Adult Education Masters Culminating Portfolio Project Karl L.

McKinnon Candidate for Master of Arts in Adult Education

Presented to: Dr. Vivian Mott Dr. Elizabeth Knott Dr. Steven Schmidt

March 2007

Karl L. McKinnon

Personal Education Philosophy

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I am very fortunate in that I not only get the opportunity to reflect on my personal philosophy of education, but I have ample opportunity to voice it to a wide and diverse audience as I convey the mission and direction as a museum professional each day. My adult audience consists of individual contributors, volunteers, and corporate citizens, philanthropists that may fund programs and activities for the children of eastern North Carolina. I also consider my colleagues and team mates as a significant segment of my audience. My leadership directly affects their opportunities to succeed and I have come to understand that we are learning partners in the organization as well as coworkers and service providers. My personal educational philosophy and passion have been the most significant element of my success in the informal education community. This knowledge and drive toward educational advocacy has provided the road map for me personally and the organization I represent my entire career. My personal education philosophy is rooted in a three foundational beliefs: 1. ―curiosity‖ is the essential motivator of education and discovery; 2. we all have the capacity to learn; and 3. learning is a lifelong process that has no terminal point and should be savored, enjoyed, and pursued. How do these deeply held beliefs extrapolate to Adult Education? Additionally, it is important to ask ―how will these beliefs be of use as a practitioner of adult education?‖ Experiences The most salient experience in my decision to pursue science and education occurred when I was nine years old. On a rare family trip, we went to visit relatives in Pennsylvania. My father, my uncle, William ―Bud‖ McKinnon, and I visited the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, PA.. During that visit I got to do something extraordinary for my family, I was treated with a visit a science museum. As I crossed through the threshold of the museum’s front entrance a new world of experiences facilitated through kinesthetic learning opened before me. Explanations of my daily experiences were there for me to touch, to hear and to smell. My most vivid memory of the day, as fresh today as it was that day, came from my encounter with the Giant Heart Exhibit. An enormous exhibit of an anatomically correct, 200:1 scale model of the human heart pounded into my brain. The exhibit complete with the rhythmic, base beat thumping of life touched me

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Personal Education Philosophy

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physically, aurally, and mentally. As I thrust my hands into the Purkinje Fibers hanging from the roof I was instantly mesmerized by the new way of studying science. This experience was so different and exciting, and so dissimilar to what I had experienced in a classroom I knew this was a way for me to learn. That day I discovered science was cool and my curiosity sparked. I also reasoned that my many trips to the creek behind my house and the foraging I did in the stand of trees in my neighborhood were actually science exploration. Curiosity motivated me then and today. As I continued through my educational process I became aware of a desire to convey information to others. Whether it be through study groups in college, small group work in fifth grade, or holding an impromptu demonstration beside the Tidal Pool at North Carolina Aquarium at Fort Fisher, I realized that I had an ability to share my curiosity with others in a fun, relevant, and meaningful way. An educator emerged from the cocoon of facts and figures, spreading my proverbial wings to the sunlight of knowledge and sharing the beauty that teaching provides others. I also realized that curiosity was a motivation for others to learn. I also came to understand that the adults standing alongside the tidal pool were as excited about learning as the children. Adults were curious and had the capacity to learn as well. I witnessed their eagerness to learn despite their age. Education and curiosity do not have a shelf life. Application As a museum professional, I have ample opportunity to share my curiosity with others and facilitate the exploration of curiosity of others through the outlet that originally sparked my interest in learning. I am convinced that curiosity is the driving force behind education. I believe that curiosity is the most critical element of learning. Without the interest to explore, to investigate, to reach beyond the known, education simply represents the regurgitation of facts and figures and the simple application of those facts to our current condition. Curiosity is what changes the world. Wanting to know how to speak a new language, work on a computer, pursue a new career, seek new knowledge is born from curiosity. I know if we pull back the layers of the education and motivation onion we will find curiosity at the center.

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Personal Education Philosophy

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Adult learners are faced with many obstacles in pursuing education. Typically, adults face family, vocational, and social hurdles when they desire to seek education. Family responsibilities can challenge the learner whether it is caring for school aged children, caring for aging parents in the odyssey of reversed parental roles, or a combination of both life situations as the term the sandwich generation has been coined to describe. Vocational responsibilities provide the adult learner with the obstacle of carving out the time away from work to attend class, time management efforts to read material for class, or write a paper. Employers, me included, are not only asking for, but requiring, workers to be more productive with less assistance and available resources. The social issues surround additional education can be pressure filled. Friends, colleagues, and family have expectations in the social setting. Often it is difficult to be socially active and place importance on the work of education. There is a delicate balance in prioritizing the social requirements versus those of the syllabus. In essence, the major obstacle can be summarized as time and the solution is time management. The positives of pursuing education as an adult is that there will be behavior changes and ―soul-searching‖ as one prioritizes the things that are important. Secondly, adults have the benefit of experience to fall back on. Working an eight to ten hour shift places the working learner in a place where they can work for prolonged periods without the need for a break. A long attention span is generally lacking in the 18 year old freshman that has learned to live in 45 – 85 minute attention spans during their entire school experience. Life experience also provides a plethora of anecdotal data that can be drawn from to provide background or even an answer to a problem as the adult leaner journeys through education. That background information serves both the learner and the practitioner well as they travel hand in hand through the process of education. Education is a life-long pursuit and I believe that one of my roles as an educator in the informal and formal setting is to provide the young a good beginning of their journey and serve as a porter for adults already on their journey. We all have the capacity to learn and facilitating the process is my favorite pursuit. It is often stated that if you would continue to do the work you are doing without financial reward then you have discovered your life’s work. Being a conduit for curiosity and learning is reward enough for me.

Karl L. McKinnon

Personal Education Philosophy The Role of the Adult Education Practitioner

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I believe that adult Education practitioners need to be mindful of the needs of adult learners. I believe that while sparking curiosity is the penultimate goal of education, each adult comes to the educational process with their own set of experiences, goals, objectives and outcomes they want to achieve. These adults come with background experiences to draw upon that will aid them in achieving their goals. As adult educators I believe that it is our responsibility to guide, assist, and partner with the learner to achieve their desired outcomes. I believe that adults are capable of working together and solving problems if given the resources and guidance. My definition for determining if learning has occurred is the change in knowledge over time. I believe that my definition fits well with the role of being a learning partner. I also believe that the didactic approach has a place in providing foundational information, but that exploratory learning and discussion can provide the best platform for learning to take place for the majority of learners. I believe must always be mindful to take into account the learning styles of our students and assist them in the way that suits their style best. As educators our ability to be flexible in approach is paramount to our role in guiding learning. To facilitate this flexibility, I believe that as educators we must engage our students as partners in determining what it is they want to learn. The adult learner should needs the latitude to express his or her interests and needs in determining the content to be taught. However, there are curricula that require a linear path of learning. There are also bench marks that must be accomplished and rubric that are used to measure accomplishment. With regard to difficult or controversial topics, I believe that there is a time and place for everything and diverse viewpoints must be honored, but should not become a distraction or diversion from the topic at hand. Matters that are not within the scope of the institution are better suited for other forums. The example of the ―overthrow of government‖ discussion within the confines of a state supported institution is ―out of bounds‖ as far as my personal beliefs are concerned. To me the role of the educator is to be the facilitator and co-learner rather than being the ―all knowing‖ arbiter of knowledge. Granted the educator needs to have a solid grasp of the information which will provide for answers to questions as well as guiding the student in pursing information. As I have described earlier, there are subjects that require foundational knowledge before the student can be given the freedom to explore additional information. I am a ―constructionist‖ to a point, but I

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also believe that there is a point that students can develop misconceptions that will ultimately need to be deconstructed, if possible, to build new information. The Zinn Scores As for the formal description of my educational philosophy, using the Zinn Philosophy of Adult Education Inventory, I am predominately a humanist progressive. My scores have changed somewhat from my first PAEI. Originally, my scores were almost equally alignment across the all of philosophies except the Radical Philosophy. My scores reflect my science background and proclivity to explore the natural world as a Progressive educator. I have a desire for practical knowledge and enjoy imparting this knowledge to others. I enjoy problem solving which is in tandem with my belief that curiosity is a motivating factor. I believe that experience is upmost importance for it is from the experience that we can draw on to make predictions about the future. I believe this make-up makes me a strong adult educator. The description of the humanist is perfectly aligned with my management role. I seek opportunities to enhance my coworkers’ personal development. I want to facilitate, partner, and make it possible for self-direction and I want encourage the motivation to learn. This does not come without a price. I expect a level of personal responsibility and ―buy-in.‖ In reflection I truly believe that curiosity is a thirst that only knowledge can quench. AS we travel through life our need and desire for types of education may change, but learning is a life-long journey. Lastly, I know we all have the capacity to learn and I am always excited at the opportunity to assist someone in increasing their knowledge. Has my personal educational philosophy changed as a student of adult education? No. Has my passion and understanding for education grown? Absolutely!

Karl L. McKinnon

Learning Profile

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As I begin to reflect on the thoughts that have been generated from studies as a graduate student of Adult Education, I have come to a better understanding of my abilities as a learner. I became more aware of my learning style as I studied the results of the Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) (http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/ILSpage.html) developed by Richard M. Felder and Linda K. Silverman. From this instrument I learned that I am an unequivocal active learner. Felder states that active learners ―tend to retain and understand information best by doing something active with it--discussing or applying it or explaining it to others (http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/ILSdir/styles.htm).‖ I am definitely a learner that enjoys putting the information into motion and tend to retain the information that I process by doing much better than the information I simply read. From the LSI I am considered a moderate sensor. As Felder says sensors prefer to learn facts and are problem solvers. I am considered an excellent problem solver. This is one of the primary occupational traits that I value most and feel most comfortable and confident in performing. I am also a little stronger as visual learner that retains visual input longer than I do verbal or auditory input. However, I do rely on my ability to listen and unlike some visual learners auditory input supplements the visual cues I receive. Graphs, photographs, television, computer aided demonstrations are all excellent mechanisms for me to use to learn. Lastly, the LSI identifies me as a sequential learner. I am more likely to learn something that is presented to me in a stepwise process that provides information that builds on prior information. As I stated in my philosophy of education, I value experiences. The sequential

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Learning Profile

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nature of my learning style provides some understanding of this might be true since experiences provide a basis for understanding new information relative to my existing knowledge base. Another interesting aspect to discovering my learning style came from the Keirsey temperament Sorter (http://www.keirsey.com/). This instrument that is a Meyers-Briggs style assessment that determines temperament based on four factors. The factors are Extroversion / Introversion; Sensation / Intuition; Thinking / Feeling; Perceiving / Judging. My scores on the Keirsey Temperament Sorter instrument place me as an ISTJ (Introverted, Sensing, Thinking, Judging). ISTJs are described as extremely dependable on following through with things which he or she has promised. They are also seen as individuals with a strong sense of duty, they may have a difficult time saying "no" when they are given more work than they can reasonably handle. ISTJ’s according to some will work for long periods of time and put tremendous amounts of energy into doing any task which they see as important to fulfilling a goal (http://www.personalitypage.com/ISTJ.html). I consider this to be an adequate assessment of how I see my temperament. I am a rule follower, deeply committed, and will work diligently for the things I believe. As for the I or introvert, some say they cannot see this describing me given my classroom and small group personality. However, generally I am interested being with only a few people and much of the public personality is a forced behavior. Conclusion My learning style has a direct correlation to my teaching style, where I prefer to use examples, graphs, drawings, demonstrations, and multimedia approached when I teach. My classes have made it much easier for me to understand the strengths as a learner.

Karl L. McKinnon

Teaching Profile

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In ADED 6487, Instructional Strategies, I am came to understand my profile as a teacher, instructor, and educator. The essence and finer points of the definition teaching style and the associated vocabulary became clear in this course, however, my style as a teacher is predicated on my personal educational philosophy and learning style. I am a progressive humanist who believes that curiosity coupled with individual motivation and personal desire can take you intellectually as far as your cognitive skills will allow you to go. Learning is a lifelong pursuit that can be enjoyed and savored. As stated in my learning profile, I am an ISTJ – Guardian Inspector as determined from the Keirsey Temperament Sorter that is considered to be dependable, extremely responsible, down-to-earth, and a person that desires to work within the rules that the system offers. As a teacher my approach is closely matched to all of these traits. I am considered on Anthony F. Grasha’s Teaching Profile Inventory (http://www.indstate.edu/cirt/pd/styles/teaching_styles_inventory.htm) to be a facilitator and a delegator. As a Facilitator I subscribe to the role of the educator is to identify appropriate problems and facilitate learners as they go through the steps of problem-solving. As is described in the Dewey Rhythm of teaching I will follow these steps: 1) give the problem words (discuss the various ways of talking about the problem until some common agreements about how to define the problem can be found), 2) conduct some study about the nature of the problem (often using data collection and theoretical models), 3) compare alternative hypotheses about the consequence of various directions or actions (evaluated on the basis of the accepted theories), 4) plan and conduct actions, 5) reflect on results of action, modifying prior beliefs. The Deweyan model would recommend that classrooms begin not with descriptions of scholarship but with articulation of students' issues‖ I find myself being a student of Kolb in my belief of the responsibility to learn is with the learner and his four step process serves my work in teaching science as well as assisting my staff in professional development. The steps as described in Sharan Merriam’s and Rosemary Caffarella’s Learning in Adulthood (1999, p. 224) can be stated as follows:

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1) present concrete material, 2) pose reflective questions that elicit learners models of interpretation, 3) introduce theoretical models and connect to personal observations, and 4) develop practical applications. The goal is to draw the student’s experiences into the discussion. From this point they will make the cognitive connections and will experience the transfer of learning. From a practical stand point my role as an educator is to develop opportunities for my students, since I am a museum administrator this means my team members, an opportunity to learn new information. I find that I can be a facilitator, a resource person, a motivator, a problem solver, a content expert, an assessor, and evaluator individually or at the same instant in time. My role as coach or the ―guide on the side‖ appeals to me as a supervisor and professional developer of staff members. My experience as a student of adult education has only strengthened my skills and enhanced my ability to assist the adults that I work with. I have also experienced the benefits of this knowledge in my family life as I have become more understanding and aware of the various learning styles of those around me.

Karl L. McKinnon

Scholarly Writing and Communications

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To represent scholarly work in writing, I am providing two papers Anytime, anyplace: Interactive program model of program planning for online delivery and Thomas Jefferson : Life Long Learning. These two works embody numerous important aspects of my work as a graduate student in adult education. Beyond a significant amount of time researching supporting articles, distilling the information, and developing a well founded argument that is communicated through a textual medium these papers exemplify important milestones in my cognitive and attitudinal development. To the second point of the previous snetence, these articles represent something more profound in my growth as a student and a practitioner of adult education in that they reflect on my ability to now reflect on strongly held belief and open my mind to alternate possibilities. Anytime, Anyplace A prime example of this paradigm shift is easily seen in Anytime, anyplace: Interactive program model of program planning for online delivery (Appendix A-1). This paper was authored as an assignment in ADED 6481 Program Planning. To say that I strongly advocate the use of technology in distance education and that I am a proponent of online education is considered by most of the students and instructors in our program as a significant understatement. I have vociferously made my opinion that online education is the best advancement in education in recent history. I have also been vocal that I feel that this will be a solution to many of the bricks and mortar and geographical boundaries that face the increasing wave of adults that are seeking educational opportunities today and in the future. My beliefs were supported through my research as follows: Vrasidas and McIsaac (2000) point out that most salient point to online delivery of classes is that they are independent of time, place, and space. The learner is free to access the class anytime from any place that they choose if they have access to the internet. Learners are no longer tied to the requirement of being in a particular classroom, at a particular time, for a particular length of time, on a particular day. From the university perspective classes can be conducted by a faculty member without an office in a class that requires only virtual space only on a server neatly tucked away in a room.

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Scholarly Writing and Communications

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Without the need for walls, parking spaces, and the associated elements and costs of infrastructure the expenditure per hour of instruction drops while the ability to increase the number of classes increases revenue potential. While my belief was supported in the literature it was also modified and changed by other articles I read. The following excerpt from my writing describes some of the issues encountered with online delivery: While online education may seem to be a panacea for adult education it is not a magical cure-all. With more than 80 percent of the United States colleges and universities offering some level of online delivery of its classes it is important to keep in mind that there is also an almost epidemic level of attrition of students enrolled in these programs. It is important to note that this attrition seems to be independent of age, race, marital status, and learning style for the graduate students participating in a study at Nova Southeastern University in Florida (Terrell, 2005). Although a universal statement cannot be made as to the reason why online classes may see high rates of attrition it can be surmised that improperly planned and implemented online delivery of content can be detrimental to learning and a determinate cause in students leaving these programs. I also came to appreciate that from the administrative perspective that it is possible for educational organizations to rush to implement distance education via the online delivery system. Administrators are excited to expect lower delivery cost since there is a lack of infrastructure costs. Administrators can easily be lead to believe that it is simple to transition a face-to-face class to online delivery. My research showed the thought and effort must be put into insuring that the experience is beneficial to the students and not simply a lecture place in digital format. No matter what mechanisms are used within the online delivery format it is important to remember the background and experience of the participants, availability and expertise of the supporting staff, costs, technology requirements

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of both the students and the organization, program content, expected outcomes, and the context in which the learning will take place (Caffarella, 2002). Technology use for technology sake can be a barrier to the transfer of learning. Without proper evaluation and planning for the students needs with regard to the usability of the format a program planner is taking a tremendous risk. Alex Koohang’s research in 2004 showed that ―E-learning design must shift from a programmer-perspective to a learner-perspective. That is, programmers / instructional designers must incorporate e-learners’ experiential and perceptual feedback to build better-designed e-learning courseware‖ (p.136). Anytime, anyplace: Interactive program model of program planning for online delivery represents a shift in that thinking. The entirety of the paper is included in the appendix of this portfolio. I believe that this paper reflects that I came to the understanding that distance education is an important strategy for educational institutions. I believe that it also demonstrates and ability to process information that was researched and to come to a different preconceived notion. I came to understand that not all classes will fit in online curriculum without some significant changes in the current delivery system and a change in the support structure behind the delivery system that will make the class possible in a distance education format. Thomas Jefferson: Life Long Learning Thomas Jefferson: Life Long Learning (Appendix B-1) was the first assignment I undertook in ADED 6445 Introduction to Adult Education. The assignment was to select some event or person that had an impact on adult education. I chose Thomas Jefferson for a couple of important reasons. The first reason was that I had tremendous respect for Thomas Jefferson as an entrepreneurial scientist that made the Lewis and Clark Corp of Discovery Expedition possible. Cloaked in a desire to examine the newly purchased territory from France, Jefferson truly wanted to have a scientific understanding of the world that lie beyond St. Louis.

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Scholarly Writing and Communications

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Secondly, Jefferson had been brought to my attention as the father of the community college system. I had not known this fact and wanted to know more about this declaration by Dr. Rusty Stephens, president of Wilson Technical Community College. As the excerpt from the paper demonstrates I was able to easily discover the origin of this claim; Thomas Jefferson would be pleased and supportive of the Community College System that is alive and well today across the United States. The Community College today provides a plethora of educational opportunities from continuing education and hobby classes to professional education such as radiology technician, surgical technician, and nursing. Community Colleges have also been the college of choice for the trades (electrician, plumber, and machinist). With 59 colleges serving citizens in all of North Carolina’s 100 counties, the North Carolina College system approximates Jefferson’s dream of ―district colleges, which shall place every father within a day's ride of a college where he may dispose of his son.‖ (http://etext.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/jeff1370.htm). The more I researched the more enamored with the fourth president of the United States I became. Jefferson was a believer, just as I am, that hard work and dedication are the foundations of what makes America strong. He also knew that education was an important aspect to a sovereign land. The following excerpt from my writing reflects my understanding of Jefferson’s belief in the importance of education: Knowledge is Power "Preach... a crusade against ignorance; establish and improve the law for educating the common people. Let our countrymen know that the people alone can protect us against these evils [of monarchial government]." (http://etext.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/jeff1370.htm). According to Sharan Merriman and Ralph Brockett, the purpose of education in Colonial America was to pass along religious morals, customs, and

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promote salvation among the population by learning to read the Holy Bible. After the Revolutionary War the role of education changed to the purpose of enlightening and informing the citizens of the newly formed democratic republic their civic responsibilities. (Merriman and Brockett, 1997, 17) Thomas Jefferson emphasized that through education, the new America could withstand the perils of a government that equated wealth with power. Jefferson feared the new government would be composed of aristocrats with the ultimate outcome being a new monarchy to replace the rule of King George. To have democracy of any kind, Jefferson theorized, it must be built on having a population that feels it can control its own destiny. Jefferson stressed the yeoman as the ideal American citizen. He saw the yeoman as the independent citizen who, because of that independence, could participate freely in a democracy. By tilling the soil, developing self sufficiency through hard work, the yeoman would be the backbone of the new democratic republic. "Those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God, if ever he had a chosen people, whose breasts he has made his peculiar deposit for substantial and genuine virtue." (Peden, 1955, 164) . Jefferson felt that the yeoman was doing God’s work and would ultimately be blessed with a good life and freedom. A freedom that he could have a voice regardless of wealth or station in life and that all men were created equal. Jefferson had witnessed the decline of agriculture in Europe and the increase of manufacturing. Along with the manufacturing economy came the filth and crowding of centralized cities and ultimately the servitude to the wealthy. ―While we have land to labour then, let us never wish to

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see our citizens occupied at a work-bench, or twirling a distaff.‖ (Peden, 1955, 165) This paper represents what I believe is an ability to develop a clearly written article that explains a well developed and thought-out concept. I began the research on Jefferson to determine one fact that I had been introduced too. I came out with a deeper appreciation for a historical figure that I would not have known otherwise. As I reflect on the selection of Jefferson over someone like Malcolm Knowles, Septima Clark, or some other person I did not have any knowledge of was the right one for me. I have since had opportunity to learn of the remarkable work that these educators have done in education so I have not lost out on knowing them. In reflection on my writing I should add that through the guidance and direction of my professors I have learned to become more directed in my thinking and have developed the skill to match my verbosity to the limits of the assignment. As for the ability to research and read scholarly articles I am a confident researcher and have honed skills that afford me the ability to use the online resources with ease. As a consumer of this research I have developed an eye for critical review of the information provided and do not take the information provided at face value.

Karl L. McKinnon

Applied Knowledge

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The projects selected for inclusion in this portfolio are excellent examples of the application of information and skills gained through courses in the adult education program at East Carolina University. I have chosen a pilot study research project from ADED 6491 Research Problems in Education and a professional development program developed for ADED 6461 Introduction into Training and Development. Greene Early College: A Student’s Perspective The included research project examines the student perspective of a new dual enrollment program in Greene County Schools called Greene Early College. The program, through Lenior Community College’s Greene County Campus, provides the enrolled students the opportunity complete an associate’s degree simultaneously as they complete requirements for their high school diploma. Students enroll as ninth graders and attend one extra year beyond the traditional senior year of high school. Greene Early College is one of 14 programs of its kind to begin in 2006 in North Carolina. The purpose of the research project was to assist Greene Early College to determine how the program was progressing from the student’s perspective as it completes its first year of operation. This information will be important as they begin to select their second ninth grade cohort to enter the program. Kim Joyner, Angela Harris, and I began the project with a review of the literature on the concept of Early College, Middle College, and dual enrollment strategies. In the literature we found that there are numerous programs that use a dual enrollment strategy as a way to assist various populations of high school students to earn college credit simultaneously while completing their high school curriculum. We found an excellent definition of the Early College strategy in the Nancy Hoffman and Katie Bayerl article, Accelerated Learning for All, that describes early college as;

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Applied Knowledge

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An ―early college‖ experience is exactly what is helping thousands of high school students attain college degrees before they finish high school, even if they are the first in their family to attend college and, often, among the most struggling students of their age group. Currently, over 125 early college high schools have opened across the country; these autonomous high schools will serve 45,000 students at full capacity. The Early College High School Initiative, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and others, is a radical secondary-postsecondary redesign that targets populations underserved in higher education. The project surveyed 47 ninth graders that formed the cohort for Green Early College’s. These students would traditionally have attended Greene Central High School. In addition to a new paradigm in attending high school these students were given the opportunity to enroll in college credit classes. Some of the college level classes required the student to have completed either prerequisite course and / or have a passing score on a placement test. Greene Early College offers a couple of college level classes are preparatory in nature and all students can enroll in these classes without any prerequisites. Our research team developed a survey instrument of six Likert scale questions and three open ended comment type questions. All nine questions sought to determine the student’s level of preparedness for the program or their satisfaction with the enrollment in the program. Additionally, the survey instrument includes demographic information (age, gender, ethnic origin) but does not ask for a name or other identifying characteristic. Each survey returned was coded with a respondent number for future reference.

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Applied Knowledge

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The survey instrument was checked for validity with the teachers and staff of Green Early College and then administered to the students. In addition to the survey instrument the research team performed classroom observations in two college classes at Greene Early College. The classes included Introduction to Computers and Health Sciences. In preparation for observations an observation protocol was developed to eliminate as much individual bias and to direct our focus on specific criteria. I have included the survey instrument, the observation protocol, field observation, notes, and the data set in Appendix C. The results of our observations were diametrically different depending on the requirement for enrollment in the college level class. The Introduction to Computers class requires both prerequisites and a passing score on a placement exam. The enrollment in the class that was observed was eight students. During the observation period students were observed to participate in the class with little need for instructor guidance. The students were generally on task and were highly motivated in their approach to the individual projects that they were working on. Students interacted with each other in a collegial manner and there was very little off topic or social conversation. Students assisted one another, sought advice from the instructor and the class progressed in a way that would be expected of the same class of traditional college students in the same topic. One student was observed negotiating the project requirements from their project rubric to meet the criteria that they had used. The instructor agreed with the student’s rationale for a change in the criteria. This was a definite difference from what is typically observed in traditional ninth grade classrooms and more akin to what might occur in a college atmosphere. The class that required no enrollment prerequisites was a different experience. The class had many of the disruptions that would be expected from a traditional ninth grade classroom

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with the exception that this was a college credit class. Social conversations, in appropriate and out of context questions, and an edge of disrespect for the instructor were all observed during this session. The survey results revealed that by-in-large the students are pleased with their enrollment in the Green Early College. Many of the comments demonstrate reflection and realization of the opportunity that this program affords the students. For example respondent 20 stated ―It has 2 free years of college and you don't have a lot of people in your class… I like GEC because it is a great opportunity for a better education." The results ultimately showed that the program is successful, but needs to make a few changes to meet the needs of their students. The program needs to address physical education or a sports program that will provide a physical outlet for their students. The second most discussed issue is the lack of a hot meal for the students. Currently, they are served a bag lunch. This is a serious derailment issue going forward and as the program recruits the second ninth grade cohort. The program is in the process of building a separate facility that will offer many of the amenities that the current building lacks. Harmful Animals in the Field The second application project included in the portfolio is a profession development training session developed to be presented to the field employees for the City of Wilson. This project originated through the Administrative Services Division for the City of Wilson and is designed to give the field employees increased awareness and skill to recognize some of the wild animal hazards they may encounter while performing their duties along the ditch banks, meter boxes, catch basins, high grass, and under houses. They did an needs assessment with the various

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field divisions to determine topics that they considered important for their employees to understand. The field supervisors of the Water Distribution and Sewer, Wilson Energy, and Streets departments stated that live animal encounters were of significant importance since employees often endanger themselves by trying to dispatch a snake or some other some other animal they may see in the field. The PowerPoint based program includes numerous photographs and basic identification strategies for the common venomous reptiles, non-venomous reptiles, spiders, stinging insects, and mammals that can be found in eastern North Carolina. The seminar teaches program participants numerous identification strategies and a comparison of distinguishing marks of the animals they are likely to encounter on a given day working in the field. In addition to identification the session includes a discussion on strategies to avoid encountering these animals and what they should do if they have a negative encounter that results in a bite or a sting. Simple safety tips that are applicable to work and recreation in a field setting are discussed. Safety awareness such as watching where you reach or step, looking into holes and pipes before picking them up, and rolling logs toward you rather than away from you to provide a measure of protection in the event that a harmful animal may be underneath. A multimodal approach is used to reach as many learning styles and interests as possible. A combination of photographs, hand motions, preserved specimens and live specimens are used reinforce the information provided during the class. To seek Level 1 and Level 2 evaluation, a pre and post survey instrument is distributed. However, given the potential for encountering low literacy employees there are specific slides presented during the program to provide formative evaluation as the program is presented.

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Applied Knowledge

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I have included the program information that was developed for this program (Appendix D-1). In conclusion these two examples are representative of the transfer of learning that has taken place in the adult education program. Both application exercises are thorough and fundamentally sound in their development and implementation.

Karl L. McKinnon

Technical Knowledge

22

I have included in this portfolio a Compact Disc that contains a PowerPoint presentation, Generation Collisions in the Workplace. This presentation was developed as a group project assignment for ADED 6490 Generational Differences. I chose this presentation as representative of technological proficiency because it was an extremely well done project. The project was completed online with Melissa Kuhn and Kim Joyner. Our collaborative efforts made this an enjoyable project. Beyond the good feelings of working together Generation Collisions in the Workplace demonstrates the ability of people in geographically distant locations to work together with an excellent outcome as the result. Technologically, this PowerPoint presentation is a higher level than most others in that it will run independently of use input once the slide show has begun. The color combinations and use of graphics is of high contrast, taking into consideration the needs of older viewers. While there are animated graphics and text elements they are done in a manner that adds to the presentation rather than detracting from it. Given that the presentation is automated the animated sequences do not provide an impediment to manipulating the show or cause confusion as is often the case. In conclusion, I chose this project because it exemplifies the potential of what distance education can provide a team of students separated by geographic distance and time availability constraints. Our team was able to work together to develop this presentation via email and online discussions. The outcome is an excellent product.

Karl L. McKinnon

Reflection Paper

23

I can easily remember enrolling for ADED 6445 – Introduction to Adult Education and being involved in the early discussion boards. Excitement, anxiety, vim and vigor are all representative terms that can be used to describe those early days. I am, as my PAEI and personality profile substantiate, conservative in my thoughts, beliefs, and the manner in which I carry out my life. While pragmatic in politics I can lean far left or far right depending on the discussion. These ideals were the biases that I drew upon in those early discussion board postings. Economic Discourse in Early Discussions My interests were narrowly focused on the economic discourse occurring in eastern North Carolina and the role that adult education can and should play in remedying many of these issues. This has changed. While still strongly believing that education will be the remedy to these issues I have come to a more global understanding of the field and the role that adult education has in society. Practitioners touch many lives across the world and have no idea that they are even considered educators. Some educators touch adults and never consider themselves as educators of adults. Distance Education the Panacea A second shift in my approach to education is my stance on distance education. I still am keenly interested in the ability to learn online and through blended classes. I have abandoned my belief that online delivery systems are a panacea for overcrowding, infrastructure costs, reaching a broader audience, and inclusion of rural areas that make up eastern North Carolina. Granted all of these issues are addressed through distance education in a positive way. I have come to understand through research and reflection that distance education is not the singular answer that I once believed it to be. There are classes that will not transition well to online and even distance

Karl L. McKinnon

Reflection Paper

24

delivery. Some classes still need that face to face synchronous interaction with a professor. Students benefit from being able to receive a response ―in the moment.‖ A secondary issue is the fact that while the majority of class offerings can be taught online the undisclosed truth is the cost of transitioning these classes to the online format. Online delivery and distance education requires more than simply scanning and posting your classroom notes and publishing the PowerPoint presentation to the online classroom management software. My research has shown that there is a three hour cost in time to prepare for online delivery for each hour of face to face classroom delivery. The ROI is considerable for distance delivery. I also would like to add that the ability of the technology has outpaced the institution’s ability to keep up with technological changes. I see a future that includes video streaming, live interactive audio chats rather than text based chats. Lessons delivered via streaming media or podcasts. All of this is possible today if the students have the technology and the broadband capability. However, it comes at a cost on the administration side. Instructional technologists to support these initiatives will need to be funded. Professional development and continued training and support will be required to keep pace with the technology as it is implemented and changes. Literacy Before taking ADED 6379 – Issues and Strategies in Adult Literacy I had no real understanding of low literacy or the significance of the reports on literacy rates in the United States. This class made a tremendous difference in my thoughts and approaches to those I encounter on a daily basis. I am better prepared today to work with an employee or student that has limited reading ability. I also have a deeper appreciation for different cultures such as the Hmong as a result of taking this class. While we discussed the Hmong in terms of teaching

Karl L. McKinnon

Reflection Paper

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reading strategies there was an epiphany that culture perspectives play a tremendous role in the way an individual may approach his or her job. When Dreams Came True While this may seem contextually out of synch the assignment with the biggest impact on my understanding of education and adults was the book review for ADED—6445 Introduction to Adult Education. I chose to read and review Michael Bennett’s book, When dreams come true: The GI Bill and the making of modern America. This assignment had a profound effect on me because so much information coalesced to make sense of the experiences and opportunities we have today. This book details the efforts to form the GI Bill of Rights and the impact that the legislation had on returning soldiers from World War II. As a piece of legislation the GI Bill changed the United States from a country of two extremes, poor and wealthy. The middle class was almost nonexistent. The two extremes of wealth were reflected in all aspects of life. Education, health, nutrition, housing, leisure time and employment are a few of the examples of areas of extreme difference. The passage of the GI Bill made access to education universally available and paid for to the 20 million return veterans of World War II. The result was a developing middle class and an explosion of professionals such as doctors, lawyers, and engineers. The GI bill also made it possible for a veteran and their family to purchase a new home in Levittown and the new planned suburban communities that popped up all over the country. The beginning of the civil rights movement has its roots in the passage of the GI Bill. Since men and women of all colors and nationalities gave their life to protect the solider in the fox hole with them there was a crack formed in some of the racist foundations that permeated the

Karl L. McKinnon

Reflection Paper

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country prior to the war. The GI Bill also provided equal access to all soldiers regardless of color. Even as racist principles still existed some of the most prestigious minority colleges in the United States can find their heritage in the funds that the GI Bill provided to black soldiers. This book set the stage for me to be able to grasp more global concepts as my studies continued. Final Reflections Each and every class has added substantially to my skill set and to my understanding. I have found common ground and application as a supervisor, mentor, coach, husband, son-in-law, and community servant. During my interview for admission to the program it was stated to me that some of the classes I would take would give me the foundational knowledge for issues I was already dealing with in the workplace. This was the case. Am I changed as a result of the instruction I have been given and the experiences in the classroom. The answer is yes and it is in a positive way.

Karl L. McKinnon

Professional Development Plan

27

Now that this portion of my educational development is coming to a close, I look toward the future to determine how I will use the bountiful resources that I have gained from this experience. Given the financial crisis that exists in my current position I will be determining if I can use the skills and knowledge from this degree to begin a new career in community colleges or some educational agency. I may try to repurpose my museum skill set to work in another capacity in the museum setting such as a director of education at a major institution. I am reasonably sure that my employment situation will require a change within the next six months. If my job situation moderates over the next six months, I will seek employment as a part-time instructor or adjunct professor at a community college. I plan on continuing my current educational track to complete the Certificate in Community College Teaching in the spring semester of 2008. I also hope to be in a position where I can complete three additional courses in Biology to have 18 graduate hours in this discipline and provide me with another employment opportunity as a science instructor. My long range goal is to continue to pursue my interests in distance education and instructional technology. I am researching online doctorate of education programs in this discipline. I am convinced that this is an area of education that is considered the new frontier. The more systems, including the North Carolina College System, look to distance education to expand their course offerings and broaden their student base the higher the demand for knowledgeable practitioners and designers of online content will become. Barriers to success in this pursuit include funding to complete the program and the uncertainty of my current employment situation.

Karl L. McKinnon

Professional Development Plan

28

Lastly, as a lifelong learner I will constantly keep my sail into the wind of knowledge. I always envision myself being a constant learner. I am happiest when I am working on a new bit of knowledge or reading about something new. In conclusion, I will take the knowledge I have gained through this educational journey to partner with other learners in some capacity, teacher, instructor, trainer, coach, guide, or friend. Together we will work to achieve an educational goal that we can share mutually. I see the completion of this journey in the Masters of Education in Adult Education as the beginning of the next phase of the trip. I have enjoyed learning and growing here and I am excited about what the future holds.

Appendices

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery

A-1

There is little argument that the face of education has and continues to change as a result of the impact of the interactions made possible through using technology. This is not unforeseen and not a surprise since Moore’s Law has predicted the propensity for technology and digital information to double every 18 to 24 months (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore's_law). This assertion, developed by one of Intel’s founders in 1968, has had tremendous implications on all aspects of life. Everything from simple consumer devices to educational delivery systems has been touched by the geometrical explosion of technology and the iteration of digital sources known as the internet. The ubiquity of the internet and the myriad of appliances available to access the digital medium represent a manifestation of Moore’s Law. Thanks to the ease of access to the internet it is predicted that online courses will continue to grow and become more prevalent. Some even predict that online delivery systems will become the primary source of educational opportunities in the future. Couple this prediction with the current and future trend of burgeoning student enrollment across all demographic categories, accountability, and the need to capture revenue by colleges and universities online delivery formats will certainly continue to grow. For purposes of definition this paper will address ―online delivery‖ as the delivery of class content entirely via internet strategies and techniques. While many of the methodologies would be the same in blended or hybrid classes or classes that use some form of electronic communication such as e-mail, discussion board, or FTP server for documents (syllabus, articles, power point presentations) to supplement the face-to-face classroom experience they will not be taken into consideration in this discussion. Vrasidas and McIsaac (2000) point out that most salient point to online delivery of classes is that they are independent of time, place, and space. The learner is free to access the class anytime and from any place that they choose. The only prerequisites are access to the

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery

A-2

internet and an appliance to use the internet. Learners are no longer tied to the requirement of being in a particular classroom, at a particular time, for a particular length of time, on a particular day. Online delivery addresses many of the ――framework conditions‖ which are largely a function of the circumstances in which people live‖ allowing greater access to educational opportunities (Merriam and Brockett, 1997, p.188). From the university perspective classes can be conducted by a faculty member without providing an on campus office in a classroom that requires only virtual space on a server neatly tucked away in a room. Without the need for walls, parking spaces, and the associated elements and costs of infrastructure the expenditure per hour of instruction drops while the ability to increase the number of classes and number of students enrolled in these classes increases revenue potential. From the professor’s point of view there are some of the same benefits as those for the student. Classes continue without the need to be in a given location allowing for the ability to work anytime and from any place. Instructors can hold virtual class from any location where access to the internet can be found. Virtual office hours can be observed from anywhere the computer can link to the World Wide Web. As for the downside, it has been shown that preparation for online classes can take as much as three times longer when compared to face-toface delivered classes. Abitt, Odell, and Graham (2000) in discussing course design point out some of the barriers that online programmers face; Instructors, however, are continually faced with either adjusting their instructional design to fit the course system available or creating a completely customized course website based on their design. Creating a customized course website

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery allows the instructor complete control over the design of the course, but time, or a lack thereof, is often an obstacle for those designing web-based courses.

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Curtis Bonk (2001) explained that professors and online content developers are taking a risk in establishing the content for these programs without an ethical and legal definition for royalties, ownership, and copyright of their materials. In many cases instructors are expected to teach online classes as an extension of their normal load without being compensated for ―overload‖ or ―contract‖ work. While online education may seem to be a panacea for adult education it is not a magical cure-all to increased student enrollment or need to find alternatives to the need for classroom space. In 2005 more than 80 percent of the United States colleges and universities offered some level of online delivery of classes. It is important to keep in mind that the counter point to this statistic is the almost epidemic level of attrition of students enrolled in these programs. The alarming rate of attrition appears to be independent of age, race, marital status, and learning style for the graduate students participating in a study at Nova Southeastern University in Florida (Terrell, 2005). Although a universal statement cannot be made as to the reason why online classes may see high rates of attrition it can be surmised that improperly planned and implemented online delivery of content can be detrimental to learning and a determinate cause in students leaving these programs before they reach a terminal goal such as a degree, diploma, or a certificate. Having laid this foundation the remainder of this paper will look at online delivery systems through the lens of Rosemary Caffarella’s (2002) Interactive Model of Program Planning.

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery Discerning the Context / Identifying Program Ideas

A-4

Much of the contextual analysis and the needs and interest assessments will have been conducted prior to offering the online or face-to-face class. Instructors and program planners for online delivery of content are wise to continue the process of understanding the needs of the student that they will be teaching. Hsiu-Mei Huang (2002) contends that constructivist approaches to education are best for online delivery since students in these classes students will have to be self-motivated to read, respond and interact with their classmates, their instructor and the content. From the constructivist approach it is vital that the instructor keep the course student-centered and constantly reference the transfer of learning strategies that have been developed. Online delivery presents a challenge to the instructor to determine the context of the audience that they are asked to teach content. Online students come from a variety of backgrounds and it may be difficult to discern their wants, needs, motivations, expectations, goals, objectives, and overall interest without the benefit of the visual and aural cues that are offered through face-to-face interactions. The instructor can ascertain that there is a reason the student is enrolled in the class. Generally degree and certification programs are the reasons but there may be any number of reasons for participation in online classes. It is the sub-context level that the instructor will work with the student to reach their goals and objectives. Program planners for online content will be challenged to find out those goals and objectives due to the limited interaction with the students and the method of communication. It may be difficult to discern tone, angst, and sincerity from an e-mail, discussion board, or online

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery

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chat. Much like the face-to-face classes extroverts may take a primary role in class discussions. The online format can afford the student a higher level of anonymity. The affect of this anonymity can afford all students the opportunity to have a voice without the embarrassment often found in face-to-face classrooms. Instructors act as a facilitator and develop strategies to engage the students as much as possible. This can come from a variety of techniques such as synchronous communications (chats, virtual classrooms; all learners on at the same time), asynchronous communications (discussion boards, posting papers and responding), and group discussions that will generate learner to learner discussions and group answers. Caffarella discusses the power relationships in terms of discerning the context. It will be incumbent for everyone involved to understand the power structure within the online delivery system and work to insure that the student has power in the process. Building a base of support The burgeoning number of online delivery of classes is an indicator that many universities and colleges support this modality for engaging learners. Many universities and colleges see the online delivery system as a new source of increased revenue. The hope is that this revenue can be generated without the associated monetary investments in infrastructure so support is strong, and in many cases departments are mandated, to develop more and more online programs. Jamie Farber (1998) writes flippantly about a collaborative online university (Western Governor’s University) that has no faculty and offers degrees via online programs. ―It would be hard to imagine anything more efficient. Students pay the money, punch in the requisite competencies, and a degree comes out. Clearly Western Governors University regards itself as an idea whose time has come‖ (p. 798).

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery

A-6

Unfortunately, the number of classes offered is only a surface indicator of support. To truly support the online effort of increasing online offerings administrators need to understand that online class offerings have to be more than simply scanning class notes and placing them online for students to read and recite through a keyboard. Online class delivery is a different approach to education than face-to-face interactions. The time commitment is considerably longer. Estimates predict that online instructors and students can expect to spend more than three times as many hours in online class work as compared to traditional face-to-face classes. Instructors spend considerable time researching the course literature and making sure that ample resources are accessible. The instructor must read and react to numerous e-mails and discussion board postings. In light of the fact that students are not in a position to ask verbal questions all of the questions and responses are written and require more time and effort to generate. Students also may have the impression that online instructors are always available and many instructors feed this misunderstanding by not adhering to established schedules. Instructors are generally not being compensated by a reduction in work load or an increase in salary for this work (Howell, Williams, and Lindsay, 2003). For true support of online delivery to be a part of the organization’s education format they need to provide support in the form of a technology plan to insure that the systems infrastructure is up to the task. A professional development plan for faculty should be in place to provide the instructors with relevant skill development opportunities to transition from traditional classroom approaches of course delivery to online methodologies. Administration needs to undergo a review of the core job functions and evaluate the efforts of online faculty that are required to develop, implement, and evaluate online programs and fairly compensate them for the work that is being done. Ideally organizations will establish an online delivery team to

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery

A-7

provide a multi-specialist approach in supporting the content specialist with formatting and establishing sound online delivery methods and remove the technology burdens from instructors that are not prepared or not interested in developing the packaging technology aspects needed for online classes (Kahn, 2004). Organizations will need to support their online delivery with the funding to make them work for the student and insure that the transfer of learning goal is achieved. Underfunded programs will be a source of technology breakdowns, a source of frustration and a source of the attrition rate discussed earlier. Lastly, organizations will need to have the support of the instructors to carry out their online delivery plan. Instructors that are ill prepared or not supportive of the use of online strategies will present problems in successful online delivery. Sorting and Prioritizing Program Ideas What classes will be offered online can easily fall into this category of the interactive model of programming. The answer to the question may be as simple as all of the face-to-face offerings can lend themselves to online content delivery to the technology does not readily exist to support a particular program offering. If an organization is determined to offer a science course that requires a laboratory component through online delivery the preparation time and sophistication of effective delivery increases. Simple discussion boards, chat sessions, and e-mail communication systems will not provide the student with the level of experience that they will need to gain to be proficient in the same skills that face-to-face counterparts will receive. This is not to say that technologies do not exist to make online delivery of many laboratory experiences a rich one. Indeed they do and are being practiced at institutions all over the United States. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is using online supplements to their dental classes through the use of Adobe® products Flash and Connect (formerly Breeze). These multimedia

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery

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approaches to difficult scientific concepts are considered highly successful and worthwhile expenditures of time for both student and instructor (Moss, 2004). Program Objectives Just as with face-to-face classes the learning objectives must suit the students’ needs and support the transfer of learning that is being planned. This process should occur throughout the planning an implementation of the course work and meet the competencies as outlined by the sponsoring organization. All too often online delivery can become bogged down in the technological aspects of the program. Program planners and instructors will need to focus on providing ―clear statements of the anticipated results to be achieved through education and training programs‖ (Caffarella, p. 156). Likewise it is wise to establish program goals and answer why the program is being done. As with any delivery system online program planners need to establish objectives that are rational, practical, concrete, and address the transfer of learning that is planned for the course. Caffarella states ―using the program objectives as an internal consistency check is especially helpful in matching instructional, transfer of learning, and evaluation plans to what people want to see happen‖ (p. 163). Instructional Plans The outcomes that Caffarella describes, ―acquiring new knowledge; enhancing cognitive skills; developing psychomotor skills; strengthening problem-solving and – finding capabilities; and changing attitudes, beliefs, values, and or feelings,‖ are consistent with online delivery approaches to program planning and delivery as well as other methodologies and delivery systems (p. 169).

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery

A-9

Determining the content that the program will present is an area that online programmers will find challenging. The online medium does not lend itself to all learning styles. Instructors will need to be innovative in insuring that all of their students are engaged during the course. Developing online programming is more than a repackaging of the face-to-face notes and making them available for download by the students. Farmer (2002) states that Instruction itself necessitates additional decisions about several elements: content, resources, sequencing, pacing, choice of format (e.g., video, Internet, face-toface), instructional aides (e.g., guide sheets, multimedia presentation, charts, etc.) Indeed, too often technology is added on top of existing instruction, like icing on the cake, rather than transforming instructional design. Some of the changed elements include: the locus of control form teacher to learner, just-in-time learning, emphasis on resource-rich inquiry, and heightened interaction. Each type of technology has its own specialized characteristics, so matching tool with instruction and learning becomes a more complex decision. Additionally, the comfort level of both instructor and learner must be taken into account more than ever in terms of the technology tools to be used (p. 2). Farmer’s observations lead to an important point concerning the interactions that online delivery can generate. Student to instructor; instructor to student; student to student; student to group; and student to outsiders via technology all are possible mechanisms for collaborative and cooperative efforts to occur. The transfer of learning can occur through any of these relationships. These relationships also support the notion of online learning being an excellent venue for constructivist approaches with individual experiences enlightening others.

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery

A-10

Online delivery may take unusual and unanticipated twists as these relationships and interactions develop. It is highly likely that the discourse may take a different path from where the instructor or moderator may have originally planned. The new path may lead to interesting insights and result in mentally solidifying a concept that will later be used. The result is the transfer of learning as was intended. The conversation may lead to a different area of discussion that is a wide departure from the original topic of discussion. The conversation may be off topic and yet of importance to the students. The diversion in conversation may answer an inquiry the students may have had thus resulting in meeting a different outcome. Face-to-face classes are not immune to this getting off topic and in fact this happens all the time. Skilled instructors can easily redirect the conversation. In asynchronous online delivery these divertive conversations take place in a way that is difficult to moderate due to the asynchronous nature of online discussions. As was discussed in an earlier section, it may be difficult to address all learning styles through the online medium. It is also challenging to provide the authentic experience of attending a lab section with hands-on experiences taking place in the online environment. Technology can provide an answer to some of these needs. Computer simulations, power point presentations, podcasts, and animated graphical representations can ameliorate the lack of the actual hands-on experiences. The downside to these technologies is the learning curve by both student and instructor to become proficient in the use of these methodologies. There is also the issue of the difficulty in incorporating these learning objects into the online delivery system. Many multimedia learning objects are possible through the technology. Unfortunately, a single instructor without the support of a technology team will be able to accomplish only a small part of the possibilities available to enhance online delivery.

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery

A-11

A cautionary note for online delivery programmers is that it is important to constantly remain focused on the learner and their outcomes. Technology is a tool and a means to an end, not the end itself. What is possible through technology may not always be the best method of teaching. Much can be said for creating an online environment that encourages students to have dialog, to work together, and support one another in the transfer of learning. Transfer of Learning In planning any educational program it is important to constantly remain focused on the student and plan for the transfer of learning to take place. When participants take the knowledge they have gained and apply it in context outside of the learning environment learning has been transferred. The concept is one of multi-dimensions with the key element being the application of the information presented during the course. All elements of the programming plan require that the transfer of learning (before, during, and after) be considered. While this is easy to state it may be a bigger challenge in the application. Program planners for online delivery should consider Hall and Hord’s Stages of Concerns (SOC) model. The SOC model is composed of seven categories in three levels of concern (self, task, and impact). Online instructors can use the SOC model as the program is progressing to gage where participants may be in the process. Using reflective strategies the instructor can determine where students are and can make adjustments to address transfer of learning (Caffarella, 2002).

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery

A-12

―Program planners must understand their span of decision-making control, recognize their own limits for action, and know when and how to call on people who can and will be helpful in the transfer of learning process‖ (Caffarella, 2002, p.219). Evaluation The online format has a distinct advantage over the face-to-face delivery system for student evaluation. Since participants are typically writing their responses and participation can easily be gauged by the number and quality of the responses. In the face-to-face environment it may be difficult to quantitatively judge the responses given verbally. Another advantage for student evaluation is that the technology can give online instructors the opportunity to develop online quizzes that can be automatically scored and provides immediate feedback to the student. From the student’s perspective online delivery has the advantage over the face-to-face delivery since the level of anonymity can provide even shy participants the opportunity to provide answers and participate. In asynchronous communications the student is further insulated from embarrassment since there is a lag in delivery and an answer can be thought out thoroughly and reformulated as needed before it is posted. Unlike face-to-face classes a student that does not participate is noticed (Smith, Ferguson, and Caris, 2001). Collaborative and cooperative work groups as well as the high degree of interaction can afford the participants another venue to learn. Giving participants in these groups an opportunity to self-evaluate can motivate them to work as a unit and contribute their fair share of effort to the process of working on a project. Vrasidas and McIsaac (2000) note one major deficiency in online delivery versus face-toface delivery;

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery One of the major disadvantages of text-based CMC is the lack of visual and audible cues during communication. Body language, facial expressions, gestures, and voice intonation are all excluded from such an environment. A simple face expression can often communicate so much more than any text message. The same expression said with two different voices, can also have different meanings. This lack of richness of communication in cues communicated is one of the major disadvantages of CMC. (p.2)

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From a class perspective online program planners and instructors should evaluate their course just as they would in the face-to-face delivery setting. Using formative evaluation to change, improve, and evolve the class while it is in progress and summative evaluation to determine the outcomes and if the objectives were met. Also as with all types of program planning it is important to consider evaluation plans from the beginning and interweave them throughout the process. Through continual evaluation the course can be altered to meet the needs of the students and reach the goal of transfer of learning. In order for evaluation to be affective it is important for the instructor to see the process as an opportunity rather than a criticism. A key word to the entire process and evaluation is flexibility. It is vital when planning for evaluation that the fact that there are pitfalls that can occur in evaluation. Caffarella (2002) notes that there may be too many variables to easily quantify results as to the transfer of learning; that some variables such as personal, organizational, or societal changes may not provide quantifiable data; there are costs associated with evaluation

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that must be planned for from the outset; that evaluation for evaluation for evaluation sake will be dismissed and unless it is used as a change agent should not be undertaken. Planners are encouraged to view evaluation opportunities at the three major points (before, during, and after). Pre-class evaluations can be used to establish base line data. Evaluation during and after can be compared to the baseline data to evaluate instructional processes and competencies. Making Recommendations and Communicating Results As a program planner and instructor of online classes reporting the results of the program to the sponsoring organization will be a function of your duties just as they would be in a face-toface delivery system. The reporting mechanism and format may or may not be dictated by the organization that you are representing. Executive summary of a formal report, formal report, briefings, oral report, power point or some other electronic medium will all serve as potential reporting formats. AS Caffarella reminds us of Knowles advice ―program reports should be made frequently to individuals and groups intimately involved in the program (p.274). Selecting Formats, Schedules, and Staff Needs The online delivery format has been the root of this paper. The online delivery format itself has many formats underlying its use. Online delivery can be as simple as e-mail correspondence or a simple web page that features the opportunity for participants to download a syllabus and reading assignments. Online delivery can be as complex as a media rich simulation exercise file downloaded from a server to a synchronous duplex video conference between

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery

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geographically isolated individuals. Online delivery can encompass large group synchronous sessions to asynchronous discussion boards and group boards. No matter what mechanisms are used within the online delivery format it is important to remember the background and experience of the participants, availability and expertise of the supporting staff, costs, technology requirements of both the students and the organization, program content, expected outcomes, and the context in which the learning will take place (Caffarella, 2002). Technology use for technology sake can be a barrier to the transfer of learning. Without proper evaluation and planning for the students needs with regard to the usability of the format a program planner is taking a tremendous risk. Alex Koohang’s research in 2004 showed that ―E-learning design must shift from a programmer-perspective to a learnerperspective. That is, programmers/instructional designers must incorporate e-learners’ experiential and perceptual feedback to build better-designed e-learning courseware‖ (p.136). Scheduling and pace should reflect the transfer of learning plan and mesh with the overall program objectives. Since the online delivery system is generally chosen for the ―anytime, any place‖ attributes program planners need to be cognizant of the participant’s schedules and availability. Course documents should be available in advance of when they are needed to accommodate student’s needs and study availability. Online synchronous chats need to reflect student availability and varying times of day and days of week to insure participation by all students over the course of the program is important. Staffing has been addressed in an earlier section when the concept of the design team was introduced. Suffice it to say that online delivery requires a great deal of time and effort on the program planner and instructor’s part. This endeavor is best approached as a team of specialists.

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery Budgets and Marketing Plans

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Online delivery programs are not dissimilar to other programs that are taught in a face-toface environment. Carr’s (2001) analysis of a report issued by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation on the impact six colleges use of Asynchronous Learning Networks revealed that defining program costs was difficult and hard to discern. Many of the same budgetary items for traditional delivery have to be considered. Budget items such as instructor salary, support salaries, and use of technology have to be included. Items that can be unique to online delivery that also need to be considered when formulating a budget are conversion of documents to digital format, programs to develop multimedia experiences, training and professional development costs to support the learning of the new programs, maintenance of the digital equipment. If sophisticated delivery systems are employed costs such as the purchase and maintenance of audio visual production equipment, studios, and production staff to manage these items will be required. Marketing of online delivery programs can follow the same methodologies as used by traditional face-to-face delivery systems. Coordinating Facilities and Site Events Since online delivery takes place in a virtual world it would seem that there is little to consider when developing content for online delivery. Arranging the ―furniture‖ in the online learning space can be very important to creating an interactive and usable learning space. Developers need to keep in mind that clearly defined access points to communication, course documents, e-mail, class roster, and other salient areas of the course design are imperative. The

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery

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student needs to be comfortable in the learning environment to motivate their use. Instructors need to be aware that a welcome message on the various elements of the site, an invitation to explore the site, and a reference to where they can find assistance are important aspects of the online delivery system. Courseware products such as Blackboard Learning® can make this process much easier for the instructor and for the student to use. However, there may be occasions where an instructor may not have access to a courseware product and may be put in a position to develop these areas independently. Conclusion Online delivery systems are a substantive alternative to face-to-face programs. Research has revealed that little if any significant difference in the results of transfer of knowledge and importance of learning style between face-to-face and online programs. Online delivery is a boon to the motivated student that needs the freedom to learn independent of time, space, and place. This advantage to the student can also mean a disadvantage for the program planner and instructor. Without the ability to pick up on visual and audible cues the instructor must be more vigilant in their awareness to what students write. Planners and presenters will also contribute approximately 3 times as many hours to online delivery without the benefit of compensation and in many cases a reduction in traditional class load. Program planners and instructors are encouraged to use Caffarella’s interactive model for program planning. They should be prepared to make modifications to the model to insure that it fits the online delivery system. Effort should remain on encouraging students to interact with one

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery

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another and use the strengths of the various interactions (student to content, student to instructor, instructor to student, student to student) as a means to promote the transfer of learning. Lastly, it is easy to get caught up in the technological aspects of the online medium. Presenting something in a sophisticated way because you can may be counterproductive to achieving the learning objectives and transfer of learning. In all efforts it is important to remain student centered and work towards the goals of developing the student.

Karl L. McKinnon Anytime, anyplace: Interactive model of program planning for online delivery References

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Bonk, C. J. (2001). Online teaching in an online world. Bloomington, IN: CourseShare.com. Caffarella, R. (2002). Planning programs for adult learners: A practical guide for educators, trainers, and staff developers. San Francisco: Jossey – Bass. Carr, S. (2001). Is anyone making money on distance education? Colleges struggle to figure out how much they are spending on online programs. The Chronicle of Higher Education: Information Technology. Retrieved November 26, 2006 from http://chronicle.com/free/v47/i23/23a04101.htm. Farber, J. (1998). The third circle: On education and distance learning. Sociological Perspectives 41 (4), 797-814. Howell, S. L., Williams, P. B., and Lindsay, N. K. (2003). Thirty-two trends affecting distance education: An informed foundation for strategic planning, Retrieved November 20, 2006 from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall63/howell63.html. Huang, H (2002). Toward constructivism for adult learners in online learning environments. British Journal of Educational Technology. 33 (1), 27–37. Khan, B. (2004). The people–process–product continuum in e-learning: The e-learning p3 model. Educational Technology, 44 (5), 33-40. Merriam, S. B. and Brockett, R. G. (1997). The profession and practice of adult education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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Moss, N. (2004). Incorporating a rich media presentation format into a lecture-based course structure. Innovate 1 (2). Retrieved November 25, 2006 from http://www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=10 Odell, M., Graham, J. & Abbitt, J. (2002). Designing a dynamic course outline system to integrate courseware features. In G. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of world conference on elearning in corporate, government, healthcare, and higher education 2002. p. 1100-1102. Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Smith, G. G., Ferguson, D., Caris, M. (2001). Teaching college courses online vs face-to-face. T.H.E Journal, Irvine, CA. Retrieved November 20, 2006 from http://thejournal.com/the/printarticle/?id=15358. Vrasidas, C., & McIsaac, M. (2000). Principles of pedagogy and evaluation of webbased learning, Educational Media International, 37(2), 105-111

Karl L. McKinnon Thomas Jefferson: Life Long Learning

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In elementary school we are exposed to the historical biographies of America’s founding fathers. Most grammar school students recognize Thomas Jefferson as the author of the Declaration of Independence, the elected third president of the United States, and a recognizable face on United States currency. To many, Jefferson delineated the path for of a new America as no other individual of his era and as visionary well ahead of his time. Thomas Jefferson’s role as a public official, historian, philosopher, scientist, and plantation owner stretched over five decades. To the modern education community in general and the Adult Education practitioner in particular, Thomas Jefferson serves as an exemplar for and the father of lifelong education. Jefferson the Man Thomas Jefferson was born April 13, 1743 in Shadwell, Virginia to Peter Jefferson, a successful planter and surveyor, and Jane Randolph a member of one of Virginia's most distinguished families. Jefferson was the third born in his family of six sisters and one brother. On the sprawling tobacco plantation Jefferson explored botany, geology, and the wild animals that lived there. As a student, Jefferson developed a love for Latin and Greek from his teacher. At the age of 16, Thomas Jefferson entered the College of William and Mary, and practiced law after completing his college education. It is said that Jefferson chose the study of law because there were no science careers available. Jefferson’s education and the social attachments he made as a student would serve him well through his political and personal life. Jefferson began building his adult home, Monticello, on the considerable estate he inherited from his father, when he was twenty-six years old. While homes are often monuments to their owners, Monticello was and is still today a living example of the multifaceted interests in

Karl L. McKinnon Thomas Jefferson: Life Long Learning

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architecture, science, and education. He married Martha Wayles Skelton, with whom he lived happily for ten years until her death. Their union produced six children, but only two survived to adulthood. Jefferson, who never remarried, maintained Monticello as his home throughout his life, always expanding and changing the house. Jefferson served in the Virginia Legislature and was elected governor from 1779 to 1781. He also served as a trade commissioner and minister to France, Secretary of State under George Washington, Vice President in 1796. In 1800 Thomas Jefferson was elected to be the third President of the United States. After serving as President until 1809 Jefferson sold his collection of books to the government to form the nucleus of the Library of Congress. Jefferson’s most significant accomplishment was the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and the subsequent Lewis and Clark Expedition that paved the way for westward expansion. It should also be noted that the expedition resulted in numerous scientific discoveries beyond the charting and mapping of the rivers and mountain ranges. At the age of 66, Jefferson embarked on his last great public service by founding of the University of Virginia. He spearheaded the legislative campaign for its charter, secured its location, designed its buildings, planned its curriculum, and served as the first rector. Jefferson’s vision for the University of Virginia reflected his philosophical vision that the college experience should take place where shared learning infused daily life. (http://www.virginia.edu/uvatours/shorthistory/).

Karl L. McKinnon Thomas Jefferson: Life Long Learning

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Jefferson died on July 4, 1826 at the age of 83. Jefferson died just hours before his close friend John Adams, on the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Thomas Jefferson is buried at Monticello. Knowledge is Power "Preach... a crusade against ignorance; establish and improve the law for educating the common people. Let our countrymen know that the people alone can protect us against these evils [of monarchial government]." (http://etext.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/jeff1370.htm). According to Sharan Merriman and Ralph Brockett, the purpose of education in Colonial America was to pass along religious morals, customs, and promote salvation among the population by learning to read the Holy Bible. After the Revolutionary War the role of education changed to the purpose of enlightening and informing the citizens of the newly formed democratic republic their civic responsibilities. (Merriman and Brockett, 1997, 17) Thomas Jefferson emphasized that through education, the new America could withstand the perils of a government that equated wealth with power. Jefferson feared the new government would be composed of aristocrats with the ultimate outcome being a new monarchy to replace the rule of King George. To have democracy of any kind, Jefferson theorized, it must be built on having a population that feels it can control its own destiny. Jefferson stressed the yeoman as the ideal American citizen. He saw the yeoman as the independent citizen who, because of that independence, could participate freely in a democracy. By tilling the soil, developing self sufficiency through hard work, the yeoman would be the backbone of the new democratic republic.

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"Those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God, if ever he had a chosen people, whose breasts he has made his peculiar deposit for substantial and genuine virtue." (Peden, 1955, 164) . Jefferson felt that the yeoman was doing God’s work and would ultimately be blessed with a good life and freedom. A freedom that he could have a voice regardless of wealth or station in life and that all men were created equal. Jefferson had witnessed the decline of agriculture in Europe and the increase of manufacturing. Along with the manufacturing economy came the filth and crowding of centralized cities and ultimately the servitude to the wealthy. ―While we have land to labour then, let us never wish to see our citizens occupied at a work-bench, or twirling a distaff.‖ (Peden, 1955, 165) Public Education Jefferson developed an elaborate plan that would make education available to every citizen, and for providing a complete education through university for talented youths even from families unable to afford it. Jefferson’s plan for formal education began with individual counties being divided up into plats of five or six square miles. These divisions would be called hundreds. Each hundred would be responsible for the supporting the tutor and every resident could send their children to the school without charge. After three years of basic education, reading, writing, and arithmetic, the brightest child in the hundred would be selected and promoted to one of 20 grammar schools where they would be given a one to two year trial by learning ―Greek, Latin, geography, and the higher branches of numerical arithmetic.‖ (Peden, 1955, 146)

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The brightest students in the school would then be selected to continue for an additional six years of study at grammar school. Upon completion of the extended study period the students would be winnowed by half, with the ―other half, who are to be chosen for the superiority of their parts and disposition, are to be sent and continued three years in the study of such sciences as they shall chuse, at William and Mary college, the plan of which is proposed to be enlarged, as will hereafter be explained, and extended to all the useful sciences.‖ (Peden, 1955, 146). Jefferson’s goal was to establish a free education system that would empower every child the state with a minimum education in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The best and brightest students would be further elevated as their intellect allowed. "A bill for the more general diffusion of learning... proposed to divide every county into wards of five or six miles square;... to establish in each ward a free school for reading, writing and common arithmetic; to provide for the annual selection of the best subjects from these schools, who might receive at the public expense a higher degree of education at a district school; and from these district schools to select a certain number of the most promising subjects, to be completed at an University where all the useful sciences should be taught. Worth and genius would thus have been sought out from every condition of life, and completely prepared by education for defeating the competition of wealth and birth for public trusts." (Cappon, 1987, 390) Father of the Community College System Thomas Jefferson would be pleased and supportive of the Community College System that is alive and well today across the United States. The Community College today provides a plethora of educational opportunities from continuing education and hobby classes to

Karl L. McKinnon Thomas Jefferson: Life Long Learning professional education such as radiology technician, surgical technician, and nursing.

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Community Colleges have also been the college of choice for the trades (electrician, plumber, and machinist). With 59 colleges serving citizens in all of North Carolina’s 100 counties, the North Carolina College system approximates Jefferson’s dream of ―district colleges, which shall place every father within a day's ride of a college where he may dispose of his son.‖ (http://etext.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/jeff1370.htm). With the advent of distance education, internet classes, and hybrid classes in addition to the accessibility of Community Colleges and affordable class offerings we are closer today to an educational system that will match a receptive public with lifelong learning opportunities. Jefferson’s vision of a college within one day’s ride is a reality his belief and modeling that education should be pursued continually is made possible through the Community College System. Summary Thomas Jefferson was a visionary in many ways. Jefferson had a deep political understanding that served him well as a founding father of the United States. He was uniquely interested in science, math, and architecture. While revered for the outstanding political achievements that gave rise to the United States, Jefferson can be equally appreciated for his dedication to making public education the strong foundation for the new country that would be governed by the people. Jefferson set forth a plan and legislation to establish primary, grammar, and university programs for the citizenry that could not afford an education. This was an extreme departure from the European models that made education available to the aristocracy.

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For the Adult Education Practitioner Jefferson’s dream of District Colleges within a day’s ride from every citizen has blossomed into the community college system. Jefferson’s own interests in his world, the citizens that he served, and his dedication to education make him a practitioner of adult education. Thomas Jefferson was truly a leader with vision far beyond his time.

Karl L. McKinnon Thomas Jefferson: Life Long Learning References The Founding (n.d.). Retrieved September 23, 2005 from http://www.virginia.edu/uvatours/shorthistory/

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40. Publicly Supported Education: Prospects for an Educated Citizenry,Thomas Jefferson to George Wythe, 1786 (n.d.). Retrieved September 23, 2005, from http://etext.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/jeff1370.htm Merriam, S. B., Brckett, R. G.. (1997). The Profession and Practice of Adult Education: An Introduction. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass a Wiley Imprint. Peden, W (1955). Notes on the State of Virginia, by Thomas Jefferson. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Cappon, L. J.(1987). The Adams-Jefferson Letters The Complete Correspondence Between Thomas Jefferson & Abigail & John Adams. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. 40. Publicly Supported Education: Three Main Divisions, Thomas Jefferson to M. Correa de Serra, 1817. (n.d.). Retrieved September 23, 2005, from http://etext.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/jeff1370.htm.

Karl L. McKinnon Greene Early College Research Project

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Greene Early College High School Survey Score Sheet Template Spring 2007
We are conducting a research project on student’s perception of Greene Early College High School. Please help us by completing the following survey. All responses are confidential and anonymous. When you complete this survey, please return it …..

Age ______ YEARS

Gender MALE FEMALE

Thank you. White, not Hispanic

Ethnic Origin Black, not Hispanic Hispanic Other

American Indian or Alaska Native Asian or Pacific Islander

Please rate the following statements:

1=Strongly Agree; 2= Agree; 3= Neutral; 4= Disagree; 5= Strongly Disagree The first year of Greene Early College should be a time of preparation and skill building.
Strongly Agree Agree

Greene County Middle School prepared me for the classes at Greene Early College High School.
Strongly Agree Agree

Disagree Strongly Disagree

The teachers at Greene Early College provided an atmosphere of engagement.
Strongly Agree Agree

Disagree Strongly Disagree

1 2 3 4 5 6
Agree Neutral Neutral Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Disagree

College level courses should be implemented during the second year of Greene Early College.
Strongly Agree

Disagree Strongly

Greene Early College was the right choice for me to plan for my future.
Strongly Agree Agree

I understand the meaning of rigor, relevance, and relationship and how to implement these in my learning.
Strongly Agree Agree

Neutral

Neutral

Disagree Strongly Disagree

Neutral

Disagree Strongly Disagree

What do you like the most about Greene Early College?

7 8 9

What do you like least about Greene Early College?

Comments or Suggestions are appreciated.

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Karl L. McKinnon Greene Early College Research Project

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Observation – Greene Early College High School
Observer - _____________ Date - _________________

1. Attitude (attentive, on task)

excellent

good unsatisfactory

2. Engagement (teacher encourages dialogue rather than straight lecture; teacher discussing more than talking; teacher provides open ended questions)

excellent

good unsatisfactory

3. Instructional Methods (small groups, exercises, lecture, discussion, hands-on)

excellent

good unsatisfactory

4. Participation (students respond, ask questions, students share information or opinions

excellent

good

unsatisfactory

with each other while the teacher is facilitating the discussion)

Karl L. McKinnon Greene Early College Research Project

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Observation – Greene Early College High School
Observer – Karl L. McKinnon Date – February 15, 2007 1. Attitude (attentive, on task) excellent good unsatisfactory

2. Engagement (teacher encourages dialogue

excellent

good unsatisfactory

rather than straight lecture; teacher discussing more than talking; teacher provides open ended questions) 3. Instructional Methods excellent good unsatisfactory

(small groups, exercises, lecture, discussion, hands-on) 4. Participation excellent good unsatisfactory (students respond, ask questions, students share information or opinions with each other while the teacher is facilitating the discussion) I observed the Introduction to Computers Class. The class is a part of the Greene County Early College Program through Lenior Community College. The class was composed of 3 female and 3 male students all enrolled as ninth graders in this college level class. The only reminder that these were ninth grade students and not college aged students was the fact that one female conveyed to the instructor that she would be absent for a few minutes from the beginning of class to attend a newspaper committee meeting. From my observation this appeared to be a quasi attempt to ask for permission to attend the meeting without actually asking for permission to be absent. The students individually began work on their own as they entered the classroom without prompting form the instructor. Each student understood the assignment as presented on the dry erase board at the front of the computer lab. Students were assigned this project: Create a Power Point Slide Show that includes 10 slides. Included in the show must be 5 pictures or other graphics, 10 custom animated graphics or other moving media such as video, audio, and 10 slide transitions. Lastly the slide show must be self advancing with the timing coordinate to the student giving a live presentation of the information in their show. Students were to use their previous lectures on slide design with readability, color use, and interesting visual appeal in mind. From a conversation observed in a student to student and student to instructor conversation it was obvious that the students were also given information on plagiarism and intellectual property rights for information found on the internet.

Karl L. McKinnon Greene Early College Research Project

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The students were highly engaged in the process of using the computer to search the internet for animated graphics and graphics. Each of the students I observed presented themselves to be interested and enjoying the work they were doing in researching their topic. Classmates readily assisted each other in critiquing each other classmate’s work or providing suggestions on places to look for a hard to find graphic or animation. Others sat at tentatively as a classmate tested timing and readability of their slide in real time. Four students asked direct questions of the instructor while the other two participated in discussion of items that was prompted by the question being asked. The instructor guided the students to discover the answers to their questions except for two instances where the instructor and the student worked together to discover and strategy that neither had an answer to the question. A trait that was observed to be very college oriented was a negotiation between a male student and the instructor that changed the requirements for the assignment from a pragmatic approach. The student had essentially developed a slide that included all of his required animated items into a single slide. The student made a case for the fact that the slide worked in his presentation and the slide was thought out to work this way. The instructor agreed that this indeed worked best this way and also met the requirements for the assigned project. Overall the students were engaged in the hands-on activity that was assigned to them. They worked individually and cooperatively while remaining on task for the entire observation period of approximately 45 minutes. The instructor used instructional strategies to move the students along. From this observer’s viewpoint the class seemed to be similar to other introduction to computer classes seen at other community colleges.

Karl L. McKinnon Greene Early College Research Project

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Observation – Greene Early College High School
Observer – Kim Joyner Date – 2/15/07 1. Attitude (attentive, on task) excellent good unsatisfactory

2.Engagement (teacher encourages dialogue excellent good unsatisfactory rather than straight lecture; teacher discussing more than talking; teacher provides open ended questions) 3. Instructional Methods excellent good unsatisfactory

(small groups, exercises, lecture, discussion, hands-on) 4. Participation excellent good unsatisfactory (students respond, ask questions, students share information or opinions with each other while the teacher is facilitating the discussion) Tuesday 2/15/07 Observation of Greene Early College High School – Health Class I entered the classroom prior to the instructor and the class was friendly and talkative. I noticed that one girl had a white stuffed bear that she was passing around to other girls. This raised a question about their maturity level. There were 18 students. While I was waiting for the instructor, I noticed the bulletin board in the classroom on selfdirected learning, responsibility and accountability. Once the instructor entered the class, she spoke to the class and took roll. The students were talkative and instructor asked if anyone needed pencils. She provided pencils to those who requested them. This raised a question regarding the students abilities with responsibility and maturity. Instructor noticed that the students were distracted and talkative. The instructor told them it was time to get down to work and to put away their personal items. One male student sitting in the front of the class requested a pencil as if he didn’t hear the instructor before or see her passing them around to other students. Another student, made the comment you were not listening. The instructor introduced new health terms to the student from their textbook such as endurance, muscular strength, aerobic, flexibility, ROM (range of motion). The instructor provided demonstrations. The class was receptive and asked questions. The instructor asked the class questions and students responded. Positive reinforcement was given to the students by the instructor. I did notice one student who had her hand on her face but she was keeping up with the class by changing pages when prompted. The instructor did notice and acknowledged the student and the student responded. The majority of the students appeared enthusiastic about the content, wanted to learn, and asked good questions. While discussing muscles, one student remarked gluteous maximus and she stated I didn’t use the other word. While the instructor was speaking about the back muscles, one student asked why the back muscles always gets hurt? Overall, the class was attentive, asked questions, some took notes.

Karl L. McKinnon Greene Early College Research Project
Greene Early College Survey Data Questions 1 - 6
Respondent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Ethnicity White (not Hispanic) American Indian or Alaska Native Hispanic Black (not Hispanic) Black (not Hispanic) Hispanic Black (not Hispanic) Black (not Hispanic) Black (not Hispanic) Black (not Hispanic) Hispanic Other White (not Hispanic) White (not Hispanic) Black (not Hispanic) Hispanic Black (not Hispanic) Black (not Hispanic) White (not Hispanic) White (not Hispanic) White (not Hispanic) White (not Hispanic) Black (not Hispanic) Black (not Hispanic) Other Black (not Hispanic) White (not Hispanic) Black (not Hispanic) White (not Hispanic) Hispanic Other Hispanic Hispanic White (not Hispanic) Black (not Hispanic) Black (not Hispanic) White (not Hispanic) Hispanic Black (not Hispanic) Black (not Hispanic) Black (not Hispanic) Average Mode Median Standard Deviation 1 2 2 2 4 5 5 3 2 4 3 3 3 4 2 5 2 5 2 2 2 1 4 4 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 1 3 2 5 3 3 2 3 3 2.878 2 3 1.0999 2 2 1 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 1.7561 2 2 0.5823 Question 3 3 5 4 4 4 2 2 1 3 1 4 2 4 2 1 4 1 4 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 4 1 3 2 2 2 1 5 1 1 1 2 2 4 4 2 2.4146 2 2 1.284 4 1 3 2 2 2 2 4 3 2 1 5 2 2 1 3 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 3 2 2 1 2 3 3 2 1 2 2 5 1 3 3 2 2 5 1 5 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 3 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1.5854 1 1 0.948

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6 3 NR 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 3 3 1 1 4 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 4 4 2 2.075 2 2 0.8286

2.122 2 2 1.0049

Likert Scale: 1- Strongly Agree 2- Agree 3- Neutral 4- Disagree 5- Strongly Disagree

Karl L. McKinnon Greene Early College Research Project
Greene Early College Survey Data Question 7
Respondent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 7- What do you like the most about Green Early College? Teachers are nice I get alone with everyone my teacher The amount of people Seminar &navigator The breaks in the classes there are 12 students you ask with out being shy Break, same teachers & the learning. not a lot of people here, The middle should help us I like the Breaks. I like the teachers give us all the help we needWell I really miss all my friends The amount of people is fair I like the small classes the most at GEC Small class rooms The teachers will help you more. small class environment The classes break and the more one on one attention that we get when we need help. The way that the teachers help the students. The small classes and the challenges of the college classes. It has 2 free years of college and you don't have a lot of people in your class. small classes Break The classes and the students, plus more freedom The support and the help from others small classes & teachers Seminar & English Break Time I really like the small classes because I can get the proper help I need. The classes are smaller and it is eazyer to leran. Little classes good attention The Clubs How teachers help me The teachers try their best to help their students The thing I like most about Early College is that it is in small class. There are less students Sports Club Less students in each class. the way some teachers tech us. Less people, more education the fact that we get treated maturally I like the free time and college classes

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Karl L. McKinnon Greene Early College Research Project

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Greene Early College Survey Data Question 8
Respondent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 8- What do you like least about Green Early College? Really Nothing rules Teaching ways ? Attitudes of teachers The classes and the college classes Teachers attitudes they act right snobby People be all over you get off I were backs. The learning process. That if you fail a class you aoutomatically fail your grade I least like how our food come cold & long classes Food is cold The food Food is cold a lot of tests Food is cold That we don't have any sports or cheerleading. No sports nothing we get to school at 7:55 am not 7:45 am The Food The least is not understanding enough and students always messing in class nothing really cold lunch When the teachers fuss at the students cause it makes me have a headache. Nothing I don't like navigator The air in the classess. It get to hot in the classroom. The College Class No sports Student's don't respect their teachers like they suppose to. Too much enrichment time on Friday. everything Nothing I do not have anything that I don't like here at GEC. that it is laid ot bad and kind of bad I have a hard time getting along with teachers Some students don't realize that they have to step up to the plate and buckle down some of the teachers are not patient

Karl L. McKinnon Greene Early College Research Project
Charts and Graphs

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Greene Early College Ethnic Make-up
American Indian

Greene Early College Gender Make-up
Males 46% Females

24% 7% 20%

5% 44%

Black (nonhispanic) Hispanic Other White

54%

N=41

n=41

30

Greene Early College
Student Response Frequencies
N=41

25

20 Frequency Q1 15 Q2 Q3 10 Q4 Q5 Q6 5

0 Strongly Agree 1 Agree 2 Neutral 3 Likert Scale Disagree 4 Strongly Disagree 5

Karl L. McKinnon Greene Early College Research Project

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Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar

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Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar
Slide 1

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___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

HARMFUL ANIMALS IN THE FIELD

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Slide 2

Objectives
 Increase your awareness of the various wild

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

animals that you may encounter in your outdoor workspace.

 Identify places that the animals may be found

 Basic safety tips to avoid contacting harmful

animals

 Positively identify a Black Rat Snake, Corn Snake,

Copperhead, Cotton Mouth, Northern Water Snake, Garter Snake, Black Widow Spider, Garden Spider

Slide 3

Animals we will cover
Snakes • Harmless Spiders • Harmless
• Venomous

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

• Venomous

Stinging • Wasps, Bees, Hornets Insects Mammals
• Anything with hair

Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar
Slide 4
Reptiles

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___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Slide 5

Recognizing Venomous Snakes

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Harmless

Venomous

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 6 ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Recognizing Venomous Snakes

Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar
Slide 7
Recognizing Venomous Snakes

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___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Slide 8

Snake Check ?

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Slide 9

Problems with ID Hard to determine / see Have to remember Way too close

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar
Slide 10
Best way to ID is by …

D-5
___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________


Venomous?

Color and Pattern !

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 11 ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 12 ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
Juvenile / Baby

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar
Slide 13

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___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Slide 14

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
Eye Stripe

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Slide 15

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar
Slide 16

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___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Slide 17

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Slide 18
Red and Yellow Kill a Fellow

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Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar
Slide 19

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Eastern Diamondback

Timber / Canebrake Carolina Pygmy/ Red Rattler

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Slide 20
35 30 25 20 15 10 Coral Moccasin Rattlesnake Harmless

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Non-venomous Venomous

5 0

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Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar
Slide 22

D-9
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Slide 23

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Slide 24

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Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar
Slide 25

D-10
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Slide 26

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Slide 27

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Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar
Slide 28
Break Time

D-11
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Slide 29

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Slide 30

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Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar
Slide 31

D-12
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Slide 32

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Slide 33

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Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar
Slide 34

D-13
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Slide 35

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Slide 36

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Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar
Slide 37

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___________________________________

What is the #1 risk with animals with hair?

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Slide 38

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Slide 39

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Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar
Slide 40
Watch where you put your hand

D-15
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Watch where you step

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Slide 41
Watch where you put your hand

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
Watch where you step

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Slide 42
•Pay Attention
•Look before you reach or step •Evaluate the area you are working

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

•Wear the proper equipment
•Boots •Gloves •Eye Protection •Long Pants

Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar
Slide 43
Crossing Logs
•Step on and over

D-16
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Rolling Logs, Rocks, Pipes
•Roll toward you

Slide 44
Do not handle dead animals with your hands

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Don’t do things that will tempt fate

Slide 45

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Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar
Slide 46
•Calm the victim and wash the bite with soap and water if possible. •Immobilize the bitten area and keep it lower than the heart. •Use a wide band like a belt or dew rag and tie it 2” above wound •Don not apply ice •Get medical attention NOW!!!

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___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Slide 47

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Slide 48

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Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar

D-18
Initials ______________ Age _________________ Male / Female (circle your sex) Department __________

Pre-program Survey
When you think of the word ―snake‖, the first 3 words that come to mind are: _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________

On a scale from 1 to 7 please circle the number that most closely reflects the amount of like that you have for snakes Strongly Dislike Somewhat Dislike Dislike Neither Like / or Dislike Like Somewhat Like Strongly Like

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

North Carolina is home to ______ kinds of snakes, _______ of which are venomous. Please indicate whether you think the following statements are true or false, by circling the appropriate word. a. Where you find one snake, there is sure to be at least one other snake nearby. True b. All snakes in North Carolina are venomous. c. The most important step to take if someone with you is bitten by a venomous snake is to keep the person’s affected limb below their heart. d. There are two venomous spiders that can harm humans in North Carolina e. Humans die in a day from a venomous snake or spider bite f. It is okay to pick up a dead venomous snake with your bare hands g. Bees, wasps, and hornets are less dangerous to humans than snakes True False False

True True True True True

False False False False False

On a scale from 0 - 7, please circle the number that most closely reflects the amount of fear that you feel around snakes Very Afraid Afraid Uncomfortable Neutral Reasonably Comfortable Comfortable Happy

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

On a scale from 0 - 7, please circle the number that most closely reflects the amount of fear that you feel around spiders Very Afraid Uncomfortable Neutral Reasonably Comfortable Happy Afraid Comfortable

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

On a scale from 0 - 7, please circle the number that most closely reflects how confident you are in identifying the dangerous animals you encounter in the field. No Confidence Very Little Confidence Doubtful Neutral A little Confidence Somewhat Confident Very Confident

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar

D-19
Initials ______________ Age _________________ Male / Female (circle your sex) Department __________

Post-program Survey
When you think of the word ―snake‖, the first 3 words that come to mind are: _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________

On a scale from 1 to 7 please circle the number that most closely reflects the amount of like that you have for snakes Strongly Dislike Somewhat Dislike Dislike Neither Like / or Dislike Like Somewhat Like Strongly Like

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

North Carolina is home to ______ kinds of snakes, _______ of which are venomous. Please indicate whether you think the following statements are true or false, by circling the appropriate word. a. Where you find one snake, there is sure to be at least one other snake nearby. True b. All snakes in North Carolina are venomous. c. The most important step to take if someone with you is bitten by a venomous snake is to keep the person’s affected limb below their heart. d. There are two venomous spiders that can harm humans in North Carolina e. Humans die in a day from a venomous snake or spider bite f. It is okay to pick up a dead venomous snake with your bare hands g. Bees, wasps, and hornets are less dangerous to humans than snakes True False False

True True True True True

False False False False False

On a scale from 0 - 7, please circle the number that most closely reflects the amount of fear that you feel around snakes Very Afraid Afraid Uncomfortable Neutral Reasonably Comfortable Comfortable Happy

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

On a scale from 0 - 7, please circle the number that most closely reflects the amount of fear that you feel around spiders Very Afraid Uncomfortable Neutral Reasonably Comfortable Happy Afraid Comfortable

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

On a scale from 0 - 7, please circle the number that most closely reflects how confident you are in identifying the dangerous animals you encounter in the field. No Confidence Very Little Confidence Doubtful Neutral A little Confidence Somewhat Confident Very Confident

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Karl L. McKinnon City of Wilson Professional Development Seminar

D-20

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