UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS

PAB3053
RESERVOIR MODELLING AND SIMULATION
SEPT 2013
Dr. Mohammed Abdalla Ayoub

Diffusivity Equation-Linear
Petroleum Engineering Department (GPED)
Lesson’s outcomes
At the end of this lesson, you will:
• Get to know what is the meaning of diffusivity
equation for linear, horizontal, single phase
flow.
• Know how to derive it under different
conditions.
• Be able to deal with the right assumptions and
to fully understand the reasons.
Introduction
Ax
x=0 x x+Ax x=L
flowrate, q
in
x=0
x
x+Ax
x=L
Ax
area, A
porosity, |
X axis
X axis
flowrate, q
out
flowrate, q
out
flowrate, q
in
isometric view
plan view
The mass accumulation
(increase or decrease)
over time At
=
The mass that
flows IN over
time At
-
The mass that
flows OUT
over time At
Introduction
o Flow along x direction, no
flow in y or z directions
o Flow into cuboid at left, out
of cuboid at right
o Total length, L
o Rock 100% saturated with
one fluid


Assumptions
k = Permeability (in the X direction), (D)
ρ = Density, (g/cm
3
)
U = Flow velocity (cm/s)
t = Time (s)
Φ = Porosity
μ = Viscosity, cp
P = Pressure, atm
x = Distance, (cm)
 Fluid flows in at position x = 0,
and flows out at x= L

 Element from x to position
x+Ax is examined

 Bulk volume of the element is
the product of the area, A and
length, dx, i.e. bulk volume = A
Ax

 The pore volume of the element
is the product of the bulk
volume and the porosity, Φ, i.e.
pore volume = A Ax Φ


Ax
x=0 x x+Ax x=L
flowrate, q
in
x=0
x
x+Ax
x=L
Ax
area, A
porosity, |
X axis
X axis
flowrate, q
out
flowrate, q
out
flowrate, q
in
isometric view
plan view
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
In terms of mass flow rate,

Mass flow rate through the area, A = qρ ((cm
3
/s)*(g/cm
3
) = (g/s)
Mass flow rate through the area, A at position x = (qρ)
x

Mass flow rate through the area, A at position x+Ax = (qρ)
x+Ax

Mass flow rate into a volume element at x minus
mass flow rate out of element at x + Ax =(qρ)
x
- (qρ)
x+ Ax


A∆t
(g)

A
∆ ∅ A ∆x
(g)
vρ +

x
∆x A. ∆t
(g)
-
ρv
x
∆x ∆t= ∆(∅)∆x
-
∆ ρv
∆x
=
∆ ∅


-
ρv
x
=


2

v /
g/c
3

v mass flux
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
o Mass flow rate out of the element is also equal to the rate of change of mass flow
in the element



o Therefore, the change in mass flow rate =


o This must equal the rate change of mass in the element with a volume = A Ax Φ

o The rate change of mass is equal to



( ) ( )
( )
dx
x
q
q q
x dx x
*
o
µ o
µ µ + =
+
( )
dx
x
q
*
o
µ o
÷
( )
dx A
t
|
o
µ o
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
o Hence

o Since the flow velocity is equal to q/A then:



o Or:

o Assuming Darcy’s law is applicable:



( )
t A x
q
o

|
o
µ o
= ÷
1
( )
t x
v
o

|
o
µ o
= ÷
( )
t x
v
o

|
o
µ o
÷ =
t x
P k
x o

|
o
o
µ
µ
o
o
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
o Density can be related to pressure through the isothermal compressibility


o Density is equal to mass over volume, which is:

o Hence, the isothermal compressibility is (using quotient rule):


P
V
V
c
c
c
÷ =
1
V
m
= µ
P P
m
m
c
o

µ o
µ
o
µ 1
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
2
[g(x)]
(x) g f(x) - (x) f g(x)
g(x)
f(x)
dx
d ' '
=
(
¸
(

¸

Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
o Since,



o Then,



o This is NON-LINEAR PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION, which
means some variables in the equation (inputs) depend on the quantity we
are trying to find.
t
P
c
t
P
P t o
o
µ
o
o
o

o

= =
t
P
c
x
P k
x o
o
µ |
o
o
µ
µ
o
o
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
The mass accumulation
(increase or decrease)
over time At
=
The mass that
flows IN over
time At
-
The mass that
flows OUT
over time At
( ) g in v A t Mass
x x out

A +
A = µ
( ) g in v A t Mass
x in
µ A =
The mass accumulation
(increase or decrease)
over time At
( ) ( )
x x x
v A t v A t
A +
A ÷ A = µ µ
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
Change of mass of fluid
over the time from t to
t+At
=
The mass at
time t+At -
The mass at
time t
( ) ( ) | | A x
t t t
A ÷ =
A +
µ| µ|
Where Ax and A are assumed constants
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation


o By dividing both sides by the area A:


o By dividing both side by AxAt


o By taking the limit for both sides
( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
x x x t t t
v A t v A t A x
A + A +
A ÷ A = A ÷ µ µ µ| µ|
( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
x x x t t t
v t v t x
A + A +
A ÷ A = A ÷ µ µ µ| µ|
( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
x
v v
t
x x x t t t
A
÷
=
A
÷
A + A +
µ µ µ| µ|
( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
x
v v
t
x x x
x
t t t
t
A
÷
÷ =
A
÷
A +
÷ A
A +
÷ A
µ µ µ| µ|
0 0
lim lim
( ) ( ) µ µ| v
x t c
c
÷ =
c
c
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
If Darcy’s law is applicable:





But:


Therefore:



NON-LINEAR PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
( ) ( )
t
P
P t c
c
·
c
c
=
c
c
µ| µ|
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
x
P k
x t µ
µ µ|
x
P k
v
c
c
÷ =
µ
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
·
c
c
x
P k
x t
P
P µ
µ µ|
t
P
c
x
P k
x o
o
µ |
o
o
µ
µ
o
o
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
o There is no known analytical solution for the Non-Linear Partial
Differential Equation.

o It can either by solved numerically or by simplifying the
equation by making various assumptions and then solve the
equation analytically.
Assumptions
Simplifying Assumptions for the Non-Linear PDE
1. Viscosity, μ, is constant (with x and P)
2. Permeability is constant with x and P, i.e. the system is homogeneous.
3. The pressure gradient, ,is very small such that:



4. The fluid has a constant compressibility




0
2
~
|
.
|

\
|
x
P
o
o
x
P
o
o
CONSTANT
P
c
f
~
|
.
|

\
|
=
o

µ
1
Simplifying Assumptions for the Non-Linear PDE
1. Viscosity, μ, is constant (with x and P)
Quite reasonable since viscosity does not vary greatly for most oils (or
water) over small pressure ranges.

2. Permeability is constant with x and P, i.e. the system is homogeneous.
Quite drastic since it says that permeability (k) is constant through the
reservoir i.e. that the system is homogeneous in k. For a real system, this is
a very simplifying assumption.







Justifications
Justifications
Simplifying Assumptions for the Non-Linear PDE

3. The pressure gradient, , is very small such that:

it is odd but it is designed to get rid of “difficult” terms with terms like
(∂P/∂x)2 in them

4. The fluid has a constant compressibility.
is reasonable for most reservoir oils.






x
P
o
o 0
2
~
|
.
|

\
|
x
P
o
o
Working assumptions
 Linearization of the Partial Differential Flow Equation for Linear
Flow


 Assuming the viscosity and permeability do not depend on
location or pressure:


 By expanding the RHS of the equation:
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
·
c
c
x
P k
x t
P
P µ
µ µ|
( )
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
· =
c
c
·
c
c
x
P
x
k
t
P
P
µ
µ
µ|
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
· +
c
c
·
c
c
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
2
2
x
P
x
P
x x
P
x
µ
µ
µ
Working assumptions
 ρ is a function of pressure, therefore, the RHS of the equation
can be expressed as:


 Assuming the pressure gradient is very small, the RHS of the
equation can be simplified to:


 The diffusivity equation becomes
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
· +
c
c
·
c
c
·
c
c
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
2
2
x
P
x
P
x
P
P x
P
x
µ
µ
µ
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
2
2
x
P
x
P
x
µ µ
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
· =
c
c
·
c
c
2
2
x
P k
t
P
P
µ
µ
µ|
 By expanding the LHS of the equation:



 Formation compressibility can be expressed as:



 Therefore the LHS of the equation becomes:


( )
t
P
P P t
P
P c
c
·
(
¸
(

¸

c
c
· +
c
c
· =
c
c
·
c
c |
µ
µ
| µ|
P
c
f
c
c
=
|
|
1
( )
t
P
c
P t
P
P
f
c
c
·
(
¸
(

¸

· · +
c
c
· =
c
c
·
c
c
| µ
µ
| µ|
Working assumptions
Cont.,
 Liquid compressibility can be expressed as:



 Again the LHS of the equation becomes:



 Which can be simplified to:



 Where



P
c
c
c
=
µ
µ
1
( ) | |
t
P
c c
t
P
P
f
c
c
· · · + · · =
c
c
·
c
c
| µ µ | µ|
( )
t
P
c
t
P
P
t
c
c
· =
c
c
·
c
c
µ| µ|
f t
c c c + =
Final form
 By equalising the expanded RHS and LHS:



 By simplifying the equation:




 And this is the diffusivity equation for Linear, Horizontal, Single
phase fluid. or





|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
· =
c
c
·
2
2
x
P k
t
P
c
t
µ
µ
µ|
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
· =
c
c
2
2
x
P
c
k
t
P
t

·
c
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
t
P
k
c
x
P
t

2
2
Fluid compressibility
• As previously quoted





• For slightly compressible fluids where c is small and constant

( ) ( )
o
P P c
e cP a
cdP
d
÷
= + =
=
0
ln µ µ µ
µ
µ
( )
P c

1 1
1
V = V
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
÷ = ÷ =
µ µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ µ
µ
dx
dP
c
dx
d
c
dP
d
dP
d
dP
d
c
dP
m V d
V
m
dP
dV
V
c
For black oil (P>P
b
)
• Diffusivity Equations for a Black Oil:

• Slightly Compressible Liquid: (General Form)





• Slightly Compressible Liquid: (Small p and c form)
t
p
k
c
p
t
c
c
= V

2
t
p
k
c
p p c
t
c
c
= V + V

2 2
) (
V
Checking dimensions and conversions
·
c
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
t
P
k
c
x
P
t
00633 . 0
2
2

·
c
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
t
P
k
c
x
P
t

2
2
·
×
=
|
.
|

\
|
sec
sec
1
2 2
Pa
m
Pa
Pa
m
Pa
Quantity 1 = Quantity 2
1
2
00633 . 0
2 2 1 1
number
number
unit number unit number
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
day md
cp
psi
ft
1
1
1
00633 . 0
2
In vector notation
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
· =
c
c
2
2
x
P
c
k
t
P
t

P
c
k
t
P
k
t
P
c
t
t
2
V =
c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
u V V =
c
c
µ|
µ
|
Radial Diffusivity Equation
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
·
c
c
=
c
c
r
P
r
r r c
k
t
P
r
P k
r
r r t
P
c
t
t
1
1

µ
|
Concluding remarks
Conceptually, the diffusivity equation is obtained by
applying mass balance over a control volume.
Equation of motion (Darcy's Law) and equation of state
(PVT relations) are then combined with the mass
balance equation to obtain the final form of the
diffusivity equation.

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