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4, APRIL 2006

319

A High Efﬁciency, Soft Switching DC–DC Converter With Adaptive Current-Ripple Control for Portable Applications

Siyuan Zhou, Student Member, IEEE, and Gabriel A. Rincón-Mora, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—A novel control scheme for improving the power efﬁciency of low-voltage dc–dc converters for battery-powered, portable applications is presented. In such applications, light-load efﬁciency is crucial for extending battery life, since mobile devices operate in stand-by mode for most of the time. The proposed technique adaptively reduces the inductor current ripple with decreasing load current while soft switching the converter to also reduce switching losses, thereby signiﬁcantly improving light-load efﬁciency and therefore extending the operation life of battery-powered devices. A load-dependent, mode-hopping strategy is employed to maintain high efﬁciency over a wide load range. Hysteretic (sliding-mode) control with user programmable hysteresis is implemented to adaptively regulate the current ripple and therefore optimize conduction and switching losses. Experimental results show that for a 1-A, 5- to 1.8-V buck regulator, the proposed technique achieved 5% power efﬁciency improvement (from 72% to 77%) at 100 mA of load current and a 1.5% improvement (from 84% to 85.5%) at 300 mA, which constitute light-load efﬁciency improvements, when compared to the best reported, state-of-the-art techniques. As a result, the battery life in a typical digital signalr processing microprocessor application is improved by 7%, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed solution. Index Terms—Battery life, buck converter, dc–dc converter, efﬁciency, hysteretic control, sliding-mode control, soft switching, switching regulator.

Fig. 1.

General partition of the efﬁciency curve of a dc–dc converter.

I. INTRODUCTION

B

ATTERY-powered, portable electronic devices like cellular phones, pagers, laptop computers, PDAs, etc. have become increasingly popular. In such systems, low-voltage circuits are necessary to satisfy the demands of single battery operation and the ever decreasing breakdown voltages of state-ofthe-art technologies [1]. Furthermore, to maximize battery life, highly power efﬁcient dc–dc converters are strongly desired [2]. In a battery-supplied environment, load conditions change drastically from high to low power levels. A full loading condition is not present for prolonged periods; rather, these devices run at light loads (stand-by mode) for most of the time [3]. Therefore,

Fig. 2. Circuit schematic and waveforms of the conventional QSW ZVS buck converter (in synchronous DCM).

Manuscript received February 3, 2005; revised July 8, 2005. This work was supported by Texas Instruments through the Texas Instruments Analog Fellow Program at the Georgia Institute of Technology. This paper was recommended by Associate Editor S. Banerjee. The authors are with the Georgia Tech Analog and Power IC Design Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA (e-mail: syzhou@ece.gatech.edu; rincon-mora@ece.gatech.edu). Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TCSII.2005.859572

improving light-load efﬁciency of dc–dc converters is crucial for extending battery life. A complete characterization of power losses in dc–dc converters is offered in [4]. A typical efﬁciency curve of a dc–dc converter can be generally partitioned into three regions, as shown in Fig. 1. In region I (high loads), the dominant power losses are the conduction losses induced by the load current as shown in (dc component of the inductor current, i.e., Fig. 2), which is high. In region II (light loads), the major power losses result from the V–I overlap losses and current ripple induced conduction losses (i.e., rms losses). The V–I overlap losses are switching losses associated with the voltage-current

1057-7130/$20.00 © 2006 IEEE

so the efﬁciency is not degraded. input voltage. when compared to other soft switching topologies. input voltage. Among those techniques. when the load current drops below half of the current ripple. if the current ripple is adaptively reduced while ensuring ZVS operation. Although the exact rank of power losses depends on speciﬁc converter design parameters. the frequency is reduced at very light loads. which eliminates overlap losses. Waveforms of the ﬁlter inductor current ripple in the proposed three operation modes. weight. Thus. high current stresses. if other parameters are ﬁxed. i. the frequency increases to the point where gate-drive losses start to degrade the efﬁciency. However. Fig. Moreover. A comparative evaluation of those topologies is offered in [11]. are shown and discussed in Section IV. is the best existing power-saving technique in this load range. (a) Mode 1 (CCM with constant current ripple). On the other hand. On the other hand. soft switching [5]–[10]. Various soft switching topologies have been reported such as quasi-resonant (QR) [5] and multi-resonant (MR) [6] converters. (c) Mode 3 (asynchronous DCM with constant peak current). to optimize power efﬁciency. therefore the proposed control strategy is the conventional synchronous continuous-conduction mode (CCM) with constant current ripple and hard switching. which is the essence of the strategy proposed in this paper. The increased conduction losses induced by the higher current ripple are balanced by the reduced V–I overlap losses. which are proportional to load current. Fig. At light loads. the light-load efﬁciency can be signiﬁcantly improved. Many efﬁciency improvement techniques have been proposed over the years [4]. The conduction losses caused by the current ripple (systematic AC component of the inductor current. ZVS/ZCS pulsewidth modulated (PWM) converters [8]. II. (b) Mode 2 (synchronous DCM with adaptive current ripple). quasi-square-wave converters (QSW) [7]. and ﬁnally conclusions are offered in Section V.” Since the inductor current ripple is larger than twice the maximum load current. 3(a). therefore the constant conduction losses associated with the current ripple severely degrade overall efﬁciency. the proposed converter hops from CCM to synchronous DCM by ﬁrst increasing the current ripple until enough reverse inductor current is available to achieve QSW ZVS. and degraded accuracy at high loads. with constant peak current . and zero-voltage transition (ZVT) zero-current transition (ZCT) PWM converters [9]. thus QSW is feasible at light loads. extending to both extreme ends of the load-current range. a larger current and output voltage ripple is tolerable since the accuracy requirements at light loads (stand-by mode) are relaxed. where volume. and size of the power transistors. 3. The organization of the rest of the paper is as follows. hopping back to hard switching. At high loads (region I). Moreover. PROPOSED CONTROL STRATEGY As shown in Fig. In region III (very light loads). As a result. as shown in Fig. the load current itself determines the majority of the total power losses. so decreasing the switching frequency is the best way to reduce the total loss. since the V–I overlap loss is now negligible..320 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—II: EXPRESS BRIEFS. nevertheless. 3(b). VOL. [10]. a hard-switched converter naturally enters synchronous DCM. The waveforms of the inductor current ripple in the proposed three operational modes are shown in Fig. 2). The proposed control strategy and a circuit implementation using hysteretic control are described in Sections II and III. this topology suffers from high conduction losses. the gate-drive losses consumed when charging and discharging the gate capacitances of the power transistors ( and in Fig. APRIL 2006 ( V–I) overlap of the power train ( and in Fig. as shown in Fig. soft switching is attractive since it eliminates the V–I overlap losses by switching the power transistor when either its voltage or its current is zero [(zero-voltage switching (ZVS) zero-current switching (ZCS)]. in a conventional QSW ZVS converter. thereby adaptively reducing conduction losses and signiﬁcantly improving light-load efﬁciency. As shown in Fig. soft switching should be implemented with minimum required current ripple. the current ripple does not change when the load current decreases. Thus. Since the ﬁlter inductor current ripple and switching frequency are related by (1) smaller current ripple implies higher switching frequency. it achieves ZVS in synchronous discontinuous-conduction mode (DCM) by utilizing the reverse inductor current to charge the resonant capacitor during “dead time.e. asynchronous DCM. it is reduced as the load current decreases. instead of maintaining the current ripple constant. NO. 2) become dominant because the overlap loss scales down with the load current while the power dissipated by current ripple normally remains constant. 1. the dominant and therefore targeted power losses are V–I overlap and current ripple induced conduction losses. 4. 1 is a conceptual guideline to choose the best power-saving technique for a variety of load ranges. Experimental results. 3. At light loads (region II). and switching frequency. and cost are particularly important. 2. like the current ripple magnitude. as shown in Fig. the QSW is the most suitable. which verify the proposed strategy. For portable applications. 2) during switching transitions dominate. At very light loads (region III). respectively. at light loads (region II). 53. since the fewest additional components (only one resonant capacitor) are used.

while ensuring QSW ZVS at light loads. based on the tradeoffs between conduction and switching losses. Mode is low. a resonant capacitor . The converter operates in conventional CCM with constant current ripple and hard switching. The proposed converter operates with hard switching Fig. and ZVS for with 150-mA negative inductor current. a load-dependent mode hopping strategy [13]. Therefore. Thus. Characteristics of the user programmable hysteretic comparator. Mode is high. III. which is constant. 6(a). Therefore. The gate-drive signals for . is dominated by the equivalent series resistance (ESR) of the ﬁlter capacitor. PROPOSED CIRCUIT IMPLEMENTATION In this implementation. so is again disconnected. 6 verify the functionality of the proposed control scheme. IV. 4. as and ZVS for shown in Fig. The detailed schematic of the proposed converter is shown in Fig. The detailed control of the proposed three operational modes is described below. The user programmable hysteretic comparator is used for the main loop control.e. i. Although is hard switched. 4. as is the case for low-cost tantalum capacitors. thus. Moreover. For proof of concept. Mode is low. 3(c). where and ferent and approximately determined by are dif- (3) and (4) where is the preset constant peak current in and is signif. the node voltage Table I. the current ripple can be expressed by (2) and adaptively controlled by changing the hysteresis. In Mode 2 (light loads). voltage-controlled scheme using a comparator with programmable hysteresis [15] can be utilized to adaptively control the current ripple. which lie above and below . the comis triggered when exceeds the conparator output and trollable upper and lower hysteretic window limits ( ). . the frequency decreases proportionally with load current. achieve QSW ZVS) and is thus adaptive to In Mode 3 (very light loads). the buck converter operates in synchronous CCM and hard switching with 850 mA of current ripple. is proposed to maintain high efﬁciency over a wide load–current range. 2. a hysteretic (sliding-mode). SOFT SWITCHING DC–DC CONVERTER 321 Fig. it only icantly higher than happens during mode transition depending on the loading conditions. equals . the current ripple is turning on is still achieved reduced to 500 mA. and the inductor current waveform shown in Fig. TABLE I COMPONENT PRAMATERS OF PROTOTYPE CONVERTER in asynchronous DCM. and in synchronous DCM is realized. As shown in Fig. 6(c). the proposed scheme of reducing the current ripple. the current ripple can be decreased while ensuring QSW ZVS. 5. is disabled and In Mode 1 (high loads). so is connected to ground via . The converter transforms to the QSW topology. its hard-switching losses will not signiﬁcantly degrade overall efﬁciency performance. so is disconnected from ground. and are both set .. which is simple and inherently stable.ZHOU AND RINCÓN-MORA: HIGH-EFFICIENCY. Detailed schematic of the proposed buck converter. 5. and the corresponding control circuits are added. As shown in Fig. after averaging over time. 6(b). QSW ZVS for Fig. both hysteresis setting and mode hopping are realized manually. 5 is implemented on a PCB prototype. which keeps the efﬁciency approximately constant. The component parameters are summarized in and . thus. equals to ( is the minimum negative inductor current needed to . Compared to a conventional hard-switched buck converter. Therefore. The Mode signal is used to enable the soft switching operation (Mode 2). as shown in Fig. it is assumed that the output voltage V . However. an auxiliary nMOS switch . EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The proposed converter shown in Fig. As shown in Fig. With the same current ripple and thus 325-mA negative inductor curand can be realized. like in many practical commercial solutions ripple [14]. as shown in rent. control [12] (Skip Mode). is indeed feasible.

including the conventional synchronous CCM (constant ripple. 5 is compared with the best combination of the previously reported techniques. as shown in Fig.322 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—II: EXPRESS BRIEFS. PWM in synchronous DCM (constant ripple. the constant current ripple conduction loss (20 mW) limits the extent of the im- . hard switching with positive inductor current) [16]. and the conventional PFM in asynchronous DCM (skip mode. For load currents from 70 to 250 mA. additional power losses occur due to charge and discharge of resonant capacitor . 7. the proposed converter operIn Mode 1 ( ates in conventional CCM with constant 850-mA current ripple mA). (c) Soft switching.5% at 300 mA. As shown in Fig. Also. which results in a net total power reduction (10 mW) and therefore an overall improvement in efﬁciency by 1. The V–I overlap loss may not be completely eliminated due to the speed limit (bandwidth) of the control circuit. NO. (a) Efﬁciency. hard switching with negative inductor current) [17]. the reduced V–I overlap loss (14 mW) is larger than the increased current ripple conduction loss (4 mW). (a) Hard switching. the conventional QSW ZVS (constant ripple. hard switching with no negative inductor current) [12]. 4. soft switching with negative inductor current) [7]. the conventional QSW ZVS improves the efﬁciency by reducing 47% of the total V–I overlap loss (18 mW) at 100 mA. 53. 7. In Mode 2 ( ciency from 250 to 400 mA is improved over its hard switching. 8(b). The efﬁciency of the proposed buck converter shown in Fig.5% at 300 mA. The increase of current ripple enables QSW ZVS by introducing during enough negative inductor current (150 mA) to charge dead time. from 72% to 77% at 100 mA. 8(a) which compares all the power losses at 300 mA from measurement and calculation using the equations in [4]. (b) Current ripple. However. (b) Soft switching. The efﬁciency and current ripple performance of the converter in different techniques are compared in Fig. The current ripple at light ( loads (70 to 400 mA) is adaptively controlled to mA). with a load-current range from 1 mA to 1 A. Experimental waveforms of the buck converter at 100-mA load current. the efﬁand hard switching. Mode-hopping thresholds are determined from the intersections of the efﬁciency curves for the various modes. current ripple = 500 mA. current ripple = 850 mA. synchronous CCM counterpart from 84% to 85. constant peak current. however. 6. Experimental performance comparison of the converter using different control schemes. as applied to the same converter. current ripple = 850 mA. mA). light load efﬁciency is signiﬁcantly improved over the conventional QSW ZVS with constant current ripple. APRIL 2006 Fig. Fig. VOL.

Jung. Expo. [6] W.. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors thank Texas Instruments for its sponsorship of the research project. Gildersleeve. pp. C. 1995. 1997. CONCLUSION An experimental prototype of the proposed scheme has veriﬁed improvements in light-load efﬁciency of a 1-A. J. 62–74. Hua and F. R. pp. IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf. Appl. Hua and F.to 1. 1. The battery life (runtime or operational life) in a typical DSP microprocessor application is thereby improved by 7% as a result of the enhanced light-load efﬁciency..” IEEE Trans. pp. PE-2. The battery life (runtime or operational life) improvement is measured by powering the buck converter with a four-cell NiMH battery stack in a typical digital signal processing (DSP) microprocessor application. 1988. and G. Lee. and F. Workshop Computers in Power Electronics.” in Proc. C. 1992. pp. simulation and experimental results. vol. H. P. [8] G. 8. 26th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf. 7th Annu. pp. 28th Annu. Y. With the proposed adaptive current ripple control in QSW ZVS. [4] M. With the mode-hopping strategy. Lee. In Mode 3 ( tained above 60% by adopting the skip mode control in [12]. and F. Texas Instrum. “Quasisquare wave converters: Topologies and analysis. 5. R. Symp. while allowing high enough reverse inductor current to assure QSW ZVS. Arbetter. a high efﬁciency can therefore be maintained over a wide load current range.. Power Electron. Applied Power Electronics Conf. which is critical in the exploding portable. Maksimovic. Rincón-Mora. Jiang. The control scheme is simply implemented by adaptively changing the hysteresis window of a sliding-mode. in National Semiconductor analog seminar series 2003/04. C. Taniguchi. The light-load efﬁciency performance is signiﬁcantly improved by adaptively reducing the current ripple with decreasing load currents. no. and G. VLSI Circuits. which demonstrates the beneﬁt of the proposed control mA). IEEE Asia-Paciﬁc Conf.” Proc. [7] V. [13] A. The batteries are fully discharged before reuse to minimize the memory effect. Mar.” in Proc. H. Tabisz and F. Vorperian. Experimental results show that the battery life is improved by 7%. vol. “Accurate. pp. 1995.”. T. Ind.” in Proc. battery-powered market. . Hatanaka. 278–279. 55–61. Jung. A. “A low-voltage CMOS dc–dc converter for a portable battery-operated system. [9] G. C. [17] S. J.” in Proc. A. R.8-V buck converter from 72% to 77% at 100 mA and from 84% to 85. 2000. vol. Prodic and D. from 195 min using the existing control techniques to 210 min using the proposed control strategy. Prado. 1991. pp. and User Programmable Hysteretic Comparator. and D. [12] B. pp. 1.. S. 1974–1980. no. Hwang. “An integrated CMOS dc–dc converter for battery-operated systems. Oruganti.. [15] G. Fast. 123–128. Experimental comparison of power losses under various control algorithms. Liu. [10] R. 23rd Annu. vol. vol. N. S. Forghani-Zadeb. SLVA044. Apr. hysteretic buck converter. pp. Feb.S. Dec. 1.” IEEE Trans. 619–626. Brodersen. V. Rep. S. “Designing Fast Response Synchronous Buck Regulators Using the TPS5210. 978–983. Erickson. May 2001. 153–156. no. 19th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf. “Soft-switching techniques in PWM converters. and K. vol. 2. Djekic and M.” in Proc. 1.” in Proc. REFERENCES [1] A. “Digital PWM controller and current estimator for a low-power switching converter. Brkovic. SOFT SWITCHING DC–DC CONVERTER 323 and switching losses simultaneously. High Frequency Power Conversion Conf. 2.5% at 300 mA over the best reported. (a) I = 300 mA. the further 60% reduction in current-ripple-induced conduction loss (12 mW) achieves another 5% overall efﬁciency improvement (from 72% to 77%) at 100 mA. 6. C. 25th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf.” U. [5] K. pp. 1999. [2] T. 1994. [16] O. “Zero-voltage-switching multi-resonant technique—A novel approach to improve performance of high-frequency quasi-resonant converters. pp. Lee. 1988. Patent 6.” in Proc. “A new ZVT PWM converter family: Analysis.. Power Electron.. “A comprehensive power analysis and a highly efﬁcient... Electron. “Novel zero-voltage-transition PWM converters. Lee. [3] National Semiconductor. vol. “An on-chip high-efﬁciency dc–dc converter with a compact timing edge control circuit. Lee. the efﬁciency is mainscheme. Cho. C.ZHOU AND RINCÓN-MORA: HIGH-EFFICIENCY. “Quasiresonant converters—Topologies and characteristics.” in Proc. 43–47. The proposed control scheme and the combination of the best reported techniques are applied to the same converter. Leu. 1999.” in Proc. 3. Stratakos. Maksimovic. H. 9–17. mode-hopping strategy maintains high efﬁciency over a wide load-current range. A. 1987. [14] Texas Instruments. provement (from 68% to 72%). 595–603. and R. N. The art of analog design.” IEEE Trans. pp. A load-dependent. 9th Ann. In conclusion. 2002. the essence of the proposed power-saving technique is to adaptively control the current ripple in a soft switching environment. 2. state-of-the-art alternatives.” in Proc.. “Synchronous rectiﬁers versus schottky diodes in a buck topology for low voltage applications. vol. mode-hopping dc–dc converter. 350 B1. 244–251. 4–52. 42. pp. 2002. Fig. IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf. 183–191. ASIC. Sanders. (b) I = 100 mA. optimally balancing conduction and switching losses in a battery-powered application. 1994. 30th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf. Ogawa. H. Hua. [11] G. “A new class of ZVS-PWM converters. Rincón-Mora. pp. “dc–dc converter design for battery-operated systems. pp. thereby minimizing both conduction . 229. 103–109.

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