Okay. So I need to ver-, to show you what I promised to show you. Is, when I take a patch of membrane. [SOUND] .

[UNKNOWN] representing it, representing it as a spherical, small spherical cell, which I will call soon iso potential sphere. Meaning that there is no change in, in voltage across this membrane. So there will be the voltage difference between the inside and the outside will be V at any location. So this will be iso potential. No change, no drop in voltage across this membrane will be an iso potential cell. I showed you that when I inject current here. I, I get voltage response V, that looks like this. This will be my I, this will be my V. And I told you that the representation of this, is a first approximation is an RC circuit, like this. This will be my inside, this will be my R, this will be my C, this will be out. So, why do I say that? A good electrical circuit, representing this behavior of a cell, is an RC circuit. And this is because of the mathematics of this circuit. And I can write down the equation that describes what happens when I inject current to the two sides of this circuit, I, as I did before. What will be the voltage development between these 2 sides V. So I want to measure V, in response to I. So V is the voltage difference between outside and inside. And I is the injected current and I can write the following, basic equation. I am saying that the total current that I inject, I, the total current that I inject into this location. Can either go and become a capacitative current. Or can go and become a resistive current, because. According to Kirhoff law, everything that inj-, is injected here must split either in this branch or in this branch. So that's exactly what I'm writing now. I'm saying that the, the capacitative current, which is c dividity[SOUND]. This will be my capacitive current. Plus the resistive current, which is just

the capacitance. It's charged inside. So the inside of the cell become positive. then the capacitance is charged. There is only time here. This is constant. V divided by R must equal I. dv. you charge the capacitance with positive charges. So I start with v equal 0here. t is time. The inside of the cell becomes positive. There is a constant current I. As I said before. so now I have to take this equation. It's a linear. And show you that when I solve this equation for V. But before writing the solution for such I thing. 1 dimensional partial equation. here. So this is my resistive current. It's a very simple solution. So what I wrote here actually.regular. and this. inside the cell. And I need to solve this equation. I get such a behavior. inside. the resistive current. Charging the capacitance. And it can charge the capacitance. Because now you have a very simple linear. I have to define initial conditions. this is my injected current. because this is constant. Ohm's law. So c. and leaks out. dt plus vdivided by R is equal I. current. So let me write to you the solution. and that's what you see here. is Kirchoff's law. I injected in time. the injective current. Inside the cell. . What do you start with? So we already said that we start with v at t equals 0 equal lets call it 0. If I inject positive current inside the cell. so I'm trying now to solve this and this is actually very easy. Which I call depolarizing. I get the positive voltage inside the cell. current can only flow outside through the resistance. and that's our agreement. So let's see. Saying that the current that I inject splits into capacitive current. Okay. Is the current that goes through the resistance. the resistance. this is now here. So you only have dv. dt. Actually. Injected current. If I inject a positive current.

What happens then? So. So that means again. Assuming that v at t equals 0 is indeed 0. I have voltage 0. I inject my current for long. the steady state value is I multiplied by R. So let's check it. I look at voltage v of t. at time 0. Multiplied by 1 minus e. And the voltage remains at the steady state and. exponent to the power of minus t time divided by R multiplied by C. You start with v equals 0. I'm repeating this drawing. this becomes I equal to I. long. at t equals 0. And if you inject this I current for infinite long time. For an infinite time. long time. is 0. I multiplied by r. And you are left with v. e to the powers of minus t goes to 0. So this is the steady-state value. So this means that we satisfied our intial condition. this goes to 0 and you have then. V as a function of time. I inject current I. So I want to solve for v. if t goes to infinity. This goes to 0. the steady-state value of this voltage. long time. Because this is. . 1 minus one is 0. so these are the two extreme cases. e to the power of 0 is 1. which is the case when I inject my current for a long. is equal I which is my current injection multiplied by R which is the resistance. that's fine. you will get at the steady state. so v. So the solution looks like this. at 0. Okay. This means steady state because you inject so low. if I inject it very very long time. So v. here. IR. At t equal infinity is equal IR. Okay. This is the general solution. And at infinite time. Let's say the t is equal to 0. I want to solve this equation for v as a function of time.V equal 0. So. What happens then? When t is equal to 0. this remain. And I get to some v with time. Let's look at the other extreme. for this equation.

if I wait enough time. And this comes from this equation.development. .