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. BELFORDS. BY JOHN STUART MILL.- 3 SERViCIS DATE. J " 1990 CO \ ^ . CLARKE MDCCCLXXIX. from the Fortnightly Reprinted " '. Review.SOCIALISM. i" I rKs -.

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when other with wholly occupied ideas of matters. be applied to the order existing things. even the world during the seemed so twenty years.without one of suffering on prolongation disturbance of on hand.r PRELIMINARY NOTICE. the socialist had thinkers speculative in every civilized spread among the workers country. the designof writinga that the Social Convinced inevitable tendencies of modern involved must society be to more bringthe questions and more in it always it of to the front. Mr. he quence thought conse great practical that they should be and thoroughly lines im considered. He . Mill book on formed ism.and partially the pointed out by which the best theories speculatively-tested the might. or unnecessary the other. IT last was in the the year 1869 that. impressed with degree in which.

.6 INTRODUCTORY. while they appear as to possess great intrinsic value the well to application special problems now forcing not. the work and then came These to be might chapters completelywrit not. point by point. I themselves on publicattention. patientlabor with which good work HELEN TAYLOR. accordingto the author's order . but will rather the example of is done.they will even believe. first and the chaptersnow thrown printed are down towards the the rough drafts foundation of that work. 1879. January. detract of reputation an from the mere Literary form their author. habit. when ten out re-written. but to give chaptersto his I have complied to as request because. I have in the present they might parts of hesitation have the that into incorporated It has not different without been to yielded the urgent wish these with me of the editor of this Review the world . therefore planned a work which should go ex haustivelythrough the whole subject. have appeared been work.

In Great suffrage is last the Reform not widely extended. manhood be indisput is also suffrage prevails.SOCIALISM. IN ably the and the great country is now beyond the soon the most Atlantic which well-nigh will powerful country in the world. though all the Britain but posing yet so it.and of the the whole electoral power which will present institutions not a give them. INTRODUCTORY. choose any common often these exert act together as object our class. they exercise. France German several the the Such since of political qualification has become not 1848. though . that of of the Confedera states com tion. within so Act of the live as admitted Constitution on what is called a pale who as large that to body as soon of those and a weekly shall for wages. and so.

the estimate of their conduciveness not and welfare. these class which. the that no greatness of this change is yet by means real completely ized. the late somewhat of Englishmen perceptions blunted as to the ten- . Of course they in stake. general upon motives the of mere personal character those who It seems operating on over minds of have to as control me the Government. bribed) by the interest peculiar of their to least of all to support of property as it is. for the laws of upon property have of a depend support upon to the a considerations made public nature. in the vocabulary of the higher ranks. the greatest reality since their bread daily not depends on engaged (we its prosper may ity.8 SOCIALISM. But they are any call it own.or may to hereafter reach.either by those who say are who opposed. truth. are said to have have no stake in the country.or by those To effected the of our last constitutional reform. of property. inequalities So far the support of as their power reaches. a complete ascendency. very are great influence the very on Now legislation.

of the of as however. both the results of good.and of effect. from have seen many in which. those who We sometimes the even to the kind laugh at vain of expectations thought that Catholic re emancipationwould Ireland. The importantconsequences were predictions fore as often erroneous to the suddenness as of the effects.vast of either far evil expectationswere and of tertained. They changes made. 9 dencies so of political changes.SOCIALISM. or tranquilize At the end concile it to British rule. of the first . view superficial The past the or of the future. either This. various been as reforms at was last two have generations least fruitful in told. in the practice they take placewithout aot course violent much of or permanentlydisturb to thingshabitual is but a the country. do revolution. were the nature of political changes not have fallen into a to fulfil and expectation. while fol kind that of come actually had feel as lowed seemed short have what to been if it that they predicted. while en only prospect. half-unconscious habit of belief that a such when changes.

they since.when are the changesdo by often not seen. moment than Sudden effects in which history go are Causes superficial. generally into the roots serious of future deep down most events producethe and parts of their effect only slowly. few remove contin every ued either that it would grievance. time ' become a part of the familiar order of 13 thingsbefore general attention called to the changes they become are producing. five-and-twenty years of its operationhad of its given indirect ous scope for a large development is much more working. therefore. . ten years of the Reform to think Act of 1832. cursory to be in observers. any The are manner peculiar connected of a new with the cause. appreciated is particularly timely appreciation easy of the Reform respect to tendencies institutions change Act made of in by the 1867. to have. evident.10 SOCIALISM.which the direct. except when This in our they beforehand.or important practical that it had But opened the door to universal more suffrage. remoter conequences understood have been fact political seldom when they occur.

opin the interests and ions of the other theirs.SOCIALISM. be in And the they do and disorderly a ineffec habitu- which to belongs peoplenot . political objectswhich them as working classes. and concern to likely have. thus of that power. are that the working classes have. However powerfulclasses are much their opposed to these want pursuit of by objects may of electoral be for the present retarded by organization. that they will before long find electoral the the means of effec their so. and or wrongly. even far. is as having reduced yet into a definite practical sufficiently as can anything in politics certain be. making their collective to power tively instrumental collective it will tive way not proportion of when objects. 11 The Act great increase of electoral power which the places within the reach of the working which a classes is have mited ary. not dissensions among as themselves. permanent. to make are very essentially tempor most is known jjt to the inobservant.that rightly on which they believe. The circumstances caused use them. or by their their wishes it shape.

The the politi working be for political definite scienti of in will themselves . what rightin. interest special opinionsconceived are of those classes into organized to a systems and on creeds which lay claim place the the philosophy. platform of political by the same as right systems elaborated utmost by previous thinkers. wrong adopted.12 SOCIALISM. that. ated to the use of legal and it be constitutional machinery. all It is of the importance that into reflecting persons what these should take earlycon are sideration creeds popularpolitical to be. determined by now doctrines political studied fically are politics from the point of view the the and working classes. the Parliament of greatest number possible cal aims aims of the of persons pledgedto classes.if possible is when them the time may be shall be whatever ripe.and is . return The levelling^ instruments will be and publicmeetings and to associations.nor mere will by the impulse of a instinct of the the press. and likely that every under article of single the fullest them should be brought light of i and investigation so discussion.

13 rejected by generalconsent. between may the the best parts of both At be combined in a renovated those social fabric. a and that instead of hostile conflict. shall society. before the due interval of about of which a generation .SOCIALISM. left to be fought over between ignorantchange and to change!] opposition ignorant And the discussion go down that is now is one required first principles of doctrines that must to the very existing society. moral. put again on their of Until the in the from present age. except by specula- . opposite be of mankind if great questions are gravelyimperilled. The which were fundamental incontestable assumed now as by former trial.had not. employment it depends " whether to the the accommodation altered state of social institution of human or foresight. are generations. the ordinary which have on are pace not us of great social changes effected an we by physicalviolence. or onhr physical old and the new. the institution which it has property down shape in the been a handed few past. of a be the work of wise conflict ol will (The future prejudices.

the fouiidL dation the that all proposalsfor doing all modes of without and institution.14 % SOCIALISM. been the into brought seriously conflicts ques have of of tion.both had constitution existing to possible the to no property. shall be reconsidered from . that Those the certainlydemand its in subject.the legitimacy principle of utility who which look are denied from by the many of the reasoners out stand-point classes will of the working classes. ai) parts. and receive the fullest consideration is decided As far as discussion remain before as it that the this must subject it is- country is concerned. tive writers. be taken for " allow anythingto the and not granted certainly of privateproperty. property of their in the institution will not so and as are only interested far it is a they publicbenefit. the disposi- . because of the past always which been a conflicts between stake in the be classes. of modifying it to which have the appearance of the being favorable the interest shall working classes. in It will not When have next go on longer includes this manner. discussion classes who own.

subject menced an have for agitation this is its resumption by in the the State. that land is a of aspiring them deny proper com and for private appropriation. of This doctrine not yet show signs in being widely prevalent Great Britain. income deny the of deriving legitimacy an in any form from does property apart as from labor. of the to they mean seem by the cry does been has Conthe to be of home but origin. continental on Socialists who and objectto all interest money. some With of combined. which of of the The ordinary attributions more privateproperty. any . have which caught up from the intercourse recently commenced gressses and through the Labor the International with Society. speechesof of what the denunciation a agitators.but the seeds the soil is well prepared to receive of . and definition. but without name they what not term usury. of questions is desire to withdraw freedom wages one from of contract.SOCIALISM. 15 fcionsof the working classes have as yet mani fested themselves hostile only to certain outlying Many of portions of them the the proprietarysystem.

Continental in to their brethren the be fundai great and permanent changes of mankind . this those which description are widely scattered where from foreign countries schemes large. . which impliesat remodelling generallyapproaching to of the abolition And institution of privateproperty.1C SOCIALISM.instead are distrust. mental ideas are not accorn- . like i than better aware that English politicians. general of and theories. aim at these nearly all those reformingsocietyin classes themprofess the interest of the salves working Socialists. of vast promise.though being. that active even it would more probably be prominent classes are found and in England the of the leaders their working usually in order or privatecreed Socialists of most one another. inspiring essential to the in popularity and of a cause It that is France.a of very and a designationunder character but are which compre schemes hended least diverse confounded. Germany. Switzerland widest men sense doctrines anti-property in the have drawn bodies large In of working countries to rally round who them.

it is of English head of the Switzer in general. land. ends they which direct their seem efforts towards practical easier treme within all ex reach. they say. foreignSocialists. of the men such continues to be the character as Englishworking classes. but getting out all kinds used it of the hands of the possessors . .leaving struction to take care of and itself. but to be for the general benefit be time in what mode will. and are content to hold back theories until there has been the same of experience a the of operation While on principles partial scale.they mean not only the annihilation all propefty of government. the organ association one (La Solidarite of the most published curious at Neuchatel).SOCIALISM. proclaimthemselves in content sober to begin by the subsequentrecon simplesubversion. avowal of this doctrine of an publicnews paper. is the times. they are not to likely of rush longinto the reckless extremities even some who. of signs The leaders of the the at Englishworking-men--whose delegates . 17 plishedby a coup de main. by subver of all sion. The enough afterwards by a to decide.

this of the premisesin can the Before.without any opinionas in to what form of should society old. we class of to usefullydiscuss will be in detail. made And the general questionraised by nation this exami any should be without the hostile prejudice.However in favor irrefutable of arguments appear to of the laws property may the of than double those to whom immemorial they have custom of prestige and persomal interest.one furnish most private property other that of which must necessarily discussion.and made basis of groundsof the the ment convincingto a generalmind. that a nothing is more natural workhx? . congresses the as of Geneva and Bale contributed much sense common greatestpart of such practical was shown there " are not likelyto begin having formed be it is deliberately by anarchy. of the and two the previoussurvey of or rival of theories. therefore. propose But can established evident be that the room of the whatever they do the only judg on properly judged.18 SOCIALISM.that Socialism.it questions advisable examine from their foundations Socialism.

to few a franchises. 19 man who has begun them to a on speculate politics. after long struggles. longer enslaved great still con / or dependent by so force of law. and all that extension of to likely are be done. of an formity with debarred the will employer. and both by the accident from of birth from the enjoyments. some attained Having. and evil the mental and moral others inherit without exertion is an this of deser""'fhat independently equal to almost any of tho^e against which .and more penury. no which for them. political nate classes among ask themselves ? the " adult males should to not whether progress ought stop there all that ^Notwithstanding seems has been in the done. the of are majority by force an poverty. the many to a born great riches. the further progress make in department of purely the less fortu " that is it possible rights.SOCIALISM.and which advantages. they are to chained to a to place. and occupation. should regard in very different in light. and countries. No made only grating by made contrast. at nearlyattained in the point others. at to there is least. .

and in bought with money. it consequentlydrew those to certain share of the respect accorded a and produced creed "of correspondingmodifica . all the -" " of privileges successive were jarehy the /All steps . partly the from better from or of feelings their powerful. they . but judicesopposed was acquisition f them beforehand power to their the sign of means gained by those subordinate a classes. partly partly extorted fears. so necessaiy do not o\il ? " They by by those have But feel :t in those who gained it was prizes the otteryof life. tion in a . the societyrespectingthem succeeded in whatever advantages they to be acquir ing came considered had not their due. of those which they yet attained.20 SOCIALISM. while. -hat also said that slavery. mankind not have in told hitherto struggW. it who the a iHc pom a.hat have won been the made by the poorer classes. had to a the strongestpre . oli- that despotism.'e wrong are 1 Is believing. to one attained exchange for support given section of the powerfulin its quarrelswith another. classes of to acquiringmore classes power. necessary.

having long-established are been those cannot abolished. therefore. The the working whole classes claim that should be as field of social institutions and every re-examined.either pernicious what impracticable. system of reason The classes. existing always to tended to de clare what did not or yet exist. have any of the maxims societymakes to same little put faith system in of which established the as society may that sidering found so have the Con principles.have consecrate and facts.hK unworthy. which. 21 continued to be doomed t. that on a assurance have poor those is classes the distinction of rich and more grounded other than imperativenecessity and those ancient facts. have opinionsof mankind been wonderfully flexible. the per sidered with sons it now arose for the view are the who in constantly to be convinced that not those who the owe their ease and importance to present . who be now condemned them an even by This formerly profitedby taken on ? ^ the word of are interested entitled to party.which subordinate.SOCIALISM. if idea are question con first time .

22 SOCIALISM. the human best remedies palliatives applied which able to devise. It should the objectto would ascertain what institutions an of property be established by legisla unprejudiced the . to be lever. as rights or stand this privilegesof property test will will. given to all objections against pro inconveniences form attach perty itself. between tor. All evils and ing be to the institution in its best and ought to or franklyadmitted. system.under the purpose of whatever for designated. have be given up. sooner or later. And is intelligence social all plans proposed by name reformers. but persons in the matter ral than who have no other interest abstract and justice the gene be good of the community.absolutely impartial ' possessors of property and to and the non-possessors and to de fend would them justify by a the reasons which not influence really as such and legislator. An moreimpartial hearingought. of by such have a the appearance for what being got up Such not to to make out case alreadyexists. the attaining benefits aimed at by the institution of property without its inconveni- .

one two parts to be the distinguished. not as prejudged absurd impracticable. this general agreement. 23 ences. Socialism on on negativeand There the other critical. withstanding there is a . the is. THE SOCIALIST OBJECTIONS OF TO PRESENT ORDER SOCIETY. constructive. judgment and of existinginstitu results . In the former are all the different schools agree almost find to of Socialism in identity at one. They they the faults which order oi with the to a economical certain existingso entertain to ciety. in each are of its varieties there separately. should be examined with or the same candor. various plans which pounded for doing better. but remedy be provided for those in the not details.SOCIALISM.and so it is to be changed to in Socialism and generally.first. Up the same point also they the generalconceptionof faults . As in all to for change there proposals be considered that which considered taken " are two elements that which is to " be changed. and it has pro tions and practices their the secondly.

of them by no means obscure com or mysterious. and which the he has he finds fact tc another among been accustomed nature include necessities of urged . It in will be an both natural and convenient. We present with let one ourselves mentioning thing be few of tho And principal.24 SOCIALISM. vition after remembered of the one enum- by When item after item passes before him. most Of are these there is scarcity . since it consists of and only in enumeration no existingevils.though these to of lie deeper than moralists are usuallyattempt the an penetrate. So various to they that to only ex is difficulty make any approach shall content a haustive for the catalogue. attempting estimate of their doctrines. postpone all we of their differences until arrive at that second alone This part of their undertaking. they seriously first part of our task is by an no means dif ficult . wide disparity. Many of them are the veriest the roots even monplaces of moralists.in which differ. the reader. to begin with which mention is common the negative portion to to them and all.

to counteract. question Socialists more such as arrangements be to is more To at to assert this would issuer beg the very No " one ready than much the admit they affirm it indeed warrants " decidedly than they complain ** truth ih"t in evils of are irremediable the to present constitution ""HM*^""""*1" of society. which provided human they do power not flow from laws physical is not adequate. much would liable less degree.and remedy. 25 as an accusation he againstsocial institutions. Those who object as a the considered present order of society. whether apparentlyattri or butable to social arrangements not. to is not entitled to cry unfairness. They ^x-^.-.SOCIALISM. and of a whole who accept as an alternative a the possibility all total change. propose consider be whether which some other form not of society may devised or would be be to liable to those them in to a evils.. or human knowledge Moral evils has not yet learned. and evils protestthat in Man and can the complained of are are inherent no Society. have at rightto in set down the evils which presentexist these are as society part of their case. .

total failure.26 SOCTALTSM. and institution of Property as upheld means commended which principally frugality enabled being the insured by labor and mankind are their reward. wretchedly small compared that with even amount small of exertion amount are employed. the opinion of present arrangemejrts_ the as in respectto Property and society Produc means tion and the Distributionof Wealth. and are state of as which society of valid state arguments until it is shown any or other of societywould of involve In an equal greater amount of Socialists. the such evils. is either moral which physical. and . social existing evils may The be men First among tioned the is evil of Poverty.are fairlycharge admits againstthe . mass are to good. they the this means realize . good. moral physical. a general is an They say that there enormous of evil which in these that arrangements the do not succeed or preventing. and is of good brought about by Avhich and full of pernicious consequences. and such physical evils did as as would be remedied if all persons able them that they ought.

their conceded. but. proportion civilized of the population. It that it has may been be so so . an immense some proportion periodor be of the industrious classes being at all other of their lives (and least being liable to come) dependent.in Europe.at or on temporarily. dailybread is all that they have almost and that of often in insufficient inferior quantity. to depictthe propor miseries of tion to estimate the most the of mankind arc who in advanced their countries habituallygiven up during . with no always quality . most Socialists allow in earlier can of history.SOCIALISM. are What insignificant. they affirm. enjoy worth may be the in most their countries of own persons of anything It naming of the but benefits property ? in said.that for property be the hands of their employers they would though this be without at daily least bread . Any attempt or indigence. 27 to emerge from indigence. and have it at assurance of contin uing to all . its capabilities. legal voluntarycharity. But periods if the institution do nothing more hitherto very or better in this respectthan it has done. .

even small it true. would be very or alleviation was of the evil. if there be physical privation or . of numbers and in that the condition even civilized moie Europe.28 SOCIALISM. This. in have painted these Suffice it colors sufficiently strong. except through certain be to escape.and wretched are in that England of most France. be said that of this hard to are lot no one has any reason complain. is than to tribes of savages who known It may us. superfluous who philanthropists.be the crime at The were misery put to would So who that they all. ward and death accident. would left to miseries to say here. it would the some not diminution nimblest of the that injustice strongest unto would. If hundred condition hindmost any or some Nero to Dom"itian a race to requirea on lives.from outstripped or energy of a prudence. whole existence be to its and physical moral This suffer may be ings.because it befalls those inferi were only who orityof by others. persons run for their who that the should or fifty twenty came in be be put to death. any in the suffer economy of society .

not bodily necessities satisfied in can a manner are satisfied or only brutish creatures be content with. the crime this. 29 moral either which whose degradation.excluded a obtaining desirable existence ? there One thing is. Since the human has no means enjoyableexistence.SOCIALISM. upon every being the in a for pro and ? against suffering the If minds of feelings would prosperous their were right state. failure of the as a social arrangements the evil that of add And assert mitigationof the weaker tKbse who the thus suffer are members to is community. Is weakness on a justification irre ^suffering? sistible claim tection Is it not.would share in social institutions these of of responsibility race evils. which relieve the if it could be affirmed from any truly. morally or physically. insult to misfortune. the human an contrary.though not necessarily is pro tanto to a of society.but abslin- its labor and . for the they accept even one prosperityif near sake of it other cause person them was. for any from than voluntary fault. or what it derives from of existence own at all.

this the fact ? rThe labor in an Is it not the of the fact ? to the reward. often undergo much labor. those idle. and the most. are reckless. present state society so marii- . or between of and exer is in the tioii. there would be no ground who for complaint to willing if every against society one was undergo could a fair share of this labor and a abstinence But is attain fair share of the reverse fruits. and said blame more ill-conducted who with for and born most justice to have themselves to their severer condition. e'. idea of distribu or justice.is almost who receive the inverse ratio to it abstain those the labor least./ Even poo'r.not only than those who than of are to pecuniary independence. and even those who earn their subsistence exercised the in adequateself-control poor costs them ever more by the industrious effort than sacrifice and more is almost members tive success requiredfrom The very the more favored of society. of any between proportionality success and merit.SOCIALISM. instead of being proportioned and abstinence of the : individual.but of the more almost any highly remunerated .

-""""" " were be. so are they. born are all the circumstances determining are -" The to great majority ~~* what _'-J they -_. by their vices by . career which falls to the are lot of only in a If persons helped their worldly and by their virtues. his industryand to dexterityhave result . as to be to relegated the regions It is true that the lot of individuals is not wholly independent of do many at their virtue in and these intelligence. which of - far less than is no things in most merit all. and great majorityare born hard to work indi poverty throughout life.\ The powerful is birth. / nj.numbers Next to birth the and gence. 31 chimerical festly of romance. : perhaps quite as often.SOCIALISM. but erallycontributed :ind the not a industry unless dexterity would had been also have sufficed of there and small concurrence occasions chances number.J^3jj-!_"-" IWHtMi Some to a are born rich without which work. in chief cause of success life is accident not opportunity. succeeds in When a person born own to riches acquiring gen them. others can born in position the they become to rich by work. but there reallytell other their favor.

is that. ' suffices to ruin any the converse of sfood fortune o but is not true : in . hard-hearted and and selfishness. which . Energies are of much . by gambling speculations.other circumstances the best beinggiven. another the by exercising in out-generalling and qualities It is as ruining a to rival much as any moralist ventures assert. a this of the It cannot be pretended tells for on as that much honesty. by the permitted lies not trade. anything question. this in many stations and circum more stances than of life is is out questionable . or kinds amount of bad conduct.honesty with a and policy. more avail for man success in life than virtues energy but if one succeeds by employ ing and talent thrives in something generally same useful. one a difference of The single step between is the social ladder. and connection fortune a conduct bad is mainly this.that there rather of some degree of o^"Huct. honest Even that has parity of chance advan than tages an a person better rogue. and by downright knavery. and servility close-fisted tricks seldom talents of by sycophancy.32 SOCIALISM.as as means of success.

without the aid of fortunate accidents. bad both. first two the want be of education. whether or ourselves of three the many. These evils. 33 the situation of of most can peopleno be counted degree whatever upon good in conduct the for raising them world. the to last is now almost universally admitted arrangements I am " be the fault of those be said it may almost the crime. The education. with and " that are poverty the ments jrv^ little connected failure of the second desert first grand existing arrange is human all the of society. The miscon- with duct. crime. in allowed to must be at least failures in social arrangements.for minuter the sources faults of character of conduct .and folly. may and causes Poverty temptations in in the few them to Idleness and desceuvreraent do or whose circumstances not compel work.vice.SOCIALISM. a speaking looselyand of analysis and errors in the of rough. sufferings For. towards : others. which follow in their train. then very " great poverty. nearly all the committed be traced its towards to one forms of misconduct.

It is grounded on of sition interests. the the principleon all mate which rial of productionand repartition is now products and carried on. life In as the present Socialists. by pushing others them.not it every a one harmony is interests. would tion establish which far more the conclusively them with a filia connects defective also organizationof society. levellers of their more former usuallystopped. is essentially vicious anti. back being pushed back by this Socialists consider system of privatewar every one (asit every may one. though show state it would the dependence reciprocal society on a of that state faulty of of backward the human At of mind. cessors. mere the enumeration of the evils times the society. It is the one of principle each individualism.34) SOCIALISM. go foundation their eyes at the very of human very present constituted. and for himself oppo againstall the of rest. but far-sighted suc farther. this in point.social. competition. find and under requiredto his or place by struggle. be termed) between and especially .

^s "In well-constituted be a commu- V. It is the an economical point of view are and in a Morally considered. they affirm. every cross evils obvious. constantlyto make pro- producers the and cause of ruin both as evils. his path.tend increase population and wealth . y n nity every one would gainer by every we other successful exertions. source d^ath. in they of low the and competitionof bankruptcy .its parent of envy. 35 fatal in moral. path the is liable constantly be crossed. worst by and each other's loss and our lose come by each from other's the greatest gains from of all. one can I Under v/ present system hardly any the loss v gain "^ one or except by of many " or disappointment of a xfy others. hatred. while person's now gain gain. .and to ^ \L $ ^ $ j. and one all uncharienemy one's -f tableness. the death of those who be dearest to are nearest and should up^In its in purely economical dividual demnation moral.SOCIALISM. the cause of operationthe principle as receives competition from In the the con unqualified social reformers laborers as in its see competitionof wages . it makes of all others who the natural every ' $ *" .

without of further pre amble. many others connected I shall now. For sidered as a present I desire of the reporter opinions of .and a convert laborers into on kind means of slaves or serfs. Society. to according these towards speculators. and terms as compelled to to accept these on such they choose offer. on the present arrangements of from their to selection of passages the mere published be con writings. the subordi to them. As of the great capitalists. dependent them for the of support.to absorb whole of industry into their operations from the market all to sphere. a new that feudality. and wealth a few great capi whose talists. to is graduallyenablingthem the own undersell of the all other producers. is travelling onward. gress .36 SOCIALISM. in future I shall have state ample opportunity own to chapters and nate on my opinion on with these and topics. the holders except the great proprietors of fixed money incomes. no person (theyconceive) being benefited of land. in short.to of labor drive employers the except themselves. exhibit Socialists in a opinions distinguished society.

No . enclosed the field in in is. . be found in the little work Louis du Travail. shall be taken " from that treatise. for the Competitionis an people a system a of of an extermination. or society.SOCIALISM. Is the enemy poor man We to it ? member ask for answer. like the soil.the fruits he is hunt or have been for appropriated. The Hereafter it will appear or much of I cite agrees differs with senti the clearest. Can that is a rightwhich Can a fish ? upon a No. Can he gather the fruits which the hand of God ripens on the path of man ? No . therefore. " All around him he finds the the soil preoccupied. part of the subject. for the spring proprietorof to of his ri^ht the field. to department of human of M. Can he cultivate earth for himself ? for the rightof the first occupant has become a right of property. Blanc.Organisation this My first on extracts. what ments. for. and of the case the most and specific statement precise Socialists of the of order generallyagainstthe existing societyin the economical is affairs. he draw No from field ? virtue . 37 how my own others. most compact. the dependent water government.

Can he. I Haif ? for your work Well . much " how much for yours I have for me ? " Two a children. Can there are he. ilyingfrom the cruel native land where every far of living thing is denied him.' is is he to do then #*##*## " What from competition ? wants the point of up three " view of the workman A contractor " It is work a put : to auction. exhausted are by and without lie down to sleep a fatigue refuge. arid wife and children. arid and One ? eightpence " " enough . for there charity of his fellow-creatures? laws against begging. workman present themselves. ' the unhappy to man do ? I have He in will say. Very well. ' I have ?" no give you. and all this. but now are how much for you am no : I have shillings wife. I single. of the fountain.38 SOCIALISM. seek the means life was from the placewhere given him ? No .' the working-men do say. can What. then. I have strength . I have hands work with. No. for the pavement of the streets ? upon laws againstvagabondage. But even have man here the poor work to may What be answered. I telligence. Can he. take in return give me a morsel of bread. a-crown How have a . This is what youth. Then you shall . No . for it is not permitted to change your country except cannot " on certain conditions which the poor man fulfil. dying of proprietor stretch out his hands for the hunger and thirst.

then there will be a new outcast. who fusion is not millions can answer it be said that for it that. exceptionalcircumstance. that at all events when there is not work possible enough for the that seek hands employment ? But I ask. And It are is done . twenty are really reduced suffice to condemn to theft for the " this living. a recruit for the Will prisonperhaps ! these melancholy results are exaggerated they are only . itself any method tain. principle. 3D have the work. by chance. and his price will run every lo ? still lower new " It is to be . in the principle of competitioncon Does answer. his triumph is only temporary. As for the lucky one. Has the general fact ? it cannot exceed ? Is . man strong enough to fast down other day. the bargain workmen is to struck. To murder have the police. within by this murderous which disproportionis to be branch of industryis in want avoided ? If one of hands. have fear . Let a fourth work make his appearance. " what the other two of hun hoped they will die quietly if they take to thieving But what Never ? ger.SOCIALISM.out of thirty-four created of a men.in the con another by universal competition. we ? We got the hangman. And overstocked ? if. But who of is so would blind as not to see that under the system a unlimited is no ual fall of wages but and necessary population a limit which the contin competition.

general Political Economy.for whom will if you new do thousand the at machine door prives work knock the neighboring workshop. the the lists will combatants. de Sismondi. become machine and too do not. This disproportion a is population M. not. is the inevitable an effect of sys competition. the de of the anathematize workmen of science. According to the the poor than among Statistics of European Population. mother God who to become her soon blaspheme the if you narrow : made for fruitful. is rise to one-twenty-sixth. it for us to say possible given up to the accidents and to of industry industry individual egotism " fertile in ruin no " can ' we say. has explained it by the on for the workmen of hopeful pruimpossibility .the births at of the popula Paris are only one-thirty-second while in the others they tion in the rich quarters. Thus far shalt thou go. and lower the wages of their companions. and farther ?' The the poor increases population constantly: tell and sterile. number unlimited tem of workmen." If there is an undoubted much fact. means It is industrial by of which one the are working-classes forced to exterminate **##*#* " another.it is that the more increase of rapidamong the rich. it to be for A is invented command broken. in his work and fact.40 SOCIALISM. Thus systematic loweringof ending in the driving out of a certain wages.

It is true an the workhouses inundation with acing society what . pp. .SOCIALISM. . 53. this is point society is the poor or reduced to a choice between killing them gratuitously between atrocity maintaining or folly. himself. of the economists political Smith and Leon Say. cheapness the which " According to of Adam word in Blanc. 6. . this is a fact shown by statistics. school is the * may be summed up the See Louis du Travail."* by statistics. this is shown by statistics. he the regulate the their children according to their from who lives day to day to yoke of a mysterious fatality. of of Those morrow only who can feel themselves assured number income is under he it . of beggars " ? escaping from the cause where the It is clear that any society of subsistence increase less rapidlythan means is a society the the numbers of the population. The fruitfulness of the unhappy creatures who upon society poor throws way is there of . the his which sacrifices children as he was sacrificed to men exist. 41 dence. have shown need of work and At cannot find it . 11. this " So middle " much for the poor. Destitution is fearfully prolific . on brink of an abyss Competition produces destitution ." 4me Organisation edition. We now pass to the classes. 57.

advantages of unlimited competition. to one cheapness as a ? No would absurdity.the hammer ness the rich among producers crush their poorer rivals. for the same reason cheapness It-ads to high prices. Under and fallacious cheapness is only a provisional only so long as advantage. consider Ought curse an then. Cheapness is the trap into which the hard-workers. But why the effect of cheapnesswith in considering persist a view only to the momentary advantage of the ? consumer Cheapness is advantageous to the consumer at the cost of ruinous anarchy among the with which is. attempt to maintain of is the specialty such . of the middle the shopkeeper. Competition leads to monopoly. it absorbs small manufacturer. But it wrong to corrupt to turn good into evil and principles the system of competition all things. word. Cheap small scale who has no money to in the can purchase of machinery that his rich easily Cheapnessis the great procure.so to speak. in the instrument the hands of monoply small one . classes for the advantage O of a few oligarchs.42 SOCIALISM. it is. It is maintained have the rich com there is a struggle sooner . daring speculators entice the Cheapness is the sentence of death to the pro ducer invest rivals on a the seeds of introducing the producers. no rivals their poorer than out petitorsdriven prices rise. the de the small struction proprietor.in industrial we.

very competition which of demand.es the work as pecially man whose wages rise and on fall ? Even liable to pre-eminently when productionis carried still often carry it at a loss the manufacturers on. The confusion producedby the universal struggle prevents each producer from knowing the state of the market. and lose their customers because industry as carried on under the tem being nothing else than a the productive competitive sys of chance. dry up the sources urges production to over-supply. stand or the . its tendency . the first among increase of must be ranked inordinate we population. this competition. we cause or producers. because they or idle. hand. shall be compelled to the mass recog con nize the sumers " impoverishmentof as a on of the direct consequence the other to of But. sooner impoverishment among And have if to this cause we add the others which the already enumerated. " we cannot too often insist upon tends to increase supply competitionnecessarily diminish and to consumption .. stroke. the what has been between a made the of use of as a weapon in contest later becomes the consumers. "c.SOCIALISM. tends He must a work in the dark. and trust to chance for sale. game gambler Thus. Why he can should throw are so he check any loss the on supply. material. and will not lose his chance of a lucky it. will risk not let their loss of raw machinery. 4$ Thus.

has introduced Every among venal. and faith. manu by the ill-regu facturing industry transformed seding that by the lated extention of credit into not even a a system the rogue. we declamatory from moral have said nothing of the frightful corrup tion which properly organized. but all poetry " such is the of the hideous only too faithful picture . factory crushing the workshop .self-sacrifice. master the artisan who is his own replaced by the day-laborer by the plow super .or more industry. the showy establishment absorbing the humble shop." it is " And in all this.and bringing the poor field under man's homage to the disgraceful money-lender .in have order to avoid truths sound which become dwelling on commonplaces. of can gam blingwhere no one. as speaking. the middle classes. aspirations. and their very truth. it is at the present day. as is not sought by economic merely oppressivebut science foolish hence well.44 SOCIALISM. bankruptcies multiplied . and competition invades thing has become even the The domain of thought. therefore is the precisely opposite of what . cultivation " spade. stifle. all generous little by little. and jealousy.and hatred. of winning : in sure lated to to arouse be short vast confusion calcu mistrust.disorganized.

The able part of the publicrevenue state o" society developsin its impure existing labor is outcasts. In the first as placethere all other is the army."* The M. 4me edition.but actually destruc tive : adventurers. acknowledged means healthiest and strongest men. beggars. 65 " 66. Organisation 1815. the list of of unproductive labor fostered by be added that of our state Societymust the and of the bar. swindlers. convicts. people with no of living.SOCIALISM. which in France. enumerate the the civilisation in existing 1. the evils of : " Considerant.. magistrates. jailers. . 58" 61. thieves. ." pp. prostitutes. Fourierists. executioners. It order following employs an enormous quantity of labor the and work " of human power or unproductively. Paris. whose atmosphere innumerable not merely unproductive. 45 results obtained by the of the princi application ple of competition. See Louis Bla-c. through their principal organ. "tc.of the courts of law and judicature the police. to the state of society functions indispensable " as * it is. rather to increase To diminish. in countries. absorbs a the of largenumber and a consider the most talented and intelligent. " du Travail. . in of destruction. and tend " others than to whose numbers .

"Destines ed. do nothing to advance taken directions. out of combination. the parcelling of labor and action * without leavingit wholly to individual without organization. who science. See Considerant. 3me Paris. sophists." tome i. in excise-men bailiffs. witnesses.the verbiage of advocates. "Also the numberless custom-house . but produces nothing. philosophers. pleaders.bringsto account. taxofficials. of takes. 1848. down to those of the grocer his counter. 35. ' idlers of all ranks. all the operations And finally "Also the labors " from those of the bankers behind assert and brokers. 37. of commerce. produce more than small portion of employed and with any what they might produce if : " better " directed Who see good-willand the want reflection will coherence " not how much want of the the disorder. doing nothing .46 SOCIALISM. all that which overlooks. any any Sociale. pp. working in mis men.they and the industry are powers to which in the not present system devoted a do production. 36.and produce nothing but disturbance and sterile discussions. army of men short. gatherers. ."c."* that even Secondly. " Also people of pass what their is called lives in ' those who good society . political metaphysicians.

or Does not least waste. the possibilities " which limit at destroy.or commercial.by a good the faculties bestowed by nature . economy. And combin can source of strength? who say industry. agricultural. on all and order ? foresight. 47 causes are large or general views and of production. is organized at the present day either in the state Who in municipalities ? can or say that all the work which is carried on in any of these depart ments is executed or in subordination to any general views. who present each state education. manufacturing. therefore.which each he one in functions be the could himself much ed as would most capable of.SOCIALISM. order our means of action ? dis give birth to poverty. artistic.and on which. whether domestic.scientific. to as order and good want management of combination ation that is a give birth a riches ? Is not as source of weakness. with Or. can say that it is possiblein our of society to develop. again. he to so carry and with others the ? greatest advantage Has it even to been attempted the to solve the so by varieties of character varieties problems present to regulate and as in employments accordance with natural Alas ! The ? aptitudes is to Utopia of the most ardent philanthropists teach reading and writing to twenty-fivemillions of the French people ! And in the present state harmonize of . to of its members which he would employ like.

you will have but con a faint the evil if you do not which sider that to all these vices of society. conceptionof sources dry lie up the of wealth and must prosperity. it is because society is wretchedly consti tuted and labor unorganized. of us. to see one which state in condemnation this where society sometimes not the soil is cultivated ed. and yet where whole masses are continuallyin need of work and piningin misery because they cannot find it r Of a truth we forced to acknowledge that it are the nations are starving it is not be poor and of producing has denied the means nature cause wealth. in so far. added under the many the discord. Ex actly in and you far as establish classes within the nation .SOCIALISM. categories of interests and internal will have opposition warfare either avowed or secret. ill clothed. even if you . in words. war. and strangespectacle. of thingswe " may defy them a to succeed even in that ! And is it not cries out of too. These between the individuals compose to correspond antinomies radical strugglesand discord? oppositions deep-seated " between so the you are various able to interests. " is ill But this is not and all. and man badly cultivat at all. where lodged. but because of the anarchy and disorder in our otliet employment of those means .also.the struggle. names in short and many forms which society cherishes that and cultivates it.

a their innumerable acter " the of depraving char of such distribution occupations. dealers. " ******* " The the * by profits go-between. shopkeepers and emplo}Tds. body. Considerant.of the the for distribut among ing the produce consumers.SOCIALISM. to the interest of the whole body of society. collectively of the consumer of the producer and to that that is to say. who generalanarchy and the non-organizationof trader is a See "Destinee Sociale. 38-40. he can sells to you of the dear as ? interest commercial is contrary and individually."par V."* One of the ideas leading and at of this school time the is the immor wastefulness the same alityof the existing arrangements of the . Has he as of the not valued with much as bought cheap and under possiblein all his dealings very same the. . 49 take into consideration the industrial system only. tome i.the Thus the article which as he vaunting its excellence. pp. producer. country the various enormous in superfluity of distribution' and point of the number agents merchants. of the and trader of the It is evident that the interest consumer is opposed to that producer.

Thus. or at first for the raw materials to be Commerce of with all its methods of buying. both his yoke. of the human great majority of if a would to productive work traders return rational system of commercial organizationwere . worked up. because must sumption under for the productsto be either finally to him come consumed.taking off from productive of the agents of trade labor nineteen-twentieths who mere are parj^ites. of which devices. and altogetherout of proportion to the " services persons " rendered. It robs society and the prothe consumer levied upon profits ducer. up everything. not only docs exorbi rob society an commerce b^ appropriating share of the common tant wealth. levies toll rightand in the hands left . and innumerable raisingand its its lowering prices.50 SOCIALISM. for which a twentieth be of the actually employed would sufficient. he buys industry.It robs societyby the subtraction of its productiveforces. but also by considerablydiminishing the productive energy The beehive. he owns in such sort that " : " ^ and Con Production holds both He Istly. Th c trader buys up products.and the " subordinate. 3rdly. and detains everything. it despotically gives the law to Production it ought to be only and Consumption. holdingeverything of middle-men. ^ * profits by its enormous 2ndly.

of which vast artifi not. Fourier (Th. in consequence quanti ties of and des are goods. 1st ed. competition them it up at the expense of the to make obliges either by raising the prices as some consumer. 51 substituted sent " ^ for the inextricable of chaos of the pre things. ^ "othly.sale. virtuous Hereupon the hundred grocers have to them the profits which before dispute between were honestlymade by the twenty . lish were And in if fact.collected in one place.) says : The ' .' The by the bad quality or the adulteration of goods been ' are incalculable..It robs societyby the adulteration pushed at the present day beyond products. the goods as times happens. 334-. begin to consume it is plain that people will five times as many groceries. Quat. And when the customer thoroughly imposed upon. goods are sold for articles of good qualitywhen is not too experi the credulous customer ever enced has to be deceived. Mouv. In such a state of things there Inferior or adulterated is an end to good faith. no one is obliged price.SOCIALISM. state of all bounds. or by adulterating always happens. I state my people can take or leave. damaged destroyed for want of a . losses imposed on the consumers to buy.It cial or robs society by accumulations. p. the trading conscience consoles itself by saying. in a a hundred where grocers estab there themselves town before not only twenty. 4thly.

for ports. It is society takes of this waste. Cthly.when I was a clerk. which place daily under of fullliberty maxim shelter of the philosophical for " the merchants' ^ robs society. than once to burn even them. whkh in order to publicly burnt stores of cinnamon it cinnamon it did with raise the price. as happened more with the Oriental Company of Amsterdam. Commerce that follows from all the loss.damage. but for the fear of would rest being burnt times occurrence by populace.it to sell the have at corn in order four its value. might have been been less had the withholder profit that bears the cost greedy of gain.and by the multiplication tion of carriage. they have the right to withhold them or to withdraw altogether. I myself. of the commercial systems.have had to superin in one and tend these infamous day proceedings. principle the merchants. What fundamental would have stoned some done with the corn . into the sea be thrown caused to some forty tp rot while thousand sold at a bushels fair of which rice. by moreover. sea actuallyis of daily of grainsto be provisions it the merchants have thrown allowed the because waiting for a rise. that to of leaving full liberty the gives them absolute right of property over goods in which they deal .52 SOCIALISM. and waste of products in millions of the extreme scattering and complica shops. in into them Indeed. .

his means.SOCIALISM. of all pro he actually owns. upon is always the producer and who the consumer suffer . the many manufactures fertile crushed of wealth by how by these I devices. so that bankruptciesfollow one And it another. eight. 53 "c society by shameless and un limited usury appalling. causing widespread ruin. thousand or twelve a scale of four. the goods. the con sumer Trade furnishes credit. . portionwith the capital by innumerable 8thly. pounds. the wealth many blows' up How these dried invests very to proportion which are passes through sources hands. entails bankruptcy of some that of others. It robs society of our for the daily accidents ruptcies. with all their disastrous consequences " The producer furnishes the money. The considered and as a whole. The usury absolutely with fictitious capital. " bank commer cial system. for does in its not commerce. Thus he draws from capitalwhich he trader with a does not possess. on credit. little produce wealth. A much higher in amount " Tthly. blow whether fraudulent not. must to his creditors. must day the trader. political usher in a and when any kind of disturbance. his severe having is no incurred obligations beyond to or longer able meet them be .It robs " hundred of twelve pounds capital of bills and will carry on by means operations. events. trader carries on operations than his real capital. usurious out interest. a failure.

It robs society by a considerable will return which to drawing off of capital. founded on little or no actual different members no of the and capital. small as it is. despoils ^. in few theory of the thing. This. Thus consumption the communistic of com the capital engaged in the speculations merce (which.Commerce which permitsit to pendenceand irresponsibility buy at the epochs when the producers are forced to sell and. " whole procure money for their rent and necessary ex penses of overstocked Then manoeuvre " it the markets are production. When and goods cheap. lOthly. and is only an agency proper the producers carryingon transactions between and the great centres of (more or less distant) societies.and their the most intermediate became distribution of administrative odious organization. and by this simple both producer and consumer. in order to one words.54" SOCIALISM. compared to the wealth which immense passes through its hands. compete with another. commerce plays its productive industry when subordinate part. form Stock jobbing is commerce. creates a rise. of this vice of . commerce was of to sums enormous in them return stimulate the production if pro a perty matter in deprivedof goods. robs societyby the inde 9thly. " consists nevertheless would selves). trade purchases. commercial body are the in a way for responsible is the one another.

' des Quat.. who first works sent .all I these are vices. Mouv. and small profits themselves is often long before they can repay the rise in priceswhich the monopoliser has com pelledthem to support in the first instance. are the rise in priceon articles that bought up. to Then it passes to the hands merchants." " In short.Th. is borne by the consumer.SOCIALISM. . onlythrough the greedy clutches are some of commerce . great retail again to the little each time dealers and to the country shops . it leaves something be of towns. complicationof do not pass once multipliedby the extreme for products mercantile affairs.the raw of commerce passes through the grasp reaching the manufacturer then to be before it up. it in the hope of better days . and that it changes hands. who. . 1st ed. and hind it. monopolising For' (says ' Fourier. there or which pass and repass twenty consumer. In times before reachingthe thirty material the first place.. being obliged to keep up their establishments. buying It robs up of societyby raw the materials. it returns to commerce to be out again so worked up in a second form and on until it receives into its final of shape. 55 " or IHhly. must and at make manufacture pecuniary sacrifices. 359..besides many others which omit. although in ultimately the first place by the manufacturers.). who these these the sell the wholesale dealers and dealers. p.

had occasion enter house peasant who was a the price.. ploring is where working the in metal of He a done. ' for 8d. asked answered ing. to the trade. a retails them could find a at Is. economist not an of common I sell them sense ... parties they are placed under circumstances * buy from some By this proceeding which i. country places.towns.5G SOCIALISM.iii. we between you them for Is.. See Considerant. it conveyed from place and to have small scale. and in cities.' at manufacturer Let us of shovels. edition. means If you of the opening workman direct and the communication consumer. 1848. chap. One . of my friends much to who was ex lately the Jura. in practice is to induce now a principle largeportion of society to devote their lives to and a a distribute wealth upon a medium. in43-. large." tome Sine. part 2. . This of principle who"e distribution is to makes a class in society business and to sell to others. . " Destinee Sociale. 8d. pp. to meet or to place in larger the means and wants of various divisions of situated as they are now societyand individuals.and " should each might have gain Qd. by Book the the transaction. .' To a * similar effect Owen. to an ' come understand but all.which in the towns. a man the poor laborer. Paris. in the of New " Moral The World. 2d. villages. ". smaller quantities.

SOCIALISM.

57

duce

them

to
a

endeavor
low

to

pricein again at the greatest permanent profit which Their real objectbeing to get they can obtain. the seller to, and much as as gain between profit be effected in their the buyer from them, as can
at the time

buy at what appears the market, and to sell

transactions. and principle which evils in practice necessarilyproceedfrom the wealth of society. of distributing this mode
"

There

are

innumerable

errors

in

"

1st. A

whose

general class of distributers is formed, interest is separatedfrom, and apparently
of the
whom

opposed to, that they buy and to
"

individual

from

whom

they sell.
are

2nd.

Three

classes of distributers and the

made, dealers,
created

the small, the medium, sellers ; and
"

largebuyers and
wholesale

or

the

the retailers, merchants.
classes

the extensive 3rd.
Three

buyers constitute the small, the medium,

of

thus and

the

large

purchasers.
By this arrangement into various classes of the partiesare trained easily buyers and sellers, that they have separate and opposing to learn
"

interests, and

different

ranks

and

stations

in

society.
is thus

An

of feeling and inequality and

condition all the

created

maintained, with

these unequal arrange and pride which servility to sure ments are produce. The partiesare
i (

;

trained il;uly

in

a

general system

of

deception,

58

SOCIALISM.

in order

that

they

may

be the

more

successful

in

dear. buying cheap and selling The smaller sellers acquire habits of injurious idleness, waiting often for hours for customers. this evil is experiencedto a considerable And
"

extent dealers.
"

even

amongst

the

class

of

wholesale

There

are,

also, by this arrangement,
for than selling
are

many
neces

more

establishments
in the

towns, and cities ; and a very villages, benefit to without largecapitalis thus wasted society. And from their number opposed to each the country to obtain other all over customers, to undersell each other, and are they endeavor therefore continually endeavoring to injurethe producer by the establishment of what are called cheap shops and warehouses ; and t :j support
sary

their character be

the

master

or

his servants

must

on continually

the

watch

to

that buy bargains,
the cost of its

to is,

procure

wealth

for less than

production.
"

The

small, medium, distributers,
be

have the

all to

greaterthe the with the latter,
\vhich
the of

large, and supportedby the producers, number of the former compared

and

number of

greater will be the burden producer has to sustain ; for as the distributers increases, the accumulation
must

wealth

decrease,and

more

must

be

re

quired from
"

The

producer. distributers of wealth, under

the

the present

SOCIALISM.

59

system, are
and
are

a

most

the producers, upon Their of society. active demoralises dead

weight

dependent condition,at
their

the

commencement

of

task, teaches

or

induces
to

them

to to

be servile be
so as

to their

customers, and

continue

accumulating wealth by their cheap buying and dear selling.But when they have secured sufficient to be what they imagine business to be an independence to live without they are too often filled with a most ignorant insolent to their dependents. and become pride,
long as they
are
" "

most a arrangement is altogether whose interest it providentone for society,
"

The

im is to

of wealth of the produce the greatest amount the existing best qualities system of dis ; while tribution is not only to withdraw great numbers but to add from producing to become distributers,
to

the*cost of the
wasteful
and

consumer

all the expense

of
;

a

most

extravagant distribution distribution co.sting to the consumer many the priceof the original cost of the wealth
chased.
":

the

times pur

Then, by

the

positionin
desire

which for

the
on

seller is
the
one

placedby
hand, and

his created the

gain

with competition he meets opponents selling similar productions on other,he is strongly tempted to deteriorate articles
arc

from

the the
these

which

he

has

for sale ; and

when

of

provisions,either of home production or the effects upon the health, foreign importation,

death.of cloth. by carriage. " pervades the present Considerant adds : " constitution If the freedom facturers wine-growers wish ruins the producer of for free trade. and consequent comfort are consumers. society." further The illustration person of and the contrarietyof class and of interests between person. is unfavorable to the keeping of such articles in less in the best.including transit from and all the agents directly and place to place. wealth in distributing Great Britain and Ireland. in this inferior low-priced articles.60 SOCIALISM. the and " manu we iron. to much happinessof the and produc injurious. especially among and perhaps made purchasing the " """"" " be the or respect. per haps. and stituting by being divided into small quantities. this of corn.who.con " tolerablygood. indirectly engaged in this department. are by greatest sufferers.of cotton. and kept in im in which the atmosphere proper stores and places. is.which M. often most tive of the premature working classes. add " are compelled to the smuggler and the customs' . "lass. without taking into consideration the deteriora of the articles con tion of the qualityof many this wealth.little short of one hundred millions annually.and much expense of thus dition In for use.

the mason hail-storms which and windows that the the archi profitby fires . all the lawyers' were and if crimes. and of work cannot at one who know work. by drunkenness be for the judges. GO. If it is the interest of the machines should l"e invented consumer that which lower prices same by rendering production machines men less these costly. 59. then. coats. In short. the lawyer is enriched by law-suits . again are a is of the innumerable vicious circles of civilisation for there which prove thousand in our facts cumulativelythat it go find some existing- social system the introduction of any good brings and come always alongwith " evil. shoes. the wine-seller : the prostituteby debauchery. 61 officer. And what a disaster it would the police.pp.the shoemaker. Sociale.that " which civilisation. find other Here. throw do not out of work thousands to.if we lower that down to we vulgardetails. . Destinee i. at once law-suits all to come to an end ! "* The is one following : " of the cardinal points of this school " Add to all this.and the as jailers. the doctor by disease . how once.offences.. and that the break tect be by profits glazier . hats should the soon that out . it is the and interest of hatter worn the tailor. clerks. well as for the barristers and and the solicitors.SOCIALISM."tome sows * Consiilerant.

weariness and dislike. they will always and degradation be the slaves to ignorance . classes. they will continue to be always that huge herd of . and direct creators of all comfort and the active to touch luxury. I say. to have for its motive and pivotnothing but the fear of starva tion. that all will avoid it who are able. demned to The civilised workman is con So long as produc penal servitude. characteristic of civilised labor. will always be condemned on closely poverty and hunger . is the great."32 SOCIALISM. and his occu the clerk complain of his position while they long for the time when they pation. that its system has for produce a repugnance labor. With work the few who most those only will consent to exceptions. the fatal. in . " characteristic to special for work a disgustfor " the artisan. Everywhere you hear the laborer. Hence are compelled to it by want. To be repugnant. which employs more a great part of or even its powers unproduc further un tive labor in destruction the which diminishes public wealth discord by the this necessary friction and add to it introduces into same industry . tive labor is so organized that instead of being with associated pleasure it is associated with it will always happen pain. numerous the artificers of social wealth. retire from work can imposed upon them by necessity. social all this. dissension and war on every side .

commun- the reduction Considerant. there is to one nothing but poverty that will force men labor. " of all the rest of the Sociale. by disease. which truth hear from the mouths or selves easy and to Christians understand day quoted as an eternal of people who call them philosophers." all the work now In the of the opinionof the Fourierists. acterized by the dislike of work. the to a tendency concentra is present order of society in the rich tion of wealth hands of a comparatively or few and * immensely individuals companies. for. ' every hateful saying. And the proof of this is. It is very that oppression. trickery. 61." tome Destinee i. the permanent and of every fatal appanage state of societycl:rrin this case. 63 mere beasts of burden whom we see ill-grown. must a we method of attractive labor has to been ' it will many a continue poor mean be true that there there be be in and order that may few rich .bowed down in the great the plow or over the workshop of society over the delicate counter..SOCIALISM. that if every of all the workers were to become suddenly of * rich. nineteen-twentieths done would be abandoned. and the sumptuous enjoyments of the upper " decimated and idle classes. 60. are especially poverty.pp. . that they may prepare food. no So long as devised.

land Conside'rant and regards of " as mortgages of a capital the country. receiving an without or risk increasing portion of the revenues. greater and co-proprietors. * Considerant " Destinee Sociale. minority the absorbs all its while or great majority. assisted progress of national debts" of the M. This termed " Fourier jeodalite industriellc Conside'rant. on them. chained on to the work-bench tent to laboring the the soil. in which les capitalistes preteurs greater labor measure. ity was into a complete by dependence la M."* This disastrous the in our mere result is to be of brought about as partly by sketched progress competition." tome i. become. p. 134. previous by the extract Louis Blanc which whole " .64 SOCIALISM. must which is be cast con gnaw pittan2e to them. . " 'Ihis feudalism/' as soon says as would of the be constituted and to a the largest part cf the industrial territorial property which nation belongs revenues.. by M.

economic of the by which . I and ignorance causes facts. IT is to deny impossible to notice that the considerations brought out a in the precedingchapter make against the existing man case frightful either order of himself should the which case or society. But question strongest it will from the of exaggeration susceptible . say any once I do not for all.thau the ^^6S^c* wanting in most of representations the candid Socialists. of rejection have rules practical of policy which been mean laid down by of politicalecono economic the mists. evident I have to and have been many readers. much and of the much evils to be referred is to how other.even su^ the passages tion is not ablest and quoted. of their is the is unanswerable. to the How one. Though not a much little . allegations errors result of let me in political economy mean by the which. has is the be principaltheoretic resolved.SOCIALISM. C6 THE SOCIALIST ORDER OBJECTIONS OF TO THE PRESENT SOCIETY EXAMINED. againstthe position of in this world.

ivr"'"Ll"uutry in the civilized world tltC-rc the where in ordinarywages or of labor. phenomena % of as society it are is. any tolerable that alleged a But. the increase . are. It yet to proved L ". branches ally. a depressed. while many an they the whole. occasion slower. but more rapid. but . of industrywhich being gradu in and. diminish .estimated either money in articles of in consumption.are are. allysupersededby something else. that there une. deteractually ruined. on declin on ing . . it is In the first place wages unhappilytrue all the that the of ordinary labor. until wages those.which evil.in countries of to Europe. has and be to notorious facts. baisse continue des salaires tion to the assertion is in opposi many that all accurate information. are and physical in wretchedly insufficient moral supply the population it remun necessities of the measure. and not increase which There are is becoming. words Louis Blanc. accommodates production are itself to is an demand. tendency of M.66 SOCIALISM. when this insufficient to is further even eration has in the is.

each of them of evil weigh heavier on individually and There is much evidence improvement. some of wages is in any leading branch necessary always or found of to compare month year and temporary depression at special the present excep vicissi were as time. an even increased. . economy.but they in now. frequent economical and severe former The periods of historyas greater scale of of per the transactions. may make a the fluctuation appear but greater. To appearance of diminution of in the rate it industry. some of of the or in remuneration. or even some tionally high rate.SOCIALISM. of *r . with the average rate. The doubt as a great evil. other . and sons the greater number involved in each fluctuation.-*""- in the presentsystem of social thus diminution some produced of the reward labor in and particular employment of increased is the effect or the a new evidence source remuneration.at tudes are no an earlier time. temporary tion A even one. and would admit of great allevia-. more though larger does populationaffords not the sufferers. the total and average remuneration being make out undiminished.

Louis while showing Blanc. Louis ten irrepressible dency. its be always grow ing more difference is that the this an early Malthusians thought M. more him self much than enlightened the older school as of levellers and democrats. there or is any appearance and of can contrary it is local traced either to partial. pressure always be the some temporary or calamity. none. that is at all of of deterioration. in the mode of the livingof of the laboringpopulation when countries to the Europe . while Blanc thinks that it can . a that of supposing that power upon severe.appears error fallen into the which his was first committed by Malthus because and followers.inasmuch between of same he recog and the to at nizes the connection low wages over-rapid increase have population.68 SOCIALISM. all operate in direction of improvement. therefore. trustworthy. has population greater pressure of increase subsistence The than must subsistence. M. or act to some bad law unwise of government while the the which per admits manent of causes being corrected.

It is it comes a a system of Com munism. partlyby the of the rapid increase of the employing increased and maintaining labor. to have to deal with. a for their respec power of systems this pre-eminent dealing be. on though con great.SOCIALISM. is necessity admitted by most con chiefs of all and schools existing less than of Social 11. it is much be the at rejoiced that this siderable ism. the order existing And would society. ex However difficulty. .no Blanc. Louis Owen Fourier.partly by opened to facilities to new labor and for itself transporting of em countries unoccupied fields a ployment. admitted tive with and claimed it. population which a is the cause principal of low wages. 69 be but only under repressed.the progress tion has more a is called civiliza tendency to diminish means it. that of in this may perienceshows the society the existingstate of pressure on subsistence.is not an evil increasing of all that the trary.and partlyby generalimprovement . great point gained for truth be seen when to that the tendency to as is a over-population well as fact which of Communism.

of with dealing successfully of population on is much subsistence.and gradually. improve laws do out though slowly. much while but it is that such we are progress take first placeat all.rising ment this bad is likely to be ' if progressive not interfere with .prove /"''But it has sole means no be to its strongest. provement specified to discussion est power sure is. still only in stage of that of the whole must publicmovement people. no prudence of the popula doubt.of course. perhaps. and intelligence This progress.and to questionthere what was be be one said for Socialism its weakest of long thought to to point \\rjll. tion. what form of has society the the on great pres this . as just claim be considered the of preventing the generaland the mass grow ing degradationof the of mankind through tendency peculiar of poverty to produce over at population. Society as not present constituted is descending into that abyss.which greatlyto the for the education when more advanced two causes add of im open force of all the It above.70 in the SOCIALISM.but of it. should the is slow .

one-sided see have the a very imperfect and notion half of its operationof competition. they regard every one's it as an agency " grinding down one remuneration less wages obligingevery labor. They overlook for for the other half . of remuneration. on prevents them from fallingstill In truth. that the buyers of one labor and as of commodities as compete with another well the sellers . which one be true or only if every his commodi the had to some disposeof his labor ties to tion and great monopolist. and that if it is competition which and of labor keeps the prices as commodities as low they are. even be observed the most enlightened of them. 71 that Socialists gene Next. of They forget that is competition as cause and values high prices well as of low .SOCIALISM.or would a to accept his for his less price for commodities. L is competition which lower. when both its sides. and level inequalities to reduce . side. equalizeit . competi were all a on one. it must and rally. or competition is perfectlyfree tendency lower the is not either specially to to raise to to but priceof articles. and effects.

he commands market demand any price he pleases. (no doubt a result which. it must the the other hand have credit on for keeping down wages are pricesof the articles which expend depend ed. higher prices because of "can the richest competitor has the got rid and the all his rivals. com as said in quotationfrom the M. we To meet our this consideration Socialists.disre effects of garding for the time that part of in competitionwhich we consists on keeping up prices. principles. Louis are reduced to affirm that low of prices modities and produced by competition are to delusive lead in the end when than before. But the Socialistic dcsi Table. to the of the would and so seem that if competition keepsdown motive to gives a the laboringclasses the withdraw ence the labor market from full influ on of if they can. on imperfectly).72 SOCIALISM. if. in so far realized very is. keeping them fix our attention its effect in down. . all to as a generalaverage. Blanc. competition. Now. and to solely contemplate this interest effect in reference it laboringclasses. wages. to the great advantage of those who on wages.

beingon a too vast scale to be within this is the reach one of individual reasons capi busi talists . /The nor can richest competitor neither and rivals. does get in rid of all his establish market .SOCIALISM. himself exclusive of possession any the and of it is not or industry the fact that commerce important branch among formerlydivided shows of a many come. varied the by the the purpose insuringto publica cheaper supply of ed its wants than would be afford of sufficient by privateinterest in the absence . and nesses of the why on which require to be carried by great to com cannot joint-stock enterprises be trusted but. prescribed. 73 that this state of commonest experienceshows under things. ought to not reserved on by under the State to be carried time of conditions and. is wholly reallyfree competition. when petition. imaginary. or any tendency to be monopoly of as few. has the become.for from to time. State.' is sometimes The kind policydescribed in the case pos sible where. of the only railways. two or competition possibleis between three the operations great companies. itself.

among which the business is . drive out a all the Some of the a businesses hands smaller show tendency pass out of many number small producers or dealers into the cases of largerones are . But in rich the ordinarybranches it in of his industry no power to one competitor has smaller' to ones. When parasites change either individual the larger effected. jointstock. laboring waste diminishing. economical thus mode of carryingon and enables the large dealer legiti mately and permanently to supply the commodity cheaper than the can be done on the small scale . more or a better organized busi and ness. but in which session of more more this of a happens those in which the the pos larger capitalpermits adoption powerful machinery. to and great advantage of the consumers. there fore of the and classes.more "V efficient(by expensive) processes. that of the resources munity so much the complained of by Socialists.74 SOCIALISM. pro of the com tanto. capitalists. mere unnecessary and of the of multiplication various distributors. Fourier other classes whom this calls the is or of industry. competition.

In former were for quality. other are equallyimportant. if ever. and on his retaining furnished those that he had when a dealer .of competi operation.SOCIALISM. Socialists which the charges brought by not do competition against an answer.xt. real. 75in as divided. securityfor nor both. may growing. respects.not But in there fact. afterwards. few competition so shall not continue to act between them. add. them that in cost. so any that considerable of commerce. to prices. prices wages we are those including is not which expended. security consumers times. the tion in keeping down on of commodities. when it not producersand was a less numerous. on. therefore.which -.ing . is a illusive but a and.-Ii the small to first. are branch seldom. admit the a of best so complete Competition is no means securityfor but by cheapness. enabled to uncleras continues dealers. means The of a market was largeenough enable a the sufficientto publicity fortune : dealer to make cus by continuallyattractingnew his success tomers depended . declining. at be passed The in lower their customers.

the fact it was soon known ed more a to those whom concerned. while now same the much dealers of greater fortunes the made by the the excite and cupidity of all.more . increases seem greater prizes to be within reach. -advertises has obtaining the character they prices which to a a The are tradesman for one known. thousand or who discovered for himself learned from others. when he did not.76 or good articles. greed modest rapid gain substitutes a itself for desire to make In this manner. the great scale of modern the the great multiplicationof immense increase in the are competition quantity so and of business competed for. as livingby wealth their business. while their low far less certaintyof deserve. SOCIALISM. than at the that the bad . and he acquir or character for honest him dishonest the dealingof would on importanceto than gain that be made by cheating casual purchasers.But with transactions.dealers permanent essential to customers little dependent on less that character is much there is also them.an quality of their the goods is more for equivalent time some cheapness .

even forms perilous. the honest Thus of dealer placedat a terrible a disadvantage. terrible pecuniary This is improbity the stimulus. higher pricefor is and article. that the article is not not worth the lower a and price.but at if first.SOCIALISM. of but all. an any intensity has a reached a.th.e the temptation. and prevailsnot only the simplest maxims the most receive a prudence disregarded. for the on adopt have of the fraudulent . them originated public are the low pricesfal do not find laciously produced by out the frauds. the frauds. height. that when this It is further be men tioned certain of. begun by few. complaint. such adulteration. so increase of which "cu ol.. become customs . ever. the meaning of what is called intensityof to modern competition.. 77" into are- and more of a is introduced gambling spirit where this of commerce .andwhen or portionof the producers to article the dealers of in it have as resorted of the modes fraud. givingshort there is now measure. a they better will go on pa}7in:. to not aware much these would is immense who practises.

are laws againstcom execu very and their defective. far it is It is still to be to repress discovered how possible class of by means of the criminal are now law a misdeeds the which seldom brought before the brought. They in specially need of public prosecutor. Laws of this have description unless it is chance of being really enforced of some one the specialduty are to a enforce them.to the of the people.and is more SOCIALISM.however. tion still more no so. lenient. is most and tribunals. the classes morality of the trading deteriorated. to which. articles those of affect the priceor qualityof be in a dailyconsumption. the existence grows not and really only of tends greatevil. when of most administration judicial this country unduly ever.can great measure . The how important class. that the means has society yet used of which are already The in its power with grappling mercial frauds this evil. mass of these which frauds. point.78 the trade. have a and this out more On made but Socialists therefore. with must of one which of to grow the growth populationand wealth^AEt never be said.

however.SOCIALISM. the nature imperfect over of the control which at can be exercised them and by the body of large. and enabled pass the retail dealers the obtain their articles direct or. The great success rapid growth the system prove. co-operative '" overcome by the institution By this plan any into to an body of consumers who form themselves are association over for the purpose.The the skill difficultiesof the trustworthiness plan consist in the and and required in managers. 79 of stores. what from wholesale whole merchants. j Dis tribution thus becomes performed by who agents selected and interest in ness paid by the have no anythingbut cheapnessand good the distributors to to be are of the article . and capable of being thus which the reduced work the numbers quantity of done really requires. sale from the and is better (now been that have co-operative agencies the established). that these difficulties . tax same now heavy at the paid to time the classes distributing the eliminate and a trators of adulterations other work those frauds. from themselves thus freeing producers.

80

SOCIALISM.

are,

in

some

tolerable

overcome. degree,

At

all

events, if the beneficial tendency of the competi
tion of retailers in gone, and is promotingcheapness

fore

has to be

by replaced
the

other
same

securities,

the mischievous
tion in rid

tendency of

competi
rate

quality is deterioratiDg
the

at

any

got

of; and
shows without

prosperityof
this benefit
to

the

co-operative
not

stores

that

is obtained

only

detriment
to

but cheapness,

with

great advantage
concerns

of the since the profits it,
to return to the
consumers

enable them

a

largepercentage on
them.

the

price of

every

article

to supplied

So far,therefore, as effectual

this class

of

evils

is

concerned,'an

remedy

is

which, though suggestedby already in operation,
and

partly grounded
with the

on

socialistic

is principles, of

consistent

existing constitution

property/'
With

regard to

those

greater and
or

more

con

spicuous economical

frauds,
which

malpractices
many
"

equivalentto frauds, of
able
cases

so

deplor

have

become and

notorious

committed them-

by

merchants

bankers

between

SOCIALISM.

81

selves
trusted
as

or

between
them

them

and

those such

who
a

have

with

money,

remedy
the

above

described which

is not the

available, and

only
of

resources

present constitution
are a

societyaffords against them
a

sterner

reprobationby opinion, and by the law. repression
dies has It is
on

more

efficient
reme

Neither
to
an

of these

had
the

any
occurrence

approach

effectual trial. that these

of insolvencies
to

dishonest

usually come practices
their
not place,

light ;

the

take perpetrators

in

the class of debtors
were

malefactors, but
and the laws

in that

of

insolvent

;

of this and savage of

other

countries

formerly so
that

against simple insolvency,
reactions
are

by

one

those

to

which

the
came

opinions of
to be

mankind

insolvents liable,

regardedmainly
to be

as

objectsof compassion,
the hand both

and

it seemed and

thought that

of law
too

of

publicopinion could
them.

hardlypress
in
a

lightly upon

By

an

error

contrary

direction to the
in the

ordinaryone

of

our

law, which

punishment

of offr.nces in

general wholly
the

the questionof reparation to neglects

sufferer,

82

SOCIALISM.

our

bankruptcy laws

have

for

some

time

treated

the recovery

for creditors of what almost the sole

is left of their

property as

scarcelyany object,

importance beingattached
the

to the

punishment of
which
does
not

bankrupt

for any

misconduct that

directlyinterfere
For three
or

with

primary
has
one

purpose.
been bank
a

four years

past there
more

and counter-reaction, slight

than

ruptcy gent

act

has been

somewhat passed, but
the

less indul

to the

bankrupt ;
stillbeen

primary object
of

regardedhas
the

the

pecuniary interest
the

and creditors, the

in criminality

bankrupt
number with

himself, with
of

exception of

a

small

well-marked

offences,gets off almost
be in

impunity.

It may least the

there affirmed, confidently this

fore,that, at
not

country, societyhas
of

exerted

power

it possesses

making

mercantile
tor.

dishonesty dangerous to the perpetra
the it contrary,
is is
a

On

gambling
on

trick in

which

all the
:

advantage
the trick

the

side of the
his is at

trickster

if

succeeds
if it

it makes

fortune,
most

or

preserves
to

it ;

fails,he
was

reduced

poverty, which

perhaps

which subjectapart.commercial among dishonesty cannot of prevalence cial ranked evils the commer which from inseparable competition. and other to Unionists of partisans the Labor relates against Capital. and the Until a by but many among and have. and not when he determined to run he is classed the by those who even have looked who the rational into closely matter.SOCIALISM. I forbear is a present to speak But with land.there is the popular notions for instance. "20.000 income of When. in respectto capitalemployed in business. mode been of moral dealing with and culpablein solvency has tried be is failed. not among infamous more unfortunate. in his invests capitalist business. whicti the proportionsin produce the of the of country is really what is shared diverted other of the and amount actually enrich from those who produce it. 83 already impending the chance.and draws from it an . a a great deal of illusion.to for the persons. point on Another which there is much mis as apprehensionon of Trades the well as part of Socialists.

000 own and "2. support or enjoyment of any is What is so what (including applicable or laid out in and keeping up renewing the buildings away to is paid instruments) their form laborers.000 condiown ton use.000 to his over control legal and might it. applyingno part of fie has the the "20. of the "2. share in the ing remuneration of the and For their all division produce. that he only obtains is.000 income year his long as he derives from he capital the use has not the of others. the laborers nothing but their The truth. while wages.000 (suppose) is as a year. instruments are and to production applied the to applicable one. "2. squander it not if he chose. did he would As have an the "2. the common impression both if he was the beneficial of the owner of the "20. buildings. personalpur has but on poses and they have the capital it to only yields is he him the which profits. consists of of not optionof withholdingit As from much of his invested and capitalas other machinery.how on ever. are production.000. that the condition itself capital employed in satisfying .but a if he also.84 SOCIALISM.

of his as small part only belongsto The the owner capital. apart the insurance against loss. a being obliged to commercial crisis. but the those of laborers. at J per cent. On securityof mortgage .. 85 not his own wants. not and varied considered sent the best have at the pre prices (which years)about much per for cent.SOCIALISM. re sell out low pricein risks may some Estimating these maining 3 per cent. many Even "risk three one-third some in this investment there is of little risk of at risk repudiation. The proportionwhich bear to of capitalusually profits to the itself (orrather capital the ratio circulating capitalist's portionof it)is share of the of which to the own the produce bears Even him aggregate share share of a the laborers. since that the of to obtains capital when the he contributes nothing Now productionexcept interest of itself.the considered from a be as the remuneration of capital. capi portionof merely as the produce which falls to tal is capital measured is all that by the interest owner of money. capital the are in capital to be the funds. which public is security.

86 SOCIALISM. money be induced is there to them So " little " reason for the outcry against usury .of case capital by mismanage the Brighton Eailway.. sold is lent than When one money the high rates of interest hears of. by the surplus companies. is generally obtained. for example. could shares be which for at had more been 120 43. it is because the risk great that to lend few who at possess all. interest mere when the principalis money independentlyof as exertion yieldsa larger income. and not of which. the chance a having law to realize and great cost the charges. as in the of the dividend per annum. shares is it sometimes other does. are but in this transaction " there considerably greater risks titles to land under of in our the of uncertainty bad system of law the at security . the When to delay in liability even receiptof safe. per nothing to 1| bought about at cent. the risk of in railway or an hardly ever or for equivalent the losing the whole.rates only given by spend occassionally thrifts and of loss is can so needy persons. after sunk to from having been 6 per cent. 4 per cent. ment. part.

and be appliedto safely be but requiresto losses when kept occur. were from can no capital than about 3 per If he be able set down to the capitalitself. facturer his Of the or which therefore. use. what to proportion the same skill and indus try would command if offered for hire. he worse risk than that that of the being out of employment. the whole and willingto give up of this to them his the laborers.SOCIALISM. on the other hand. runs a But. profits. cent. in business other person more obtains cent. in reserve cover those is pro they The remainder perlythe " remuneration of his skill and industry the wages of his labor of superintendence. a beyond 3 per great part is insur againstthe cannot manifold losses he is his to own exposed to. who whole from wages obtains ance already capitalas the share among of his year it is annually reproduced to to year. 87 as one of the burthens grievous of the workinga manu classes.^^ in doubt wages of if he is very of his are successful business these and quite out extremely liberal. addition their Of weekly what he would be inconsiderable. of doing .

or by suppressionof " sary of other distributors/and parasites indus- . but not amount advantage be estimated from by the the great prizesalone. grounded on what superintendence. no skilled will doubt. the market remains when the priceof be. considerable.of having anxiety without the drawbacks no the labor and not the wages. compared the entire capital of dis it country. to the and of it added make be made a share of the to labor share it would less addition that than in would by the any important invention unneces machinery. of some /(.88 SOCIALISM./! the do say that balance privi the em or leges. and for deduct the balance compensation the and skill.instead ent of a skilled to superintend the out letting of his his services must others .but to yet. anxiety. annually reproduced and wages. work without earninganything by it.i we subtract gains from the a losses fair of others. labor of both. that he derives makes advantage a from which position him and capitalist ployer of labor. the it is very pensed in appears the whole ers much smaller than were to popular imagination.

To the debts this must of . for or past less be folly or shared added and as rulers. of course.however. the privateindividuals this tenure I reserve.SOCIALISM.but to include that which paid has the former unprois of capital which and out no been ductively spent paid. for question for of land discussion be hereafter in any might varied manner . landowners other unproductiveconsumers borrowed except so far spent in the money may have of been the remunerative powers self " improvement As for productive property of land I it of the land. Of debts. the landed the rent as of appropriation " by said.more by the nation the interest on itself. longer exists.and the of produce of other capital. which with this nature is the is the interest of national a cost nation is burthened and for past difficulties of profligacy its or dangers. ." To complete the estimate.. 89 try. the of the goes at to portionof remunerate produce of industrywhich must not capital we earned out stop the the interest of the in is produce by capitalactuallyemployed must owners producing it. have .

towards their slow /Moreover the in inequalities the distribu tion of the however produce may not means between the and capital labor. It seemed of the desirable to begin the these discussion remarks Socialist question by in abatement of 'Socialist issues in order exaggerations. a as many of Socialists into state generalindigenceand Socialism suffered can save slavery from which only us. under not the present system the they are on increasing. that the true between Socialism be is and the existing sta"eof societymight ceived. considered clared the with fering desirable. afford the by so their equalisation fund as by any large a for raising lower levels of remuneration Socialists. the diminu generaltendency is tion. without the the inter right of property product of human in anything labor and which is abstinence.all the land might be de property of the State. natural they shock feelingof mere would justice. con correctly /The present system believe. hurrying us not. . Theeyilsand are injustices but great.90 SOCIALISM. contrary.

apt to suppose. find the answer And if we to this question more intellectual difficult. 91 and There many besides any are Socialists. is time on is satisfac us tory to reflect that there before an for the questionto work itself out experimental we scale. by actual trial. What is incumbent two is a calm 01 comparison between with society. than it usually thought. as affording in the the of guiding principles to improvements necessary system of give the present economic society its best chance/ . pre is not one abuse or now injustice which vailingin societyby merely abolishing the human race would pass out of on into suffering us happiness. and moral and more dependentupon is conditions.SOCIALISM. but thajXthe intellectual Socialism deserve the many and most cases moral atten- grounds o of tive study. that no I believe shall find other test is possibleof the practica of Socialist arrange or beneficial operation bility ments . them a different systems view of determining which for overcom ot affords the greatestresources ing the inevitable difficultiesof life.

privatepro to be are perty and individual competition super seded are on and other motives a to action substituted. whose There '*-~". Among two call themselves may be Socialists.--oine of them avow their purpose in their that the working classes.. entire country . which plans for a order of in society. the those place.or take somebody behalf. or the scale of would be village community appliedto such an town and ship. more thoughtful philo sophicSocialists generally.should possession . kinds are. THE DIFFICULTIES those of who OF SOCIALISM. as one central And with the general authority. propose stroke. in new persons first distinguishes!. and of Fourier. by of the' this of multiplication character and the are units self-acting the systems of Owen. themselves is the much ^ f bolder Their scheme management of the whole productiveresources of the country by ment.-^. who than of product of and may the Continent Great ary Britain be called the to revolution a Socialists.". The are more a other class. govern this view .C2 SOCIALISM.

its capabilities by populationand and trial.and under exchange the amount and of its good realised the im present system.and general benefit. provement. too. become shown engine of subver it had itself capable of being It is not so also a means of reconstruction. : with the other new the aim the of that old at a is to substitute the to rule for singlestroke. . into for a of largepossibilities any plunge without form preparation problem of the most the extreme of the of the power carryingon whole the round motive of operations which has It social life without alwavs hitherto worked the social machinery. . 93 of all the it for the property of the country. difficulties and many The former. be forms the administer /Whatever difficulties of the first of must / these two of Socialism.the the same second involve evidently more.SOCIALISM. ex TTcan tended be tried first on to others as select their education cultivation order permit. and in the natural an of things would sion until not. has the great advantage be can that it can brought into operation progres prove a and sively. It need not.

of Socialism will be of the most revolution form conveniently . which the Robespierre and instances came St. must be this acknowledged game on that those who would own play the strength as of their opinion. however. Just. peculiarities.and and bloodshed frightful if the misery " would attempt in was resisted own must on have the a serene confidence and the a their wisdon one hand recklessness of other on sufferings people's other./ Nevertheless of has great elements and which popularity form it of cautious has reasonable what Socialism do it to not. do because to professes out promises to quickly. hitherto united typical of those attributes.unconfirmed private yet by any ex perimental verification^rwho would prive all who existence have now de forcibly a comfortable physical of preserv of their would that only present means brave the ensue ing it. scarcely this scheme the more up to.D4 SOCIALISM.and i/f seeing the in their The ary own holds hope the enthusiastic whole time of their and at a aspirationsrealised blow.

This necessitydepends in the and is inherent condition human life .buildof / instruments production . fixed the and buildings.SOCIALISM. and all that is con it). In words. and power undertaking long operations and time be in a waiting a other of considerable must for their fruits. the costlymachinery. that circulating. there largeaccumulation implements is and in both capital. of production.except upon abundant other of and ditions: and ings. added the be in land. could not attain nor produce of the world its to anythingapproaching present amount. but/these requisites fixed and has to tained of the country (to which circulating. 95 examined both The after the considerations been common to the forms have duly weighed. the capital. may belongto indi- . laborers and employed maintainingthe ing the time their families the dur which before elapses and productive are operations completed the on products come physical laws. support anything approaching to the number present two con of its inhabitants. may either be use the collective pro perty of those who or it. of in.

and arrangements the question is. enjoy. owners public act. which conducive to of these is most human hap piness.to give. and common labors. is the jointownership by all the members and means of the of pro- community duction that of of the instruments . for example. viduals. performed ac by the cording Socialism rules no laid down means community - by excludes private ownei ship of articles of consumption. as not the but dwellingonly. which carries with of the be a it the consequence the the division must to produceamong bodj. the or exclusive rightof when each to his her to share of the produce to ex recieved.either it. What v is characteristic of Socialism. each individual dwellingassignedto familyas part of their remuneration might to any be as while they theirs.. might yet the be cultivated joint account. might for bt the property of the community other on agri and and or and productive their purposes.90 SOCIALISM. exclusively their share house now continued fulfil one's any of the is .or change wholly cultural The land. ornamental ground which the circumstances of the .

f Th"the then practicability Mr. on scale of of no Owen's or H. of Socialism. whether is. to state this a in question its simplest form.SOCIALISM. Fourier's admits villages. x**~"^ manage pro- duction is a of a nation by one central / a organization f***^ .we will . in order of efficiency that of the the mind. as questionto considered to likely / this jointmanagement successful as be of efficient and the managements privateindustryby private capital. 97 to the house association allowed purposes of to be attached The for enjoyment. stock company. minds. on of Socialism is not that all but that common thingsare productionis only carried account. the whole [ j i \The attempt to dispute. distinctive feature in common.x"" \ different matter^ but totally mixed agri-j cultural and two manufacturingassociation to four thousand of from thousand inhabitants under climate a any tolerable circumstances be of soil and than many be is would easier to The manage joint IL. directing And simple workpeople. and held as upon the of that common the instruments are production property.And has question the and to be considered this in a double or aspect.

of according to difference any need. equal division of the produceamong all the sharers. suppose the form of Socialism to be simpleCom munism. according to of M. particularly considerations differences or do.or. but without the making nature difference of reward accordingto the of the or duty nor to according supposed There are merits services of the individual. on allow of or justice expedi of remuneration service to for dif the com ferent kinds degrees of munity for the : but the consideration of these may be present postponed. Louis Blanc's still higher standard it apportionment of justice. of Socialism. Fourierism. directing direction or system.the the person in being entirely persons who own (or are whole personally benefit of the for)the capital. difference of between the motive powers in The the and case economy societyunder would private property be greatest in the Under the present the hands of under of the Communism minds. responsible the and difference the worst between under the best administration can which the business con- . -i.e.98 SOCIALISM. other forme which ency.

SOCIALISM. the incentives of the honor of these and of conscience. imper degree of cultivation which mankind . fect The in experience. purposes than the for is much greater for verdict of moral others. The of ' force is when motives. credit of the managers. especially But it varies combined. and greatlyin some different persons. the interest as would to all in as would common managing affairs to make the dividend as large possible . 99 tinue to persons reap so be carried who on accrues to the person : or control the administration they the whole as of good management profit or except far their self-interest share it with induce liberality subordinates . . This sequent power motive personal for the would managers the same employing strong utmost to do their very economy best and of the and efficiency not operations. them to their aud they suffer the whole ment detriment this may of mismanage sub except so far of as their cripple labor. and public spirit. great. as exist under Communism the would only receive out of the as produce of be equal dividend What the other members remain so the association.

closer the connection with more a of every increase of exertion of its fruits. have and yet reached.' condition and. which the case pursuit of ordinary of most found men tions. as in the majorityof as cases. motive/ To the as contrary imply honor that with are more they now duty action and powerful of principles as solely than and not personal interest.is that the motive that are of conscience when of credit and even reput:. to acts special forbearances have been respect ing which those sentiments exception- . that their family. are.xl'n. own the prospect betteringtheir of economic and the .ion. est than for forth calling the full occupa energiesin the . much stronger " than restraining to be im pellingforces are more depended on for preventingwrong. they of some strength. the suppose men correspondingincrease is this be to powerful would are. ment the only induce has been constant sufficiently and to unflagging overcome the in ever-present and fluence of indolence men and love of ease. induce work to apply themselves to unrelaxingly for the most L part of in itself dull and is unexciting.'.100 SOCIALISM.

which in no the one. /The education of the most beingsis this is been one difficultof all arts. their will affirm. of human time './We unless expeqiy. into a very much large minority. and which it"Jis hitherto of the pointsin moreover least successful . will be one required. regulationof I suppose. /It may be said that this inferior is not feelings of public efficacy " "ind social of to inevitable This I are am is the result education. 101 but ally cultivated. whole lives .SOCIALISM. are improvementsin gradual " general education because the future the necessarily very educated the generationis by the present. they train pupils to therefore a better themselves. and also that there even many individual exceptionsto the generalinfirmity. we . imperfect quiteready now admit. are operatingupon select portion of will for to a the interest population^hat personal time long most be a more effective stimulus careful conduct the vigorous and of the industrial . But before these even can exceptions grow into a ma or jority.and set an imperfectionsof limit to their must teachers in invincible can the degree be which than .

and even this would if not so make them. V It will said present the excess coun greed orpersonal gain by teracts its very its own end by the stimulus risks. or either of indeed. A circumstance increases the probability which the of this result managers limited of power would of independent action. business V of than sjociety be motives that at of a higher ""^\/ character. and fall very .as communities more the has of duty in such by external can the sanctions. It a is probable. requiredby the constitution . person's duty to fixed easier it is to hold which is the have course its performance. that enterprise bad of a good kind business would be a deficient element. be reduced him to nearly rules. that under per to be in general would of routine much the dominion formance enforced each the the rather. that source it givesto it does. from authority whom their from for They the would hold their choice of the community. of evil reckless and and under often dishonest Communism This would generally be absent. by any time function them might at be withdrawn it necessary .102 SOCIALISM.

community. and practical knowledge be of judgment. to body before of obtain the any generalconsent change concern. 103 of the of community.and the c ~ obvious their a minds than the advantage. the making in the The established mode carryingon numerous the of persuadinga difficulty a body of to make 01 change in their accustomed mode working. which owner often who shall be the of the may can J capital. appoint a himself. persons "* it has to be set. replied be true \ and though it inheritance manager be capitalist by like also. which risk change the more trouble is often to great.this would level of a more capable on only place him as the not advantage But the community. might opportunities on \ expected the average to produce managers now of greater \ so skill than the chances determine This may that the the than same of birth.SOCIALISM. be said on on higherlevel.that are by the the who directlyinterested who have success of theft--1 and c work. thingsin their accustomed choice in Against this^.would have great tendency to keep track. it must the other side that under the Communist system the .

104

SOCIALISM.

persons

most

for the management qualified often to

would under

be

likely very
At

hang

back

from
even

takingit.
a

presentthe manager,
a

if he be

hired servant,has

very

much

remun larger

eration than the other persons

concerned

in the

business ; and

there

are

open

to his ambition

social positions to higher manager
is
none

which his function of
the Communist be
same

a

On stepping-stone. of these

system

advantages would

by him; possessed
dividend labor
as

he could obtain

onlythe

out of the

produce of
member of

the

community's
would
no

any

other

of it ; he

have longer
a

the chance

himself raising

from

receiver of wages

into the class of
no

capitalists ;

and while he could be in
any

way

better off than

other

laborer, his
be
so

and responsibilities

anxieties

would

much would

greaterthat
be

a

large

of proportion the less
onerous

mankind

to prefer likely

This difficulty was position.
as an

foreseen

by

Plato his

to objection

the of

system

in proposed

Republicof community
and

goods
cii

among

a

class ; governing

the

motive

which

he relied for

inducingthe

fit persons **

to

*-.

SOCIALISM.

105

take

on

themselves, in the
the

absence
cares

of

all the
of

ordinary inducements,
government,
worse men.
Avas

and

labors

the fear

of

being governed by
motive

This, in truth, is the
to

which
upon
;

would the

have

be

in the

main

depended

persons be

most

competent
to

to the

management
the

would

prompted

undertake

office to

into less competent hands. prevent it from falling
And times

the motive when there

would
was an

probably be

effectual at in

impressionthat by
the affairs of the
even com

competent management

munity

were

going to ruin, or

only decid
could
not*

But edly deteriorating.
as a

this motive

rule,expect

to

be called into action of

by

the

less

stringentinducement
;

merely promoting
of inventors
or

improvement
schemers

unless in the
to

case

eager for

try

some

device immediate
very

from

which

they hoped
persons

great and
kind
are

fruits ; and unfitted

of this

often

by

over-sanguine temper
for 'the when

and of

imperfect judgment
while affairs,
even

general conduct they are

fitted for it

the precisely
man

kind
is

of '
to

persons

againstwhom

the average

apt

106

SOCIALISM.

entertain unable
to

a

and prejudice, the

they would

often

be

overcome

of preliminary difficulty

persuadingthe
and project rnunistic
to

community
accept them
would

both
as

to

adopt their
Cornall pro

managers. thus

management
favorable

be, in

less bability,
to that

than of
new

privatemanagement

out striking

paths and
and

making
uncertain

immediate

sacrifices for distant

which, though advantages,
with

seldom

unattended

to great risk, is generallyindispensable

improvements
mankind, and

in
even

the
to
a

economic

condition the

of

keeping up
continual

existing
of the

state in the face number We

of

increase

of mouths have

to be fed. account

thus far taken motives upon Let
us

only of

the

of operation of the the
case

the
now

managing

minds

association.
stands in

consider

how

to regard

the

ordinaryworkers.
would have
no

These, under

Communism,

interest,except their share of the generalinter est,in doing their work

honestly

and

energeti
be
no

cally. But
worse

in this

respect matters
are

would

than

they now

in

regard to

the great

would of good and hard .as it tends give him in preference employment. that the other the side be set under Communism generalsentiment of the comrades of the under be sure community. laborers. whose to composed each favor person eyes be in works. the and sometimes There are obtains also for him of possibilities or to rising positionof foreman. imperfect manner real common in which the it calls forth matter the of fol of capabilities remark. the inefficiency of hired labor. that in the they have interest the that share general have in which every worker would Communistic organization. is that a It is true character being a good workman its is far from to being without a value. far from in not having any of efficiency direct interest of their own the even their work. ulterior advan is to sometimes But the way tages. 107 majorityof paid by the producingclasses. being are so fixed wages. higher wages. other are sub not ordinate administrative posts. These. which than to only but more highly paid open on ordinary labor.SOCIALISM.the Accordingly.

not to laziness. . and for the same they often violent ly resist contrivances for a economisinglabor. of laborers reason should the diminish requiredfor | work. which every The per change from son this to have as an state in would interest in rendering every careful other as person and industrious. working. the only is this but the public opin in some ion of the workman class often acts : the very opposite direction societies a the rules of trade to exceed forbid actually of their members certain standard the number lest they efficiency. and unfavorable waste.and not In the case. (which would possible would be a be the case under Com munism). obtained Considerable improvement already . in tLe chief may advantages of Communism be that respect obtained. by arrangements compatible individual is with private property and competition. to be considered defects cipal the of the that the in prin to present system be respect of efficiency labor may and corrected.skilful. however. change very much for the It is.care present system lessness.108 SOCIALISM. better.

it alleged.SOCIALISM. by distributing among .which often. there really good ground is for their dislike is a piece as work. strongly of opposed to it. of it. 109 in by piece-work. carry piece-work with it the is publicopinionof the the workman class. as (as they And of think diminishingthe is market for laborers. is iiow the of disadvantages labor.r what viz. on security for which still has neither depend does the employer's vigilance . But there is a far more completeremedy hired than piece-workf . on a means contrary. if. to fix the price of piece-workso utmost low to that by doing than wages that he be is not able earn more they for would obligedto give him as day ordinary work.. utmost ascertain the which a good workman can do. is the kinds workman's of labor which admit By this the personal interest quantity of its work connected closely out " with so the he turns not much with to the quality. industrial callet}/ partnershir"Xof laborers to a the admission of the whole the body in participation profits. oi frequentpractice after usingpiece-workto employers.

in this country and ments It has the the senti side to of the workmen careful employed of the most regard by of the concern all of them . it has muneration concerns materially increased descriptionof it has labor the is which this of been admits adopted.This plan has both efficacy. personal interest It the of such is even likely that many or when arrangements become would or common.1 10 SOCIALISM.short of less than in that which the success to the managers needful degree the concern. of It evident extension share of that and system an indefinite in indefinite the increase the profits assignedto would leave of laborers. of these concerns at some period of the an other. and the generalinterest effect in by and its joint promoting very of every in zealous exertion checking the in re waste. / all who share on in the work. a whole portion of has been been gains after to the certain remuneration allowed capitalist. in the form of or a a perfixed j centage their the the earnings. enlisted on found of admirable abroad. on the death retirement chief'si .

difficult that that all should gener turns at ally propose by . by arrangement. decide but themselves. into the state of purely co associations. Com which may as has under advantage not be reached the while private property. so as measure against one to to make quality equivalent Communists work is so quantity. questions on the present system. unless Now the this is a very imperfect justice work also is apportioned equally. To another. of work the many different very kinds required and iu every are society unequal in these hardness unpleasantness. seem It has also disadvantageswhich to be inherent in it. give equal payment But to all who in the work. Ill pass.and to under certain aspectsa share justone. often badly enough} spontaneously.through the necessity under which it lies of decidingin a more or less manner arbitrary which. operative It thus motives munism to appears exertion no that as far as concerns the in the general body. heads it is at some a respects disad managing considerable vantage.SOCIALISM. a It is simple rule.

the of employment enables co-operation itself with some the the the work to distribute regardto special capacities and worker. there a fore. that very for the considerable. every kind of labor.112 SOCIALISM. People have of unequal capacities what is a work. but which in the point of less.which tribution is deemed to indispensable a just dis would probablybe in very considerable But of disadvantage further.advantages which (or rather frequentlyover-estimated considerations are the under-estimated) are by political economists. light an for one is an burthen insupportable to other. But this involves an almost complete sacrifice the are of the economic advantages of division indeed counter of employments. that there . is still very same imperfectstandard amount demand the of work from every one. therefore. by himself confining The arrangement.it to justice respect of a production. view neverthe of the of productiveness double reason labor. It is necessary. both mental task and and bodily. and of qualifications every one also and that worker kind acquires of work greater skill in rapidity to it.

of communities composed of of the for select success earnestly desirous but the experiment. plans the regenerationof societymust and beings. 113 . great abatement from the harmony would unanimity which H Communists hope .SOCIALISM. and to the ordinary in some tasks proportion to As capabilities. These some inconveniences time at would little felt. long as there to are any lazyor for selfish persons who like better lie "worked by others than to work. in persons. by no be always be successful. of not consider aver age human only them but the the Tl it- large residuum average in the persons greatly below social virtues. there will l"e favor frequent attempts to obtain exemptions by or fraud. an com authority petent amount measure to ot grant exemptions from work. and be an the frustration of these attempts will will affair of considerable means and difticulty.should be a dispensing power. could not and personal and squabbles ill-blood which the fail to work be engendered by such a distribution have to of whenever would and be persons be dealt with.for least.

driven to seek direc their ordinary channel. which. than Communists that there liable to The be no suppose.114 SOCIALISM. shall provides about quarrelling ism is excluded material that interests . which no But there are departmentsfrom it: there institutions can exclude will still be rivalry for reputationand When field in selfish ambition most is for personal power.and may expect and of for struggles for pre-eminence in the when influence bitterness from their management the would be great diverted personal passions. That concord would. be found among the members of their associa even tion. it would pecuniary interest. from the excluded men. to greater intensity we betake itself with to the domain that the still open it. in more the most fortunate disturbance institution be much circumstances. individual from other department of affairs. that a For these various reasons it is probable Communist the association attractive would frequently fail to exhibit picture of mutual . are in gratification principal that other tion. with it exer chiefly that of riches and cises itself.

the utmost importance can which on the present system to be and own are left to individuals As an decide.SOCIALISM. only for the reasons apply being system indi stake of but universally. under have to Communism he made arrangements would citizen by the collective body. example.of decidingby principle voice every general to of questions one. each for his the case. supposing them to pro- . since individual parents. 115 love and unity of will and which feeling to we are often told by Communists expect. with the All Socialists stronglyimpressed training given to which demands other of all-importance not the the young. are in the which necessity involves.they have any other societies on the excellence Now educational these for every arrangements. dissension and unfrequently broken Other inherent up by and numerous sources - of the discord Communist the . because their of any much upon vidual than their greater than the those and intelligence moralityof even more the at citizen.but would not :"ften be torn by it. take are subjectof education.

to the had a.on which difference of be often irreconcilable. collective system designedfor most the source Here. then. be But even likelyto might the be dissensions a which expected would far less a evil to the sive prospects of humanity than the delu unanimity produced by of prostration . number mode It is needless specify a of other of em the important questions affecting ployingthe productive resources tion. fer some other have no mode of educatingtheir children.116 SOCIALISE. would opinion.-. do would own be limited they could influence. relations 01 body with other associations. "c. arise. would by But an " personalteaching and member in of ever}7 adult the body have equal voice determining the benefit of all.the conditions the of the associa the of social life. opinionor preference education they would have to desire for their own children. is associa a fruitful All who of discord in every any tion.would rely for their chance /"" oi obtainingit upon cise in the the influence of the they could exer jointdecision to community.. of would and their private means to what paying for it.

thought and think for practice. of of thinkingfor them. indi Already in all societies the of compression viduality by the is a great and growing majority . But pr"P how scribing associations most they shall act. for the would less scope of development individual character anil individual lining than preferences has hitherto existea state tlio full citizens of any to belonging the branches progressive of the human family. 117 wishes before the all individual decree of the and opinions majority. life private in Communist be would broughtin a within unexampled degree there the dominion be of and public authority.and should resign into the name hands a of rulers. that human to nature should vari in expand spontaneously in both directions.The obstacles to human a require con and are always great. progression currence of favorable .whether or acting in the the business of few of the and majority. themselves that and not peopleshould both try experiments for themselves.1 SOCIALISM. but an circumstances to overcome them condition indispensable of their / being overcome iiave freedom ous is.

that/Communism. an I think and that this is. upon which both fresh light will the continuallybe obtained. evil . long be. that of privateownershipL The certaintyis. considerations I do not From seek to these draw various any inference against the possi that Communistic bility of production is capable time the being at some future the wants form of society of best adapted to and circumstances will mankind.118 SOCIALISM. and in of both all the moral education members of the for to qualify them communityv^moral. requiresa high tellectual standard in to be successful. Communistic stances. open question. doing their part honestlyand no in energetically but their the labor share in of life under inducement . and by trial of principleunder by the favorable which circum will be improvements in the gradually effected working of the exist one ing system. it would/ probablybe so as much it greater under Communism/exceptfar power might be to in the of individuals to to a set bounds it by to belong selecting community of persons like-minded with themselves.

then. and their it . that If Communist associations show they can be . giving this whether training. sociation munism. Ill) the and general interest of the association. sufficiently to be able to dis from criminate. make sympathy them towards capable of estimating con distant interests and enteringinto complex matters. Experiments there is as alone can show the yet in any portionof moral a population sufficiently high make next level of cultivation to to Communism succeed.SOCIALISM. It is for Communism. can only Communistic train effectually mankind for Com prove.the present that state a of is society as and demoralizing. is as these Now I the reject altogether education these and that it such impossiblefor is cultivation be made nation implied in thingsto in the in . to of its power by practical experiment. good counsel notion at least siderations. of moral munism the which condition can present pleathat in the points the success education of com depends. and themselves that give to the generation among to the education necessary keep up high level permanently. heritance am of every that to person the but I that convinced it is very our and difficult. the passage it from I admit on only be slow. in of duty feelings to tellectual. in bad.

by self-acting grounded. durable and will prosperous. either of society or There is an scarcely human mind. since he admits individual owner of inequalities distribution and not but ship of capital. The the of arbitrary disposal he great problem which to grappleswith ' is how make labor attractive. The of principal if these is Fourierism. if this .120 SOCIALISM. it. make before provision contrivances. of intellectual attention the or a only as a specimen of the is highly worthy ingenuity. be they will ana multiply. revolu political the in power to s/uch an attempt* end disappointment/ X If trial is necessary practical to test the capa bilities of those other Communism.since. forms of it is no less requiredfor recognize means Socialism which the difficultiesof Communism to surmount and contrive them. how upon a less that of high principle distributive iustice than of Communism. which difficulty he did Fourier not did not againstwhich hand ever. But unprepared populationsinto if make a Communist tion gave would " ^ even societies. of any of student. a system which. objection and forsee. probably adopted by the more successive advanced for portions countries of the as populationof become to they ^ morally force fitted that mode of life.

regarded by workers in a tempt. if any over-remunerated relatively remunera are neglectedtheir The tion must be made higher. to The Fourierist are village class themselves in spontaneously groups. certain minimum having first been every or apart for the subsistence of member of the community. to each the . capital. share of produce assignedto tions among each group three is divided " in fixed propor elements and labor. hoped that varietyof human capaci- . He is maintains that no kind of useful labor or necessarily re universally pugnant. the part assignedto the talent being awarded it is by the suffragesof the among group and itself. of each group undertaking a same different kind be a work.SOCIALISM. run if there it is is too a great a upon particular groups are sign that those groups to others . such shares it finds attract no more amount of labor and required. talent . and the one person may member a not only of group but of any set number.the principal difficulty overcome. 121 could would be be of Socialism done. unless devoid of the or either stimulus excessive of in amount or companionship mankind with and con emulation. whether capable not of labor.the divides society the remainder in of the produce as among the different groups.

leading to when increase than so accidents The of positionhave much influence. while the saving of to useful on be by diverting prodigious.they efficiency be therefore would expect. very re getting rid markable. it is the sonal of minor inconveniencies. group other. as The remuneration for capi tal is to be such is found sufficient to induce order to savingsfrom increase desired. labor would unexampled.and of by dispensing with the number distributors. which is now occupationsthat or wasted things useless the vast hurtful. would of be much reward increase more of the service of rendered certain it is now.122 SOCIALISM. being would made much greater than since every present. ties all. superfluous the whole buying and for selling a community The free of life would being managed by choice of individuals be no single agency. as to their manner would further interfered with than . or be to qualified excel i. trivances the The for individual common consumption.is of these various Fourierists exertion taken at By means provisions of expectation to that the per the inducements of for away. or some will nearlyall. of labor.in stock and to such point as the con if number of ingenuity meeting minor and difficulties. public be instead interest.

however. Is both common Fourierist attractive in itself and any humanity than . however proofs. mixed. marriage. their of establish eventually the at claims to preferenceover that existingorder present workable but things. where he will find unmistakable with the wildest and most of genius. of independent of. the principles liar quite his in dustrial system. and separable from. be necessary for gaining the the full advantages of in co-operation industrial a operations. other known to be system of Socialism the scheme can and it is much desired that trial which of any new should test have that fair alone scheme The the workableness of social life. * they are of Fouriemm are clearlyset principles powerfullydefended in the various writings of The forth and M. . Considerant. unsc:eutifie fancies are which.SOCIALISM. respectingthe physical world.Fourier had pecu. Victor Sociale .Al community from less requires the pictureof together. and much the past and future history on interesting but rash speculation that on to add It is proper some of humanity.* result of our review has of us the to various the diffi culties of Socialism that led conclusion the pro the various resources schemes of for the managing ductive country by public a instead and some of privateagency of them may have case for a trial. but the especially that inquirer will entitled do well La to Destinee curious study them in the writings of Fourier himself . as he himself declares. important for instance on social questions. opinions.

we blem so of management. . Apart the consideration sors. tion of a be the administra The pro small Socialist community. would solved as be be best it could taken by aggregationsunited from indiscriminately or only by locality. they this presup- j pose. only by prove to the the Jlite of mankind./ to injustice present posses the a the very a idea of conducting whole industryof centre ventures country by direction from single nobody is so obviously chimerical. they of would other over mode practicable it than to their exercising into por power that made of over dividing it to each tions. which to a have BfcNfr-to be pre to difficult even select populationwell thrown down pared beforehand. and of have yet at U their power state trainingmankind which may large of improvement of course. and it on beginning public of administer from all the account.124* SOCIALISM. that propose it can to any mode in which be it should be done 3 and the hardly doubted that if Socialists revolutionary attained their imme diate had and actually object. be at said of the more ambitious plan which and once aims taking the of the whole possession land at capitalof to country. ""*! Far more. the whole property find of the country at their no disposal.

be involved to all who mon by a it would in the com consolation. most of incapable and self-control. and disastrous could apostles of only the consolation it now that the order have as society exists benefit ruin " would and perishedfirst. a majority who. in the more impatienceof desperation unfavor- Respecting re unaware gradualimprovement.forethought. or steadyindustry. a at all costs to those who the hope that out and any of chaos would better Kosraos. population. . They in the construction that chaos is the very most ble fa for setting out position that many Kosmos. a very revolutionary hatred of which existingevils.which some of them can would for probably be real^ if appearances be trusted of the of too many animatingprinciple Socialists is hate . profoundlydemoralised of by the state existing society. and ages of conflict. for the are as the opinionof Socialists themselves. essential regardsthe qualities success of Socialism. 125 the all all the malefactors.It could its is saying but effect but have little to under say that the introduction have of Socialism no such conditions failure. vio- .in far as not equally degraded.SOCIALISM. including most the idlest and the vicious. though yet. would the excusable vent tem itself by puttingan even end to the present sys suffer arise in by it.

" If the a poorestand most wretched in as members bad a of con so-called civilised as are society dition every one would be in that worst form of to of barbarism produced by not the dissolution the way to it does civilised life.). knowledge of the face of time. On the contrary. and lence.and earth.12G SOCIALISM. of tyrannical oppression intervene . no consequently culture of the commodious and uncertain. no is worst of all. removingsuch things no requiremuch force. Part I. no ported by instruments as of moving no building. .no use of the commodities sea. and and the life of man solitary.no naviga that may be im tion. no of the earth. no account arts. raise them same follow that would be to reduce all others the miserable state. poor.it is risen that so by it the aid of the first who have many others have is cess escapedfrom better be the and general lot. no letters. short. society . ch. and. which continual fear and danger of violent death . nasty. only by of organization the to same pro in that it may hoped in time succeed raisino. xiii.the remainder. :o " every every man : " In such condition the fruit there is no thereof placefor is indus because try.brutish. the weak not by that of the strong must they by know they nature would so plunge mankind into the Hobbes man state described forcibly (Levia is enemy where than.

of considerable time. to be be tested created an in cannot must be done the by most Act of Parliament. on favorable a work supposition. are since carry on it requires the new present whcT those of to order things qualitiesboth requireto most. than however privateproperty and competition. not plainreason people will lose their hold . but be. such as contemplated by Socialism.SOCIALISM.and even as a prophecy of as a ulti is not possibilities. available from resource. appear The to show precedingconsiderations that an sufficient social entire is renovation of the fabric. which intellectual. and this moral in and and all. and were country popularmovement of a to placeSocialists at the head revolutionary they might itself government. able mate as an valu ideal.and would either institution be accepted by or brought that back for the by their expulsion. 127 THE IDEA or PRIVATE BUT PROPERTY NOT FIXED VARIABLE. the survive. violate would them in however many ways private property. constitution of the establishing upon an economic society that of new entirely other basis. For a long periodto if in any come the of principle individual property will be even in of possession a the field .

which also. for reasons. substitute Even for it has got into working order.128 SOCIALISM. there fore. of what is at present their sole reliance for sub until security a sistence and beeen any. if what was themselves desire to the property of others would to keep what and they had acquired. we existence. it of from duty most and the interest benefit those who of all derive the direct the laws property to give impar tial consideration to those proposalsfor rendering onerous laws in any way less to the case major obli ity. to injunctionof prudence in sure place themselves which are the to be right fre againstthe attempts quent to bring the Socialist forms of society pre maturely into operation. in the not new give back to property hands the sacredness the old. individual term are pro perty has presumably long before if it.to conclude whole term that it must exist during that unmodified. or that all the now rights regardedas appertainingto property belong it to and inherently. On contrary. . only of provisional not. This. in order would an in any be an is gationof justice. the must endure is both while the it endures. who had shared among those. these a which they had in recognised But though.

that powers but these society. recognizes/. persons)which state the of law which or accords."r SOCIALISM. o/misunderstanding in every of exclusive the word. For the instance. stands word of aggregation of subject than more No the of this kind . 129 One which errors of the mistakes are uftenest committed. in difierent greatlyin states of different countries and society. set fully only so a life And forth in as fact. in. unfortunately. and long after it was intro duced were it continued to be limited in favor of what called natural heirs. It denotes the largest society powers over state of use or exclusive control some things-^and over times. interest. sive use of exclu and control are very and ditier various. the primitive . custom.and the sources of the practical greatest for the has been same in human same name that is that of supposing affairs. the always ideas.in early states of society. Where bequestis not is individual property permitted. property. The power of disposing by will was in most countries of Europe a rather late institution . has been Maine well and by Sir on Henry in his most instructive work I Ancient Law. of property did not include the right of right of property bequest.

some son. I say not property. selected ment by the rest. nations the of some property of the could male be alienated without cases the consent children . the death of it. to he could not of the disposeof the property as deprive them By 'he iaws enjoyment or joint and not customs of the succession.succeeded to the manage others and to the all managing righx.on the oth?r hand body took the broke away up into separate families. as the theirs retaining the before.the strongest. he other respects. As this. The and was management the in person exercised really proprietary rights.1. of the process continuance existing . each o" it a these with part of the property. idea of property the the was that it belonged to head the of the the family. in other a the child could by the la\v demand division of the property in and assignment of to him of his share. was a mere the because inheritance. alvays but often the or family. as If the of the his the story the Prodigal Son. If. to exercise his power as to defeat the of co-proprietors " the other portions .so governed But he the was familywith not free so nearlydespotic power. noi of the association kepi othei the one togetherafter member eldest head.130 SOCIALISM.not family had v"vho in individual.

state this rule may successfully Asia. custom owner. before to we In many countries of European which the understand ideas intervened. but those of any private . might then and make became over share ed of possess the right of the collection not all the other of rights state. again. ancient to some laws limited the share fraction particular was the there produce. Ancient govern of no ideas ment gross limit. the manager's alone lapsedto the association. to the we stock surmise be in redistributed the though of may that historical times have been the Jewish evaded.not share " a creation of new . 131 rights. broken up ownership among several distinct rather was whose parties. common the Sabbatical year to it returned . to Then. as is strictly The phrase. The a government having and even the rightto heavy rent. were rights determined by part than by law. nothing existed in expression property the was land.SOCIALISM.in regard over proprietaryrights of immovables a kind (theprincipal property varying law pro con in rude were age) these rights of very Jewish a extent and duration. was By the perty in immovables on only temporary cession . applicable.but practically The to an fixec^ its government who individual.

after often many deducting percentage. consisting the reputed descendants shared of the first settlers of themselves either a who village. to bound pay government a all they collected. it cultivating to employing whose those others cultivate land it for them. though sometimes to for over large districts. had held unlawful rent " right to to evict retain them was while the a rent not in generalfixed by of the and the ment. state. officersof government collected the state's share of the produce.or transferred persons were the actual cultivators the substitute its to whom were the state had intermediate There there rights. were were hereditary officers.who. than But the of any other party concerned.32 SOCIALISM. kinds. person connected with the soil.'. various who with of rights extent. understood in England. the was village right of proprietary not . nearer and to rights in of a the approached landed those as proprietor.in of villagecommunities. as These private rightswere vators on or of various The been actual culti such of them a had long settled possession . but Between by the custom neighborhood. cases There also. land or among the its produce accordingto either rules established themselves or by custom. it they paid agree the land.

now. the an theory of the acknowledge land in absolute .but collective . of In Rus the cultivators the soil were the landed was his proprietary proprietor.is sia. And with which interfere. held Europe all land on sovereign of service. tinental went out as in most of the countries Europe of use. 183 individual.even serfs of a tenant" of the Crown. when those serfage was who in had abolished cultivated the land serfs remained as possessionof rights well as subjectto obligations. the holder.either in as militaryor agricultural . rightof the fullest free property landed any individual to proprietorknown but when " the law. and Great well Britain as even when the ser vices all the reserved fallen rights of into disuse the or sovereign have been law long for since commuted does not in taxation. limited a right in the land of by rights theirs belongingto its them as collective body managing he could of not con or and own|^affairs. inalienable of individual (the rights or sharers the could only be sold mort and gaged with consent of the In from community) mediaeval the governed by almost tenure fixed was rules.SOCIALISM.The of in great land in reforms consisted Stein and his successors Prussia the abolishing both the rightsand .

limited as right over other is in Tuscany. though law. : if rightsof property in over the same of different extent also In are different over coun they exercised at a different things. viduals have in same inviolable which a right of property their estates indi sound theirs. Public bodies. as in and offices. so long as of his tenure. tween dividing the with cases. to the tended ownership of property a human beings. and though . and in army only now abolishing property and the rank.134 SOCIALISM. fulfils the customary conditions Again thingsare so tries. judicial vast multitude of others in France are before the Revolution. instead a leaving each the whole. and ex countries and extends the rightof property still. the not metayer the farmer with co-proprietor virtually landlord. since to custom. constituted still claim in endowed for publicpurposes. guarantees him a permanent possessionand he half the gross produce. and obligations. There has often been in public trusts. land bodily be of the and proprietor of them In the peasant. there still a few patent offices in Great Britain. though I law are on believe they will cease by operation of we the death of the present holders. in some all countries former time.

rightof property is differently held and to be extent. and may frequently revised. tions it is a like at of the human mind. a the conception enter been/ stil tained of it is has varying conception. conflicts of the not idea some idea property one thing.in different . therefore.the law the and not acknowledge this thus see supports it. We of different that that interpreted. or rightlyor wrongly. change The . identical throughout history and is variable incapableof all other creai but alteration. revisions progress ments. any given of on time brief expressiondenoting the rightsover the law or thingsconferred by at givensociety custom some that other and time [/out neither the this pointnor of a on any has law and to be custom given time place a claim stereo- . admit of It is also to be noticed that th" it has hitherto which of undergone in is the have generally been improve society When.SOCIALISM.that fication in the the powers change over modi exercised thingsby proprie con persons recognisedas legally be beneficial to their tors would the public and no ducive answer to the to generalimprovement. some it maintained. further revision.it is merely to with is say that good this the of proposed property. times places . 135 political moralitydoes claim.

are Socialists chapter. able to order of of make out againstthe present economic a society.136 SOCIALISM. A proposedreform not imply.ho ve?. THE share of its direct END. after. typed customs for ever. . societyis particular public as fullyentitled right ation abrogateor on alter any of property which sufficient consider of the case it. are a groundsand Under just lirr ts sub and jectby itself. the as That " equitableclaim of it. \ I means by of which the made institution to work have more \/ \ chance being in beneficial to that largeportionof societywhich least l\ at present enjoys the benefits. but adaptationof existingideas of growth of property human the improvement be of affairs. this to such will be discussed here we condition. in laws or is not because necessarily objectionable the its adoptionwould the to adaptationof of pro all human affairs to the existingidea and perty. demands full consideration may a manner all a \. judges to stand in the way And in a assuredlythe terrible former which. This is said without to proprietors to prejudice the claim equitable compen a sated by the state for such as of legal rights be pro nature prietary they may of dispossessed for the the publicadvantage.

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