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(Issued 1 June 1973) C 124

CRD-C 124-73



1. Scope weighing 5 lb (2.27 kg) with an accu-

racy of ±0.005 lb (2.3 g).
1.1 This method of test covers a 2.8 Standard Specimen.- A speci-
procedure for determining the mean men of material of known specific
specific heat (c, heat capacity) of ag- heat, approximately 0.20 Btu/lb-deg F
gregates, concrete, and other mate- (837.4 J/kg-deg C).
rials by the method of mixtures using 2.9 Timer.- A timer reading in
particles smaller than 1 in. (or 25 mm) minutes and seconds.
in size (Notes 1 and 2).
3. Specimen
Note 1.- When more precise values are desired and
the specimen may be pulverized or ground to pass a No.
20 sieve the method given in CRD-C 242 should be used. 3.1 For determinations of mean
Note 2.- The term “specific heat” has been used to specific heat of aggregates, concrete,
refer to the dimensionless ratio of the amount of heat
required to raise a unit weight of a material 1 deg to the and other materials according to the
amount of heat required to raise the same unit weight of method outlined herein the specimen
water 1 deg. However, the quantity referred to as “spe-
cific heat” in this method is that also known as heat to be used shall consist of approxi-
capacity (c), which is the amount of heat required to mately 2 lb (or 1 kg) of the material
raise the temperature of a unit mass of the material
1 deg. When the units of heat used are those for which to be tested. The specimen shall con-
the heat capacity of water is 1.0, as Btu (International tain no particles larger than 1 in.
Table)/lb mass-deg F or cal/g-deg C then the numerical
values for heat capacity and specific heat are equal. In (or 25 mm) in size. When the mate-
the metric (SI) system the unit for heat capacity is the rial to be tested includes larger par-
joule/kilogram-kelvin (J/kg K) which is numerically
equal to the J/kg C. The conversion factor from either ticles they shall be crushed before
Btu/lb mass-deg F or from cal/g-deg C to J/kg C is testing.
4.1868E + 03.
Note.- If a larger calorimeter is used the weight of
the specimen may be increased proportionally.
2. Apparatus

2.1 The apparatus used in this test 4. Procedure

shall consist of:
2.2 Calorimeter.- A calorimeter of 4.1 Determination of the Water-
the vacuum-flask type with external Equivalent of the Calorimeter.- Ap-
insulation, large enough to accommo- proximately 2 lb (or 1 kg) of water,
date samples of approximately 2 lb weighed to the nearest 0.01 lb (4.6 g),
(or 1 kg) in weight placed in a wire shall be placed in the calorimeter.
basket, and provided with an insulated The calorimeter shall be placed in
cover in which are openings for ther- the constant temperature room until
mometer and stirrer. temperature equilibrium is attained.
2.3 Thermometer.- A thermometer A weighed standard specimen of known
graduated to 0.1 F (0.06 C), in the specific heat shall be placed in the
range 32-150 F (0-65.6 C). wire basket, the basket shall then be
2.4 Constant-Temperature Bath, suspended by a fine wire in either the
Hot.- An electrically heated constant hot or the cold constant-temperature
temperature bath with thermostat set bath until equilibrium is reached
at 125 ± 1 F (51.7 ± 0.56 C). (about 15 min). T h e s p e c i m e n s h a l l
2.5 Constant-Temperature Bath, have been weighed previously both
Cold.- A refrigerated bath, with re- dry, and in a dripping condition after
frigeration thermostatically con- immersion. The water carry-over
trolled at 35 ± 1 F (1.67 ± 0 . 5 6 C ) . shall be treated as described in Para-
2.6 Basket.- A wire-mesh basket, graph 5 below. The temperature of
of material of known specific heat, the constant-temperature bath and of
approximately 4 in. (or 100 mm) in the water in the calorimeter shall be
diameter by 4 in. (or 100 mm) high. recorded to 0.05 F (0.03 C), and the
2.7 Balance.- A balance capable of standard sample shall be placed
(Issued 1 June 1973)


inside the calorimeter. The water in and Other Materials.- The mean spe-
the calorimeter shall be stirred by cific heat of an aggregate shall be de-
manually raising and lowering the termined by placing a weighed sample,
wire attached to the specimen. This approximately 2 lb (or 1 kg), in either
supporting wire shall pass through a the hot or the cold water bath, and
minute hole in the cover. T e m p e r a - proceeding as in subparagraph 4.1.
tures shall be recorded each minute The sample shall have been weighed
during the temperature change, and previously both dry, and in a dripping
for several minutes after the maxi- condition immediately after removal
mum change has occurred. The time- from the bath, and the water carry-
temperature curve shall then be over shall be treated in accordance
plotted as indicated by the example with the calculations described in
given in Fig. 1 and the curve shall be Paragraph 5 below. At least seven
extrapolated as described below to determinations shall be made. Hot
correct for the heat lost during the and cold specimens shall be tested
time the measurements were being alternately in order to prevent the
taken. T h e l i n e E G F s h a l l b e s o temperature of the water in the cal-
drawn that the area BFG is equal to orimeter from becoming greatly dif-
t h e a r e a E G C . The approximate po- ferent from the room temperature, so
sition of line EGF shall be deter- that heat losses will be small or
mined by inspection. The line be- negligible.
tween points E and F gives the
maximum temperature change which 5. Calculations
the specimen would have attained had
there been no heat loss from the cal- 5.1 The water equivalent of the cal-
orimeter. This temperature change orimeter and the mean specific heat of
shall be used in the calculations de- the sample of aggregate shall be cal-
scribed in Paragraph 5 below. culated from the following formulas:
5.2 Water Equivalent.-

( cs M s T + c1 M o T + cb m b T )
Me= - M1
c 1T 1

M e = water equivalent of calorimeter,
lb (kg),
c = mean specific heat of standard,
B/lb-deg F (J/kg-deg C),
M 1 = weight of water placed in calo-
rimeter, lb (kg),
c 1 = mean specific heat of water,
B/lb-deg F (J/kg-deg C),
Note.- The specific heat of water may be assumed to
be 1.000 Btu/lb-deg F (4186.8 J/kg-deg C) without sig-
nificant error.
T 1= temperature change of water,
corrected for heat loss, deg F
M S = weight of samples, lb (kg),
M O = weight of water carry-over, lb
Fig. 1. T i m e - t e m p e r a t u r e h i s t o r y , T = temperature change of sample,
specific heat determination corrected for heat loss, deg F
4.2 Determination of the Mean Spe- c b = specific heat of basket, B/lb-deg
cific Heat of Aggregates, Concrete, F (J/kg-deg C),
(Issued 1 June 1973) C 124


M b = weight of basket, lb (kg). where:

5.3 Mean Specific Heat.-
c = mean specific heat of specimen,
( Ml + Me ) c1 T 1 - ( Mo c l + Mb c b ) T B/lb-deg F (J/kg-deg C), and the
c = remaining symbols have the same
M sT meaning as above.