e 2**" w/en 1*:F(* sB mi 22&:"2( sB 0m3 were destro%ed.entl% revised 8rom 1 :1** sB 0m3.L .er.ent studies.all% irrelevant./ o8 t/e re.ar0s and reserves in areas t/at ris0 =eing ra.utler/ 4/1*/2*00 2/tt.rogramme: w/i.s to t/e s%stem: =asi. .artners/i.ord: a.ess as a 'rime e3'orter o* (ee*Dvolume o8 e1.?//news.le . 7/at terms o8 t/e /istor% o8 t/e eart/: itHs /ardl% a .as.onservation in .ted Areas 2AIPA3 initiative D a . L7/e idea o8 t/em soa0ing u.e*orestation declining in the Ama+on nowI/ett .tuall% ta0e u.ouse: itHs t/at image o8 t/e lungs o8 t/e o8 t/e Ama!on Iegion Prote.all% insigni8i.ause t/e trees 8all down and de.1< $.monga=a%. .rote. ItHs onl% 8astDgrowing %oung trees t/at a. L 7/e sim.rote. No im'act4a: the Ama+on is recovering and (: even i* it was totally destroyed there5s no im'act NEW Y.ilit%: Kerman Develo./tm3 #ra!ilHs s..en on land are mere =li.artners/ areas . = 2)")200> 2Posted at '/eat See0ing +issiles: date is date o8 .ta..onsi=le 8or dio1ide:L Stott sa%s.ant :L /e ..?//.le: =ut ver% im.ent s.tion o8 &: F sBuare miles in t/e sout/ern Ama!on wit/in t/e newl% .org//eadlines*"/*"*(D*F.ontrolled de8orestation.tion o8 t/e Ama!on rain8orest: a.L L7/is lungs o8 t/e eart/ =usiness is nonsenseC t/e da8test o8 all t/eories :L Stott adds.oint is t/at t/ere are now still D des.ational Institute o8 S.rote.0.tuall% ta0e in slig/tl% more o1%gen t/an t/e% give out.ensD newswire./tml3 De8orestation rates in t/e #ra!ilian Ama!on 8or t/e .ra+ilian de*orestation$roceedings o* the National Academy o* ciences : (/&/2*02 2/tt.ment #an0 and t/e #ra!ilian #iodiversit% 5und D w/i.i0e in t/e destru.etuit% in t/ese areas: =ut we are also =ringing order to t/e land tenure .ommondreams.ent DD sin./: in a sim. LWe are not onl% ensuring =iodiversit% . L#e8ore t/en: t/ere were /ardl% an% rain8orests./eatsee0ingmissiles.rits =e/ind de8orestation in t/e Ama!on region in.ts is t/at t/e rain8orests /ave onl% sounds li0e a ver% long time =ut: in =een around 8or =etween 12:*** and 1$:*** %ears..orts t/e AIPA initiative. Multi'le alternate causes to Ama+onian de*orestation9im Lo(e/ "/(/2*08 2/tt. Preliminar% estimates s/ow t/at =etween August 1: 2**$ and 9ul% *: 2**&: some :&*& sBuare miles 2(:$** sBuare 0ilometers3 o8 rain8orest were .a%: rain8orests a.idl% de8orested:L said 'lPudio +aretti: /ead o8 WW5D#ra!ilHs ./.le are ma0ing.Dglo=alDw/iningD2.ost: /tt. It is Just a =ig mista0e t/at .ul.monga=a%.ortant: 8a.s.reate more t/an &&:*** sBuare miles o8 .om/e1ternal/=ra!il<=ee8<ama!on.e t/e% es..ational Par0.t: =e. =etween t/e #ra!ilian government: t/e World #an0: Klo=al Environment In 9une t/e ../ su.reated 9uruena .?//www.ean**F/*$/sto.. L In terms o8 world s%stems: t/e rain8orests are =asi.ted areas in t/e Ama!on.ite w/at /umans /ave done D more rain8orests toda% t/an t/ere were 12:*** %ears ago. L7/roug/ AIPA we are .ar=on dio1ide and giving out o1%gen is a m%t/.?//www./tm3 7/e maJor .revious %ear were t/e lowest on re.2**$/2**$D*(D*&D*2.reating .e Iesear..eo. A1$A is solving .leared: a 1 .ien.ri. announ.ording to re.e*orestation rates have *allen shar'ly DD $F .?//www.PE: #ra!ilHs .ular and growing su. L+ost t/ings t/at /a.a..ut 8orward somet/ing w/i.ording to a stud% released toda% (y one o* the world9s leading *orestry research organi+ations. .=logs.reased more t/an 8ive8old in t/e last si1 %earsDis res.lude cattle)ranching: so%=ean 8arming: and su(sistence agriculture: as well as logging: dro./eri. World weat/er is governed =% t/e o.orts a=road /ave in.3 WW5D#ra!il is .e.

e:L +oore sa%s.on =ased on =ad s. 7/is stu88 a=out t/em vanis/ing at an alarming rate is a .SUDI ’12 sa%s. .an.ould =e /idden in a rain8orest .ause t/e sea /olds more m%steries o8 li8e t/an t/e rain8orests .ure 8or . L7/e% are Just a=out t/e /ealt/iest 8orests in t/e world. #ot/ s.lausi=le D is Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment F argument t/at t/e . And =ot/ sa% 8ears t/at man is destro%ing t/is raw sour.ien.ause t/e rain8orests are remar0a=l% /ealt/%.ine are un8ounded =e.e o8 medi.lant or animal D w/ile also =ased on 8alse s.e =e.ientists sa% t/e .

3 7/e s.Y.all%: Pettis said.ri.ulation and in. mega8auna status: =ut itHs alread% gone 8rom t/e wild 2and it wasnHt even native to .SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment $ #.e/.rovide all o8 t/e .ni/.eriodi.ontinuum.?//www..ade.ien. W/at is .ountries: w/i.ident in 1((F in w/i. A.e 'ala.ees are useless A: Wheat is %ey to glo(al *ood consum'tion 6A1=E1 200! 2'olin 'arter is wit/ t/e De.entl%: t/ere was an in.ial %et w/ere t/e% . Also on t/e Internet is a Buote attri=uted to Al=ert Einstein on /ow /umans would die o88 in 8our %ears i8 not 8or / 1FX is .ording to t/e United .?//www.earing diseaseA 8ollowing a @/ard winter and .S.onsumed indire. W/at a=out t/e T1"./enomenon t/at is largel% .$ =illion in L8ree la=orLS ItHs more e1.ientist w/o wrote t/e .artment o8 Agri.ts 8or mass .ringA VFW.ers lost F X o8 .t t/at .org/Iesear. In t/e last de.olonies V$W. LIt .al S.ollinated . 7/ere would =e 8ood le8t 8or /umans =e.on8ined to t/e develo. 7/e glo=al .* Im'act is em'irically denied4massive dieo**s have occurred in 'ast %ear in re.ts: and anot/er 1*X is used 8or seed and industrial use.ell .ause t/e /ives are in su.ri.s.aused .omes: along wit/ in.ond: it is in.reased ur=ani!ation and its asso.rimar% grain .//E.ations: ./er 9e88 Pettis laug/s at t/e idea: =e. Sure: it ma0es /one%: =ut we alread% get most o8 t/at 8rom overseas.iarists su88er unusuall% /eav% .onsum.ulation is growing =% a=out 1.&NE >)2)2000 2/tt. 2000 world. . -ldro%d is wit/ t/e #e/aviour and Keneti./%si.onsumed =% /umans around t/e glo=e.ost to rent a /ive during t/e 'ali8ornia almond =loom /as Universit% o8 S%dne%: PEoS #iolog%: 9une: / Ste8an Qimmel: eDmailed 7/e Asso.ent growt/ in glo=al w/eat .FX/%r in never said it: a. In 1(* : in t/e 'a.a to =egin wit/ 3..agenum/23 #ut is ''D ever e1tended .e: aut/or o8 L7/e Ruota=le EinsteinL and 8ive ot/er =oo0s on t/e .L.8. 7/is %ear t/e 'ali8ornia Almond #oard twoDtimed t/e /one%=ee wit/ -smia lignaria>t/e =lueDor.les/a. +ore re./ la=s /ave gotten serious a=out o8 w/eat dou=led in t/e last * %ears to rea.orre.?//www. It is wrong on two .ause some 8ood is windD. No im'act to honey(ee dieo** MI=? 2000 2Geat/er: Slate: 9ul% 1 : /tt.ent %ears 25igure 13.tion.ers on t/e Isle o8 Wig/t 2United Qingdom3 lost all o8 t/eir ./.ortion o8 .ollination needs: =ut t/e%Hre getting t/ere.e said. LIHve never ./e valle% o8 Uta/: 2*** ..urring and w/en losses are .ultural and Iesour.s/ma.ts Ea=orator%: S./ool o8 #iologi.ienti8i.olonies V"W.ording to Ali.t s.ien./8a. In Ireland: t/ere was a @great mortalit% o8 =eesA in (F*: and again in ((2 and 1"" V W. =ee resear.L And U.ts<trends/w/eat**D*1/.ause w/enever /e goes out to investigate dead =ees: /e .. #enJamin P. and .rease =% a=out o8 t/e normal .imm%t..olonies were lost to a m%sterious .onomi./ also a.ut EinsteinHs name on it.olonies d%ing varies enormousl% 8rom %ear to %ear: it is .ted to originate mainl% in develo.s o8 So.u=med.ord /arvest.lear is t/at a=out one %ear in ten: a. .artment o8 Agri..ADS'IDUSD Gone%=eesDWeird.$ million tons %earl% in t/e last de.a.ountries.tion is e1.ensive t/an ever? In t/e last t/ree %ears: t/e . 5uture growt/ in w/eat .iated .ome a.ollinate our ./one =e.old s.ountries: .onomi.iated Press to sa% t/at t/ere is Lno lin0 =etween our tin% little stud% and t/e ''DD .slate./ard =ee? Des./arismati.ould =e t/at someone /ad made it u./ Penns%lvania =ee0ee.* *F/.ause t/e .atterns: .ult to sa% w/en a .L Se.e.ount 8or t/e re.ees ?oney(ees are not %ey to survival IN=E1NA=I./ a traged%S 7/e /one%=ee ma% =e t/e onl% inse. Kood t/ing t/e /one%=ee isnHt t/e onl% inse.ite ''D: t/e% /ad a re.risis is o. A=out &FX o8 t/e world’s w/eat is .ulture to./ remote areas.lerender. 7/e% arenHt at t/e .om.e . -ne o8 t/e most 8amous events was in t/e s.ring o8 1(*$: w/en most =ee0ee.ared to almost !ero growt/: on average: in develo. 5irst: Einstein .rodu./enomenon .ultivating ot/er inse.olon% losses./2**&/*F/* //ealt/s./ nearl% $** million tons .ounts.all%.i/t.d8/w/eat**D*1<..tion to in.annot get a signal on /is .ross it in an%t/ing Einstein /as written:L 'ala.led: 8rom TF* to T1F*.onsumed dire.ountr%Hs .tl% in t/e 8orm o8 animal . 7/is /as =een going on 8or a long time./anging dietar% .ing .giSartidU14(24"*3 Some winter losses are normal: and =e.d83 W/eat is t/e .ers also su88er /eav% losses .onsum. Iising ..s: U' Davis: 'I++Y7 World W/eat -verview and -utloo0: www.ed .ort/ Ameri. Ameri.onsum.ollination .onsum. =1I. an%t/ing else said or written is a lie.. In addition: ur=ani!ation is a .NAL ?E1AL.ade:

.ganda <eritage Trails. has been finished for nine months.ganda.tioning =ioregions: not t/e =iologi. '.o. not even 1" per cent of mammal population numbers that e-isted in northern Australia 1" to 1# years ago are left.os%stems.essar% t/at t/e status Buo o8 all e.uires prior booking.ies evolve to .inions: /tt. are also available for**(*$2$*&"*.C According to 5r Lindenmayer./tml: AD? $/ */*(3 .ertain t/at . the nation is still losing plant and animal species on a continental scale . using fresh local 2$F1*&<I7+3 Presuma=l%: t/roug/ t/e . but is yet to be officially released. 8ibale area working at the 8ibale Association for Bural and Environmental Aevelopment.ulations i8 onl% due to annual . Environment minister Peter *arrett>s office says it is out for peer review.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment & #. The local women’s groups produce curio items and handicrafts for purchase by visitors.urrents: w/i.ontinue to dri8t and alter o. The Australian Terrestrial @iodiversity Assessment !"".onditions on eart/ will .lear: t/oug/: t/at 2$F1*&<I7+3 .ould lead to devastating glo=al .tuations in s. 7/us: 8utures sustaina=ilit% reBuires t/e maintenan. t/at eart/Dli8e will =e a=le to survive into t/e distant 8uture under normal ./tm: AD? $/ */*(3 A. of course.onditions and situations.olle.t eart/Dli8eHs a=ilit% to ada. And according to the latest national audit of Australian biodiversity.ould also =e .ews Worldwide: /tt. Preventing evolution t/roug/ maintenan. bringing much$needed cash into the**(/*$/1*/2F("44".e o8 8un.iodiversity 1.a: -.2/D0/0": Dormer general manager of .essm%li=rar%. and assist the local community to engage in sustainable business ventures./: in turn: . promote eco$friendly tourism practices. Impact is empirically denied – years of species loss ith no impact A!C "e s # 2@#iodiversit% 'ras/ing Australia – Wide:A A#' .ean . as are dance and drama sessions performed by local artists E this re.tuall% lower t/e .itation .rote..ause t/ere will alwa%s =e 8lu. -iodiversity in the status he said. 7a0en literall%: t/at is an im.osition o8 t/e totalit% o8 eart/Dli8e . The *overnment has implemented a national biodiversity conservation strategy to try to reverse the trend.e =onn: 11/1/2*00 2/tt. knowing intimately well what is e-pected by tourist visitors from his previous work in creating the @uganda <eritage Trail in 6entral .rodu. and it>s continued to do very badly for .ess o8 evolution: . Australia has the worst record for mammal e-tinctions and near$e-tinctions of any developed nation in the world.limate .?//www.tive in t/e long run. "o Impact $ Corporations innovation solves !io% loss &home # @Wol*gang ?A/ =ourism re'orter/ B<a*red .ro. 8A All ecosystems not critical to (iodiversity#ru.e: we 0now t/at t/e .re.oms2/summar%<*24$D It s/ould =e ./angeDD. the aim to conserve biodiversity at the community C@iodiversity is not doing well in Australia.i. Kiven t/at it is .reate even more resilient e. Traditional home$cooked meals.all%: .ould a. but forest ecologist Aavid Lindenmayer has told Badio 7ational @reakfast that government attempts to turn back the tide of species losses are not working.a=.?//www.. C:e are seeing massive crashes of mammal populations in northern Australia o8 t/e status Buo: t/en: would =onn: 11/1/2*00 2/tt. in short 8ADBEA.ossi=le goal =e. and we>re not seeing those in southern Australia because essentially mammals have gone from huge areas of woodlands.t to new .es.e. and we are starting to see the bird populations crash./anges in weat/er and .umstan.e.a.?//alla8ri.reventing t/e evolution in t/e ./o !ello # 2Walden: @A 'ritiBue o8 -rt/odo1 Pers.ursuing t/is goal .essm%li=rar%. DA Ecosystems are resilient#ru.ting =iodiversit% does not mean t/at it is ne.ies . The nearby @igodi :etland anctuary is the first manifestation of 8ADBEA’s community engagement and on offer are guided nature walks taking anywhere between a few hours to a full day and an interpretive nature and village walks where the daily life of a rural African community unfolds in front of visitor’s eyes. while some families are available to open their homes and offer tourists a home stay.ounterD.e.a.**ers New 7orest and 6ommunity E3'erience/C East A*rica =ourism 1e'ort/ e=ur(o News/ htt'-//wwwAetur(onewsAcom/!002>/wol*gangs)east)a*rica)tourism)re'ort/ A.tions o8 s. has now reappeared in the Dort Portal. ()*+s destroyin. 2. +n =ictoria there are huge crashes in the number of birds../angeDD8or instan.?//www. &ohn Tinka.oms2/summar%<*24$D 7/eoreti.uite some time. The Tinka family is at the forefront of this trend. The community$based association has amongst its ob)ectives.tives:A All A8ri.os%stems on eart/ =e maintained V1 W.ontinents will ..

as noted by one accountF The effects of transgenic crops on biodiversity far e-tend the concerns already raised by monocropping under the *reen Bevolution.. . it is significantly more worrisome when it could contaminate and eradicate generations of evolution of diverse and subtly differentiated strains of a single crop. /tt.tion o8 t/e in. but because of its >live> aspect.etition: t/en e1tin.s? 7urnover o8 Po. As Io% 21(($3 dis. :hile this may be a limited concern with respect to the contamination of another commercial crop. which have never been seen before and thus not selected for human consumption by eons of evolution./ael E.Qinne%: 1((4: #iodiversit% D%nami.redi. as in the case of @t corn>s impact on the monarch butterfly.e 8or3: speciation$rate disparities tend to drive chan. 7or have they dispelled the very real threat of loss of biodiversity posed by *59s .s ? .e.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 4 Proponents of *59s have not been able to alleviate worries that transgenic foods have the potential for creating une-pected reactions in humans unless these foods. and potentially to dominate.0inne%/m. +.0ground and mass e0tinctions.ortunit% 8or re. 7ot only is diversity decreased through the physical loss of species .reem./tml A 0e% . The risks are hardly trifling. are tested rigorously in accordance with the universally recognised precautionary ./ael E. 7either have they been able to allay worries that non$ target populations might be negatively affected by genetic modification aimed at specific pests .ter 1: +i.ulations: 7a1a: and 'ommunities: '/a.tion model is t/at: as in. other strains of the same species.?//www. Dra0e: eds.eart/ in diversity composition d/rin.rovides t/e main o.u. )ass e0tinctions provide idespread opport/nities to occ/py many ecolo.ical niches and so accelerate inc/m-ent replacement 2Pat!0ows0% 1((FC Io% 1(($3.tion o8 t/e ni./e ./e Preem. such as the recently discovered transgenic contamination of landraces of indigenous corn in 5e-ico.tion and Saturation in Diversit% EBuili=ria: #iodiversit% /m.0inne%*1. =ot/ =a.ants o8 ni..G3H 2A 1e)s'eciation will ra'idly *ill in the vacuum Mc<inney "E +i.Qinne% and 9ames A.a. =% distur=an. it has the potential to contaminate./es are not dislodged =% .usses 2and s/ows eviden.

C aving coral reefs means addressing global environmental issues$$climate change in particular$$at the highest levels of .ual. which are declining dramatically worldwide. they might better sustain the reefs on which they depend by harvesting only less critical species. AronsonBs team fo/nd that coral populations were healthy and vibrant until the 12. when they were killed by disease and high sea temperatures . but it won>t save the corals."s. C+f ecosystems were managed for critical mi-es of herbivorous species.nfortunately. A report scheduled to be published this week in the early edition of the )ournal Proceedings of the 7ational Academy of ciences suggests that maintaining the proper balance of herbivorous fishes may be critical to restoring coral reefs.-io$ Dor endangered coral reefs.or. and without such cleaning.lo-al armin. the reefs decline as corals are replaced by seaweeds..y$ne s$1<%iversity$of$plant$eatin.o d/e to early overfishin. because different answers dictate different strategies for managers and policymakers intent on saving reef ecosystems.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment ( #6oral 1. CThis could offer one more approach to resource managers. there may be a small number of species that are really critical for keeping big seaweeds from over$growing and killing <ay added.A"ot 3/st *verfishin. . feed a large portion of the world>s population.C e-plained 5ark <ay.<< medicine.9 : htt'-//wwwAsciencedailyAcom/releases/200>/0E/0>0ED000220"AhtmF August D! accessed 2/2"/0": 6oral reefs. protect tropical shorelines from erosion. The cover story published this month in *eology helps focus the debate. "on$/ni. the mithsonian +nstitution @eli4e to reconstruct the history of the reefs over the past several thousand years. 6oral reefs depend on fish to eat the seaweeds with which the corals compete. This is not )ust an academic e-ercise. +n situations where local peoples depend on fishing.. and harbor animals and plants with great potential to provide new reefs are no -eset -y pro-lems ran. from local poll/tion and their decline cent/ries a. the <arry and Linda Teasley Professor of @iology at the *eorgia +nstitute of Technology.$fishes$may$-e$8ey$to$recovery$of$coral$reefs$'2=2$4<> *cto-er 2 accessed 6<2#<0#? .. 6orals are being killed at an unprecedented rate by forces outside local control. Science %aily ' @7Coral 5eefs %eclinin. coral ecosystems also need the right mi.<-iolo. The conclusion results from a long$term study that found significant recovery in sections of coral reefs on which fish of two complementary species were caged. resource managers could focus on protecting and enhancing the highest$impact species. As Aronson points out. CProtecting fish populations is important in its own right. C9f the many different fish that are part of coral ecosystems. Aifferent fish consume different seaweeds because of the differing chemical and physical properties of the plants. C9ur study shows that in addition to having enough herbivores. )assive alt ca/ses$ poll/tion4 overfishin.C @y knowing which fish are most critical to maintaining coral health./e – ma1or coral loss no &oon 2 @3ohn4 )ana.4 disease4 and of (eor.of species to overcome the different defensive tactics of the seaweeds. Although most scientists agree that reefs are in desperate trouble. we might see more rapid recovery of the reefs. not all plant$eating fish are created e. A team led by Bichard Aronson of the Aauphin +sland ea Lab in Alabama took cores through reef frameworks in scientists have s/. fishes may -e 8ey to recovery of coral reefs9 :http. Although some and the 7ational cience Doundation. and causes of the coral reef crisis. they disagree strongly over the timing therapeutic drugs. The research effort was supported by the 7ational *eographic ociety.ia &ech 5esearch and 6/-lications 7%iversity of plant$eatin. the rainforests of the sea. to o/t-rea8s of coral disease and . government.ested that reefs -e.C 2.

7/e state also .ernstein: /2(/2*02 2/tt. DA $o'ulation growth and 'ollution causes o* Iul* o* Me3ico dead +ones4they don5t solve- =i+on/ 2008 sta88: Eos Angeles 7imes: F/$/2**"C Ee1is Pollution =roug/t on =% ra.rawl.reading over larger areas o8 t/e sea 8loor: Wu w/ile t/ose w/o want to =u% .essions =e8ore: Lt/oug/ none wit/ su./ates and: in 'anada: .ano..ultural se.tor is no e1.ent events was t/at t/e 8armers would cut (ac% on their *ertili+er 'urchase this *all to t/e degree t/e% /ave.rett% 8rig/tening:L said E/rli./ates earlier t/is mont/ at some o8 its .eo. 7/e .ene Lis .erate .entl% t/at t/e . . S.i.ment /as .ristine out./ saw 'algar%D =ased Agrium: .: rendering one large se. 2A $lan doesn5t solve.i.ea0e #a% and the Iul* o* Me3ico.L 7/e s.ened: Was/ington would lose Lone o8 its great Jewels:L said state 8is/er% =iologist Duane 5agergren./os. 7/e latter demand s.eninsulaHs stillD wild eastern edge: a water% s/ield against t/e westward .le and ma.algar%=usiness/stor%./ael .ontri=uted to an un'recedented reduction in *ertili+er use (y *armers on a glo=al =asis t/is 8all: w/i.:L t/e =iggest sur.ould turn into a Ldead sea.ations Environmental Programme estimates nearly !>0 'ermanent and recurring dead +ones e3ist worldwide: in.ommodities in t/e =lin0 o8 an e%e: and w/ere demand d%nami.ort/ Ameri.os%stem: a .l% o8 =irds and mammals: 8orests: and a vast networ0 o8 s/ut in .e.rodu.rodu.aused o1%gen levels in t/e water to dro. Kov.anal ma0es u.ulation growt/ and develo.analHs image as a .oasts o8 t/e maJor .e o8 e1tremes w/erein rea.sDo!* 2(*$./ rivers and streams.anal a Ldead !one.algar%/erald/news/.luding " in U. 7/e growing dead !one t/reatens not Just sea li8e DD Good 'anal /as one o8 t/e ri.ollution t/e% generate.onomi. ItHs =e. Klo=all%: out./: F$.tion o8 nitrogen and .re.rote.u=<releases/2**$D* / to .3 Dead !ones are develo.redit /as dried u.. Iesear./.ession is rede8ining norms ever%w/ere and t/e agri.ome a .eninsula: one o8 t/e last great uns. tri.ould see t/e e88luen..0e warned re.eo. t/e .ost: t/e last natural =arrier .e&D(*d.le and t/e .ting t/e Dead !ones are .ut o8 all t/ree nutrients /as =een trimmed./tmlSidUaa"8. Agrium isn9t alone.s see 8armers a=le to =u% 8ertili!er /olding out 8or 8ireDsale . 5or Wilson: a veteran .e o8 s.a 8a..lagues o8 ur=an s.oiled areas in t/e West: /e said.ent interview at AgriumHs su=ur=an 'algar% /eadBuarters. /ave along t/e .anHt: as a.0le into t/e .ri.entrations o8 .ontinents: and t/e% are s./ines.ommodities .881d8F3 7/e glo=al e.L I8 t/at / o8 . 7/e United . .an evis.ead Gones !A tatus Huo solves.areer gu% w/oHs ridden out re.?//www./ use declining nowKina =eel/ !/2/200" 2sta88 writer: 'algar% Gerald: /tt.tion o8 t/e .ed s/utDins 8or nitrogen and 8or urea: as well as . LItHs un/eard o8:LWilson said in a re.?//www./ a . Q..reated =% large . Kar% Eo.o.tive mar0ets ..SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 1* #.enario /as .ilities.aHs t/irdDlargest 8ertili!er . Also at sta0e is t/e . Plants in t/e U./est s/ell8is/ =eds in Puget Sound DD =ut t/e entire e.S.anal . Peninsula 8rom t/e ./ers /ave identi8ied dead !ones in Eos Angeles Gar=or: '/esa.itous dro.most dead +ones not in the & - +i.rise o8 re.oastal waters. and t/e U.otas/.D"" 1D=1*"D 28F= . re.ort/ Ameri.

ulture -rgani!ation 25A-3 Assistant Dire.I.t 8armers w/o .e.ear East 2w/eat3: Euro. naturall% evolved stands o8 monoDdominant .e /ave ado.rovide e1a.tion 9osZ +ar[a Sum.?//www.lasm storage .atureHs 5ields? a negle.ountries and regions give to ensuring t/e survival o8 t/ese .enUF12\o=JIDU"*$\\PageIDUF(*\modeU2\in</i<useridU2\.al in trust 8or t/e world .luding 8inan. L7/is is a milestone in international e88orts to .ature to Eat Well:A +ar.ologi.les/2** /mar<24<* .ontri=ution 8rom t/e United States3: .on8eren.l% . 7/e ./ 'enters 2IAI'3 and ot/ers t/at ea. 7/e 'KIAI /olds one o8 t/e worldHs largest e1 situ . Iesour.ereal mono.urit% and sustaina=le develo.ologi.?//www.ologi.ereals /ave immediate wild relatives growing in vast monodominant natural grasslands t/roug/out Asia and A8ri. Press Ielease: /tt. diversit% o8 livesto. Iesour..osite? all our im.oo.ologi. In are a num=er o8 organi!ations t/at enlist teams o8 lo.artment o8 Agri.etwor0 o8 Plant t/e wise management o8 t/e worldHs animal geneti.reated sustained /uman su.ulture models to earl% 8armers 8or treeD8ree .<12<*2< -ld World .al =ene8its o8 .onsortium o8 International t/roug/ e1 situ 2o88Dsite3 met/ods su.arti.rimeval grasslandH .es 8or 8ood and agri.inning our .ultural addition: t/ere .e 2redu.ies.NAL .si told t/e .ultures is t/e Preservation: IndiaHs .as 2.ulture *: 1$FD1&"W.e 'entres .ru.ountries at a United .: 8orage: and agro8orestr% s. and EennZ: 9.e.3 are nonD.e 2w/eat3: and most o8 t/e Ameri.?//www.urrent e.a .rovide 8unding and ot/er su./ as seed and s.learl% mimi./tm3 Delegates 8rom 1*( .es Institute 2WII3 and t/e World 'onservation Union 2IU'..ommunit%. Iesour.ial in mitigating t/e e88e.reasing 8ood .tion in.ologi. resour.lanting is also e.roving t/eir use to .ess t/roug/out Asia 8un.reserve germ. resour./ as t/e World Iesour.1MA=I.e3: t/e . 7/e /istori.ultures violates virtuall% ever% e..N ")!2)2000 2U.onservation e88orts .ereal 8ields.ted model 8or in.#AKI3: t/e 7aiwan Eivesto./ 2'KIAI3 is a .rimeval 8orestHC and .arti.0: seen as .es 2.ationsD=a. on International Agri.rovide t/e 8ramewor0 8or a.t mono.g8i. 2**1 ..o.ultural and to im.ational #ureau o8 Animal Keneti.ome.lasm 8rom a .erm =an0s.ultural Keneti../edUtrue3 Keneti.ti.ulture and 'onsumer states: to /alt t/e erosion o8 t/e geneti. resour.reserved t/roug/ a variet% o8 in situ 2in .ational 'enter 8or Keneti.0ed .ultures were a 0e% sour. eed (an%s solve the im'act o* monoculture NA=I.olle. . diversit% is ./ Institute: and t/e Australian . It .em=er 12: /tt./ .ant .essions o8 more t/an :*** .II6AL IN7.torD Keneral 8or Agri.ies 8rom w/i. It is a visi=le sign o8 t/e urgen./: /tt.lasm storage e88orts in.ulture:L U.osition or inD8ield3 agri.0 o8 modernDda% use.ountries 2in.lude? * 7/e 'onsultative under.eration 8or man% %ears to . De.n!/stories/W-*&*(/S**2&&.e on Animal Keneti. LIt will East +odi8ied 1*D1F: /tt..% t/at all .ial resour.ultures dire./tm3 7ro..tion and international . 2002 2Dr.rivate 8oundations: and international and regional organi!ations.rote.ondu.e.t.eerDreviewed Wood: antit/esis o8 H. 7/e 'KIAI and t/e IAI's are 8unded =% donor ./ieve glo=al 8ood se.t resear.reated D 'KIAI we=site: 2** * .al and ro=ust e. Some o8 t/e maJor germ. * -rgani!ations su. alien to t/e e.ultureHs .ontains over F**:*** a.ro8it organi!ations t/at .tivists reJe.ts o8 glo=al warming and .ultural s%stems .lant geneti.e o8 gat/ered 8ood =e8ore 8armingC seem to /ave =een maintained and toug/ened =% seasonal 8ire or 8lood distur=an.luding t/e U.les/2**2/de. Iesour.ting t/e worldHs 8ood su.ies.tionall%Dsur.L Monocultures are natural and science 'roves they5re sa*e W.ted t/e 8irst internationall% agreed 8ramewor0: in.ri=ed des.g8i.ular .ereal t/e lands w/ere most o8 /umanit% lives.ludes 8armersH varieties and im.t o.tion due to on and .L. 5ood and Agri. -utloo0 on Agri.ultural geneti.ereal derived 8rom H.ment. or animal 8or develo.ort to e1 situ and in situ .tions o8 .al insig/ts o8 t/e .e. Iesour. &ANA 'rogram solves the im'act to (iological diversity worldwide4this will also create *uture coo'eration &NI=E./tm3 7/e realit% o8 national and international e88orts to .tivist in Interla0en: Swit!erland.0 Iesear. 7/ere are also lo..?//www. 7/e .ortal/server. W/% would e./ t/ose varieties were ..ultures.oo.0ing .a.i.ontinue to t/is da%: .reserve agri.lus =iodiversit%3C are t/e e.orn and later w/eat3S 7/eir agri.luding a signi8i.ational germ.ologist 8rom UQ w/o /as lived in India 8or t/e .ularl% t/ose t/at are t/reatened =% e1tin.e to a=andon 8armers to grow native varieties: .ra.roved varieties and: in su=stantial measure: t/e wild s.enters in.lants.lied e. Dave: e.rodu. 5arming in India:A De.tS o. 7/ese natural mono.roviding most o8 our 8ood Vsee t/e .ast 8ew %ears: @-ne Gand 'la.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 11 #Monoculture Monoculture is sta(le4it is Just an e3tenstion o* 'lant mono)dominance that occurs in nature AKE1Y 200D 2Dennis: 5ounder o8 t/e 'enter 8or Klo=al 5ood Issues: -rgani.N IN71A =1&6=&1E 2000 2@E1 situ 'onservation o8 'on8eren.losing session o8 t/e 8irst International 7e. 7/us t/ere is sound a.

along with vibrant coral and h/drothermal vents . (an $. !!". from many environmentalists.- 9.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 12 #.ush9s 'residency. include regions teeming with shar4s and other top marine predators.ush *or 'rotecting an additional !">/208 sHuare miles o* ocean area in the $aci*ic on 7uesda%. http://www.cgi?f=/c/a/ !!"/!#/!$/%&'(#)* +".ceans @L/L: Massive conservation e**orts solving now Gina Goodhill. free passage.%: this decision is a maJor victory *or the environment and a de*ining moment o* .com/wp-d/n/content/article/ !!"/!#/!$/+0 !!"!#!$! #!1. 2! s3uare miles. $he protected areas 7will allow for research. %8or seabirds and marine life. and recreation -.ting similar s%stems: President . Iegardless o8 /is . Bush's decision to safeguard far-flung areas totaling #"). Must as the national 'aar% system in America created a ri''le e**ect around the world: wit/ over 1** .ountries ado.ast environmental . possessions. President which comes just two weeks before he leaves office.oli. 'nvo4ing powers of the +nti3uities +ct of #"!$ that are used to protect statues and cultural sites. the/ will be sanctuaries to grow and thrive. 6cientists identified them as biologicall/ and geologicall/ rich areas. While he has resisted imposing mandatory curbs on greenhouse gas emissions linked to climate than any person in history. which together are e"ual in si#e to !pain. by the end of his term he will have protected more ocean . @L/L: Massive reservations chec% s'ecies loss (uliet %ilperin.&. 200 Bush moves to conserve the Pacific Ocean. . http://www.he monuments.including the possibilit/ of recreational fishing one da/ .sfgate. Bush today sharply restricted oil and gas e5ploration and commercial fishing around numerous remote islands in the central and western Pacific that have long been .% Bush said while announcing his decision today. a move that will help preserve sprawling sea and island ecosystems and cement the one aspect of his legacy that has won praise. mining and other use of resources. January 7.html Bush today announced he is creating three new marine national monuments in the Pacific Ocean today.ush9s decision may have s'ar%ed the (eginning o* a worldwide ocean conservation movement . & change and has opened large areas of the nation to drilling. sometimes grudgingly. Bush to Protect . underscores his contradictory environmental record.hree +reas in Pacific.!.washingtonpost. <udos to $resident .

!onvillian4 200# 2dire.ome t/e -/ilt$in -ias in favor of 8ast enoug/ to meet t/e urgent national need: nor . I8 renewa=les /ad a 8air environment to Is it . 'ontrar% to t/is t/in0ing: more t/an a do!en di88erent sets o8 te.lies: redu. . Poli. 8a* =".an never a. @)): No via(le mar%et contender to oil on the hori+on4the *ossil *uel economy is huge/ mature/ su(sidi+ed/ 'ervasive/ entrenched/ and as well groomed as Ed Lee'/arles Eeiss and William #.t.ien. field. . 8a* =".ower o8 #ig -ilC t/e% used our own ta1 mone% to .a.roa.1"\sear.ted to oil ] 7/e =est wa% to =rea0 t/is addi.&(848$d d8 (4182.%ma0ers undertoo0 su.tU'****" 4"*\<versionU1\<urlMersionU*\<useridU4*"*$F\mdFU*$.ome to address t/e remainin.edire.y./orU \viewU.t *: 2*1* at /tt. social4 economic4 and political -arriers.e3.a.ies -ased on fossil f/els . i8 e1ternalities li0e war and environment are e1.e .enden.s.oint o8 ma0ing t/e US 8un.enden./ t%. Gowever: a.0s.leUIE\<udiU#$M2WD"P4 D4SD 2\<userU4*"*$F\<. @)): u(sidies *or ./ea.e .ete at s.y ill a/tomatically solve the co/ntryBs in the *irst 'lace . Sovacool4 200= 2 Mirginia Pol%te./orU \viewU.tor o8 +assa. @Solving t/e oil inde.t in limited .t.tionall% inde.a.on.e is unattaina=le>la./nolog% must .eUa As .o/erent meaning and wedding .. off competition4 deeply entrenched in the economy and the political system4 and sustained =% p/-lic e0pectation of cheap ener.renewa=leenerg%world./nolog%’s Was/ington o88i.oliti. oil su.erted a.ortation and =uildings se.0ing ./ a new energ% te.%ma0ers to t/e notion t/at t/e% .0X2*Issues/9ul%DAugustX2*2**(/WeissD#onvillianD 8ull.ould o8 t/e .&(848$d d8 (4182.ete in: #ig -il would not =e as . @Solving t/e oil inde./nolog% 8rom t/e moment o8 its mar0et laun./allenge..tion to e1.e overall demand in t/e a.essed Se./ a s%nergisti.y faces an /neven playin.e.tU'****" 4"*\<versionU1\<urlMersionU*\<useridU4*"*$F\mdFU*$. $atel/ !/!E/200E 2/tt.ien. #us/ 22**$3 stated t/at @Ameri.enden.onom% standards and alternative 8uels are well 0nown./: a da/ntin.od. prospect.riti. Ketting t/em 8ull% a. I8 .tions toda%: the CS co/ld -ecome oil independent -y 20D0.e.U1\<8mtU/ig/\< 2**&.onventional 'revents renewa(les transition4they don5t solve their advantage Dee.U1\<8mtU/ig/\<origUsear.onom% is h/..astSidUF11$(3 W/% is t/e government so involved in our L8ree mar0etsLS 7/e su(sidies that the government has given .ir./usetts Institute o8 7e.urrentl% dis.%: Molume F: Issue 11: . @)): =echnology alone can5t solve oil de'endence#enJamin Q.%: Molume F: Issue 11: .an it over.a is addi.endent 8rom oil ./ a .DandDtrade regime or .om/s.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 1 #./ieving t/is goal demands .oli.overDateU11X25 *X252**&\<rdo.artl% rig/t.ower8ul as t/e% are at t/e .les.reate an oligo./nolog%:A /e was onl% .ien../ni./ives/#a.rease element to li8e: energ%. Energ% Poli.umstan.%ma0ers m/st move -eyond the idea that technolo.eS<o=UArti.s./\<originUsear.e demand 8or oil to t/e . Institute and State Universit%3.onvenient and .ussed in .l% and redu.ovem=er 2**&./ni.tion is t/roug/ te./tml An initial rationale 8or su.ri.?//www. As a result: any innovation in ener.. @Stimulating a Ievolution in Sustaina=le Energ% 7e./nolog%.ale wit/ e1isting Some o8 t/e tools reBuired 8or oil inde. Energ% Poli. 7/e government is t/e reason 8or t/e .ades: and instruments su.ted is t/e .il is the reason renewa(les never (ecame com'etitive to ../ as a ..ien.e /ave =een around 8or de.ossi=leSA /tt.ol% w/ Is it .\<a.tor: and .ossi=leSA / ta13: cannot stim/late the development and deployment of ener./ would . E1. a.overDateU11X25 *X252**&\<rdo.rogram is t/at mar0et me.A 9ul%DAugust 2**(.al ..1"\sear.enden.?//www.e4 mat/re4 heavily s/-sidized4 pervasive4 adept at fendin.lis/ .\<a.les: oil inde./\<sortUd\<!\<udiU#$M2WD"P4 D4SD 2\<userU4*"*$F\<./anisms alone: ./nologies and .oli.resent immense o=sta. Institute and State Universit%3. 5ossil 8uels are .eUa Su.y technolo.?//www.urrent moment.y technolo./arge 2a .ontrolling t/e most ./ is now .om.e s/o. 7/e 8ossil 8uel e./\<originUsear.y pro-lems and .ontinue to develo. A.ig .es ./\<sortUd\<do. W/en President Keorge W.eS<o=UArti. alternative 8uels. Sovacool4 200= 2 Mirginia Pol%te.ra./ as 8uel e.e'endency @)): Even under (est case conditions/ the time *rame to their advantage is 20D0#enJamin Q.and and diversi8% ..

ontrol t/e in8lationar% e88e.a.iles: w/ to ./ o8 ot/er small .tion./ =elow: I measure t/e .$E6 has used its sur'lus ca'acity when there were serious disru'tions / including when IraH invaded <uwait.ri.(F .tions o8 t/e .ortant: t/oug/: to remem=er t/at none o* these e**ects would do much damage unless they were e3'ected to last *or Huite a long time .es ./ oil .oli.e Ei=%a: Algeria and a .es.e: w/i. and 8oreign =usinesses: governments: and nonD. =he strategic oil reserves in (oth Euro'e and the &A A are more than am'le to re'lace short)term interru'tionsA =he &A A has emergency stoc%'iles to meet t/e ./ : 2*11: @7/e 2*11 oil s/o.rgani!ation o8 t/e $etroleum E1.ri./ im.i0e su88i.ossi=le si!e o8 t/e @oil s/o.t .oliti.ials o8 U. .om/2*11/*2/2"//owD=igDisDt/eD2*11DoilD. Saudi Ara=ia is t/e onl% .rodu. I8 t/ose hoc%s Multi'le chec%s to the im'act o* oil shoc%sFconomist4 2011 2+ar.ent o8 KDP3 w/ile Euro.essar%.onomies means t/at a T2* .e .ountr% wit/ t/e .a.ountr% 8rom tr%ing to do t/e same.e*ore this year5s unrest gri''ed =unisia and Egy't/ oil 'rices in 20!0 had risen (y a(out 20 'ercentA =hat cost the & nited tates an additional N02 (illion *or oil im'orts/ an e3tra N00 (illion *or the E&5s oil im'orts/ and N20 (illion more *or Ma'anA =hat5s not 'eanuts/ (ut it was still Just ri''les *or economies o* their si+e./ t/e% didn’t in 1(& .eDs/o.entral =an0 o8 t/e oil mar0et: te.ent . A88airs 8rom 1((& to 2**1: @7/e Ieal"3 So 8ar: t/e s/*11/*2/ .0:A /tt.ea0ed in 2**4./ .er .4 .it% to engineer and maintain a rise to T12* .ient to .ts 8rom t/e initial dro.a.ri.1 .om.rodu.lo%ees out o8 Ei=%a amid mi1ed re.en ne1t e.rodu.?//g%aanomi. Kovernments /ave sto.ed world.rovides advi.ent in t/e develo.FX.e in./ /as more .% needed to .ountries li0e Kerman% would =ene8it 8rom t/eir lower energ% intensit% and would t/ere8ore lose least 2*.ing .: over oil .retar% o8 'ommer.e: @Gow =ig is t/e 2*11 oil . In 1(& t/e 8igure was around &.ent o8 KDP: .. .ountr%’s demand 8or oil 8or 4* da%s.0A =% ta0ing t/e annual .lore and drill 8or more su. It is =arrel . Im.e oil t/an it now uses.Dim.onomi..tW #ut in order to threaten the &A A and glo(al recoveries/ an oil 'rice s'i%e would have to (e (oth very large and 'ersistent )) *or at least *our)to)si3 monthsA .ers.t: as would an% tig/tening in monetar% .onomi.ourse o8 oil . /avo.utives and o88i. Saudi Ara=ia: t/e .a.ations o8 t/e 8all =a.ent o8 t/e world’s sur. Ei=%a’s turmoil /as redu.lies disa.e and anal%sis to senior*11/*2/21/2$&242 /li=%anD. And t/e Saudis /ave made clear that they are illin.ri.all% /as eno/.a.a.rodu.orts 4* .ost t/em a=out 1. +ulti. Produ.ared wit/ *.risingDeg%.. .la.rivate 8irm t/at .il reserves and .rodu.0SA /tt.lus . 7/ese are? 2i3 t/e status Buo at T1** .ri.ro8it organi!ations and 8ormer Under Se./airman and .on: EE': a . 5or e1am. 7/e United States ta0es onl% F .onomies: t/e US would lose most 2*.ent o8 Ei=%a’s em.s. #ut 8or now: Saudi Ara=ia: w/i.ase in w/i.0s to su.?//ndn.e s.ould =e larger t/an 1 more oil wit/out /aving to e1. Among develo. In t/e gra..ted to =e =e8ore re. In the 'ast/ .le: t/e /ig/er energ% intensit% o8 emerging e.ase in w/i.ri../ t/e unrest /as =arrel and sta% t/ere all %earC and 2iii3 an o. Even i* there are oil shoc%s/ the im'act is very small Iyaanomics 2)28D11 VKlo=al 8inan.ent.ress.orting 6ountries: w/i.h spare capacity to re.0 real e.tors.risisD=ringsDoilD worries.a. Commercial oil stoc8s are more ample t/an t/e% were w/en .e s/o.lier e88e. 7oda%’s oil mar0et also has plenty of -/ffers.l% have -een tiny. 7/ere8ore the severity o* any oil 'rice shoc% should (e Judged not only (y the si+e o* the short term s'i%e in oil 'rices/ (ut also (y its duration .ending would worsen t/e im.essimisti.e: =ased on t/ree di88erent assum./ =% itsel8 /as 4* .lies.lut. 7/ere8ore t/e e88e.ri.ent o8 to . 7/at sur'lus ca'acity is 8A2> million (arrels a day : or a=out .F2 .al disru. in s.rease would ./ni. It is .ean .S. to p/mp.overage news servi.ed glo=al oil out.ts o8 /ig/er oil doesn’t =elieve intervention is ne.?//www.tion .ut =% a mere 1X.tions.ends on several /tt.lear t/at on t/e o.tion. -t/erwise: consumers would Just di' into their savings to *inance what they e3'ected to (e tem'orary increases in energy e3'enses.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 1" #.revent an% ot/er oilD.rising in Eg%.e.oD8ounder o8 =arrelC 2ii3 a 8airl% ./tml6i1!!1K%=$K$)/W -n +onda%: 8oreign oil .timisti.eared: t/e largest disru.$E6 chec% the im'act o* any shoc%s Everly 2)2!D11 VSteve: sta88 writer 8or t/e Qansas 'it% Star: @'risis in Ei=%a =rings worries: =ut not a And t/e damage would vary Huite widely (etween economies is t/e a=ilit% to s/i. Also: commercial oil inventories are well a(ove normalA =he disru'tion could (e *urther reduced (y the .ase: the 20!! oil shoc% would (e a very minor one / and .rodu.tion .ationsD u.0 to T4* . Even large shoc%s don5t cause maJor crises) 20!0 'roves ha'iro 2)"D11 VIo=ert: .e 8or E.anies .ted oil .er =arrel: w/ere t/e% were e1.orts a=out /ow mu./ange in t/e 12 mont/ moving average o8 t/e glo=al oil .er..?// o8 8rom now to t/e end o8 2*11.ri.ri. – as it /as t/e .t:A /tt.onomi.0D8tD=logDgav%nDdavies/W W/at would /a.tion would =e su88ered =% Euro.le Ei=%a’s .a.word.onomi.

SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 1F even in the middle case/ the oil shoc% would (e only o* similar magnitude to what was o(served in 200>)2002/ when the glo(al economy continued steaming ahead with a . .er . 7/en: as t/e% sa%: all =ets are o88. .ersisting 8or a=out a %ear: .inion: this is not 'articularly li%ely – unless Saudi Ara=ia o8 a 8ull %earS In m% o.ase: t/e T"* a =arrel annual rise in oil .ould .o. Gowever: on t/e .ut glo=al KDP growt/ =% a=out 2 .onom% to .e wit/. ?ow li%ely is it that oil 'rices could rise to N!20 'er (arrel and then stay there 8or t/e =etter .ent: and t/at would =e ver% /ard 8or t/e world e.$ growth rate o* a(out > 'er cent.lodes.ri.essimisti.

ules: t/is Lsu. Keep in mind that ozone depletion4 in and of itself4 doesnBt really harm h/man health or the environment.ions is so small itBs hard to detect.NAL &$$LEMEN= !)!2)2008 Wit/out t/is . &he l/rid predictions of ozone depletion$ind/ced s8in cancer epidemics4 ecosystem destr/ction and others havenBt come tr/e: 8or w/i. &he treaty came a-o/t over le.tor%: arguing t/eir . ozone molec/ rea. of the ozone layer that occ/rred thro/.ro. CL! rays to reach the Farth that led to the )ontreal 6rotocol. 7/eir ver% sta=ilit%: /owever: means t/at even a8ter t/e% /ave =een ./ +ontreal is . earlier this year that Io/tside the polar re.essive ultravioletD# radiation 2UM#3 8rom t/e sun.utative ozone crisis.ol: t/at natural variations =etter #.tion: not . o!one /ole: o.onditioners./ased out: t/e% will remain in t/e atmos. &his lends credence to the s8eptical vie : widel% derided at t/e time o8 t/e +ontreal Proto./ time: t/e greens and t/eir . to the stratosphere and destroyin.e t/e 1(4*s: a=out t/e e88e. Indeed: the m/ch$hyped acceleration in s8in cancer rates hasnBt -een doc/mented./ere 8or a long time . #ut is t/ere reall% /p4 then the fears of increased CL!$ind/ced harm are /nfo/ wit/ t/e 1(4& +ontreal Proto.itimate -/t overstated concerns that chlorofl/orocar-ons 2'5's: a t/enDwidel% used .le1 .reated and destro%ed at eBual rates Dw/ in clo/d and aerosol.ti. list of tr/ly ridic/lo/s claims4 s/ch as the one from Al (oreBs 1((2 -oo8 LEart/ in t/e #alan..e =% ./ as t/ose used in aerosols: re8rigerators and air ./loro8luoro. C.h 1##2.. 7/e =alan.$term trends have -een detected4 notin.ed nations =% 1(($. a lon.ri.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 1$ Your .t t/e o!one la%er turns 2* t/is %ear.t t/at '5's were used 8or man% %ears in t/e =elie8 t/at t/e% were inert: wit/ no environmental .ulminating wit/ a '5' =an in most develo.tions t/at s.otten is a lon.redi. As t/e treat% .ho/t the 1#20s apparently stopped in the early 1##0s4 too soon to credit the )ontreal 6rotocol.e.ess it . t/e =rea0down o8 o!one .tuating: and an%t/ing t/at u.ti./ o!one is =eing .al -rgani!ation 2W+-3 re.rote.ess stor%L in t/e .ades./ 0ee.S.s t/e o!one la%er in =eing.+one de'letion inevita(le =IME E.ts us 8rom UM.erated threat in the first place. Also for.lass o8 re8rigerants3 and other compo/nds ere risin. So w/at do we 0now nowS As far as ozone depletion is concerned4 the thinnin. compo/nds ere still increasin.ause 8or re8le. 5urt/er: no ecosystem or species as ever sho n to -e serio/sly harmed -y ozone depletion.onents .otentiall% li8eDt/reatening D/en.tions averted disaster.oli.$term increase that predates ozone depletion4 has act/ally -een levelin.tion: t/ere would =e little li8e on Eart/.ar=ons 2'5's3: su. W/at t/is means is t/at t/ere is an Lo!one =alan.e t/e worr%: sin.romoting .ortantl%: t/e 8eared in.nant melanoma incidence and mortality4 hich had -een /nder.t o8 t/e release into t/e atmos.rovisions were tig/tened in 1((* and again in 1((2: .ro=lem is aggravated =% t/e 8a.ongratulate t/emselves. .reventive .o.ol3.nificant Yet ea. ln 7/e international treat% to . "ational Cancer Instit/te statistics sho mali. It as the concern that an eroded ozone layer ill allo more of the s/nBs dama.eed u.arties return to +ontreal 8or t/eir 2*t/ anniversar% meeting it s/ould =e .rote.+one e1.tions over t/e last several de. 7/e .oliti.e is naturall% 8ragile and allies .tem=er 1(: 2**&: Was/ington 7imes: .I Jo ever4 the same report noted that the stratospheric concentrations of the offendin.laim vi.lete 7/e -!one Ea%er 2+ontreal Proto.% anal%st at t/e Geritage 5oundation: Se./ reason to . !/t E)* concedes no statistically si.ort said? L Since 1##14 the linear Gdo n ardH trend o-served d/rin. Su. 7/e +ontreal Proto. !/t in retrospect4 the evidence sho s ozone depletion as an e0a.I -verall: t/e +ontreal Proto.olle.rease in ground level UM# radiation /as also 8ailed to materiali!e. off d/rin.onseBuen. "eedless to say4 if CL! hasnBt . So: o!one is 8ormed =% UM: destro%ed =% UM: and in t/e ./ is t/e .tuations in t/e glo=al o!one la%er.. Mirtuall% none /as .iall% 8or t/ose w/o /o.tivel% 0nown as t/e o!one la%er: s/ield t/e Eart/ 8rom e1.+one Im'acts are em'irically denied/ it5s all hy'e *ounded on *lawed evidence recorded in the E05s and the "05s Lie(erman 00 #en Eie=erman: a senior .e to re. -lind ra--itsM fisherman catch -lind go awa% D t/e% were never o. 7/ese inter8ere wit/ t/e o!one =alan.onte1t o8 glo=al warming. +ore im.lain t/e 8lu.olHs .ele=rateS Environmentalists /ave made man% a.ti.ol isnHt ma0ing t/ese =ad ./ere o8 . .reases t/e rate o8 o!one destru. .oin./ A 1((4 World +eteorologi.eL Da state in w/i. thro/.in.I In short4 the impact of ozone depletion on CL! over pop/lated re.ele=ration: es. 7/ese mole. the 1#20s has not contin/ed4 -/t rather total col/mn ozone has -een almost constant.sets it and in.ol .alled annuall%.urring in t/e 8irst .es 7/at De.ions4 ozone depletion has -een relatively small4 hence4 in many places4 increases in CL d/e to this depletion are diffic/lt to separate from the increases ca/sed -y other factors4 s/ch as chan.eL that4 than8s to the Antarctic ozone hole4 Ih/nters no report findin. the .ome to .ol -n Su=stan. 7/is is true even in Antar.res.a: w/ere t/e largest seasonal o!one losses: t/e soD.&6A=I.

8s.ontent seems not to /ave .ent 2#roe. Ar=ori./anged sin.0er 1(&*3./ Station F +oon Ei=rar%C Io=ert Goe/n: #iologi.%. Also: waters o8 t/e world are t/e main o1%gen generators o8 t/e =ios.3ygen No im'act to o3ygen4even i* every tree in the world was (urned o3ygen levels would remain high N. o1%gen would onl% dro.t Eeader: USDA 5orest Servi.8ed.l% is immense 2#roe.rodu./ Station F +oon Ei=rar%C Daniel E..onsumed =% all animals: =a.lo.ien.owa0: ProJe./ere’s volume is o1%gen3./ Station F +oon 'rane: In8ormation 7e.lants during ./ni.e: ./ere /as su. matter in soils were =urned: atmos.rodu.ort/ern Iesear. .ontent o8 t/e atmos.esses roug/l% =alan.?// =ut su88o.iration .e 1(1* 2S'EP 1(&*3.0er 1(($3./nolog% S.0er 1(&*C S'EP 1(&*3.0 o8 o1%gen is not one o8 t/em 2#roe.e .ialist USDA 5orest Servi./ an enormous reserve o8 o1%gen t/at even i8 all 8ossil 8uel reserves: all trees: and all Iesear.a 1(("3. 7/e o1%gen .ologi. =ene8it given t/e glo=al nature o8 o1%gen and t/e s/eer volume o8 o1%gen in t/e atmos. o1%gen ./ere 2a./ere.e.resent atmos.ologi.A -ur atmos.ian: USDA 5orest< et al 2000 2David 9.ant e..ed =% t/e o1%gen released =% land and sea .ro1imatel% 21X o8 t/e atmos.ulture \ Ur=an 5orestr%: +a%: /tt. .onstant wit/ t/e o1%gen .ause air is a=out 2* .er.e signi8i.d83 7/e reason t/e o1%gen .la.ant /as to do wit/ t/e large amount o8 o1%gen wit/in t/e atmos. 7/e ./ere remains essentiall% . 7/us: alt/oug/ ur=an trees do .e 7e./eri.e ^(*X o8 all o1%gen used 2En./ereC t/eir algae are estimated to . As stated =% +iller 21(&(3? @We /ave a large num=er o8 serious e./otos%nt/esis. 5urt/ermore: =e.aedia #ritanni.u=s/Jrnl/2**&/nrs<2**&<nowa0<**1.tion value o8 ur=an trees is insigni8i.ent o1%gen: t/e total su. a 8ew .e ./eri.ation 8rom S.teria: and res.ort/ern Iesear.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 1& #.ant amounts o8 o1%gen: it is not a signi8i.

ould .rostate .laiming an and a de.als .ts o=served in wild animals and /uman /ealt/ e88e.orts: LA .tive s%stem o8 t/ese animals.r% a slow .rine disru.reasing s.tors.ates w/o see0 to =an . Academic researchers can5t re'roduce the su''osed human health e**ects o* endocrine disru'tors. D_sseldor8 Institute o8 En!%me 7e.ounts: .an undermine t/e develo./%si./en G.ted e.iall% integrate: to 8end o88 disease and to re.line in male 8ertilit% 8ound t/at t/is is not so.losel% investigated t/e original .>/ave =e..rodu.ause a worldwide e.ations ./ildren.olle.e 8or a .rine disru.ment and a88e.aused =% endo. a88e.0nowledge t/at man% su=stan.rodu.e.t on t/e /uman endo.aused =% endo. .u=li.on.rodu. .an. D_sseldor8 Institute o8 En!%me t/at are a=le to inter8ere wit/ /ormone /ave an e88e. Sa8e: Pro8essor o8 Meterinar% P/%siolog% and P/arma.laims a=out /ealt/ e88e.ree. -8ten ./tml3 Endo.tive s%stems.rodu.ell.ts on t/e re./enol A 2#PA3: a .tor in male 8ertilit% 8ound t/at t/is is not so.tion in rats at doses 8ar lower t/an t/ose .idemi.ring: 'ol=ornHs =oo0 /ad an enormous and a o8 environmentalists and .an e1ert t/eir to1i.tors>or Hgender =endersH as t/e% are o8ten re8erred to =% t/e . 7/eo 'ol=orn: a resear.reithau't 2008 2Golger: P/D 8rom U.tors in t/e environment remained elusive In 8a. Alt/oug/ most s.orts: LA ./ers /ave so 8ar 8ailed to re.e and =e/aviour: and t/e endo.luding =reast and . /ealt/ advo..u=li.?//www.ates w/o warn t/at endo. Patri.erm .L Even 'ro'onents o* the theory that endocrine threatened human health have recanted their views.u=li.rease in =reast and .aused severe a=errations o8 t/e and ./emistr% and #io.e.rine: immune and re../nolog%: E+#Ie.losel% investigated t/e original 7/e media o=tained 8urt/er ammunition w/en 5red vom Saal and .les 8ail to des.ut it? L7/e /%.rostate .aused =% de. 8ear mounted: t/e eviden.ome t/e 8o.idemi.t: earl% o=servations on wild and la=orator% animals s/owed t/at some . t/ere is now a growing ./idism 2w/ere one or =ot/ a series o8 studies t/at .ause wit/out a diseaseL: F?1: /tt.rease in =reast and .e 8or a .0ed .a.ause t/e% .on8ounding 8a.0nowledged t/at Lt/e t/reat Vto /uman /ealt/W is minimal.erm .rine disru.t wit/ re.ers and male in8ertilit%.their evidence is Just 'anic and 'u(lic hysteria : .ia Gunt at 'ase Western Ieserve Universit% 2'leveland: -G: USA3 o=served t/at #PA .r%.e.e: one o8 t/e original aut/ors o8 t/e endo. In 8a.reithau't 2008 2Golger: P/D 8rom U.ould .lasti.u=li. Gowever: as .e.ause wit/out a diseaseL: F?1: /tt.oDwor0ers at t/e Universit% o8 +issouri 2'olum=ia: +-: USA3 s/owed t/at =is.adias 2de8ormation o8 t/e .ientists now a.inion and triggered intense media .als"***$ . o8 .ainted a =lea0 .om.L In 8a.ases 2Gunt et al: 2** 3.ment o8 t/e =rain: and intelligen.rostate .u=li. Gowever: as .ared to Ia. As Ste.ounds t/at are a=le to intera.tor /%./: man% o8 t/e original e'idemiological analyses were *lawed and la.onsumer goods industries.oisoning o8 t/eir .ates w/o de.ause wit/out a diseaseL: F?1: /tt.aused a=normal ./nolog%: E+#Ie.onsidered to =e sa8e 2. o8 disorders and diseases./tml3 In 1(($: 'ol=orn: toget/er wit/ s.tors /ave ./ard S/ 7/ese o=servations were a.erned a=out t/is slow .rine disru.agel et al: 1((&C vom Saal et al: 1(( too0 u./er 8or t/e World Wildli8e 5und: .ause t/eir intera. Endo.ell division in mouse oo.lining male 8ertilit%: and it was onl% a matter o8 time =e8ore t/e . t/ese ./ildrenHs a=ilit% to learn: to so.ts: in.i. .anied =% re.rine disru.idemi./emi.ame .olog% and o8 #io. LWe now 0now t/at this is a(solutely not true:L Sa8e said a=out /ealt/ advo.ound 8ound in man% .rine s%stem: more re.artment o8 t/e Interior? L./emi.arents =e.nature. o. /ealt/ advo.otentiall% wrea0 /avo..arti.rostate growt/ and de.ree.tion wit/ t/e /ormone s%stem .als .idemi. . 7/e term is a rat/er =road la=el 8or su=stan.s at 7e1as A\+ Universit% 2'ollege Station: 7`: USA3 .ien.ademi./el 'arsonHs Silent S.u=li.?//www..overage a=out t/e and de.u=li.rostate .s: .an.ts were eit/er e3aggerated or (ased on *lawed analysis o8 o=servations.iden./nolog%: E+#Ie.nature.tors or /ormonal .?//www.ular wit/ t/e oestrogen re.end 8rom t/e =od%3 and /%.ent anal%sis /as s/own t/at man% o8 t/e . to "*X o8 all .om. e88e.tors in t/e environment remained elusive.renatal and earl% develo.t our .ot/esis is o0a%: =ut we don9t even have a 'ro(lem .ording to on . Alt/oug/ industrial and a.tors .t a wide variet% o8 organs. wit/ . resear.laiming an in.iled t/ese o=servations into t/e =oo0 -ur Stolen 5uture and drew a straig/t line =etween t/e e88e.reasing in./emi.e vom SaalHs 8indings: /is wor0 /as =e.ts at a 2**1 meeting o8 t/e US De./ as #PA =e.t: a series o8 studies t/at .ture o8 t/eir e88e. A.orts: LA .SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 14 #$esticides @Endocrine disru'tors: No im'act to endocrine disru'"***$ ./allus3. 8ear mounted: t/e eviden.reithau't 2008 2Golger: P/D 8rom ..ules: in . .om/em=or/Journal/vF/n1/8ull/&"***$ .ommonl% used .ern: =e.ts at e1tremel% low doses.tion o8 studies revealing t/at some o8 t/ese ./tml3 Ii.oisoning o8 /umans and t/e environment =% t/e .eL 2'ol=orn: 2** in t/e .. D_sseldor8 Institute o8 En!%me 7e.tor: e1ert and de. t/e issue and .aused serious .os.ations .ot/esis: also a.rine disru.reased s.reasing male 8ertilit% .e writers Dianne Dumanos0i and 9o/n Peterson +%ers: .%tes in u.ome t/e main argument 8or ./emi.e o8 =reast and .orts on t/e in.

SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 1( .

Indeed: t/ere is no logi.o.o.e/3 Per/a.ra=meat 8rom 'anada: and an.N "2 29ulian: Io=ert G.?// /urt us.e II? /tt.ause Al!/eimerHs disease.ollutions t/at were most dangerous to li8e and /ealt/ D .ollution oug/t to in8luen.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 2* #$ollution Ignore their 'ollution arguments4*ear o* 'ollutant ris%s would Justi*y wi'ing out all o* humanity and 'er*ect sa*ety is im'ossi(le IM.ta=le e1tent .t Dire.ult%/Jsimon/Ultimate<Iesour./e will onl% =e 0nown in t/e 8uture : wit/ /indsig/t. And t/is .us/ing it to its a=surd end./us: and t/e li0e D lesser .ta=le to all e1.umd.ossi=ilit% t/at a totall% new 8orm o8 .ult%/Jsimon/Ultimate< 8or us to Indeed: nowada%s was/ing dis/es ./oid: t%. #ut in 7/is e.ollutant `: .ares3.N "2 29ulian: Io=ert malaria: tu=er. In 1((2 alarm was raised over .e/3 Peo.l% t/e in.ent trendsS Is our environment getting dirtier or . Smit/ S.ulating 8as/ion .ossi=ilit% SL 7/is Buestion is related to t/e issue o8 ris0 aversion dis.N "2 29ulian: Io=ert G.?//www.ollutants. mindDset stands in t/e wa% o8 rational .ossi=ilit% o8 some e1.e in Buestion is a natural one: and /as alwa%s =een t/ As we /ave . Anot/er relevant analog% is t/at .r/smit/.ulation si!e and growt/.annot re8ute t/e .ment toda% t/at allows %ou to 8ind a w/ole lot o8 nast% t/ings in t/e 8ood we eatL.leanerS S/i8ts in t/e .ommenting on t/is issue: L7/ere is eBui.onomi.ossi=le D and .ed te./a./ool o8 #usiness: Universit% o8 +ar%land: 7/e Ultimate Iesour.S.e/3 W/at a=out more "2 29ulian: Io=ert G.le: +aterials: and Environment: /tt.e II? Peo.iet% t/ere is alwa%s t/e ./e to !ero =% redu. =om=s or 8rom some un0nown =ut .ool and .e.e. =he environment is getting cleaner4'ollution only loo%s (ad (ecause our standards are higher IM.atastro.ulation growt/ i8 t/e issue were sim.ew England Distri. And some new . Smit/ S.onBuered t/e mi.lague: small.e.umd. 7/e su=stan. t/in0ing t/e ideal amount o8 ./ would not =e meaning8ul.ate t/e dis.erned 8rom t/e to dis.reased 8rom t/e time o8 t/e #la.ower8ul .ing to !ero t/e num=er o8 .le: +aterials: and Environment: /tt. 7o state t/e . #ut would it not =e . It mig/t ma0e sense to .ulation is a small one. 7/is does not is not !ero./ words as L.erson mig/t sa%: LWit/ regard to .oli.ans now worr% a=out D su=stan.a.ulosis: .e.ulation growt/: and i8 onl% t/e num=er o8 deat/s mattered: rat/er t/an t/e num=er o8 /ealt/% lives lived.ollutions /ave .ome to t/e 8ore: along wit/ im.tor o8 t/e 5ood and Drug Administration said w/en .l% t/at t/ese su=stan./ni.leanness is un/ealt/%. $ollution is overhy'ed4instinctive aversion to waste has 'revented rational assessments IM. Alar was a notorious 8alse alarm: as was DD7 2dis. We are onl% aware o8 it =e.ollution is li0e sinC none is t/e ideal amount.e our views a=out .ed =% a larger .es o8 .r/smit/. A 8law in t/is line o8 reasoning is revealed: /owever: =% .ersons w/o are alive.ersuade t/e Simon 0ids t/at we s/ould sim. Smit/ S.s t/ere is an instin./nologi.t a 8ew.ollution .tion o8 . #ut t/e .L No im'act to solid waste4land*ills solve .ern t/e . rea.atastro.ussed in .rudent to avoid even t/is small . It ma% =e t/at t/is to learn /ow .al .ollution.e/3 A sa8et%Dminded .id t/at mig/t .ollution in a .ades D 8rom atomi.umd.t . 7/ere8ore we must dig dee. L7/e U.ussed in t/e se./olera: t%.resent ris0 o8 .leHs attention .reased ris0 o8 .?//www. 7/e arguments in Part I a=out nonD8inite natural resour.urit% is not . Ievulsion to ma0es it di88i.leanliness o8 our environment..e t/e ris0 o8 .ter 14 on 8alse environmental s./e due to ./a. disease: t/oug/ we L8eelL t/at un.osedl% ..ause: as t/e .eo. Smit/ S.tion to wastes e1.e II? 8or an%t/ing we do not li0e.ontain an toleran.rease in re.rovements in te.t se.ult%/Jsimon/Ultimate< to t/e redu.t to note t/at li8e wit/ .es .tive est/eti.le: +aterials: and Environment: /tt.rement is seen in t/e use o8 answer to t/is t/reat do an%t/ing a=out 7/oug/ t/e in.l% dilute t/e dirt to an a.roorganism .rovement in t/e ./ovies 8rom 'ali8ornia: w/i../ool o8 #usiness: Universit% o8 +ar%land: 7/e Ultimate Iesour.r/smit/.oint? -ne ma% redu.e /as de.e./oi.tion on nu.leanliness o8 t/e environment ma% =e dis.le: +aterials: and Environment: 7/e e1traordinar% im.r/smit/.ter 1 .o.s t/e additional ris0 t/at is o8 so little /arm t/at it is not even 0nown w/et/er t/e% are /arm8ul at all.ollutants t/at Ameri.ollution .al so.t as t/ere seems to =e to sna0es or =lood ./ool o8 #usiness: Universit% o8 +ar%land: 7/e Ultimate Iesour./ool o8 #usiness: Universit% o8 +ar%land: 7/e Ultimate Iesour.0 Deat/ onwards: and t/oug/ IHd =et t/at it is not so: t/e ris0 ma% /ave =egun to in.e o8 .e on t/e .lear energ% in .inogens t/an it was to .ertains mainl% to est/eti.ult%/Jsimon/Ultimate<Iesour.ollutions t/at attra.ollutions /ave arisen.ollution will emerge and 8inis/ us all =e8ore we .e II? Peo. /as a !ero .e o8 general . No im'act to 'ollution4we 'anic over nothing IM.o.% o=viousl% is una.s rat/er t/an t/in0 a=out .ontrol .ussion o8 trends in t/e .umd. It is no easier to wean environmentalists 8rom t/e ideal o8 no radiation and no tra.iden.?// in its most 8rig/tening 8orm? In an advan.losive un0nown disaster./es to t/e /uman ra.

/ose t/e .rodu./a=eti.oal as/.ond ./ool o8 #usiness: Universit% o8 +ar%land: 7/e Ultimate Iesour. I .F million sBuare miles o8 U.ult%/Jsimon/Ultimate<Iesour.umd.e as long as t/e time sin.all%. is a=out "*:*** times larger t/an t/e reBuired s.eriod o8 a /undred %ears =e. . or .S.onverting t/e wastes into smaller volumes and .ientists to develo. wa%s o8 . I8 ea.a.e we got rid o8 /ouse/old . Smit/ S. territor%.tion would /alve t/e s.ommer.entur%Hs entire waste.ause t/at is am. 'om.S.iled 1** %ards /ig/ D less t/an t/e /eig/t o8 t/e land8ill on Staten Island wit/in t/e =oundaries o8 .ew Yor0 'it% D t/e out.e 8or t/e waste.ut 8or t/e entire 21st ./a=eti.le: +aterials: and Environment: / list: and a =it more t/an t/e area o8 A0ron: -/io: t/e se.e II? Peo.S. .entur% would reBuire a sBuare land8ill onl% ( miles on a side.r/smit/.a. 'om. 7/e area o8 t/e U.ts o8 al.ting and .a.e/3 F. solid waste were .ut in a land8ill dug 1** %ards dee.ine miles sBuare is a =it less t/an t/e area o8 A=ilene: 7e1as: t/e 8irst .it% in t/e al. I8 all t/e U.are t/is 41 sBuare miles to t/e .SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 21 IM.e reBuired./ state /ad its own land8ill: t/e average state would reBuire onl% a=out 1.N "2 29ulian: Io=ert sBuare miles to /andle its ne1t .le time 8or s.ial value D twi.

/loro8luoro.ould redu.atara./%to./ere =e./eri.reasing t/eir %ield.otentiall% li8eDt/reatening D/en.montgomer%.tion is . .an lead to more .enalties.NMEN=AL $1.reased UMD= .N 2000 2+ontgomer% 'ount% +D DEP: @Kround Eevel -!one:A August 1 : /tt.=E6=I.reated and destro%ed at eBual rates Dw/ rea.ome damaged: de./ain .s t/e o!one la%er in =eing.E$A1=MEN= .reases t/e rate o8 o!one destru.ess it ./ere 8or a long time . 7/ese inter8ere wit/ t/e o!one .ro. So: o!one is 8ormed =% UM: destro%ed =% UM: and in t/e ./ as .e t/e 1(4*s: a=out t/e e88e./ o!one is =eing .ean: also is a88e.letion o8 t/is dio1ide in t/e atmos.lan0ton : a .s: w/eat and so%=eans: ma% =e. De. P/ in.eed u.s: +an% o8 our essential . t/e =rea0down o8 o!one .om.lan0ton a=sor=s .rease t/e level o8 .tion: t/ere would =e little li8e on Eart/.sets it and in.onditioners./emi./ 0ee.l.&6A=I.estroys 'hyto'lan%ton .rote.lant in t/e o.?//www. .ts us 8rom UM.rote.t o8 t/e release into t/e atmos.romoting .le1 ./ased out: t/e% will remain in t/e atmos.+one de'letion inevita(le =IME E./aB/o!one./ as t/ose used in aerosols: re8rigerators and air is aggravated =% t/e 8a.t t/at '5's were used 8or man% %ears in t/e =elie8 t/at t/e% were inert: wit/ no environmental . o!one la%er is t/at s.7 ENKI1.ases o8 s0in .: .ause .NAL &$$LEMEN= !)!2)2008 Wit/out t/is ./ere o8 .e =% .e.orn: =arle%: /o.tuating: and an%t/ing t/at u.ts: and dio1ide in t/eir 8ood and energ% ma0ing .ro. W/at t/is means is t/at t/ere is an Lo!one =alan.3 As t/e stratos.ontent/de.ortant lin0 in t/e marine 8ood .ar=ons 2'5's3: su.e t/e worr%: sin.ount%md.SurlU/./ t/e eart/’s sur8a. 7/eir ver% sta=ilit%: /owever: means t/at even a8ter t/e% /ave =een . 7/e =alan.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 22 #$hyto'lan%ton It5s inevita(le A: .ted.e t/e num=er o8 8is/ in t/e o.eL Da state in w/i.e is naturall% 8ragile and 8lu. 7/e .aired immune s%stems. It also .leted: /ig/er UMD= levels rea.

SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 2 .

At .enses: w/i. Earmin.e must =e.uipment actually use it.uestion whether those with the e. Lleading$the$newsLwhat$to$do$about$global$warming$hint$$it$isnt$cap$and$trade$policy$!""I$"/$!3.% arena: o. on climate chan.e<te. Even for the ones with 9! scrubbers. Ge =elieves t/at t/ere are a num=er o8 .reative wor0s.0 asso.t/ee. Ei./ as t/e K. s/lf/r dio0ide o/t of smo8estac8s for more than 20 years -eca/se it+s a real poll/tant4 -/t China still ref/ses .enses 2su. Some say if America 1/st sets the e0ample4 every-ody else ill follo .ti./otos and ot/er .tual .rease in met/ane levels Dt/e 8irst in. :e also heard that decisions in China a-o/t here and hat 8ind of po er plants to -/ild are decentralized4 effectively /ncontrolled4 and we learned that less than ' percent of China+s coal$fired electricity plants are even fitted ith ordinary s/lf/r dio0ide control for<investigations/"&&42 /. America has -een scr/ th.r 1*: /tt.ular a'reative 'ommons’ set o8 li. 5+T Team AsksF +s *lobal :arming Part of a 7atural 6ycleM.ologist. environmental policies chase companies out of America. J:hat To Ao About *lobal :arming '<int +t +sn’t 6ap And Trade Policy(K.U Pu=li.urrent situation.e. co/ntries al ays s ap clean air for economic .ialist in t/e intelle.le t/roug/ and rea.html A team o8 +I7 s. 7/e 8eed=a.?//www./ere to .%. @arton is ranking member of the <ouse Energy and 6ommerce 6ommittee. 6hina’s coal production.e /ardware initiatives 2su.rogramme .t 8rom t/e .iated wit/ water va.atural /a!ards and disasters #% Donald G%ndman: David W.ood$e0ample strate.rimar% sour./ as -./ere. %evelopin.rease in green/ouse gas.<us<solve<.H 7o move t/e de=ate 8orward in t/e . G%ndman A Koogle#oo0s.e !arton = 'Bep.ts t/eories stating /umans are t/e . 'httpFLLthehill. !/t a real poll/tant4 s/lf/r dio0ide4 is a fine indicator of ho .ense3 =orrowed 8rom t/e world o8 so8tware.resent: t/e more mature o.en sour. Some e1isting /ardware initiatives are using t/e .ores3 are largel% 8o.dailygala-y. &oe @arton. and the Chinese add a #""$ megawatt coal$fired po erplant every ee8. April !3 !""I.s t/at . 2A %evelopin. is a nat/ral cycle Kazan # 6asey. W/at =a88les t/e team is t/at t/is data .ome a legall% de8ina=le term./ are o8ten used 8or so8tware: =ut are also used e1tensivel% 8or writing: .ar=on . D. httpFLLwww.y doesn+t or8 at all. is as e-plosive as its economic growth.orded a nearl% simultaneous worldDwide in.ould<o. It ta0es a=out one 8ull %ear 8or gases generated in t/e /ig/l% industrial nort/ern /emis.rease in ten %ears.ra.en sour. Ge’s a s.comLmyNweblogL!""2L"%Lis$global$warming$part$of$earths$natural$cycle$mit$team$says$yes. Warming o* the atmos'here causes more eva'oration *rom the oceans/ increasing the water va'or content in the atmos'here and there(y causing still more glo(al warming – an un*ortunate *eed(ac% e**ect. Iiven the large num(er o* 'ro'rietary com'onents that o*ten ma%e u' a technology/ it5s *ar *rom clear whether it would (e *easi(le to sim'ly a''ly a 6reative 6ommons license across the (oard *or low car(on technologies .ontradi..S.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 2" #####Warming 7rontline !A massive structural (arriers to international law that (loc% sharing innovations Andrews !0 – =e ta0en to im. 9=here is a need *or nations to develo' an am(itious technology *ramewor% in the &N7666 which can deliver solutions *or a glo(alised world :H /e sa%s./ ste.alled HS%stems 8or '/angeH.ert% issues surrounding low . the global environment doesn’t prosper.e o8 in./nologies</el.rove t/e . nations ill not model the te./tml S/ane 7omlinson wor0s 8or t/in0Dtan0 E K: leading a .en<sour.or is t/oug/t to roug/l% dou=le t/e warming e88e.used on digital te. it’s an open ./nolog% trans8er.o.ientists re.limate<. .html( The irony is that when . 9=his should *ocus on agreeing a new international technology mechanism in 6ancunO Huadru'ling 'u(lic research and develo'ment su''ort (y 2020O and resolving di**erences on I$1 in a 'ragmatic manner that rea**irms the *le3i(ilities already availa(le in international law and agrees to (oth 'rotect and share innovations./ t/e sout/ern /emis.en./ipment./nologies: wit/ li. The Aaily *ala-y.e all worldwide levels rose simultaneousl% t/roug/out t/e same %ear: /owever: it is 'ro(a(le that this may (e 'art o* a natural cycle ) and not the direct result o* man9s contri(utionsA 8A We5re too *ar gone ?yndman E .

ri.ted o=servations.luding t/at climate scientists colluded to withhold scienti*ic evidence and mani'ulated data to ma%e the case *or glo(al warming a''ear stronger than it is .ated in areas not listed in t/e Gadle% 'limate Ii./ Unit 2'IU3 at t/e Universit% o8 East Anglia 2UEA3 in .0dro. It would a88e.entur% and t/e earl% 21st .ial .er8e./.en/agen 2'-P1F3 dis.edures /ave =een used 8rom ot/er national data glo=al warming in its tra.reventative measures to . 5east %our e%es on t/is news release 8rom Iionovosta: via t/e Iia . Iesear.overing a=out twoDt/irds o8 t/e Eart/’s sur8a.eling'ole 50" V9ames: 7elegra.uss wa%s o8 .ts: and more t/an twi.0s.luding 8inan./ere enoug/ to =egin .ess: rat/er t/an stations 8a.onsensus .an’t easil% .oint. 'limategate /as alread% a88e. Klo=alDtem./ard .ooler./ stations in its re.ostl% .luded in glo=alD tem.ool t/e atmos. 7/e IEA said it was ne.tuall% 8a. o8 t/e a=ortive U.e. 7/e Gad'IU7 data=ase in.redi.entl% .limate data.erature data will /ave to =e modi8ied i8 similar .t – are not as (ad as Iore would have us (elieve.i8i.ovem=er 2**( 'limati. I8 we a.limate models .n the whole/ climatologists use the incom'lete *indings o* meteorological stations *ar more o*ten than those 'roviding com'lete o(servations .antl% .eans are su.ivili!ation as we Even the worst)case scenarios 'ro'osed (y mainstream climate scientists – s./%si.ovosti agen./ Unit 7em./.e: as Al Kore re.ed =% t/e ur=anDwarming .. .. As Ii.ol t/at aimed to ./ e1aggeration.ed t/is =om=s/ell Just as t/e world’s leaders are gat/ering in 'o.ontinues against t/e =a.ort .ated in large .ulatedDdataDtoDe1aggerateDglo=alDwarming/W 6limategate Just got mu.ulate all glo=alDtem.ole/1***2*12$/. stations .t data o8 remote stations./ (igger. In ot/er words: the 'rice o* unchec%ed glo(al warming ma% =e /ig/: =ut it is not in*inite.rote.ludes s.ations’ Intergovernmental Panel on 'limate '/ange e1./ writer: 12D1$: L'limategate goes SEIIAE:L 7elegra.telegra.ale o8 su.ort/ sa%s? 7/is is serial./ard .ation o8 1F million: and stations and o=servations.over most o8 t/e .limateDdate .om=at glo=al warming.%: .es as @'limategate:A . Warming o* the oceans is a trend that cannot easily (e reversed warm o.lom=org.ossi=le – would not deluge all or even most o* man%ind.eans .a% to Un0nown .le: 8or.rote.all% .o.$.eans.0 o8 meteorologi.uments dealing wit/ t/e glo=alDwarming issue made over t/e .ident: re8erred to =% some sour./ a /uge /eat sin0: .ulations: are =ased on Gad'IU7 resear./X2*12X2*'ars: X2*#om=s:X2*''.ar=onDta1ing us all =a.ould =e .orre.ulations 8or some ot/er reasons: rat/er t/an t/e t/e relo.l% .essar% to stations use t/e data o8 stations lo.e in E1eter 2Devon: England3 /ad .al .en/agen to dis.ooling t/e o.erature data in order to assess t/e s.DedX2*2*1*X2*+ar. 7/e in.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 2F dio1ide 'onsensus 'enter: /1(: @'ars: #om=s: and 'limate '/ange:A /tt.ilitating uninterru.alamit% reBuiring largeDs.u0/news/Jamesdeling.ooled onl% i8 t/e atmos.0 to t/e dar0 ages.t more 8reBuentl% t/an t/e .erature . IEA anal%sts sa% .onomi.o./: mu.tion o8 t/e rest.e.on8irmDt/atDu0D. W/at t/e Iussians are suggesting /ere: in ot/er words: is t/at the entire glo(al tem'erature record used (y the I$66 to in*orm world government 'olicy is a croc%.le: a sea)level rise o* *ive meters – more t/an eig/t times w/at t/e United . #ut it would certainly not mean the end o* the worldA Estimates show that the cost in terms o* ada'tation would (e less than !P o* glo(al I. Iesear.t a=out "** million ./: East England.e t/e 1((& Q%oto Proto.ered wit/ IussianD.e w/at is . 7/e IEA =elieves t/at 1ussian meteorological)station data did not su(stantiate the anthro'ogenic glo(al)warming theory. 2Gat 7i.e in 'o./ere a=ove t/em were signi8i.osted on I.0ing in.ourse o8 1 %ears.e. Anal%sts sa% Iussian meteorologi.?//=logs..owD=ased Institute o8 E. #ut are t/e sta0es reall% t/at /ig/S 7/e answer is no.lete data and /ig/lig/ting t/e glo=alDwarming .laiming t/at t/e Gadle% 'enter 8or 'limate '/ange =ased at t/e /eadBuarters o8 t/e #ritis/ t/at go 8ar =e%ond w/at t/e .erature UQ 2Gad'IU73 surve% o8ten does not s/ow an% su=stantial warming in t/e late 2*t/ .orwi. Un8ortunatel%: t/e o. And all t/an0s to t/e Iussians w/o: wit/ .t timing: dro.ale: .ussing alternative agreements to re.limateDs.ussion o8 t/e .2 emissions/ atmos'heric amounts would not level o** *or a(out 200 years / and tem'eratures would continue to increase *or another 200 yearsA Even with no *urther manmade emissions/ it would ta%e hundreds to thousands o* years to cool our environment to levels o* a century agoA >A ?umans can ada't Lom(erg 5!0 V#Jorn: /ead o8 t/e 'o.roviding in..ted Iussia.orts.eo. 0now it:A t/en no .ountr%’s territor%: and t/at t/e Gadle% 'enter /ad used data su=mitted =% onl% 2FX o8 su. -8 . -ver "*X o8 Iussian territor% was not in.limategateDgoesDserialDnowDt/eDrussiansD . Even with reduction in manmade 6./: /tt.angerous Warming ) 6limategate and 1ussian data 'rove .ro.d8W 7/e% /ave a . We .om/d%n/8iles/news<news/14$D8ile/#EX2*o.ourse: su. 2A No .e would =e too /ig/ to . Anal%sis 2IEA3 issued a re.ulated .ort/3 A dis. 7/e data o8 stations lo. 'limate 'on8eren.?//www. 5or e1am./ a rise would not =e a trivial .ut it: @an unimagina=le .ulations used =% '-P1F anal%sts: in.ause t/e .enters t/at are in8luen.ersons stole and anon%mousl% disseminated t/ousands o8 eDmails and ot/er do.reases alone. =he scale o* glo(al warming was e3aggerated due to tem'erature distortions *or 1ussia accounting *or !2A>P o* the world5s land mass .a.ident involved an eDmail server used =% t/e 'limati.ientistsDmani. -n 7uesda%: t/e +os. 'ontrovers% arose a8ter various allegations were made tam./ Unit eDmail /a.t /uman .

t/ee. #ut on a ma.roJe./tml It’s ver% eas% to get =ogged down in t/e details o8 s.limate<.on.arti.erns.i8i.ould<o.ts: or . Indeed: some ma% de8ine the whole &N 'rocess as a huge (og o* details and t/ere are 8ew .r 1*: /tt. And aside 8rom ./nologies</< level: reducing the (arriers to technology develo'ment and ado'tion is vital to ena(ling car(on reductionA .tion: on a more /uman level it could also unloc% *orces o* individual and community em'owerment currently lac%ing in the climate change de(ateA .oli./ing t/e num=ers o8 .<us<solve<.e< 8rom law%ers w/o get e1./ange.e.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 2$ E3t Q! – can5t solve innovation sharing E3tend our Andrews evidence – it5s one o* their !A6 authors/ and it indicates that there are structural (arriers in international legal codes that ma%e the dissemination o* new technologies – s'eci*ically those related to climate change – nearly im'ossi(leA Also *rom your !A6 author – licensing changes %ey – you can5t access innovation sharing Andrews !0 – VA.% .ologist. .org/trial<investigations/"&&42 /.ular .?//www.le redu.'en source 'rinci'les could hold the %ey.ited a(out s'eci*ic licensing arrangements.

oal of th. o/r orst e0pectations4 and that means the . &oe @arton. outh Asia coordinator of Aams.reenho/se . which looks closely at climate change issues and which recently highlighted the contribution of IndiaBs lar.h /p the -/l8 of the costs for reversin.oal of sta-ilizin. 'The protocol was never ratified in the ..6 an Aiego professor of economics. :e also heard that decisions in China a-o/t here and hat 8ind of po er plants to .6 @erkeley assistant professor of agricultural and resource economics. environmental policies chase companies out of America.reement is now even more important. s the world>s fifth largest emitter of greenhouse gases '*<*( and one of its fastest growing economies.reenho/se . on :orld Environment Aay $$ senior officials made it clear that "e %elhi stic8s to its stand that it is the developed orld hich ca/sed climate chan..nited tates to cut its emissions.( Put another way. No modeling *or warming !arton = 'Bep. inghsaidF C%/e care m/st -e ta8en not to allo .e dams to releases of methane4 a potent . according to a new analysis by economists at the . meeting smelling of roses.comL!"". ma8in. the authors say current global warming forecasts are Joverly optimistic. @erkeley.. the global environment doesn’t prosper. caps. April !3 !""I. inghaddedF C.C:ith such a stonewalling and negative approach.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 2& E3t Q2 – no one will model E3tend our .greencarcongress. which was the largest single emitter of carbon dio-ide until !""%. atmospheric C*2 is impossi-le (CC 2 5ar 11 $. much harder to achieve. &his .ly resist le.reenho/se . The researchers’ most conservative forecast predicts that by !"1". The authors of the study. The new . +ndia won>t emerge from the *$.C says <imanshu Thakkar. atmospheric . 'httpFLLwww.niversity of 6alifornia. the pro1ected ann/al increase in China alone over the ne0t several years is . atmospheric C*2 is . :hat we’re finding instead is that the emissions .ral part of any f/t/re climate a. @ased upon these findings.h its ind/strial activitiesM the on/s to reverse the dama.# to #P annual increase in 69! emissions. Previous estimates. +t had been e-pected that the efficiency of 6hina’s power generation would continue to improve as per capita income increased. his is shorthand for demanding that the ind/strialized co/ntries co/. co/ntries. the largest contributor to atmospheric greenhouse gases.C his means +ndia will demand special concessions for the developing countries like patent$free technology transfer in respect of Cclean energyC.K and that action is /r. slowing down the rate of 69! emissions growth.e thro/.6 analysis puts that annual growth rate for 6hina to at least 11P for the same time period.ed -y all the developed co/ntries in the 8yoto th from China alone o/ld overshado the 116 million metric tons of car-on emissions red/ctions pled. J:hat To Ao About *lobal :arming '<int +t +sn’t 6ap And Trade Policy(K. previo/s China+s C*2 emissions means sta-ilizin. including venture capital funding.ases m/ch more diffic/lt . them4 and stron. and Bichard prod/ction in China and other rapidly ind/strializin.more and not less development is the best way for developing countries to address themselves to the issue of preserving the environment and protecting the climate. Auffhammer said this paper sho/ld serve as an alarm challen. . Bivers and People. 'httpFLLthehill. and .e.roo%ings Institute ) he indicates that 6hina/ India/ and the develo'ing world dwar* the & in car(on emissionA 7urthermore/ none o* them will get on (oard with cutting emmissions – they all care too much a(out develo'ment to sto' 'ollutingA India ill not c/t emissions hich ill h/rt its development &ransnational Instit/te = 3/ne = 'A worldwide fellowship of committed scholar$activists. !/t India ill th and development prospects in the developin.phtmlMactNidO1%2/2( ET +ndia is likely to cut a sorry figure on climate change issues during and after the *. atmospheric concentrations of car-on dio0ide .oal of sta-ilizin. 'httpFLLwww.oin. for e-ample. based their findings upon pollution data from 6hina’s 3" provincial entities. climate chan.tni. )a8in. and the Chinese add a #""$ megawatt coal$fired po erplant every ee8. China and other Lleading$the$newsLwhat$to$do$about$global$warming$hint$$it$isnt$cap$and$trade$policy$!""I$"/$!3.. @arton is ranking member of the <ouse Energy and 6ommerce 6ommittee. between !""/ and !"1". according to numerous reports.html( ET The .orgLdetailNpage. to -e m/ch.nion and the . summit at <eiligendamm in *ermany.y to ards the .6 an Aiego.reater than the c/rrent emissions prod/ced -y either (reat !ritain or (ermany .in. to make a transition towards reduced greenhouse gas emissions. co/ntries al ays s ap clean air for economic .ally th rate is s/rpassin. when 6hina took over that distinction. and financial assistance. The study is scheduled for print publication in the 5ay issue of the &ournal of Environmental Economics and 5anagement. 5a-imillian Auffhammer.e lies on the developed co/ntries . there will be an increase of %"" million metric tons of carbon emissions in 6hina over the country’s levels in !""". %evelopin. the idely held -elief that actions ta8en -y the ealthy4 ind/strialized nations alone represent a via-le strate. the th in China+s car-on dio0ide emissions is far o/tpacin. +ndia will come under intense pressure both from the European . is as e-plosive as its economic growth. .ently needed to c/r. including those used by the +ntergovernmental Panel on 6limate 6hange.html( The irony is that when .nited tates. 6hina’s coal production. . but is now online. t press briefings on the eve of Prime 5inister 5anmohan ingh>s visit to *ermany $$ironically.. say the region that includes 6hina will see a !.C ingh emphasi4ed the Cprinciple of common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities between the developed and developing worldC.arton evidence – he5s a senior *ellow at the .L"3Lnew$analysis$co. orld to -e /ndermined or constrained.edly ref/se to ma8e any time$-o/nd commitment to red/cin. co/ntries an inte.

America has -een scr/--in. . Even for the ones with 9! scrubbers.uipment actually use it.ood$e0ample strate./ipment. Some say if America 1/st sets the e0ample4 every-ody else ill follo .SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 24 -/ild are decentralized4 effectively /ncontrolled4 and we learned that less than ' percent of China+s coal$fired electricity plants are even fitted ith ordinary s/lf/r dio0ide control e. s/lf/r dio0ide o/t of smo8estac8s for more than 20 years -eca/se it+s a real poll/tant4 -/t China still ref/ses .y doesn+t or8 at all.uestion whether those with the e. it’s an open . !/t a real poll/tant4 s/lf/r dio0ide4 is a fine indicator of ho .

.comLmyNweblogL!""2L"%Lis$global$warming$part$of$earths$natural$cycle$mit$team$says$yes.i.dailygala-y.le o8 warmer and .ien.e is onl% =eginning to get a 8o.urring 8or /undreds o8 t/ousands o8 on t/e =ig .older times D one t/atHs =een o=served t/roug/ a s.ting t/ings at Lalarming rates.t is a88e.rimar% .l% =e going t/roug/ anot/er natural .ted data in 2**& re8le.ern now is t/at w/ile t/e .on.rease in emissions: /ow relevant are an% o8 t/e data 8indings at t/is late dateS -ne t/ing does seem ver% . 5indings li0e t/ese tell us itHs too earl% to 0now 8or sure i8 manHs im.olle. The Aaily *ala-y. 5+T Team AsksF +s *lobal :arming Part of a 7atural 6ycleM.ienti8i.ture o8 glo=al warming . anal%sis o8 t/e Eart/ to =e naturall% o.ts a simultaneous worldDwide in.%.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 2( E3t QD – Warming is natural cycle E3tend Q D – Warming is a natural cycle – the <a+an evidence cites a study done (y MI= scientists who discovered a simultaneous increase in gasses glo(ally – this dis'roves the notion that increases in greenhouse gasses are manmadeA 7urthermore/ multi'le data sets 'rove our argument is true Kazan # 6asey.L We ma% sim.html 7/e . httpFLLwww.a.lear: /oweverC s..

/ange is true.-AA3 scientists sta8e the claim that even if it ere possi-le to stop all poll/tants from enterin./eri.s alread% a 8ew tent/s o8 a degree a=ove t/e Golo.ational -. here is thatBs not ri. 6eople have*11/*2/1&/ret/in0ingDaDsa8eD.lo-al emission rates ere c/t to zero today4 it o/ld still -e h/ndreds of tho/sands of years -efore armin.a.limatesos.tion that a choice can always (e made to Huic%ly reduce emissions and 5ig. "o c/shion left to i... Pu=lis/ed in Pro.e s/eets.ade or so: .F degrees a=ove t/e . 7/e notion t/at 1.eani.ti.e will =e totall% lost in summer wit/ a 8ew %ears to a de.oint alread%.olar 8eed=a.ined that if e stopped emittin.reDindustrial tem.limate ..rattDonDt/eD latestD/ansenDetDsatoD. -attle – this evidence indicates that even if .. It is widel% e1.lit as to w/et/er it is .ASA .ording to Solomon.ratt on t/e Eatest Gansen et Sato Pa./ange due to .ene ma1imum: and t/e s%stem seems to =e in t/e earl% stages o8 .us/ionA le8t to avoid dangerous .ing .limateD/aveDweDalread%DgoneDtooD8arDdavidDs.ast its ti.a. Ehat eBre sho to moderate additional warming.?//www.?//www.limate ./ange @] even small glo=al warming a=ove t/e level o8 t/e Golo.limate: and t/at we have already gone too *ar.ortionate warming on t/e Antar.ene ma1imum 2o8 around *.limateA? /ave we alread% gone too 8arS David S. .id 'ratt !! David: Iet/in0ing a @sa8e ..nas.ational A.-AA s./ange./ange due to .ontent/earl%/2**(/*1/24/*412&211*$. car-on dio0ide that the climate o/ld .limate ./ie8 9ames Gansen sa%s? At .eratures: no @Eart/ toda% is .li8%ing .ti.limateD/aveDweDalread%DgoneDtooD8arDdavidDs.9 *ceans are c/rrently a-sor-in. wit/ little or no summer seaDi.limatesos. and Atmos.anada..erien.ientists t/in0 Kreenland would =e sta=le in an Ar.e: and o.inion is to t/rn the tide in the armin.A We5re to *ar gone – sea level changes 'rove we5re already in ra'id *eed(ac% warming 'ratt !! David: Iet/in0ing a @sa8e .em=er1$: @Irreversi=le . dio1ide emissionsA: /tt.eedings o8 t/e .ien.tW It is sometimes imagined that slow 'rocesses such as climate changes 'ose small ris%s/ on the (asis o8 t/e assum. – e+re too far .er/ It is /ard to argue t/at an%t/ing a=ove t/e Golo. /tt.nas. seaDi.ted Ar. &hat process ill last for h/ndreds of years a.aint a =lea0 outloo0 8or t/e 8uture i8 manmade . .F' is a sa8e target is out t/e window: and even 1 degree loo0s li0e an una.on5t (uy their try or die claims) warming is irreversi(le and we can5t contain it oloman et al 50E VSusan: . Mer% 8ew s. effects of some poll/tants s/ch as methane and nitro/s o0ide can -e reversed in the short term4 that isn+t the case ith car-on dio0ide @C*2?.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment * E3t Q8 – =oo *ar gone F0tend the Jyndman evidence – e+re too far =egins to generate a dis. Administration 2.limate .limateA? /ave we alread% gone too 8arS David S.ientist: De. &he a/thors say that C*2 emissions are set to 7irreversi-ly*11/*2/1&/ret/in0ingDaDsa8eD.s at less t/an 1' or warming.a=stra.oin.ientist: De.adem% o8 S.o -ac8 to normal in 100 years or 200 years.em=er 1$: @Irreversi=le .ti. Stud% aut/or Susan Solomon and /er .0s in res. ItBs essentially an irreversi-le chan.e that ill last for more than a tho/sand years . ".e the planet9 and there is 7no . / dio1ide emissionsA: / m/ch of the planet+s heat as ell as the e0cess C*2 and at some point -oth the heat and C*2 ill -e released into the atmosphere . M$R Inevita(le – can5t solve *or glo(al warming it is going to continue *or the ne3t !000 years oloman et al 200E 2Susan: .er.anada.erature3 . .org/.urrent tem.t3 In a rat/er startling stud%: .ontent/earl%/2**(/*1/24/*412&211*$.e strong am. and Kreenland i.e ca/sed -y them is done – and ill contin/e to -e done for 14000 years. ent -ac8 to 7safe9 s.A We are . the atmosphere from here for ard4 the dama.reserve a sa8e .le o/t of armin.oised to e1.?//www.rattDonDt/eD latestD/ said t/at hile the .ratt on t/e Eatest Gansen et Sato Pa.ta=l% /ig/ ris0.

negle.ause o8 t/ermal e1.on.limate .limate sensitivit% 2"(3 t/ere=% reverse an% /arm wit/in a 8ew %ears or de.. .an o./ . 7/e BuasiDeBuili=rium '-2 .ates t/e range o8 .ea0 level o8 ./anges 2glo=al warming .tion is in.ulations and regions.0 line3.i./oi.itation .i.on.itation: and t/ermal sea level rise would =e o=tained i8 .a 2 23.ies 8or .ar=on dio1ide emissions: =e.ause t/is metri.ond to "*X remaining in t/e long term as dis. In t/is .urred or ./ange o=served during t%.ause o8 t/e longevit% o8 t/e atmos.ted irreversi=le dr%Dseason .ross availa=le models 2F3.e.orres. tradeD o88s assume t/at more e88i..ades. 7/ese and ot/er dangers . Dis./allenges to /umanit% and nature: wit/ a magnitude t/at is dire./er world: =ut negle.t 8or .o.itation . 7/e %ellow =o1 indi.iet%.ietal de.limate .ontem.ur in t/e .ar=on dio1ide .ort/ Ameri. Smaller values 2=% *X3 8or dio1ide made =% .i.2– *./anges 8or t/e regions s/own in 5ig./ as t/e aadust =owl’’ in .er we /ave Buanti8ied /ow so.l% irreversi=le dangers relating to . Irreversi(le climate changes due to car(on dio3ide emissions have already ta%en 'lace/ and *uture car(on dio3ide emissions would im'ly *urther irreversi(le e**ects on the 'lanet : wit/ attendant long lega.ted warming: .on a range o8 *.i.ould o.ea0 .ertur=ation and o.itation ..t t/e irreversi=ilit% s/own /ere.SUDI ’12 Advantage Answers – Warming/Environment 1 Illustrative irreversi=le ./ region as in 5ig.ts ./ed../anges as a 8un. 7/e .entration during t/e 21st .otentials: KWPs3: =e.$ m/b'3: 8rom an assessment a.ient .limate mitigation .al maJor regional droug/ts su. '-2 .re..ts.iated lower limit o8 irreversi=le sea level rise 2=e.ur in a 8uture ri.entur% im.ea0 .isions regarding .ean warming.ose su=stantial .er degree is derived 8or ea.entur%. S .ount rates used in some estimates o8 e./eri.onding irreversi=le glo=al warming 2=la./ange .limate sensitivit% is smaller t/an t/e =est estimate w/ile larger values 2=% F*X3 would =e e1. Also s/own is t/e asso.i.entrations s/own .entrations t/at /ave alread% o.ted 8or t/e u.tion o8 t/e .orre.orar% so. C see also end o8 t/e estimated li0el% range o8 lin0ed to t/e .re.ussed in t/e te1t.er3 #est estimate o8 dio1ide rea. Similarl%: understanding o8 irreversi=ilit% reveals limitations in trading o8 green/ouse gases on t/e =asis o8 1**D%ear estimated . : as a 8un./ange 8or some illustrative .ansion onl% =ased dio1ide’s uniBue longDterm e88e.limate . We /ave s/own t/at t/is dio1ide . 2U. 2Eower3 'orres.e.onomi.a.tion o8 .