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# 3.19 Find the transfer functions for the block diagrams in Fig. 3.

54:

G1 1 + G1

Solution: Simplify the block diagram as above, Y ( s) G1 T (s) = = + G2 R( s ) 1 + G1
3.22 Use block-diagram algebra to determine the transfer function between R(s) and Y(s) in Fig. 3.57.

Solution: Move node A and close the loop:

Add signal B, close loop and multiply before signal C.

1

Move middle block N past summer. Now reverse order of summers and close each block separately. Y 1 ) = ( N + G3 ) ( 1 + NH 3 R feedforward feedback Y G1G2 + G3 (1 + G1 H1 + G1 H 2 ) = R 1 + G1 H1 + G1 H 2 + G1G2 H 3 2 .

59.3. and indicate what root locations are possible for some likely values of K.86 3.86 ≥ 0.10 Solving for ζ . Solution: 3 . ζ = (ln M p ) 2 π 2 + (ln M p ) 2 1 ≤ 2. 3. (c) Pick a suitable value for K.24 For the unity feedback system shown in Fig. (a) Determine whether both specifications can be met simultaneously by selecting the right value of K. (b) Sketch the associated region in the s-plane where both specifications are met.591 Using (1) and the solution for ζ . specify the gain K of the proportional controller so that the output y (t ) has an overshoot of no more than 10% in response to a unit step. 1 (1) 2ωn K In order to have an overshoot of no more than 10%. ζ = 2 = M p = e −πζ / 1−ζ 2 ≤ 0.28 The open-loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is K G(s) = s ( s + 2) The desired system response to a step input is specified as peak time t p = 1 sec and overshoot M p = 5%. K= ζ2 ∴ 0 ≤ K ≤ 2. and use MATLAB to verify that the specifications are satisfied. Solution: 2 Y ( s) K ωn = 2 = 2 2 R( s ) s + 2 s + K s + 2ζωn s + ωn ωn = K .

34 (b) 4 .(a) T ( s) = ωn2 Y (s) G(s) K = = 2 = 2 2 R( s ) 1 + G ( s ) s + 2s + K s + 2ζωn s + ωn 2 K = ωn Equate the coefficients: 2 = 2ζωn . Observe that from equations (*) ζωn = 1 ≠ 0. ωn = 4.05 = e −πζ / 100 t p = 1 sec = ⇒ ζ = 0.69.34) that we need is not possible by varying K alone. ⇒ ωn = K (*) ζ = 1 K 1−ζ 2 We would need: M p% = 0.69 × 4.34 ωd ωn 1 − ζ 2 But the combination (ζ = 0.69 π π = ⇒ ωn = 4.

21× 0. π2 % Problem 3. y=step(sys. text(1.02 we will have: M* p = rM p = 2. K = 1+ =r K −1 r ≅ 2. msg_peaktime = sprintf('Peak time = %3.05 = e − r . 0.05. num=[K].den).05 = e 1−ζ 2 .yss)*100.21 π ⇒ K = 3. Recall the conditions of our system: 1 K replace ωn and ζ in the system (**): ωn = K ζ = ⇒ e −π / K −1 = r × 0. 0.2f'. 2. 5 . t=0:. grid on. ⇒ ⇒ r × 0.21 sec Note: * denotes actual location of closed-loop roots. % Finding maximum overshoot msg_overshoot = sprintf('Max overshoot = %3.y).K). msg_title = sprintf('Step Response with K=%3. msg_overshoot). title(msg_title).1. ylabel('y(t)').05 = 0. K]. den=[1. xlabel('Time (sec)').1.28 K=3. sys=tf(num.2f%%'. Mp = (max(y) . text(1. tp = t(idx). tp).02 r2 then with K = 3.01:3.21× 1 sec = 2. t* p = r × 1 sec = π ωd (**) where r ≡ relaxation factor.t).(c) Now we wish to have: −πζ / M* p = r × 0.1.3. % Finding peak time idx = max(find(y==(max(y)))).02. msg_peaktime). plot(t.01 t* p = rt p = 2. Mp).2f'. yss = dcgain(sys).

den=[1. 6 .'b'.2.8 for system 1 H (s) = 2 .'g'.6.den). t=0:.linespec(i)).t). num=[1].0.4.0.0. hold on. Choose the final time as 15 seconds.01:15.A linespec=['r'. s + 2ξ s + 1 Solution: % Problem 3. y=step(sys. plot(t.'k']. for i=1:4 ci=i*0.A: Use matlab to plot the step response for ξ=0. 1].2. sys=tf(num.y. 2*ci.

4 1. 0.'damping ratio = 0.8'). 0.2 0 damping damping damping damping ratio ratio ratio ratio = = = = 0. 0. title('Step Response with damping ratio = 0.2.2 1 y(t) 0.2. 0. xlabel('Time (sec)').8 0.6 0.6 0.'damping ratio = 0.4'.2'. grid on.6. Step Response with damping ratio = 0.6 1. 0.8 1. ylabel('y(t)').'damping ratio = 0.4.8').4 0.4.end legend('damping ratio = 0.8 0 5 Time (sec) 10 15 7 .6.4 0. 0.2 0.6'.