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PAB3053
RESERVOIR MODELLING AND SIMULATION
SEPT 2013
Dr. Mohammed Abdalla Ayoub
Diffusivity EquationLinear
Petroleum Engineering Department (GPED)
Lesson’s outcomes
At the end of this lesson, you will:
• Get to know what is the meaning of diffusivity
equation for linear, horizontal, single phase
flow.
• Know how to derive it under different
conditions.
• Be able to deal with the right assumptions and
to fully understand the reasons.
Introduction
Ax
x=0 x x+Ax x=L
flowrate, q
in
x=0
x
x+Ax
x=L
Ax
area, A
porosity, 
X axis
X axis
flowrate, q
out
flowrate, q
out
flowrate, q
in
isometric view
plan view
The mass accumulation
(increase or decrease)
over time At
=
The mass that
flows IN over
time At

The mass that
flows OUT
over time At
Introduction
o Flow along x direction, no
flow in y or z directions
o Flow into cuboid at left, out
of cuboid at right
o Total length, L
o Rock 100% saturated with
one fluid
Assumptions
k = Permeability (in the X direction), (D)
ρ = Density, (g/cm
3
)
U = Flow velocity (cm/s)
t = Time (s)
Φ = Porosity
μ = Viscosity, cp
P = Pressure, atm
x = Distance, (cm)
Fluid flows in at position x = 0,
and flows out at x= L
Element from x to position
x+Ax is examined
Bulk volume of the element is
the product of the area, A and
length, dx, i.e. bulk volume = A
Ax
The pore volume of the element
is the product of the bulk
volume and the porosity, Φ, i.e.
pore volume = A Ax Φ
Ax
x=0 x x+Ax x=L
flowrate, q
in
x=0
x
x+Ax
x=L
Ax
area, A
porosity, 
X axis
X axis
flowrate, q
out
flowrate, q
out
flowrate, q
in
isometric view
plan view
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
In terms of mass flow rate,
Mass flow rate through the area, A = qρ ((cm
3
/s)*(g/cm
3
) = (g/s)
Mass flow rate through the area, A at position x = (qρ)
x
Mass flow rate through the area, A at position x+Ax = (qρ)
x+Ax
Mass flow rate into a volume element at x minus
mass flow rate out of element at x + Ax =(qρ)
x
 (qρ)
x+ Ax
A∆t
(g)
∆
A
∆ ∅ A ∆x
(g)
vρ +
vρ
x
∆x A. ∆t
(g)

ρv
x
∆x ∆t= ∆(∅)∆x

∆ ρv
∆x
=
∆ ∅
∆

ρv
x
=
∅
2
v /
g/c
3
v mass flux
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
o Mass flow rate out of the element is also equal to the rate of change of mass flow
in the element
o Therefore, the change in mass flow rate =
o This must equal the rate change of mass in the element with a volume = A Ax Φ
o The rate change of mass is equal to
( ) ( )
( )
dx
x
q
q q
x dx x
*
o
µ o
µ µ + =
+
( )
dx
x
q
*
o
µ o
÷
( )
dx A
t

o
µ o
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
o Hence
o Since the flow velocity is equal to q/A then:
o Or:
o Assuming Darcy’s law is applicable:
( )
t A x
q
o
oµ

o
µ o
= ÷
1
( )
t x
v
o
oµ

o
µ o
= ÷
( )
t x
v
o
oµ

o
µ o
÷ =
t x
P k
x o
oµ

o
o
µ
µ
o
o
=


.

\

Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
o Density can be related to pressure through the isothermal compressibility
o Density is equal to mass over volume, which is:
o Hence, the isothermal compressibility is (using quotient rule):
P
V
V
c
c
c
÷ =
1
V
m
= µ
P P
m
m
c
o
oµ
µ o
µ
o
µ 1
=

.

\

÷ =
2
[g(x)]
(x) g f(x)  (x) f g(x)
g(x)
f(x)
dx
d ' '
=
(
¸
(
¸
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
o Since,
o Then,
o This is NONLINEAR PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION, which
means some variables in the equation (inputs) depend on the quantity we
are trying to find.
t
P
c
t
P
P t o
o
µ
o
o
o
oµ
o
oµ
= =
t
P
c
x
P k
x o
o
µ 
o
o
µ
µ
o
o
=


.

\

Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
The mass accumulation
(increase or decrease)
over time At
=
The mass that
flows IN over
time At

The mass that
flows OUT
over time At
( ) g in v A t Mass
x x out
A +
A = µ
( ) g in v A t Mass
x in
µ A =
The mass accumulation
(increase or decrease)
over time At
( ) ( )
x x x
v A t v A t
A +
A ÷ A = µ µ
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
Change of mass of fluid
over the time from t to
t+At
=
The mass at
time t+At 
The mass at
time t
( ) ( )   A x
t t t
A ÷ =
A +
µ µ
Where Ax and A are assumed constants
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
o By dividing both sides by the area A:
o By dividing both side by AxAt
o By taking the limit for both sides
( ) ( )   ( ) ( )
x x x t t t
v A t v A t A x
A + A +
A ÷ A = A ÷ µ µ µ µ
( ) ( )   ( ) ( )
x x x t t t
v t v t x
A + A +
A ÷ A = A ÷ µ µ µ µ
( ) ( )   ( ) ( )
x
v v
t
x x x t t t
A
÷
=
A
÷
A + A +
µ µ µ µ
( ) ( )   ( ) ( )
x
v v
t
x x x
x
t t t
t
A
÷
÷ =
A
÷
A +
÷ A
A +
÷ A
µ µ µ µ
0 0
lim lim
( ) ( ) µ µ v
x t c
c
÷ =
c
c
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
If Darcy’s law is applicable:
But:
Therefore:
NONLINEAR PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
( ) ( )
t
P
P t c
c
·
c
c
=
c
c
µ µ
( )


.

\

c
c
c
c
=
c
c
x
P k
x t µ
µ µ
x
P k
v
c
c
÷ =
µ
( )


.

\

c
c
c
c
=
c
c
·
c
c
x
P k
x t
P
P µ
µ µ
t
P
c
x
P k
x o
o
µ 
o
o
µ
µ
o
o
=


.

\

Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
o There is no known analytical solution for the NonLinear Partial
Differential Equation.
o It can either by solved numerically or by simplifying the
equation by making various assumptions and then solve the
equation analytically.
Assumptions
Simplifying Assumptions for the NonLinear PDE
1. Viscosity, μ, is constant (with x and P)
2. Permeability is constant with x and P, i.e. the system is homogeneous.
3. The pressure gradient, ,is very small such that:
4. The fluid has a constant compressibility
0
2
~

.

\

x
P
o
o
x
P
o
o
CONSTANT
P
c
f
~

.

\

=
o
oµ
µ
1
Simplifying Assumptions for the NonLinear PDE
1. Viscosity, μ, is constant (with x and P)
Quite reasonable since viscosity does not vary greatly for most oils (or
water) over small pressure ranges.
2. Permeability is constant with x and P, i.e. the system is homogeneous.
Quite drastic since it says that permeability (k) is constant through the
reservoir i.e. that the system is homogeneous in k. For a real system, this is
a very simplifying assumption.
Justifications
Justifications
Simplifying Assumptions for the NonLinear PDE
3. The pressure gradient, , is very small such that:
it is odd but it is designed to get rid of “difficult” terms with terms like
(∂P/∂x)2 in them
4. The fluid has a constant compressibility.
is reasonable for most reservoir oils.
x
P
o
o 0
2
~

.

\

x
P
o
o
Working assumptions
Linearization of the Partial Differential Flow Equation for Linear
Flow
Assuming the viscosity and permeability do not depend on
location or pressure:
By expanding the RHS of the equation:
( )


.

\

c
c
c
c
=
c
c
·
c
c
x
P k
x t
P
P µ
µ µ
( )

.

\

c
c
c
c
· =
c
c
·
c
c
x
P
x
k
t
P
P
µ
µ
µ


.

\

c
c
· +
c
c
·
c
c
=

.

\

c
c
c
c
2
2
x
P
x
P
x x
P
x
µ
µ
µ
Working assumptions
ρ is a function of pressure, therefore, the RHS of the equation
can be expressed as:
Assuming the pressure gradient is very small, the RHS of the
equation can be simplified to:
The diffusivity equation becomes


.

\

c
c
· +
c
c
·
c
c
·
c
c
=

.

\

c
c
c
c
2
2
x
P
x
P
x
P
P x
P
x
µ
µ
µ


.

\

c
c
=

.

\

c
c
c
c
2
2
x
P
x
P
x
µ µ
( )


.

\

c
c
· =
c
c
·
c
c
2
2
x
P k
t
P
P
µ
µ
µ
By expanding the LHS of the equation:
Formation compressibility can be expressed as:
Therefore the LHS of the equation becomes:
( )
t
P
P P t
P
P c
c
·
(
¸
(
¸
c
c
· +
c
c
· =
c
c
·
c
c 
µ
µ
 µ
P
c
f
c
c
=


1
( )
t
P
c
P t
P
P
f
c
c
·
(
¸
(
¸
· · +
c
c
· =
c
c
·
c
c
 µ
µ
 µ
Working assumptions
Cont.,
Liquid compressibility can be expressed as:
Again the LHS of the equation becomes:
Which can be simplified to:
Where
P
c
c
c
=
µ
µ
1
( )  
t
P
c c
t
P
P
f
c
c
· · · + · · =
c
c
·
c
c
 µ µ  µ
( )
t
P
c
t
P
P
t
c
c
· =
c
c
·
c
c
µ µ
f t
c c c + =
Final form
By equalising the expanded RHS and LHS:
By simplifying the equation:
And this is the diffusivity equation for Linear, Horizontal, Single
phase fluid. or


.

\

c
c
· =
c
c
·
2
2
x
P k
t
P
c
t
µ
µ
µ


.

\

c
c
· =
c
c
2
2
x
P
c
k
t
P
t
µ
·
c
c
=


.

\

c
c
t
P
k
c
x
P
t
µ
2
2
Fluid compressibility
• As previously quoted
• For slightly compressible fluids where c is small and constant
( ) ( )
o
P P c
e cP a
cdP
d
÷
= + =
=
0
ln µ µ µ
µ
µ
( )
P c
1 1
1
V = V
= =


.

\

=


.

\

÷ =
÷ = ÷ =
µ µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ µ
µ
dx
dP
c
dx
d
c
dP
d
dP
d
dP
d
c
dP
m V d
V
m
dP
dV
V
c
For black oil (P>P
b
)
• Diffusivity Equations for a Black Oil:
• Slightly Compressible Liquid: (General Form)
• Slightly Compressible Liquid: (Small p and c form)
t
p
k
c
p
t
c
c
= V
µ
2
t
p
k
c
p p c
t
c
c
= V + V
µ
2 2
) (
V
Checking dimensions and conversions
·
c
c
=


.

\

c
c
t
P
k
c
x
P
t
00633 . 0
2
2
µ
·
c
c
=


.

\

c
c
t
P
k
c
x
P
t
µ
2
2
·
×
=

.

\

sec
sec
1
2 2
Pa
m
Pa
Pa
m
Pa
Quantity 1 = Quantity 2
1
2
00633 . 0
2 2 1 1
number
number
unit number unit number
=

.

\

=

.

\

(
¸
(
¸




.

\

=
day md
cp
psi
ft
1
1
1
00633 . 0
2
In vector notation


.

\

c
c
· =
c
c
2
2
x
P
c
k
t
P
t
µ
P
c
k
t
P
k
t
P
c
t
t
2
V =
c
c


.

\

u V V =
c
c
µ
µ

Radial Diffusivity Equation

.

\

c
c
c
c
=
c
c


.

\

c
c
·
c
c
=
c
c
r
P
r
r r c
k
t
P
r
P k
r
r r t
P
c
t
t
1
1
µ
µ

Concluding remarks
Conceptually, the diffusivity equation is obtained by
applying mass balance over a control volume.
Equation of motion (Darcy's Law) and equation of state
(PVT relations) are then combined with the mass
balance equation to obtain the final form of the
diffusivity equation.
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