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8.1 INTRODUCTION Power is transmitted from one end to the other commonly by means of shafts.

If the distance between the two ends is large (say 810 m), it would be inconvenient and expensive to have one such long length of shaft both from manufacturing and transport point of views. Hence, it is recommended to connect a number of pieces by means of suitable couplings to transmit power from one end to the other. Shaft couplings may be broadly classified as 1. Rigid or fast couplings. 2. Flexible couplings. 3. Loose or disengaging couplings. 4. Couplings for shafts out of alignment. 8.2 RIGID OR FAST COUPLINGS This type of couplings provide rigid connection between the two shafts without permitting any relative motion between them. The important types of rigid couplings are 1. Unprotected type flanged coupling. 2. Protected type flanged coupling. 3. Solid or forged flanged coupling. 4. Muff couplings. 5. Compression coupling. 1. Unprotected Type Flanged CouplingIt consists of two similar cast iron flanges to which the shafts

are keyed with the help of taper keys. After driving the keys the flanges are turned up true with the shaft axis by turning on a lathe. The machined flanges are then tightly held together by exact fitting bolts in the holes. Fig. 8.1 shows a typical rigid unprotected type flanged coupling.

2. Protected Type Flanged CouplingHere each flange is provided with annular projection for covering bolt heads and nuts. This prevents bolts and nuts from catching the clothes of workmen and thus ensures their safety. A spigot and socket is provided in the middle of the flanges for exact centring. Such a coupling is shown in Fig. 8.2.

3. Solid or Forged Flanged CouplingIn this coupling shown in Fig. 8.3, the flanges are forged solid with the shafts and are held together by headless tapered bolts. Spigot and socket centring is used for shaft alignment.

4. Muff CouplingIn muff or sleeve coupling shown in Fig. 8.4, the ends of the two shafts to be coupled butt against each other and a cast iron muff or sleeve envelops them. A gibheaded sunk key is provided to hold the sleeve and the shafts together, thus forming a rigid coupling.

In halflap muff coupling shown in Fig. 8.5, the ends of the two shafts overlap each other for a small distance. The taper of the lap is 1:12. A hollow saddle key is used to keep the muff and shafts in position. This is an efficient coupling but is expensive.

In the splitmuff coupling shown in Fig. 8.6, the muff is splitted up in two semicylindrical halves which are held together by means of square headed bolts and nuts. Two halves of the muff are recessed to accommodate the bolt heads and nuts. The coupling is done by a feather key. The adyantage of this coupling is that it can be placed directly anywhere on the shaft.

5. Compression CouplingThis coupling shown in Fig. 8.7 does not require any key for holding the shafts and the coupling together. It consists of a steel sleeve of double conical form which forms the casing for the two ends of the mating shafts. The sleeve has six saw-cuts equally spaced round its circumference, one saw-cut running from one end to the other while the other cut runs alternately from either end to within 25 mm of the opposite end. Over the sleeve is mounted cast iron flanged coupling having the same taper as the sleeve. The gripping of the couplings is brought about by means of bolts and nut and in turn the split sleeve grips the shaft tightly.

8.3 FLEXIBLE COUPLING Flexible couplings are used where slight relative movement is required or the axis of shafts run slightly out of line. Pin-type coupling shown in Fig. 8.8 is the most commonly used flexible coupling. Here the motion from one half of the coupling to the other half is imparted with the help of driving pins rigidly bolted to one flange and loosely fitting corresponding holes in the other. Brass bush and rubber covering is provided on the driving pins for absorbing shocks and as insulators.

8.4 LOOSE OR DISENGAGING COUPLING In these couplings the shafts may be coupled together or disengaged when required, even during rotation.

Claw CouplingA three jaw claw coupling is shown in Fig. 8.9. These are often used for slow running main driving shafts. One of the shafts is keyed fast to one flange of the coupling while the other flange slides along a feather on the second shaft. It has a groove in the boss in which the forged end of a lever fits. The engagement of the two halves of the coupling is easily brought about by means of projecting jaws.

1. Cone Friction ClutchIn this coupling shown in Fig. 8.10, the shafts are coupled together due to friction between two conical surfaces of the flanges. The engagement or disengagement is done by sliding the flange on the driven shaft.

1. Dog Clutch It is another type of clutch suitable for slow machinery as shown in Fig. 8.11. Here power is transmitted due to the engagement of dogs.

8.5 COUPLINGS FOR SHAFTS OUT OF ALIGNMENT 1. Oldham CouplingThis coupling shown in Fig. 8.12 is used for connecting shafts whose axes are parallel but not in one line. The ends of the two shafts are

keyed to their respective cast iron flanges. The flanges have grooves cut across their inner faces. A cylindrical piece having two projections, generally known as tongues, situated at right angles to each other is inserted in between the flanges. The tongues slide in the recess across the flanges and transmits power. 2. Hookes or Universal CouplingThis type of coupling is used to connect two shafts whose axes intersect. In this coupling shown in Fig. 8.13, to each end of the shaft is secured two similar forks. The coupling consists of a central block having two arms at right angles to one another. The forks are pin jointed to this central block.

Example 8.1 Fig. 8.14 shows the two views of an unprotected type flanged coupling. Draw the following views on full scale:

1. Right half sectional front view (b) Side view Solution : The views are shown in Fig. 8.15.

Example 8.2 Fig. 8.16 shows the two views of a protected type flanged coupling. Draw the following views on full scale:

(a) Front view lower half in section (b) Side view Solution: The views are shown in Fig. 8.17.

Example 8.3: Fig. 8.18 shows the two views of a pin type flexible coupling. Draw the following views on full scale

1. Right half sectional front view (b) Side view Solution : The views are shown in Fig. 8.19.

Example 8.4 From the orthographic detail of Fig. 8.20 of two jaw claw clutch, draw following views..

1. Front view full in section. (b) Right end view.

Solution : The views are shown in Fig. 8.21.