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So I want to go to the next frontier. The fourth frontier, which is optogenetics. It's a recent one.

And the idea here, the general idea here is to develop again molecular genetic tools, to be able to stain the cells. But in this case, not anatomically necessarily, but to stain the cell or to, to implant probes into neurons, into nerve cells that are sensitive to light. So that when I would shine light in a particular wavelength onto this particular cell that we're manipulated to become sensitive to light, then the cell will respond electrically. We actually know of only one type of cells, nerve cells, in the brain that are sensitive to light and this is our, our retina. So when I see light, when I see a face, it means that the photons from the world hit particular cell type, the receptors, the photoreceptors in the retina, and these photoreceptors swallow, so to speak, the photons and generate electrical activity in response. But this is only there. But this means that there are molecules in our genes. There are genes that can generate specific molecules that are sensitive to light, and can transform, transform light into electrical activity. So this is the magic. A group of scientists found the gene or the molecule, the protein that you can embed into the cells that usually are not sensitive to light in the brain. And then, when you shine light on this brain, this group of cells respond electrically, although, usually they don't, but now you made them sensitive to light. So this is what is called optogenetics. You use genetic tools to make the cells sensitive to [INAUDIBLE], to light. And we know today of two general types of light activated cells. You can embed particular ion channel. But, we'll talk a lot about ion channels later. That when you shine blue light onto the cell, this ion channel opens and there is current flow and the cell starts to fire. So this is one example here. So, you record now from this cell, you don't stimulate the cell, you just record, just to see what the cell

let's say. fire. make them fire or I can stop a group of cells. I will be able hopefully to stimulate from the outside and maybe repair the network. fire. So in this case. You don't need to go into the cell anymore.responds to and you flash blue light. what. Or maybe activate the network to make the. And you suddenly see the cell following the light start to fire. The opposite thing happened when you put another type of. no firing. . I can calm down this activity using the yellow light. If I have this genetic manipulation. I can activate a group of cells. Okay. behavior or instead of stimulating them with all these electrodes that I mentioned before. just using light. onto this particular cell. yellow light. you restrain. fire. with yellow light. what I can do with it is now to manipulate. there will be a spike. stop them from firing. we spoke about spike. You stop your light. And in this case. So you shine a yellow light. So I can now start to control in a very particular region. this cell usually fires. that if this cell contains this channel. fire. In this case. that's a fantastic way to selectively and particularly. This is just to show you that there are spikes. of protein there. making it fire. Then yellow light. the animal move or maybe there is other activity in a particular region. not in general brain. blue light. And why this is so important? Because. Just particular region or particular cell type. this means that I will be able to detect the group of cells that may be responsible for a given. So blue lights spike. this cell will fire with blue light. But we know today. channelrhodopsins. Let's say fire. the. this channel that you genetically manipulated it to be there. blue light. you block the activity of the cell. Okay? So this is activating the cell. onto the cell. when there is a light. blue lights spike. blue light. fire. spikes. as I want from the outside. the yellow light stops the cell from firing and this what makes me.

. So whenever there is blue light into his brain. because it. so to speak. so so. force the mouse to drink. the behavior of a mouse. blue light. Of course. It's only for you. is going to drink or eat from the left dish. very new technique. and this is ethical issues with society will have to decide. This is. very specifically. it doesn't see the blue light. We really put a lot of hope into this technology. so to speak. And when this group of cells are not being activated. running freely. but this is the optical probe that inject this light. not what you see. but the technology is there. very. by this group of cells. and when there is no stimulus. he goes there. So we are developing methods that are very useful for research. the issue is whether we can use it in humans. very powerful. This is from Janelia Farm from Karel Svoboda. It's a very. not. So here is the mouse. a group of cells will be activated and this group of cells will. in the living behaving animal. whenever there is blue light. Notice that whenever there is blue light. So. I want to show you a movie using this technology of manipulating. we maybe able to induce a given behavior or control compulsive behavior or maybe control Parkinson or other diseases. because a stimulated group of cells and he now really is controlled. he must go there. Whenever there is a blue light. the mouse will be free to do whatever he wants. done in dark or so. But I wanted to show you the technology. So whenever there would be blue light.I can manipulate it very. he doesn't see the light. So this is optogenetics. But whenever there is blue light. so to speak. by the way. He has been trained to go there. Whether they will be useful for clinical aspect. that's a decision of society not of scientists. for the first time ever. Very. The decision whether to go into humans with it is a decision that the society should do. here is the movie. he can do whatever he want. it may.