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“REQUIREMENTS OF LUBRICANTS IN SPONGE IRON STEEL & ANCIALLARY INDUSTRIES AND BAZAAR(RETAIL) POTENTIAL ASSESMENT.”
BHARAT PETROLEUM CORPORATION LTD. BHUBANESWAR, ORISSA.
PREPARED BY MR.NILOTPAL MAITY. ENROLLMENT NO. 08DM070. BATCH 2008-2010. UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
PROF. TANMOY DE.
. AS A PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF PGDM PROGRAM OF IMIS.
INSTITUE OF MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION SCIENCE BHUBANESWAR, ORISSA.
CERTIFICATE. DECLARATION. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. ABSTRACT. PART 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 COMPANY PROFILE. 1.1. A. BRIEF AND HISTORY. 1.1. B. ORGANISATIONAL STURTURE. 1.1. C. MARKETING. 1.1. D. FINANCE & ECONOMY. 1.1. D. HUMAN RESOURCE. 1.1. E. OPERATIONS. 1.1. F. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. 1.2 INDUSTRY PROFILE. 1.2. A. THE LUBRICANT MARKET. 1.2. B. BRIEF ABOUT THE COMPETITORS. PART 2 OBJECTIVES, SCOPES, RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS. 2.1. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY. 2.2. SCOPES AND LIMITATION. 2.3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. 2.4. DATA ANALYSIS. 2.4. A. INDUSTRY (BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS). 2.4. B. RETAIL MARKET (BAZAAR). 2.5. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION. ANNEXURE. INDUSTRY (BUSINESS TO BUSINESS). RETAIL MARKET (BAZAAR). REFERENCES.
I Mr.NILOTPAL MAITY with enrolment NO: 08DM070 of stream PGDM for year 2008-10, hereby declare that this project titled” REQUIREMENT OF LUBRICANTS IN SPONGE,IRON ,STEEL,ANCUALLARY AND RETAIL MARKET”OF BHARAT PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED (BPCL) to be authenticated and original in all respect of the process carried out in this process, if this project could be scrutinized and screened of coping, I am liable for any DEMARCATION/VARIATION of marks whatsoever my guide of this project deems fit.
NILOTPAL MAITY. P.G.D.M ENROLLMENT NO: 08DM070. BATCH: 2008-2010.
I express my gratitude to the entire panellist who took active part in accomplishing my project. To begin with, I would like to acknowledge my sincere thanks to Capt. K.S.V. SUBRAMANIUM (Retd.) CHIEF COORDINATOR (Training & Placement) for providing me the opportunity to do my summer training in Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL). My heartfelt gratitude also goes to my company guide Mr. SUBIR MONDAL, Asstt. Manager Marketing (Lubes). Who initiated the Midas touch to all the queries and actually made this project possible by edge. I would also like to convey my gratitude to my faculty guide PROF.TANMOY DE (Associate Professor) who made me walk all the steps of this project, intricately and helped me in formulating the entire framework of this analytical research. Finally, a word of thanks to all my respondents who spared their valuable time from their busy itinerary in filling up the questionnaires and made the project complete.
TITLE OF THE PROJECT: Requirements of lubricants in sponge
iron steel and ancillary industries and bazaar potential assessment of lubes. NAME OF THE COMPANY: BHARAT PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED.
NAME OF THE INSTITUTE: INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT
AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY.
NAME OF THE GUIDE: PROF.TANMOY DE(FACULTY GUIDE)
MR.SUBIR MONDAL(COMPANY GUIDE).
PROJECT PERIOD: 11/5/2009 to 8/7/2009
MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:
To find out the requirements of lubricants in sponge iron steel and ancillary industries. • Bazaar potential assessment of lubricants in ANGUL and DHENKANAL district.
METHODOLOGY : For industry the study was qualitative in nature
and based on industries and retailers opinion survey.
DATA SOURCE: Primary data source. RESEARCH APPROACH: DESCRIPTIVE for industries and
EXPLORATORY for retailers.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT: Separate questionnaires were being
prepared both for industry and retailers where each consisted OPENENDED, CLOSE-ENDED, CHECKLISTS and STRAIGHTFORWARD TYPE QUESTIONS. The mode of collecting the data was basically interview-administered and face to face conversations for both industry and retailers. SAMPLING PLAN: The main target area for the purpose of collecting the sample for the study was ANGUL and DHENKANAL where the main target population was SPONGE IRON STEEL &
ANILLARY INDUSTRIES and RETAIL SHOPS selling lubricants to consumers and end-users. Finally PROBABLISTIC CLUSTERED sampling was done since every industry and retailers had an equal chance of being selected.
• Price is one of the important parameter for the industries based upon which they decide for buying lubricants. • Most of industries in both ANGUL and DHENKANAL are sourcing their lubes requirements from distributors rather than directly from the company. • Cumulatively for both the districts the process of checking the performance level in respective industries is very low, but its different for that off ANGUL district where level of performance is continuously checked and the same is not done in DHENKANAL. • For the bazaar market 2 wheel lubes product are the maximum selling after which diesel products comes second due to the fact that both ANGUL and DHENKANAL are typical industrial belt. • Similarly the most sold pack sizes are that of 7-20 litres pack which resembles the potential sale of diesel vehicle lubricants. • The important parameter for selecting a particular brand for selling by the retailers is demand and then is margin.
INTRODUCTION. 1.1.COMAPANY PROFILE. 1.2.INDUSTRY PROFILE.
COMPANY PROFILE. 1.1. A. BRIEF and HISTORY. BRIEF.
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) is one of India's largest PSU companies, with Global Fortune 500 rank of 287 (2008). Its corporate office is located at Ballard Estate, Mumbai. As the name suggests, its interests are in petroleum sector. It is involved in the refining and retailing of petroleum products. Bharat Petroleum is considered to be a pioneer in Indian petroleum industry with various path-breaking initiatives such as Pure for Sure campaign, Petro card, Fleet card etc. BPCL's growth post-nationalization (in 1976) has been phenomenal. One of the single digit Indian representatives in the Fortune 500 & Forbes 2000 listings, BPCL is often referred to as an “MNC in PSU garb”. It is considered a pioneer in marketing initiatives, and employs “Best in Class” practices. Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) specializes in refining, processing, and distributing petroleum products. It offers petrol, diesel, aviation fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and lubricants. The company primarily operates in India, where it is headquartered in Mumbai and employs about13, 968 people. The company recorded revenues of INR1,112,431 million (approximately $27,632.8 million) in the fiscal year ended March 2008, an increase of 13% over 2007. Its net profit was INR17,696 million (approximately $439.6 million) in fiscal 2008, a decrease of 17.5% compared to 2007.
The 1860s saw vast industrial development. A lot of petroleum refineries came up. An important player in the South Asian market then was the Burmah Oil Company Ltd. Though incorporated in Scotland in 1886, the company grew out of the enterprises of the Rangoon Oil Company, which had been formed in 1871 to refine crude oil produced
from primitive hand dug wells in Upper Burma. The search for oil in India began in 1886, when Mr. Goodenough of McKillop Stewart Company drilled a well near Jaypore in upper Assam and struck oil. In 1889, the Assam Railway and Trading Company (ARTC) struck oil at Digboi marking the beginning of oil production in India. While discoveries were made and industries expanded, John D Rockefeller together with his business associates acquired control of numerous refineries and pipelines to later form the giant Standard Oil Trust. The largest rivals of Standard Oil - RoyalDutch, Shell, Rothschilds came together to form a single organization: Asiatic Petroleum Company to market petroleum products in South Asia. In 1928, Asiatic Petroleum (India) joined hands with Burmah Oil Company - an active producer, refiner and distributor of petroleum products, particularly in Indian and Burmese markets. This alliance led to the formation of Burmah-Shell Oil Storage and Distributing Company of India Limited. A pioneer in more ways than one, Burmah Shell began its operations with import and marketing of Kerosene. This was imported in bulk and transported in 4 gallon and 1 gallon tins through rail, road and country craft all over India. With motor cars, came canned Petrol, followed by service stations. In the 1930s, retail sales points were built with driveways set back from the road; service stations began to appear and became accepted as a part of road development. After the war Burmah Shell established efficient and up-to-date service and filling stations to give the customers the highest possible standard of service facilities.
FROM BURMA SHELL TO BHARAT PETROLEUM.
Burmah Shell Refineries was incorporated as a company in 1952, and established a refinery in Mahul .On 24 January 1976, the Burmah Shell Group of Companies was taken over by the Government of India to form Bharat Refineries Limited. On 1 August 1977, it was renamed Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited. It was also the first refinery to process newly found indigenous crude Bombay High, in the country.
BHARAT PETROLEUM “then and after”
The company installed microprocessor based digital integrated distributed control systems in catalytic reformers and introduced a new solvent unit to replace the pneumatic control system in 1993.The company also installed an advanced control system for its catalytic control unit. The company then incorporated a joint venture company, Bharat Oman Refineries, in 1994.There after BPCL signed a
memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Bank of Baroda in 1995 to launch the first co-branded credit card in the country. In 1998, BPCL entered into a joint venture with Petronet (India) for the construction of a 308 km pipeline from Kochi in Kerala to Karur in Tamil Nadu. The following are a few achievement achieved by BHARAT PETROLEUM CORPORATION LTD: • McDonald's made an agreement with BPCL to open and run restaurants at selected petrol pumps across the country in 2000. Quicky's, the global coffee chain, followed suit in 2001, and began ton offer its services at BPCL stores.
BPCL launched Speed '93, its own brand of petrol, in 2003. In the following year, BPCL diversified its operations. The company entered into a business to business e-commerce arrangement with IDBI Bank to provide an automated payment and purchase process to BPCL's corporate and industrial clients. The company also tied up with Tata Consultancy Services to provide medical advisory and counselling services at Ghar, the highway retailing initiative of BPCL.
• Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited and GAIL formed another joint venture company, Central UP Gas, for implementation of City Gas Projects in Delhi and Kanpur in 2005.
In 2006, the Government of the Sultanate of Oman signed an Exploration and Production Sharing Agreement (EPSA) for the on land exploration block 56 with the consortium comprising BPCL, Oilex (Operator), Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited, GAIL India and Videocon Industries. In the same year, the company acquired a 20% interest in an exploration block in Australia. In September 2008, BPCL and Videocon Industries Ltd acquired 50% stake in Brazil's EnCana Brasil Petroleo Limeade. BPCL and GAIL (India) Limited announced to form a joint venture company, God’s Own Gas Company, for marketing compressed natural gas (CNG) and piped gas in Kerala and Karnataka, in March 2008.
In April 2008, BPCL announced the formation of joint venture Company in consortium with other companies, Shapoorji Pallonji Co Ltd and Nandan Biomatrix Ltd for establishment of Bio Diesel Value Chain in Uttar Pradesh, India. In the same month, BPCL and GAIL (India) Limited signed an MOU for cooperation in transmission and distribution of natural gas, LPG pipelines and city gas.
• In August 2008, Punjab Energy Development Agency (PEDA) signed a MoU with BPCL to setup one M/W Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants at Lalru in Punjab, India.
KEY EMPLOYEES: Name
Ashok Sinha S. Mohan S.Radhakrisnan R K Singh S K Joshi S K Barua Rama Bijapurkar A H Kalro N Venkiteswaran P H Kurian P K Sinha
Chairman& Managing Director Director, Human Resources Director, Marketing Director, Refineries Director, Finance Director Director Director Director Director Director
Executive Board Executive Board Executive Board Executive Board Executive Board Non Executive Board Non Executive Board Non Executive Board Non Executive Board Non Executive Board Non Executive Board
MAJOR PRODUCTS AND SERVICES:
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) refines, stores, markets and distributes petroleum products. The company’s key products and services include the following:
I. II. III. Petrol Diesel LPG
IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX.
Gasoline Kerosene Lubricants Aviation fuel Fuels and solvents Convenience stores ATMs Car washes Free air and water Lubricant top-ups Energy audits E-banking services Consultancy and technical services Online ordering
1.1. B.COMPANY STUCTURE.
The older structure was functionally organized. There were mainly four functions (refineries, marketing, finance and personnel) each headed by an executive director reporting to the (CMD). Other support departments like corporate affairs, legal, audit, vigilance, coordination and company secretary were directly under the CMD. See Appendix 1 for the organizational chart. The Director refinery was in charge of refinery, corporate planning, JV refineries and special projects. Other than corporate finance and marketing finance EDP was also under the Director finance. In marketing, there were different departments for retail, industry, LPG, lubricants and aviation segments. Corporate communication was also under Director marketing. The whole of India was divided into four regions and further into 22 divisions. Each region was headed by a Regional
Manager who was in charge of all activities within the region and reported to the Director marketing. Each region had a manager in charge of each of regional personnel, regional engineering, regional industrial customers, regional retail, and regional finance. Regional LPG was under regional industrial customers. The division was the responsibility of the Divisional Manager reporting to the Regional Manager. He had a manager each for sales, operations and engineering. Each of these was responsible for sales, depots and engineering respectively for all the customer segments. Across the marketing function, except for the corporate departments (LPG, industrial customer, etc.) specifically looking after a customer segment, every individual and role is focused on multiple customer segments. For example any strategy addressing the industrial customers originates from the Corporate Department (Industrial Customer), goes via the Director Marketing, Regional Manager, Divisional Manager to the Sales Officer. All of them are responsible for multiple customer segments like retail, LPG, industrial, etc and deal with different classes of customers. Hence there was very low customer awareness in terms of the unique needs of the different customer segments, with no single individual at the operational level having clarity on any single customer segment. Moreover, the marketing strategy was formulated by people who were far from the customer with very low understanding of the customer they were targeting. The implementers were responsible for diverse customers with a low understanding of the logic of these strategies meant for each customer segment. Thus the old structure had created a bottleneck between the strategy formulators and implementers in terms of the regional structure, and between the field staff and the corporate offices and refinery. Activities of a business process are spread out across different functions and levels of hierarchy, engaging many individuals. There was a long chain of non value adding linkages between any two activities targeting a business / customer. For example, when an industrial customer gives a special order of lubes to the sales officer, the corporate lubes purchases the base oil, plant blends it, S&D packs it and the sales officer sells it. The Sales Officer would communicate the order to the Divisional Manager, who passes it on to the Regional Manager. Then the order would be routed to the Corporate Lubes for processing. Everyone involved in the activities of this process belong to different functions and hierarchy levels. This long chain of communication had led to a lack of customer orientation, low awareness of customer needs and expectations and slow response.
APPENDIX-1.ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE OLD AND NEW.
THE GIVEN DIAGRAM SHOWS THE STUCTURE OF BHARAT PETROLEUM OF BOTH STRUCTURAL AND DIVISIONAL.
REGIONAL S & D.
REGIONAL STRUCTURE OLD. (ABOVE)DIVISIONAL STUCRTURE (BELOW).
HEAD SALES. MANAGER OPERATIONS. MANAGER ENGINEERING.
PERSONNEL & ADMIN
FINANCE CORPORATE. FINANCE MARKETING.
LUBED CORPORATE. LPG CORPORATE.
VIGILLANCE. CORPORATE COMMUNICATION
SALES CORPORATE. E&P MARKETING.
CORPORATE STRUCTURE OLD.
DIRECTOR (REFINERIES) DIRECTOR PERSONNEL. CORPORATE PLANNING DIRECTOR MARKETING.
Company Secretary Corporate Affairs Legal
IT & SUPPLY
R & D. MUMBAI REFINERY.
CORPORATE STRATEGY NEW.
BHARAT PETROLEUM-THE NEW “SBU”FORM STRUCTURE
The new structure was focused on the business processes and the customer. The new structure at the top management level is the same. Five SBUs – Retail, Lubes, Industry/Commercial, LPG and Aviation are customer centered SBUs and come under the director (marketing). The sixth SBU, Refinery along with two new departments IT & Supply Chain and R&D are under the director (refineries). Each SBU would have its own HR, IS, finance, logistics, sales, engineering, etc. The number of layers in the organization was reduced to four from six or seven. The major change is the introduction of the territories covering a smaller geographical area and focusing on specific customer segments. In retail SBU the new structure had 66 territories reporting to the four regional offices, where as in the earlier structure there were only 22 divisions which catered to all segments. In other SBUs the regional office was removed and territories were designed to directly report to the SBU heads. Each territory team leader was responsible for sales in the territory only for a specific product. The territory structure was designed to enable the field staff to focus on specific customer segments. Authority was also delegated down the hierarchy and decision making pushed to the lowest possible levels. Decisions earlier taken at the regional level were taken now at the territory level. Further authority was delegated to the role and not the hierarchy level. Administrative offices have been moved to supply locations that consist of 125 terminals for main fuels and 35 LPG bottling ones. In LPG SBU head office there are only nine personnel and across the territories even managers at senior positions have been forced to get business. The new design incorporated recalibration of roles and responsibilities and redeployment of more than two thousand people (around one fifth of total employee strength) across the organization. It created new roles at the front effectively using redundant manpower to increase customer interface and interaction. SOME SALIENT FEATURES OF THE NEW STRUCTURE ARE: Highly empowered work force Decentralized decision making De-linking of authority from hierarchical levels Orientation towards internal and external customers
Regular market research and customer surveys
Conscious brand building efforts
1.1. C. MARKETING.
Bharat petroleum understands people’s need as customers and relentlessly work towards fulfilling them, working consciously towards providing added value in fuel and non-fuel areas. The Corporation offers products and services that have been designed to meet the need gaps of its customers. It is not easy as BPCL’s customer base is a diverse one demanding of them to perform better and satisfy the needs of some of their customers who fly in the air to the larger Indian populace who survive on ‘Kerosene’ as their cooking fuel.
Vehicle owner’s are always on the lookout for new offerings as well for tips & pointers to keep their vehicles in top shape. BPCL understand their requirements and have consistently tried to satisfy their needs. Information about all the high-class fuels for vehicle as well as the lubricants is always updated to keep wheels running smoothly.
OFFERING WORLD CLASS FUELS.
Since 2002, BPCL have introduced new generation branded fuels Speed, Hi Speed Diesel and Speed 97, being the pioneers to introduce premium fuel brands in the Country. These specialized products BPCL launched in line with global trends and keeping pace with the technological advancements in the automobile industry leading to introduction of new generation vehicles. Speed brand of petrol contains multi-functional fuel additives that prevent formation of harmful deposits and help clean existing deposits, thereby improving vehicle performance. SPEED has been the market leader in the branded fuels category. BPCL has also introduced a high-end Octane 97 variant Speed 97 catering to the requirement of vehicles at the upper end of the tier. To meet the growing needs of the diesel passenger car segment, BPCL also introduced HiSpeed Diesel which is a blend of diesel and world-class multi-functional additive which uses the internationally renowned Green Burn Combustion Technology. This multi-functional additive enables the high performance vehicles to deliver their designed outputs by removing harmful deposits from all fuel metering systems and components. This also reduces particle level, black smoke and provides longer engine life.
SERVICING THE CUSTOMER’S NEED.
BPCL recognized the customer need for pure quality and correct quantity of fuel for their vehicles and launched the flagship initiative of Pure For Sure (PFS) offering the guarantee of pure quality and correct quantity of fuel to our customers. The petrol pumps displaying a prominent ‘Pure For Sure’ signage have become landmark destinations as the movement has gained momentum across our Retail Network.BPCL now offer a robust and automated network of retail outlets, which leverage technology to deliver the assurance of quality and quantity promise, ensure integration of payment with fuelling and improves the service efficiency at the forecourt of the petrol pump.
FOSTERING LOYALTY .
BPCL share rewarding relationships with their customers and building loyalty has been a centre of focus with them. Recognizing the need of their customers to make life more convenient and rewarding and introduced the first loyalty-cum-rewards program, PetroBonus. Equipped with Smart Card Technology, the Petro Card program combines convenience in payment along with an inbuilt rewards program that rewards the customer with Petromiles every time he fuels. A similar program, Smart Fleet was launched for Fleet Owners. The SmartFleet Programme offers the fleet owner an unbeatable convenience, security and a host of privileges such as cashless transactions, vehicle tracking, Credit Option for Fleet Owners and Cash Management System.
CARING FOR CUSTOMER’S VEHICLE NEED.
BPCL also aim to provide service centre facilities through their V-CARE (Vehicle Care) Centres across the urban network. The VCare Centres provide customers with reliable, transparent and value for money services for the basic vehicle care needs. BPCL have tie ups with Hero Honda and General Motors for being their authorized After Sales Service Centres apart from the other brands of cars and two-wheelers. With BPCL’S reach to the nook & corner of the country they are always near to their customers.
PARTNERING HIGHWAY JOURNEY.
On the highways, BPCL offer a home away from home to the truckers and the tourists in the form of the GenerationNext OSTSs/OSTTSs (One Stop Truck cum Tourist Shop) branded as GHAR. These outlets are built on a minimum of 3 to 5 acres plot sizes and house dedicated and fully automated MS/HSD petrol/ diesel Fuelling facilities to fuel all kinds and sizes of vehicles besides the specially designed offerings for the highway travelers, that include a Food Court for Tourists and a Dhaba for truckers, a dormitory with beds, a Safe, Secured and Spacious parking for trucks and cars, a vehicle wash facility, Saloon, Laundry and Tailor shop, a Kirana shop, Bathing facilities, dedicated
toilets for Truckers and dedicated toilets for Tourists (Gents, Ladies & Handicapped),Children’s Play area, Amphitheatre for entertainment, Health care centre, Smartfleet Customer service centre ,Sanjha Chula for self cooking and captive power generation. Assuring a network of outlets on the highway shows our commitment to serve our highway customers with as much care as in the key cities.
AUTO L.P.G.-THE INTRODUCTION OF LPG AS AUTO FUEL.
With the menace of rising vehicular pollution, use of LPG as an auto fuel was proposed as a pollution abatement measure. LPG being a clean environmentally friendly fuel, will reduce air pollution to a great extent if the vehicles are fuelled with LPG. Bharat Petroleum was the first Oil Company to take the initiative for setting up of an Auto LPG Dispensing Station (ALDS) and run vehicles on LPG as a pilot project in Delhi in October 1999.BPCL today have over 70 Auto LPG Dispensing Stations (ALDS) in various cities (including metros) in the country.
In the highly competitive scenario, it has become imperative to own dominant brands. The Brand Management team at Bharat Petroleum endeavours to build and manage a strong brand image reflecting Bharat Petroleum's core values of being 'INCARE',viz. INnovative, CAring and REliable. Emphasis is laid on continuously understanding customer behaviour, tracking their changing needs and expectations, and meeting these needs in the most cost-effective manner.
Bharat Petroleum recognises that all strategic initiatives must conform to the overall vision of the Corporation and improve the economic value. The Strategy Development effort at the corporate level achieves better focus in the new organisational structure, besides
facilitating the SBUs in developing their respective strategies that lead to an integrated Corporate Strategy. A Business Planning process has been put in place that not only provides opportunities for the SBUs to pursue their visionary goals in consonance with the Corporate Vision, but also continuously monitors trends and identifies strategic opportunities for the Corporation.
“ON 16TH APRIL, 2009 BPCL LIFTED MARKETING
COMPANY OF THE YEAR AWARD AGAIN AFTER 2008.”
1.1. D. FINANCE AND ECONOMIC.
BPCL is primarily an energy processing and marketing company and a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU). The central government of India holds a stake of 54.93% in the company and the state government of Kerala has a shareholding of 0.86%. Although BPCL export products to other countries, particularly those in the South Asian
region, BPCL’s focus on their principal and most important market, India, is unwavering. It is projected that the energy needs and the demand of the country will increase significantly in step with economic growth. The demand for oil and petroleum products is also expected to increase simultaneously. The Planning Commission of India has projected that demand for oil will increase by over approximately 20% from 2005-06 levels by 2012.To meet the challenge of an evolving and growing market, BPCL have designed and deployed various strategies that will help us not only to meet the energy needs but also fulfil their responsibility to shareholders and contribute towards inclusive growth. BPCL’s revenues increased by about 12% though Profit after Tax (PAT) decreased by 12.26% when compared to previous years. Their total capital expenditure was Rs.20.66 Billion for the financial year 2007-08, as compared to Rs.18.34 billion during the year 2006-07. During the year 2007-08, the average cost of Indian crude basket was significantly higher than the corresponding figure of the previous year. Due to volatility in crude prices, OMCs in India faced a considerable strain in their liquidity. BPCL’s profits have suffered due to the rising under-recoveries arising out of subsidies on SKO, domestic LPG, and also Motor Spirit and High Speed Diesel under-recoveries due to price regulation by the government. As a means to compensate this, Government of India set up a mechanism for sharing this subsidy burden. Out of the total under recoveries, onethird was shared by the PSUs in upstream sector through discounts on crude purchased, one-third by Government’s Oil bonds and balance by OMCs. New ideas are also being tested and tried in BPCL’s retail business, so as to maximize the advantage that they possess by having established retail outlets spread across the country. As a result of aggressive marketing, the retail business was able to achieve an impressive growth of 13% compared to the previous year.
1.1. E. HUMAN RESOURCE.
Starting in August 2002, Bharat Petroleum, under the aegis of the Public Enterprises Selection Board, in association with the Hay Group, conducted an empirical research study, the first of its kind, to identify leadership competencies necessary for Indian CEOs. The study was conducted under rigorous methods developed at the McClelland Centre for Innovation and Research at Boston. These included criterion
sampling, Behavioural Event Interviews, expert panels, coding, concept formation, performance outcome analysis and validation. The outcome of that study is ‘The Indian CEO Competency Model’, wherein Competencies for Success were drawn up, providing keys to outstanding Indian Corporate Leadership in our time. The model comprised 11 competencies, that can be arranged in four groups or clusters, which are: SOCIAL RESPONSIBLE BUSINESS EXECELLENCE. 1. Adaptive Thinking. 2. Entrepreneurial Drive. 3. Excellence in Execution. • ENERGIZING THE TEAM 1. Driving Change. 2. Team Leadership. 3. Empowerment with Accountability • MANAGING ENVIRONMENT 1. Networking. 2. Organizational Awareness. 3. Stakeholder Influence. • INNER STRENGTH. 1. Executive Maturity. 2. Transcending Self.
Qualities such as change and team leadership, accountability, empowerment, networking and executive maturity are some of the critical dimensions of leadership highlighted in this book. It also charts a countrywide blueprint of how CEOs think, act and feel and exhibit typical effective behaviours worthy of emulation. The findings of this study would help in providing food for thought for existing leaders, as well as developing future leaders and benchmarking their skill-sets, strategies and successes. The few of other common human resource activities undertaken by BPCL are as: • Efficiently supervising a team of 150 members. • Effective day-to-day office management.
Ensuring complete logistics and administrative support for conducting meetings.
• In charge of office correspondence and mail management functions.
• Training need analysis Induction programmes Arrangement; Manpower/Recruitment planning· • Preparation of annual targets for personnel. • Coordinating Staff appraisals. • Good Interpersonal skills; Adept at Indenting and inventory of office stationery.
Manifested expertise in organizing social functions for staff members as a part of boosting industrial relation.
1.1. E. OPERATIONS.
The core business operations of Bharat Petroleum are Petroleum Refining. It belongs to the oil & gas operations industry. Although it carries the ancient Sanskrit name for India (Bharat), Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) is a modern refining and distribution company. It vies with Hindustan Petroleum for the #2 slot behind Indian Oil. The company processes petroleum and petroleum products;
its refinery in Mumbai processes 260,000 barrels of crude per day. It also controls refineries in Kochi and Numaligarh. BPCL sells engine oils and gasolines, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene. It has more than 6,550 gas stations, more than 1,000 kerosene dealers, and a national network of LPG distributors. The Indian government owns 55% of the firm, although it plans to sell this stake as part of industry wide deregulation. The various other operational functions of BPCL are as: APRON FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM & E-BIZ SOLUTION. BPCL is the first and only oil company in India to implement “Apron Fuel Management System” which is a powerful and comprehensive system that combines the vehicle (Point of Sale) and office support functions into a single seamless interface reducing human intervention and enhancing accuracy. BPCL also provides E-Biz solution to their customers. OVERSEAS PROJECTS. BPCL Aviation SBU has entered into a contract with Larsen & Tourbo-ECC Division and is rendering its expertise to M/s L & T - ECC Division for successful completion of “New Aviation Fuel Depot at Kuwait for Kuwait Aviation Fuelling Company (KAFCO)”.The scope of service includes Technical Consultancy by Aviation/Engineering & Projects specialists having domain expertise, Preparation of PreCommissioning and Commissioning procedures. BPCL is assisting in performing Pre-Commissioning and Commissioning of entire facility at KAFCO project, training of Owner's personnel in India (Class room training) and on job training at KAFCO site, Kuwait, participation in HAZOP/SIL/ALARP study and assistance to evaluate remedy on the findings as advised by HAZOP committee chairman (i.e. recommendations by 3rd party from that study), assistance in Procurement related activities and preparations of Operations& Maintenance and QC Manual. HYDRANT OWNERS & OPERATOR AND EQUITY AT”CIAL”. BPCL is the first oil company to participate in Greenfield airport in India. BPCL hold equity stake in Cochin International Airport Ltd. which is the first airport built under private-public participation and have state of art hydrant refuelling system at the airport built by them.
1.1. F.RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.
Over the years, Bharat Petroleum continues to meet the challenges of the rapidly changing environment, leading to changes in the marketing of products and services. In all these changes, only one factor has remained constant and has been the source of Bharat Petroleum's strength and inspiration for any future innovations - Bharat Petroleum's People. The feeling of ownership has facilitated all employees to understand the complexity of the market and needs of the customers, and respond to these needs with innovative initiatives and offerings. Research and development Centre always on the forefront to innovate, Bharat Petroleum is making distinct efforts towards Research and Development (R and D). Besides the R and D facilities at the Refinery and the Product Application Development Centre in Sewree in Mumbai, a new state-of-the-art RandD Centre is being set up near Delhi. The R and D Centre is being organised around three core groups – Process and Technology Development, Product Application Development and Environmental Engineering. A total outlay of Rs.3,000 million has been planned to be spent in three phases up to the year 2003-04 on this project.
BHARAT PETROLEUM- THE TECHNOLOGICAL EDGE. Bharat Petroleum has always been on the forefront of harnessing technology initiatives for BPCL has been on forefront in harnessing technology. Maximising efficiency and achieving greater customer satisfaction. Bharat Petroleum is the first Public Sector Oil Company to implement Enterprise wide Resource Planning (ERP) solutions - SAP. The implementation project known as ENTRANS (Enterprise wide Transformation) has been awarded the 'SAP Star Implementation Award', with Bharat Petroleum having the distinction of executing the largest and
the most ambitious SAP project in India. The challenge of SAP implementation was to ensure that all the integrated elements (of the complex multi-modular integrated solutions that impact the entire workflow of the organisation) work seamlessly across the length and breadth of the country, including the remote locations. Providing online connectivity in these remote locations, given the full-fledged IT network infrastructure, was in itself a daunting task. Bharat Petroleum is reaping the benefits of the integrated system in many areas of its operations. The early gains of implementation are in the areas of tracking customer-receivables, monitoring creditmanagement, inventory management, besides easing the operations in a large number of areas. Furthermore, Bharat Petroleum has also set up one of the biggest 'Centres of Excellence' in Asia to provide online support to the end users and also work towards continuous improvement in business processes and handle product upgrades and new generation products. With SAP as the IT backbone, Bharat Petroleum plans to take advantage of the Internet based capabilities along the entire value chain with a Customer Relationship Management solution. A large data warehouse project has also been implemented, which facilitates access to real-time accurate information on key performance indicators at all Bharat Petroleum locations. This enables the management to take strategic and business decisions, thus ensuring value-added services, better customer satisfaction and enhanced
1.2. INDUSTRY PROFILE. 1.2. A. THE LUBRICANT MARKET.
The global lubricant market is generally competitive with numerous manufacturers and marketers. Overall the western market may be considered mature with a flat to declining overall volumes while there is strong growth in the emerging economies. The lubricant marketers
generally pursue one or more of the following strategies when pursuing business:
SPECIFICATION. The lubricant is said to meet a certain specification. In the consumer market, this is often supported by a logo, symbol or words that inform the consumer that the lubricant marketer has obtained independent verification of conformance to the specification. Examples of these include the API’s donut logo or the NSF tick mark. The most widely perceived is SAE viscosity specification, like SAE 10W-40. Lubricity specifications are institute and manufacturer based. In the U.S. institute: API S for petrol engines, API C for diesel engines. For 2007 the current specifications are API SM and API CJ. Higher second letter marks better oil properties, like lower engine wear supported by tests. In EU the ACEA specifications are used. There are classes A, B, C, and E with number following the letter. Japan introduced the JASO specification for motorbike engines. In the industrial market place the specification may take the form of a legal contract to supply a conforming fluid or purchasers may choose to buy on the basis of a manufacturers own published specification.
ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURER (O.E.M) APPROVAL. Specifications often denote a minimum acceptable performance levels. Thus many equipment manufacturers add on their own particular requirements or tighten the tolerance on a general specification to meet their particular needs (or doing a different set of tests or using different/own test bed engine). This gives the lubricant marketer an avenue to differentiate their product by designing it to meet an OEM specification. Often, the OEM carries out extensive testing and maintains an active list of approved products. This is a powerful marketing tool in the lubricant marketplace. Text on the back of the motor oil label usually has a list of conformity to some OEM specifications, such as MB, MAN, Volvo, Cummins, VW, BMW or others. Manufactures may have vastly different specifications for the range of engines they make; one may not be completely suitable for some other.
The lubricant marketer claims benefits for the customer based on the superior performance of the lubricant. Such marketing is supported by glamorous advertising, sponsorships of typically sporting events and endorsements. Unfortunately broad performance claims are common in the consumer marketplace, which are difficult or impossible for a typical consumer to verify. In the B2B market place the marketer is normally expected to show data that supports the claims, hence reducing the use of broad claims. Increasing performance, reducing wear and fuel consumption is also aim of the later API, ACEA and car manufacturer oil specifications, so lubricant marketers can back their claims by doing extensive (and expensive) testing.
LONGEVITY. The marketer claims that the lubricant maintains its performance over a longer period of time. For example in the consumer market, a typical motor oil change interval is around the 3000-6000 miles (750015000 km). The lubricant marketer may offer a lubricant that lasts for 12000 (30000km) miles or more to convince a user to pay a premium. Typically, the consumer would need to check or balance the longer life and any warranties offered by the lubricant manufacturer with the possible loss of equipment manufacturer warranties by not following its schedule. Many car and engine manufacturers support extended drain intervals, but request extended drain interval certified oil used in that case; and sometimes a special oil filter. Example: In older Mercedes-Benz engines and in truck engines one can use engine oil MB 228.1 for basic drain interval. Engine oils conforming with higher specification MB 228.3 may be used twice as long, oil of MB 228.5 specification 3x longer. Note that the oil drain interval is valid for new engine with fuel conforming car manufacturer specification. When using lower grade fuel, or worn engine the oil change interval has to shorten accordingly. In general oils approved for extended use are of higher specification and reduce wear. In the industrial market place the longevity is generally measured in time units and the lubricant marketer can suffer large financial penalties if their claims are not substantiated.
EFFICIENCY. The lubricant marketer claims improved equipment efficiency when compared to rival products or technologies, the claim is usually valid when comparing lubricant of higher specification with previous grade. Typically the efficiency is proved by showing a reduction in
energy costs to operate the system. Guaranteeing improved efficiency is the goal of some oil test specifications such as API CI-4 Plus for diesel engines. Some car/engine manufacturers also specifically request certain higher efficiency level for lubricants for extended drain intervals.
OPERATIONAL TOLERANCE. The lubricant is claimed to cope with specific operational environment needs. Some common environments include dry, wet, cold, hot, fire risk, high load, high or low speed, chemical compatibility, atmospheric compatibility, pressure or vacuum and various combinations. The usual thermal characteristics are outlined with SAE viscosity given for 100°C, like SAE 30, SAE 40. For low temperature viscosity the SAExxW mark is used. Both markings can be combined together to form a SAE 0W-60 for example. Viscosity index (VI) marks viscosity change with temperature, with higher VI numbers being more temperature stable.
ECONOMY. The marketer offers a lubricant at a lower cost than rivals either in the same grade or a similar one that will fill the purpose for lesser price. (Stationary installations with short drain intervals.) Alternative may be offering a more expensive lubricant and promise return in lower wear, specific fuel consumption or longer drain intervals. (Expensive machinery, un-affordable downtimes.)
COMPOSITION. The marketer claims novel composition of the lubricant which improves some tangible performance over its rivals. Typically the technology is protected via formal patents or other intellectual property protection mechanism to prevent rivals from copying. Lot of claims in this area are simple marketing buzzwords, since most of them are related to a manufacturer specific process naming (which achieves similar results than other ones) but the competition is prohibited from using a trademark. QUALITY.
The marketer claims broad superior quality of its lubricant with no factual evidence. The quality is “proven” by references to famous brand, sporting figure, racing team, some professional endorsement or some similar subjective claim. All motor oil labels wear mark similar to "of outstanding quality" or "quality additives," the actual comparative evidence is always lacking.
1.2. B.BRIEF ABOUT THE COMPETITORS.
THE FOLLOWING ARE THE TOP FIVE COMPETITORS OF BHARAT PETROLEUM CORPORATTION LIMITED: INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED. Indian Oil Corporation is an Indian public-sector petroleum company. It is India’s largest commercial enterprise, ranking 116th on the Fortune Global 500 listing (2008). It began operation in 1959 as Indian Oil Company Ltd. The Indian Oil Corporation was formed in 1964, with the merger of Indian Refineries Ltd. Indian Oil and its subsidiaries account for a 47% share in the petroleum products market, 40% share in refining capacity and 67% downstream sector pipelines capacity in India. The Indian Oil Group of Companies owns and operates 10 of India's 19 refineries with a combined refining capacity of 60.2 million metric tons per year. On 30th June 2009 Indian Oil will complete 50 years of its existence and a series of events are being planned to celebrate its Golden Jubilee Year. Overview Indian Oil operates the largest and the widest network of fuel stations in the country, numbering about 17606 (15557 regular ROs & 2049 Kissan Sewa Kendra). It has also started Auto LPG Dispensing Stations (ALDS). It reaches Indane cooking gas to over 47.5 million households through a network of 4,990 Indian distributors. In addition, Indian Oil's Research and Development Centre (R&D) at Faridabad supports, develops and provides the necessary technology solutions to the operating divisions of the corporation and its customers within the country and abroad. Subsequently, Indian Oil Technologies Limited - a wholly owned subsidiary, was set up in 2003, with a vision to market the technologies developed at Indian Oil’s Research and Development Centre. It has been modelled on the R&D marketing arms of Royal Dutch Shell and British Petroleum. HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED.
HPCL (Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited) is a Fortune 500 company, with an annual turnover of over Rs 1,03,837 Crores ($ 25,142 Millions) during FY 2007-08, 16% Refining & Marketing share in India and a strong market infrastructure. Corresponding figures for FY 2006-07 are: Rs 91,448 crores ($20,892 Million). The Corporation operates 2 major refineries producing a wide variety of petroleum fuels & specialties, one in Mumbai (West Coast) of 5.5 MMTPA capacity and the other in Vishakhapatnam, (East Coast) with a capacity of 7.5 MMTPA. HPCL holds an equity stake of 16.95% in Mangalore Refinery & Petrochemicals Limited, a state-of-the-art refinery at Mangalore with a capacity of 9 MMTPA. In addition, HPCL is progressing towards setting up of a refinery in the state of Punjab in the joint sector. HPCL also owns and operates the largest Lube Refinery in the country producing Lube Base Oils of international standards. With a capacity of 335 TMT. This Lube Refinery accounts for over 40% of the India's total Lube Base Oil production. The vast marketing network of the Corporation consists of Zonal offices in major cities and over 91 Regional offices facilitated by a Supply & Distribution infrastructure comprising Terminals, Aviation Service Stations, LPG Bottling Plants, and Inland Relay Depots & Retail Outlets. The Corporation over the years has moved from strength to strength on all fronts. The refining capacity steadily increased from 5.5 million tonnes in 1984/85 to 13.70 million metric tonnes (MMT) presently. On the financial front, the turnover grew from Rs. 2687 crores in 1984-85 to an impressive Rs 1,03,837 Crores in FY 2007-08. HPCL also owns and operates the country’s largest Lube Refinery, producing Lube Base Oils of international standards. With a capacity of 335,000 Metric Tonnes. This refinery accounts for over 40% of the country’s total Lube Base Oil production. The vast marketing network of the Corporation consists of Zonal offices in the 4 metro cities and over 85 Regional offices facilitated by a Supply & Distribution infrastructure comprising Terminals, Aviation Service Stations, LPG Bottling Plants, and Inland Relay Depots & Retail Outlets. RELIANCE INDUSTRIES LIMITED. Reliance Industries Limited (NSE: RELIANCE) is India's largest private sector conglomerate (and second largest overall) with an annual turnover of US$ 35.9 billion and profit of US$ 4.85 billion for the
fiscal year ending in March 2008 making it one of India's private sector Fortune Global 500 companies, being ranked at 206th position (2008). It was founded by the Indian industrialist Dhirubhai Ambani in 1966. Ambani has been a pioneer in introducing financial instruments like fully convertible debentures to the Indian stock markets. Ambani was one of the first entrepreneurs to draw retail investors to the stock markets. Critics allege that the rise of Reliance Industries to the top slot in terms of market capitalization is largely due to Dhirubhai's ability to manipulate the levers of a controlled economy to his advantage. Though the company's oil-related operations form the core of its business, it has diversified its operations in recent years. After severe differences between the founder's two sons, Mukesh Ambani and Anil Ambani, the group was divided between them in 2006. In September 2008, Reliance Industries was the only Indian firm featured in the Forbes's list of "world's 100 most respected companies". CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED. Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited (CPCL), formerly known as Madras Refineries Limited (MRL) was formed as a joint venture in 1965 between the Government of India (GOI),AMOCO and National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) having a share holding in the ratio 74%: 13%: 13% respectively. From the grassroots stage CPCL Refinery was set up with an installed capacity of 2.5 Million Tonnes Per Annum (MMTPA) in a record time of 27 months at a cost of Rs. 43 crore without any time or cost over run. In 1985, AMOCO disinvested in favour of GOI and the shareholding percentage of GOI and NIOC stood revised at 84.62% and 15.38% respectively. Later GOI disinvested 16.92% of the paid up capital in favour of Unit Trust of India, Mutual Funds, Insurance Companies and Banks on 19 May 1992, thereby reducing its holding to 67.7 %. The public issue of CPCL shares at a premium of Rs. 70 (Rs. 90 to FIIs) in 1994 was over subscribed to an extent of 27 times and added a large shareholder base of over 90000.As a part of the restructuring steps taken up by the Government of India, Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL) acquired equity from GOI in 2000-01 Currently IOC holds 51.88% while NIOC continued its holding at 15.40%. In view of the CPCL become subsidiary of IOCL in 2001. The Manali Refinery has a capacity of 9.5 MMTPA and is one of the most complex refineries in India with Fuel, Lube, Wax and Petrochemical feedstock production facilities. CPCL is also the company where NRI businessman Mr.C.Sivasankaran worked as a fabrication contractor. MANAGLORE REFINERY AND PETROCHEMICALS LIMITED.
Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited (MRPL), located at Katipalla, north from centre of Mangalore city, is a state-of-the-art Grass root Refinery at Mangalore and is a subsidiary of ONGC, set up in 1998.The refinery was established after displacing five villages of Bala, Kalavar, Kuthetoor, Katipalla, and Adyapadi. The refinery has a versatile design with high flexibility to process crudes of various API and with high degree of automation. MRPL has a design capacity to process 9.69 million metric tonnes per annum and is the only refinery in India to have two hydrocrackers producing premium diesel (high cetane). It is also the only refinery in India to have two CCRs producing unleaded petrol of high octane. Currently, the refinery is processing about 12.5 million tonnes of crude per year and had a turnover of US$ 8 billion during last year. MRPL, which was a joint sector company, become a PSU subsequent on acquisition of its majority shares by ONGC. As on 1 April 2007, 71.62% shares are held by ONGC, 16.95% shares are held by HPCL and remaining shares are with public and financial institutions. MRPL has also been declared as Miniratna, a mini jewel, by Government of India in 2007. Before acquisition by ONGC in March 2003, MRPL was a joint venture oil refinery promoted by M/s Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL), a public sector company and M/s IRIL & associates (AV Birla Group). MRPL was set up in 1988 with the initial processing capacity of 3.0 million metric tonnes per annum that was later expanded to the present capacity of 9.69 million metric tonnes per annum. The refinery was conceived to maximise middle distillates, with capability to process light to heavy and sour to sweet crudes with 24 to 46 API gravity. On 28 March 2003, ONGC acquired the total shareholding of A.V. Birla Group and further infused equity capital of Rs.600 crores thus making MRPL a majority-held subsidiary of ONGC. The lenders also agreed to the debt restructuring package (DRP) proposed by ONGC, which included, inter alia, conversion up to Rs 365 core of their loans into equity. Subsequently, ONGC has acquired equity allotted to the lenders pursuant to DRP raising ONGC’s holding in MRPL to 71.62 percent.
OBJECTIVES, SCOPES, RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS.
2.1. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY.
THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY FOR INDUTRIES ARE TO FIND OUT:
THE RELEVANCE OF LUBRICANTS USED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PRODUCT THAT IS BEING MANUFACTURED IN RESPECTIVE INDUSTRY.
CONSUMPTION OF LUBRICANTS IN INDUSTRIES BASED ON PREFERENCES, PRIORITY AND INDIVIDUALITY. • REQUIREMENT ON LUBRICANTS IN SPONGE IRON, STEEL AND ANCIALLARY INDUSTRIES. • CONSUMPTION OF LUBRICANTS ACCORDING TO THEIR VISCOSITY GRADES.
THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY FOR RETAIL(BAZAAR) MARKET ARE TO FIND OUT:
THE BRANDS WHICH ARE BEING SOLD IN THE MARKET OF THE ABOVE MENTIONED DISTRICTS. THE CATEGORY OF LUBRICANT IS HAVING WHICH IS HAVING MAXIMUM SALES. THE AWARENESS OF “MAK”LUBRICANT AMONG RETAILERS AND CONSUMERS. THE PARAMETERS ON WHICH THE RETAILRES DECIDE FOR KEEPING A PARTICULAR BRAND OF LUBRICANT FOR SELLING. THE MAXIMUM SELLING PACK SIZES SOLD IN BO TH THE DISTRICTS.
• • • •
2.2. SCOPES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY. SCOPES OF THE STUDY.
THE STUDY COVERS ALL THE SPONGE IRON,STEEL AND ANCIALLARY INDUSTRIES AS WELL AS ALL THE RETAILERS IN ANGUL AND DHANKANAL DISTRICT.
THIS STUDY COVERS THE OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS OF “MAK”LUBRICANT OF BHARAT PETROLEUM IN SPONGE IRON, STEEL AND ANCIALLARY INDUSTRIES AS WELL AS IN RETAIL MARKET. THE STUDY ALSO COVERS ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRIES REQUIREMENT AND CONSUMPTION OF LUBRICANTS IN INDUSTRIES AS WELL AS AWARENESS, PERCEPTION AND CONSUMPTION OF LUBRICANTS BY COMMON END-USERS THROUGH RETAILERS.
THE SURVEY HAS PROVIDED THE COMPANY WITH MUCH NEW LUBRICANT RELATED INFORMATION OF INDUSTRIES AND OTHER BUSINESS CONTACTS WHO MIGHT BE POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS OF BHARAT PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED. THIS SURVEY ALSO PROVIDES AN INSIGHT ABOUT THE PRIORITIZATION FACTORS OF THE INDUSTRIES AND RETAILERS FOR COMSUMING AND SELLING DECISION RESPECTIVELY.
FOR RETAIL MARKET THE SURVEY HAS ALSO PROVIDED THE COMPANY THE NUMBER OF DISTRIBUTORS IN EVERY BLOCK AS WELL AS THE DEMAND OF THE CUSTOMERS IN THOSE BLOCKS.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY.
LACK OF INTEREST AND ENTHUSIASTIC RESPONSES MAY HAVE ALLOWED BIASES IN THIS REPORT IN THE FORM OF “NON-RESPONSIVE ERROR”.
• CORRECTNESS OF THIS REPORT IS RESTRICTED AND LIMITE DBY THE DEGREE OF AUTHENTICITY OF DATA
COLLECTED AND SINCERITY AND HONESTY OF RESPONDENTS. • AREA OF STUDY IS RESTRICTED TO ANGUL AND DHENKANAL DISTRICT OF ORISSA ONLY WHICH IS A MAJOR LIMITATION.THE NATIONAL SCENARIOMAY BE TOTALLY DIFFERENT FROM THE RESULTS OF THE ABOVE MENTIONED AREAS.
2.3. RESEARCH METHODOLGY.
METHODOLOGY and APPROACH.
The study was qualitative in nature based on industrial and retailer consumption and stock keeping units decision respectively. Field research was carried out for the survey both for the case of industries and retailers. For industries the study was DESCRIPTIVE in nature where as for retailers it was EXPLORATORY.
DATA SOURCE – Primary data source as new facts and figures are
being collected from the project.
The main target area for the purpose of collecting the sample for the study was ANGUL and DHENKANAL where the main target population was SPONGE IRON STEEL & ANILLARY INDUSTRIES and RETAIL SHOPS selling lubricants to consumers and end-users. Finally PROBABLISTIC CLUSTERED sampling was done since every industry and retailers had an equal chance of being selected.
Separate questionnaires were being prepared both for industry and retailers where each consisted OPEN-ENDED, CLOSE-ENDED, CHECKLISTS and STRAIGHT-FORWARD TYPE QUESTIONS. The mode of collecting the data was basically interview-administered and face to face conversations for both industry and retailers.
--------------------------------------------------------------------2.4. DATA ANALYSIS.
2.4. A. INDUSRTY (BUSINESS TO BUSINESS)
The project perambulates round the requirements of lubricants in sponge iron steel and ancillary industries. The main purpose of the study was to find out the requirements of various types of lubricants such as mainly HYDRAULIC OIL, GEAR OIL, GREASES, TURBINE OILS, TRANSFORMER OIL and other various types of oil. Through this analysis we were also able to find the priority of parameters which helps in making an industry’s decision of buying lubricants from a particular company, distributor or from any other source of supply. Other factors that
we were being measured through this study were like that of performance level monitoring, average monthly consumption of industries for lubricants. The sample for the study of the above mentioned parameters were about 41 industries both from ANGUL and DHENKANAL. The following are the analyzed parameters which are known to be significant for industries in terms of consumption, requirement:
PARAMETERS WHICH DECIDES TO BUY LUBRICANTS.
From the research it was found that out of 41 industries(both small and large scale) 27 buy their required portion of lubricants on the basis of PRICE factor, similarly 23 does the same on SERVICE whereas 11 and 13 are for RECOMMENDATION and OTHERS respectively. The parameter “OTHER” includes sub-parameters like that of QUALITY, SATISFACTION etc. The given graphical representation gives the best over view of the parameters on which all the industries in ANGUL and DHENKANAL decide their process of buying lubricants as for the purposes of consumptions and requirements:
So, finally it can be concluding that most of the industries (irrespective of their size-large, medium, small scale) mainly put emphasis
on PRICE and SERVICE as their primary and RECOMMENDATION and OTHER factors as their secondary priority. For district wise analysis of the parameters for buying lubricants, it was found that most of the industries irrespective of their size mostly had PRICE, SERVICE and OTHER (SATISFACTION, QUALITY) as their primary priority and RECOMMENDATION as secondary priority. This mentioned prioritizations of parameters were found for ANGUL district. The following graph gives the best view of the parameters that the industries in ANGUL on an average takes for buying lubricants for the purpose of consumption and requirements of lubricants in their respective industries:
PARAMETERS FOR INDUSTRIES IN ANGUL. In case of industries in DHENKANAL district the scenario is a bit different than that off ANGUL district. Here the industries have a different priority in case of buying lubricants for their industries.
PARAMETERS FOR INDUSTRIES IN DHENKANAL From the above graph only it is quite clear that PRICE comes as first priority followed by SERVICE,RECOMMENDATION and OTHER as second ,third and last priority respectively for industries as for the consumption of lubricants.
SOURCE OF LUBRICANTS.
On a total of the two districts it was found that on an average most of the industries get their portion of supplies from distributors, While the major half of the remaining portion get s from direct companies and the remaining small portion from other sources irrespective of distributors and direct company. The given graph best explains the process of sourcing lubricants by the industries in both the districts:
Out off all the industries in both the district 33 gets their portion of lubricants from distributors whereas 12 and 2 gets from direct company and other sources respectively. On a district wise analysis of sourcing of lubricants on average,it was more or less same for the industries in both the districts,depending on the total number of industries in each district(DHENKANAL have more industries as compared to that of ANGUL). The former graph
expalins the sourcing of lubricants by industries in ANGUL district whereas the later GRAPH shows that of DHENKANAL district:
SOURCING OF LUBRICANTS BY INDUSTRIES IN ANGUL.
SOURCING OF LUBRICANTS BY INDUSTRIES IN DHANKANAL.
PERFORMANCE LEVEL MONITORING.
From the analysis of the performance level monitoring it was quite vivid that majority of the industries of both the districts never measures any performance level of lubricants in their respective industries after
consumption. It was clear that only 17 out of all the industries in both districts measures the level of performance of lubricants, whereas as a majority of 22 never measures and only a mere 4 out of all measure performance at times. The under given graph gives the clear picture of measurement of lubricants by all the industries in both the district:
PERFORMANCE LEVEL MONITORING.
But the scenario for the same was very significantly different when analysis was being made on the district level. The industries in ANGUL came out to be more aware of the monitoring performance level of lubricants where as for DHENKANAL the result shows no process of monitoring performance level. Out of all the industries in ANGUL almost 11 do monitor performance level of lubricants and 2 never does, whereas in DHENKANAL only 5 industries of the total do monitor but a majority of 19 of the total does not monitor and only a mere 9 of the total monitor performance level but that too at times and not on regular basis. The following graphical representation best gives the view of performance level monitoring in both the districts separately.
PERFORMANCE MONITORING OF INDUSTRIES IN ANGUL.
PERFORMANCE LEVEL MONITORING BY INDUSTRIES IN DHENKANAL.
The district wise requirement of lubricants for industries on a total basis is 145756litres of lubricants in ANGUL; where as the total consumption of lubricants by industries in DHENKANAL was 97236 litres. The difference between the total consumption of lubricants in the two districts is due to the fact that DHENKANAL has more number of large, medium and small scale industries as compared to that of that of ANGUL.The consumption of lubricants such as hydraulic oil, turbine oil, axile oil, air lube transmission oil are also at much more level in ANGUL as compared to that of industries in DHENKANAL.
2.4. B.RETAIL MARKET (BAZAAR).
The project perambulates round the bazaar potential assessment of lubricant for ANGUL and DHENKANL district. It was being assigned to carry out a survey of all the retailers in the two districts; to begin with I have classified the ANGUL district into eight BLOCKS/TEHSIL and DHENKANAL into nine BLOCK/TEHSIL.There were 78 and 56 retailers in both ANGUL and DHENKANAL district respectively. The analysis is based on certain parameters and the survey was carried out through questionnaire, (being the medium of exploration).
The total quantity of lubricant sold in ANGUL district is 62580 litres whereas the total for the same was 44725 litres in DHENKANAL district. This further counts for an average of 813 litres of lubricants products for retailers in ANGUL whereas the average sales of retailers in DHENAKANL is about 799 litres. HIGEST SELLING BRANDS.
FOR BOTH THE DISTRICTS.
The analysis clearly shows that CASTROL is the highest selling brand in all the markets of the two districts. Similarly SERVO comes second followed by HPCL as third and VEEDOL as fourth.PENSOL too have a good portion market potential despite being a local brand.Various other local brands also have a good market composition. On comparing the figures districtwise also the results were same as above.The folloowing are the graphs of retailers for both ANGUL nad DHANKANAL district:
FOR ANGUL DISTRICT.
FOR DHENKANAL DISTRICT.
MAXIMUM SELLING CATEGORY.
The graph under given, gives a brief idea about the maximum selling lubricant category in both the districts:
The above graph clearly demonstrates that 2 wheel lubricant products are the maximum selling product category for lubricants in both the districts.Out off all the retailers in both the district it is clear that 81 of the total are maximum selling 2 wheel vehicle lubricant produtcs.2 wheel vehicle products are then followed by diesel vehicle lubricant products counting to 64,which is due to the fact that both ANGUL nad DHENAKANL are industrial areas with a huge amount of heavy vehicles movement.Then comes the category of 4-wheelers amounting to 59 out of all the retailers.This scenario is same for both the districts when analysis is being made on district wise,where for ANGUL 40,39,37,1,1 are for 2wh,diesel,4-wh,coolant and grease respectively and 38,22,19,0,0 for 2wh,diesel,4-wh,coolant,grease respectively in DHENKANAL .
The following graphs give the vivid picture of the maximum selling product of lubricants in both the districts when analysis is being made district wise:
MAXIMUM SELLING PRODUCT CATEGORY IN ANGUL.
MAXIMUM SELLING PRODUCT CATEGORY FOR DHENKANAL.
MAXIMUM SELLING PACK SIZES.
Here we are having different category of pack sizes they are 0-1 litre, 1-5 litre, 7-20 litre, Barrels.
MAXIMUM SELLING PACK SIZES FOR BOTH THE DISTRICT.
By doing this analysis we can conclude that the highest selling pack size of lubricant in both the districts is 7-20 litres, whereas under 1 litre pack is second and 1-5 litre pack is third in maximum selling pack sizes. While doing the analysis on district level, the results are quite different. For ANGUL 7-20 litre pack are still the majority selling pack sizes whereas uder 1 litre and 1-5 litre packs are coming together in second position and finally barrel with nominal sales. In case of DHENAKANL district packs of under-1 litre is maximum selling and 1-5 litres and 7-20 litres are second and third higest selling category respectively with 42 and 20 points.
The following graphs are for maximum selling pack sizes for both the districts individually:
MAXIMUM SELLING PACK SIZES FOR ANGUL.
MAXIMUM SELLING PACK SIZES FOR DHENAKANL.
PARAMETERS FOR SELECTING A BRAND FOR SELLING.
Here we are having several parameters that are preferred by the retailers while they keep the brand in their counters. The parameters are Price or MRP of the product, Profitability or Margin that is given by the company to the retailers, Market demand of the product, Payment term of the company to the retailers, Scheme or incentives that are given to the retailers for selling their brands and at the last but not the least quality of the product.
PARAMETERS FOR SELECTING A BRAND FOR SELLING .
From the above diagram only is clear that demand is the most important parameter which decides for a reatiler to keep a brand for the purpose of selling to their customer.After demand its margin that comes second and wuality as third parameter for the retailers.The scenario is same for the two districts when analysis is being done on individual district level.
The following are the graph represents the individual district wise parameter selection of brands for retailers:
MAK AWARENESS IN BOTH THE DISTRICTS. Out of 138 retailers as respondent 132 is well aware of MAK brand. So this figure is quite significant which represents the awareness of MAK brand amongst the market of the two districts. The figures are quite same when analysis is done on district level.
Hence it is quite clear that the awareness of MAK amongst the retailers in both the district is quite high.
FINDINGS FROM INDUSTRIES .
For industries, the requirements of lubricants basically varied as per the nature of the products that are being manufactured which is typically high for large scale industries like BHUSHAN STEEL & POWER PVT.LTD, NAVA BHARAT VENTURES LTD etc.Similarly the rate consumption is low for medium and small scale industries. From the analysis it was quite clear that irrespective of the size of industries, PRICE always remained the major parameter which helps them for the purpose of buying lubricants. The same was found out when individual analysis was done on each district. It is also found from the analysis of both the districts in cumulative as well as individual form that a majority number of industries are sourcing their lubricant requirements from distributors rather than directly from company of the brand they are consuming. From the survey it can be concluded that the average consumption of lubricants in ANGUL district is nearly about 11470 litres whereas the consumption for industries in DHENKANAL is 2065 litres which is quite low when compared to that of ANGUL.
FINDINGS FROM RETAIL (BAZAAR) MARKET.
From the analysis it was found that CASTROL is the market leader in of lubricants in bazaar market. Similarly SERVO comes second and thereafter HPCL, VEEDOL, PENSOL are ranked respectively as third, fourth and fifth respectively. The scenario was same when individual district wise analysis was done on ANGUL but only the fifth position was being taken by VALVOLINE in DHENKANAL district. In retail market, for both the districts taken together as well as on individual level, the total sale of Diesel vehicle lubricant products are quite dominant, after which 2-wheel lubricant products have the second majority. This is due to the fact that both ANGUL and DHENKANAL are industrial area and hence sale of four wheel lubes product are coming third. DEMAND has been one of the major parameter for retailers for which they keep stocks of a particular brand of lubricant for selling it to the market. Hence it can be inter linked that CASTROL has the maximum demand as it is the highest selling brand in both the districts individually. After demand, MARGIN is the second most important parameter for retailers for keeping a brand. This is so because it is quite natural that margin is the parameter that gives profit to the retailers.
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Consumption and requirement of lubes in industries varies as per the respective size of the industries i.e. large, medium and small scale. Price is one of the important parameter for the industries based upon which they decide for buying lubricants. Most of industries in both ANGUL and DHENKANAL are sourcing their lubes requirements from distributors rather than directly from the company. Cumulatively for both the districts the process of checking the performance level in respective industries is very low, but its different for that off ANGUL district where level of performance is continuously checked and the same is not done in DHENKANAL. For the bazaar market 2 wheel lubes product are the maximum selling after which diesel products comes second due to the fact that both ANGUL and DHENKANAL are typical industrial belt. Similarly the most sold pack sizes are that of 7-20 litres pack which resembles the potential sale of diesel vehicle lubricants. The important parameter for selecting a particular brand for selling by the retailers is demand and then is margin. The awareness of MAK brand is quite high in both the districts.
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