The Brazilian Curator Private by Paulo Herkenhoff and Adriano Pedrosa I worked with Paulo Herkenhoff in the XXIV

Sao Paulo Biennial as an adjun t urator and as editor of !ubli ations for a little "ore than a year and a half# A tually$ des!ite bein% a Biennial$ the e&hibition was on eived of$ !ut to%ether and e&hibited in just '( "onths# The Sao Paulo Biennial is the "ost o"!le& art e&hibition on the !lanet$ and its hi%h nu"bers of urators$ artists$ works$ s)uare "eters$ ost$ visitors$ edu ational !ro%ra"s and !ubli ations are !roof of that# But$ as I wrote a few years ba k about another Sao Paulo Biennial$ the nu"bers "ay !rove the size of the event$ but they never o""ent on its e& ellen e# It is not the %reat nu"bers and statisti s that will be "ost re"e"bered about the XXIV Biennial$ but rather the indelible "ark left by its urator on the history of the institution# *ith his fine ross between riti is" and !oetry$ his o""it"ent to edu ational !ro%ra"s and art theory$ his ability to ne%otiate with forei%n "useu" dire tors and with those of the Biennial foundation itself$ Herkenhoff has established new stru tural and on e!tual standards both for the e&hibition and the institution# Herkenhoff has done all of this with a o"!le& and "ulti!le on e!tion of the e&hibition$ one that is Brazilian and o!en to the world$ both onte"!orary and in dialo%ue with history+ anthro!o!ha%y ,I have yet to e&!lore its e&tre"e relevan e sin e we took so lon% to !rodu e an e&hibition on the subje t-# .our "onths after the e&hibition$ I returned to /io de 0aneiro$ where Herkenhoff had on e a%ain reinstalled hi"self in his book1filled a!art"ent for a few "onths before "ovin% to new 2ork$ and we s!oke about the ri h and dizzyin% e&!erien e that was the onstru tion of the 3Biennial of the Century$3 as a Brazilian weekly alled it# At ho"e$ Herkenhoff revealed to "e a side of hi"self that I thou%ht I knew inti"ately$ refle tin% on the role or future of a .irst1*orld "e%a1e&hibition or%anized and finan ed by a Third *orld so iety# The days I had s heduled to be in /io turned out to not be near lon% enou%h to o"!lete our dis ussions$ and at the end I a e!ted$ without a %reat deal of resistan e$ Herkenhoff4s a!!eals to e&tend "y stay in the "ost sedu tive ity in the world# A"idst tele!hones that ran% softly every fifteen "inutes and !auses to a!!re iate one or another book or art obje t in the Brazilian urator4s olle tion$ we arrived at the followin% te&t# Basket of 5ouns *hen I be%an workin% on the Biennial I brou%ht with "e a basket full of nouns+ will$ joy$ fear$ hallen%e$ ertainty ,that a Biennial is an intelle tual !ro ess$ a !ro ess of knowled%e$ rather than a !ro ess throu%h whi h works$ books$ atalo%s or te&ts are !rodu ed-$ solitude ,in the sense of not knowin% I first I refused to a knowled%e what the Biennial "eant in the way of !ower$ until I understood that it en o"!assed !ossibility and !oten y-# There were also nouns that were not e"otions+ density$ alteridade ,or what is the res!onsibility of asso iated alteridade in uratorial work6-$ ideas on edu ation$ Brazil as a startin% !oint$ 7atin A"eri a as a !rin i!al territory$ asyn hroni ity and differen e in a world without enter# Ba%un8a I love ba%un8a and not just Tun%a4s idea of it# Ba k then$ the Biennial had a bit of that ba%un8a# Ba%un8a "eans that one is sear hin% to understand the flu tuations that are !art of life$ of art and of the reative !ro ess# That is where we %et two basi Brazilian senti"ents 1 saudade ,lon%in%- and )uintal ,ba kyard- 1 whi h are hard to e&!ress in other lan%ua%es# 9uintal is not just the notion of ba kyard$ it is so"ethin% different# Ba%un8a is not just haos$ it is instead a flu& of a tivities$ a %ivin% into the i"!ulse#

That flu& of thin%s whi h tou hes us so dee!ly and about whi h we re)uire so "any e&!lanations$ is !art of Cildo :ereiles4 ..or"s of Anthro!o!ha%y and Cannibalis" fro" A"on% '@@@#3 It see"ed a !arado& to a e!t a entrifu%al !osition and at the sa"e ti"e return to a fo us$ to a on entration$ in entri!etal for"# Cannibalis" is "ulti!le and a way to shed "eta!hors$ a to!os of ar%u"entation that obviously does not allow for the re e!tion of everythin% and anythin%# In a %lobalized world$ the Biennial sou%ht out likenesses to .efle tion for /ed-# Beatriz :ilhazes tra es the idea of onsolidation$ of a s!e ifi tradition of anthro!olo%i al desire in Brazil# Adriana Varej<o$ like Cildo :eireles$ looks to onstitute a kind of !resentness in tension with history# That is where we find the issue of desire in the art history of Brazil$ and also the !resen e of the flu&$ the ener%y that ourses throu%h our veins$ in art$ in lookin%# *e look to in or!orate a sensuality that is %reatly in eviden e in the work of 7y%ia Clark and Helio =iti i a$ after >rnesto 5eto# This was a Biennial that had a reative !art very "u h linked to the /io de 0aneiro tradition# And in bein% the first urator fro" /io de 0aneiro to take har%e of the Sao Paulo Biennial$ I also wanted to i"!rint u!on the e&hibition so"e of that ity4s hara ter$ so"ethin% beyond the !rovin ial dis!ute between the ountry4s two "ajor ities# There was then so"ethin% of a se retive uratorial attitude that I de ided not to announ e$ whi h led "e in turn to %ive "yself u! to the funda"ental i"!ulses of the work of so"e of Brazil4s "ost funda"ental artists# I learned fro" *alter io Caldas this entire business about the s!a e between thin%s$ s!a e or air$ the li%ht that e&ists between thin%s# A bit like :orandi$ really# Take for e&a"!le$ the notion of 3"a%netized s!a e#3 Caldas wanted to "a%netize the entire Biennial$ he e&!lained that there should be no s!a e where thin%s were hidden$ all !la es were worthy of attention$ ideas whi h are also !resent in the on e!tion of 7y%ia Pa!e4s work# *hat I arried fro" these e&!erien es was$ in fa t$ that I wanted to !ut to%ether a Biennial that took as its startin% !la e the thin%s I had learned fro" the artists# Snail$ Periwinkle$ Abyss 5o one knows how to !ut to%ether a Sao Paulo Biennial# Those who have or%anized one do not know how to or%anize another$ sin e they should always be different# A Biennial is wrou%ht like a snail$ a !eriwinkle shell built throu%hout the ti"e of its e&isten e# In the ase of an e&hibition involvin% ?@ thousand s)uare "eters and AB urators$ there is no !ossible$ !ra ti al or real ti"e to first !ut to%ether a uratorial ar hite ture$ seek out the work and announ e the results# The Biennial develo!s in its own ti"e$ develo!s its own "us les$ %rows$ onstru ts and e&tends the shell whi h is the final view of it !eo!le will have# That ti"e is so heavy that the !ro ess be o"es invariably "u h "ore si%nifi ant than the urator intends# This is one of the Biennial4s li"itations# In the !resent "odel$ the hu%eness of the Sao Paulo Biennial is its abyss# There is an o!erational "e hanis" at work here$ the ity4s and the !ubli 4s e&!e tations# The ity odified its own Biennia lon% a%o+ they have %reat e&!e tations# They lon% or the Bienal to "ake a %reat i"!a t# /elations within the ity be o"e sin%ularized$ thus redesi%nin% the li"it %o the e&hibitions own abyss# Size If I had had "ore ti"e$ I would have "ade the Biennial s"aller# .esvio !ara o ver"elho .ar1near Initially$ we establish an a!!roa h in a entrifu%al !ro ess that seeks to raise a "a&i"u" of !ossibilities with re%ard to inter!retin% annibalis" and anthro!o!ha%y$ so"ethin% whi h a!!eared dis!erse# All of the inter!retations of urators$ te&ts or !eo!le involved in the Biennial were in or!orated into a list !ublished under the title 3'CD .

unda8<o Biennial de S<o Paulo$ 0ulio 7and"ann$ was e&traordinary# As a result of our talks$ the Bienal was on eived as a tool for edu ational$ so"ethin% that "arks and influen es the uratorial !ro ess itself# There is no inherent in o"!atibility between riti al ri%or$ an art histori al !ers!e tive and the issue of edu ation# At the sa"e ti"e$ edu ation should be on eived of at its hi%hest level$ that is as books with te&t$ referen es and uratorial !ers!e tives that an$ for e&a"!le$ serve a %raduate student in hisEher resear h# The edu ational !ro ess thus be a"e one of the e&hibition4s !riorities# In "y a!!roa h$ the basi hallen%e was to transfor" the Biennial fro" an e&hibition in whi h the student had "ost often been "erely just a statisti al fa tor into so"ethin% elseF to transfor" that Biennial of four hundred thousand visitors into a Biennial for one that would duly individuate the e&!erien e of ea h visitor# That is the stand!oint fro" whi h we on eived the e&hibition4s wall te&ts$ for e&a"!le$ whi h were addressed to the %eneral !ubli of the Bienal# *e knew that G@H of those attendin% were seein% the first art e&hibition of their live# The %reatest lea! "ade by the Bienal$ in ter"s of the ountry4s e&!erien e$ was the !ro ess of inte%ration with S<o Paulo4s !ubli s hool syste"# That is$ the effort was dire ted towards the edu ation of the lower "iddle lass and above all$ the under!rivile%ed# *e !rovided "ore than ten thousand tea hers with the e)ui!"ent of !er"anent value# Said "aterial has now rea hed ? "illion students# This statisti is i"!ortant$ its substan e is "ore than a "athe"ati al abstra tion# *e !rovided servi es to a!!ro&i"ately one hundred fifty thousand students$ and !re!ared "ore than one thousand tea hers with thirty hours of lassroo" trainin%# This is not only a "atter of art a!!re iation$ but also the be%innin% of the for"ulation of the riti al %aze that o"es with havin% been edu ated# This effort o!ened the eyes of thousands of youn% !eo!le to onte"!orary art# The res!onsibility of arryin% out this e&traordinary work fell on the shoulders of >velyn 7os h!e and her tea"# History.e&!lore s!e ifi ities# >du ation I have always said that the Biennial is an i"!ortant edu ational tool# It4s also lear to "e that the ost of a Biennial is often too hi%h# This e&!ense in reases when we onsider that Brazil is a Third *orld ountry# Consider the !oliti al risis inside the Bienal de S<o Paulo itself$ as it a!!ears to be a .irst *orld event+ a sure sy"!to" of Third *orld1is"$ sin e that sort of idea obviously does not e&ist in the "ore develo!ed e ono"ies# Hen e$ and ethi al onfli t arises on e fundin% be o"es an issue# The solution is to "odify the !rofile of the so ial benefits derived fro" the Biennial# In this res!e t$ "y dialo%ue with the President of the .or"erly$ the Bienal de S<o Paulo had always ben the triu"!h of the >uro entri :odernis"# The idea$ this ti"e$ was to work with the notion that history and riti)ue are i"bri ated$ interrelated# the XXIV Bienal learly !la ed the )uestion %o the histori al in !resent ti"e# Histori is" and the riti)ue of the histori al a!!ear in this Bienal be ause the e&hibition was riti al of the notions of history and of ertain uratorial !ra ti es# This Binal sou%ht to !roble"ati history and the very !resen e of history in the e&hibition# Traditional historians$ !ositivists$ Ireenber%ians$ et #$ had a %reat deal of diffi ulty in relatin% to the e&hibition# .iesThe )uality of the !eo!le who worked on this Bienial indi ates that we were e&!eri"entin% with another "odel of the e&hibition4s relation with art history# Histori al i"!ortant should be seen in the onta t if the Bienal to revoke the need for that kind of history F !re isely be ause we are elebratin% a history that is not so >uro entri # .

and in fa t never did.Anthro!ofa%ia Anthro!ofa%ia is a Brazilian !ro ess a ross the enturies in whi h a so iety as o"!le& as ours11 one "ade u! of Afri ans$ Indi%enous !eo!le and the Portu%uese$11 absorbs "ulti!le influen es fro" other ulture be%innin% in the seventieth entury$ transfor"in% and ontra tin% its own lan%ua%e while assu"in% new relations with the *estern world# Anto!ofa%ia was already "anifest in the Baro)ue literature of Bahia in the XVII entury# It is a Brazilian tradition$ but also a 7atin A"eri an one# *hat is urious about that this !ro ess of eatin% the other 11 the other4s ulture11 and transfor"in% it into one4s own$ worked to sti"ulate urators and historians ro" other !art of the world to study Brazilian ulture$ to offer a res!onse and to find a dialo%ue# It is interestin% to onsider tat a :o:A urator 11 so"eone fro" the Po!idou or the 7ouvre11 has studied anthro!ofa%ia in Brazil$ written on it$ and e&!lored !arallels and differen es within the on e!t# Throu%h this$ we !la e >uro!e in the !osition of refle tin% on its annabalisti %hosts# These are !ro esses whi h$ as dis ussed$ si%nal the "aturity of Brazil4s ultural "ilieu# Presentidentifi ation The Bienal we are dis ussin% had no history$ In s!ite of its histori al nu leus$ it was a Bienal in whi h )uestions were wholly !ertinent to the !resent$ and the sense of the works !resented therein were relent to onte"!orary issues# The e&hibition %ave density to the ondition of e&isten e and %aze of the !resent# .reud$ sons devoured their fathers# That ontinues to be relevant today# The hronolo%i al relations between the works were nullified# History was takin% as %round zero !oint of onte"!orary art# Conta"ination An e&a"!le of onta"ination as a uratorial strate%y is the in lusion of onte"!orary works in an e&hibition at the Histori al 5u leus of the XXIV Bienal# *e "ay also invert this$ sayin% that we onstru ted an e&hibit dedi ated to the XVI1XVIII enturies around Tu%nas work# Tun%a4s TaCaPe$ for e&a"!le$ s!eaks of birth$ !ri"ordial s ul!ture$ with a %rade at its interior$ whi h Tunda identifies as the first s ul!ture of a wo"an$ en%a%in% in the lovin% %esture of o"bin% her hair# Besides TaCaPe$ there were have e&traordinary !aintin% by Albert > khout fro" the XVI entury 11 of the Indians4 dan e$ where we also find the on e!t of ta a!e$ and of four wo"en# Besides that lay two lar%e books that revealed annibalis" to the >uro!ean world in the si&tieth entury# These are books by Hans Staden$ 0ean de 7ery and Andre Thevenet# The first book e&hibited was o!ened u! to a !a%e featurin% a "ean in whi h the ta a!e fi%ures on e a%ain# It !resents an i"a%e of the instru"ent by whi h the vi ti" of e&o%enous annibalis" was killed# Another onta"ination is later revealed in the Pro!osal for a Cata)uesis$ a !aintin% by Adriana Varej<o# The onta"ination of the onte"!orary by the histori al$ or vi e versa allows us to a t in another way# .or this Bienal11where the anthro!olo%i al and histori al )uestions were so funda"ental for the !resent ti"e111 we never wanted to .or a ountry like Brazil$ a !aintin% by Albert > khout "ade in the si&teenth entury and a Tun%a s ul!ture fro" the A@s have the sa"e relevan e# *e live in o"!letely differen e so ial and syn hroni ti"es# /J%is :i hel$ e urator who dis ussed issues of annibalis" in the ninetieth entury was$ in fa t$ s!eakin% about ideas that are absolutely ne essary for us to e&a"ine today# I dare say that this was an e&hibition of funda"ental i"!ortan e# 5ot for the a t of history %azin% u!on annibalis"$ but rather for the relation of a "an with hi"self+ his relation to the State$ learnin% who" devours who" and who devours hu"anity and desire today# In the !ast$ rival %rou!s e&isted# In .e&hibit ethno%ra!hi !ie es that had been re"oved fro" a livin% ulture# This way$ Tun%a4s TaCaPe was there so that we ould .

a e$ that traveled the Biennial Pavilion durin% the e&hibition$ !assin% before the :ono hro"es$ :atta$ Si)ueiros$ Bru e 5au"an and before Ieri ault$ in the e&hibition dedi ated to the nineteenth entury# In the e&hibition of the Venezuelan !ainter /evern in the Histori al 5u leus se tion$ with its totally white e)uatorial !assa%es$ it was !ossible to feel the te"!erature of =lafur >liasson4s work$ lo ated in the s!a e reserved for the se tion on 5ational /e!resentations# In >liasson4s installation$ an i e lands a!e$ it was !ossible to re"e"ber /ever6n4s torrid lands a!e# :edusa4s .rans Post4s !aintin%s# That refle tion see"ed s!lendid to "e$ as it "ade the viewer sear h out an an%le of vision# At the sa"e ti"e$ the refle tion ast a y le of histori al !re ursors in the Biennial4s :useolo%i al S!a e$ !roje tin% the 5au"an into the first roo" in the Histori al 5u leus$ whi h was dedi ated to the seventeenth and ei%hteenth enturies# >atE.eath refle ted onto a !aintin% whi h re!resented a annibalisti Indian as a "onster$ due to the fa t that he devoured other bein%s of his own %rou!+ a destiny was tra ed out then and there of a !eo!le4s e&tin tion# The deli a y of that neon li%ht ould be seen as a !roje tion of new "eanin%s for the e&hibition# These are very refined$ s!e ial details whi h obviously the wider !ubli did not have the o!!ortunity to a!!re iate and inter!ret# In the sa"e way$ there is the virtual line tra ed out by Iia o"etti4s Bust of .leet These are the transfor"in% a!!ro!riations of the /aft of the :edusa# Beyond Ieri ault4s own studies$ there was a /aft by As%er 06rn MCH>CN SP>77I5IO in the CoBrA .S$ in 3Itineraries sy"bol 'AA Kf 3Sy"bol3 Ks 'L 3 MCH>CN SP>77I5I >XHIBITI=5O# =r the work of =iti i a$ Ho"a%e to Horse .ut h varnish of > khout4s and ."ake use of its sa kin%# At the sa"e ti"e$ indi%enous !ie es whi h whi h we !resented in the Brazilian :odernis" e&hibition were ar heolo%i al !ie es fro" ultures that were already e&tin t when the Portu%uese arrived in Brazil# Conta"ination took !la e in that !assa%e of ti"e+ in what is !ast$ in the !resent of those %hosts of the future in hu"an e&!erien e$ in the so ial !ro ess of art history$ and in onte"!orary art# iI learned about the relevan e the notion of onta"ination ould arry fro" Adriano Pedrosa# The idea of onta"ination is o!!osed to the white ube as the ideal site for art re)uire by "odernity# The ounter!art of onta"ination in uratorial ar hite ture is the fa t that we sele ted 11as the site for the white "ono hro"e e&hibition11a roo" that had a olu"n in the "iddle as we4ll as a red fire e&it si%n# In this ase$ we ould have just as well set u! a white eilin%$ white alls$ thereby i"!rintin% a hu%e li%htness$ a beauty sus!ended in relation to the world# =ur o!tion instead re"i&ed jus that it is i"!ossible to isolate art fro" life# Those on e!tual or ar hite tural onta"inations onstitute a !assa%e that ea h hu"an bein% establishes and e&!eri"ents with in his or her own sense of ti"e# =n the other hand$ onta"ination is onne ted to annibalis"$ to its affli tion insofar as hu"an flesh onta"inated hu"an flesh# *hen a !erson doesn4t follow the rules as re%ards to onsu"!tion of the hu"an body$ he or she i""ediately be o"es a diseased !erson# This is so for he of she has eaten so"ethin% that does not find into the stru ture if that ulture4s status# *e think than in the illnesses that devour "en+ one subje t the ri h dis ussion of annibalis" o!ens u! for# Hu"an knowled%e is infused with enor"ous !ossibility for "eta!hor# 5oises$ /efle tions$ :i%rations In !uttin% to%ether the Biennial$ there was a %reat deal of la"or for the onte"!orary over the histori al$ as in$ for e&a"!le$ the refle tion !rovided by Bru e 5au"an4s work whi h in /obert Storr4s installation is !roje ted onto the window en losin% the works of Aleijadinho and on the seventeenth entury .ie%o in the Histori al 5u leus and the ai" of Iabriel =roz o4s The .

avid Alfaro Si)ueiros work was# There was also .or so"e a re%ulation is bureau rati $ for others it is a barrier to be trans%ressed$ for others yet it is an e&er ise with a !oliti al role that is absolutely lo al$ whi h attends do"esti interests$ and evidently the interests of those who work seriously with the Biennial# In any event$ the li"its of dialo%ue are very lear# The !ro ess of "ountin% the 5ational /e!resentations have suffered a test and now await a radi al transfor"ation# Institution This Biennial "arked a !eriod of uratorial autono"y within its !ro ess# This was !ossible be ause 0ulio 7and"ann$ as President$ understood fro" the outset that the idea was not to 3 on ede3 autono"y$ but rather to re o%nize the inde!enden e of the urator in the !ro ess# That is not what ha!!ens in the !eri!hery$ but it does in the Pnited States$ in >uro!e$ and in other !la es where the intelle tual a tivity of a urator is re o%nized as a dis ourseF it does not o ur to the bureau rati authorities to use the very !resen e of artists within a riti al or theoreti al dis ussion# That is so"ethin% 1 I have to say$ with a %reat deal of !ride 1 that han%ed in this Biennial# There were urators in the !ast that "ana%ed to ne%otiate territories of autono"y within the Sao Paulo Biennial# 2et it was the XXIV Biennial that "arked the %rowth of the uratorial !ro ess and a "aturin% of the institutional !ro ess of the Sao Paulo Biennial# =n the other hand$ I think that Brazil is a bureau rati ountry$ where insider %rou!s and friends i"!ose the"selves on so iety$ and why should that not ha!!en in arts institutions6 I a" not sayin% that Brazilian art institutions are any different or su!erior to the rest of the ountry# *hat I en ountered was an e&traordinary kind of a%ree"ent with 0ulio 7and"ann$ and had in the President of the Biennial .oundation a workin% !artner and an enli%htened "an# Absen es There are artists who$ for one reason or another$ were left out$ artists whose work I like very "u h# .e&hibition$ and another where .or e&a"!le$ :ario Cravo 5eto$ whose absen e fro" the Biennial is .ead Troo!s Talk by 0eff *all in the 3Itineraries sy"bol 'AA Kf 3Sy"bol3 Ks 'L 3 se tion$ a !hoto%ra!h that has a on e!tual and o"!ositional or%anization that referen es Ieri ault# There were still other rafts$ thou%h so"e were "ore !er"anent than others# In s!ite of the effort to se ure the loan$ we were left without Tho"as Struth4s 7ouvre IV$ a !hoto%ra!h that a!tures Ieri ault4s /aft at the 7ouvre$ whi h we re!rodu ed in the atalo%# Another absen e was N ho$ whose shi!s arti ulate !oliti s$ territoriality and ho!e$ and for these reasons re all the libertarian raft# So"eti"es we have to learn how to die on the bea h# 5ational /e!resentations At the ti"e$ a"idst the o"!le&ity of the Biennial$ I felt that I arrived at "y li"it of !ossible dialo% with other ountries# I find that it is !ossible to advan e a bit further$ yet there is a li"it$ and that should lead the Sao Paulo Biennial to ask itself+ *hy ontinue with the se tion on 5ational /e!resentations6 *hy6 *hat fun tion does it serve6 It see"s that it is "erely a "atter of tradition# So"eti"es it see"s like a "atter of e ono"i s# :any have said that the Biennial always allows for the arrival and !arti i!ation of e ono"i ally !eri!heral nations$ and that today those nations don4t have the finan ial onditions to re!resent the"selves in a Biennial$ sin e everythin% is so e&!ensive# I !ersonally believe that the Biennial no lon%er needs national re!resentations$ and that the Biennial needs to have an even lar%er voi e to%ether with the ountries in the for"ulation of the e&hibitions# There was a >uro!ean urator who asked "e what a re%ulation was so that she ould break it# *hat does that re!resent in a situation of dialo%ue6 .

ather$ and her father died a few "onths after the event was inau%urated# :y father %ave "e a ess to art books# In "y house$ in the interior of Brazil$ there was a book on on rete art whi h I ould leaf throu%h before I learned how to read and that oin ided$ at the ti"e$ with the .inally$ Choi 0eon% Hwa showed there$ an artist in the 3Itineraries sy"bol 'AA Kf 3Sy"bol3 Ks 'L 3 se tion$ so did 0ennifer Allora and Iuiller"o Calzadilla$ a Puerto /i an artist ollaborative$ and :is ha Nuball$ fro" Ier"any# At the last "inute$ a work of 7y%ia Clark4s was taken out of the show$ otherwise it would have found a !la e there# The sele tion of Choi 0eon% Hwa by A!ina" Poshyananda$ the urator of Itineraries Asia$ was very interestin%# .ro" the outset I had ertain ideas about the ar hite ture of the Biennial# *e should not o u!y the s!a es outside the Biennial$ addin% roo"s$ et # *e would definitely not have losed roo"s$ whi h would have "ade the Biennial s!a e look si"ilar to Art .ue to the la k of !ie es in the olle tion of the Sao Paulo Pniversity Conte"!orary Art :useu"$ there were works denied on the eve of the e&hibition$ like the white Ar! for the "ono hro"e roo"$ after it had been indi ated that they would be available# But there is also the fantasy of !erfe tion# >r%o the fa t that this Biennial re"ains "e"orable !rin i!ally due to the ener%y that went into it$ a"on% the urators and artists of the different se tions as well as in the e&hibition4s relation to the !ubli # Central S!a e The XXIV Sao Paulo Biennial is a dis ourse of the "ar%ins dire ted towards an en ounter in the entral s!a e$ the s!a e of ir ulation# There is use "ade of the "ar%in or for the "ar%in# Sy"boli ally$ u! to that ti"e$ I had not wanted to work in the entral s!a e of the Pavilion$ whi h orres!onds to a three story s!a e whi h has always been in %reat dis!ute# In the !ast$ the !la e has been used to e&hibit work by Anish Na!oor$ /i hard 7on% and 0ose!h Beuys# It is a very "arked s!a e har%ed with an intense ar hite tural dra"a# I did not want to si%nifi antly e&er ise !ower over it# So the riteria be a"e whi h re)uests I %ot for the s!a e+ if no one asked for it$ no one would show there# .or the first ti"e the s!a e was do"inated fro" floor to eilin% by >n ore$ >n ore$ >n ore$ a lar%e$ %old$ inflatable !lasti olu"n on whi h rested a fat fi%ure with his win%s o!en# There was %reat deal of noise reated by Iia o"etti and :aria :artins on the third floor$ a ontrast between "odernist s ul!ture and a bitin% riti)ue of s ul!ture itself$ of the !edestal$ %randness$ so"ethin% whi h ertainly u!set an ele%ant$ "ainstrea" view# Trans!aren y =ver Sao Paulo .estru tion of the ."ore si%nifi ant and has %reater wei%ht than that of "any !resen es# Another ase is 5elson 7eirner$ and it is a !ity that the bureau rati wei%ht of the Biennial e& luded hi"+ he is !ra ti ally a revelation of "ine# It was also hard to do a Biennial where the fi%ure of the father was dis ussed by "any urators and works$ like 7ouise Bour%eois4 The .avid Ha""ons$ who" I "issed very "u h# Tho"as Struth was a tre"endous absen e$ sin e we ould unfortunately not ount on the hel! of the %allery he asked to handle the "atter# There was the absen e of the Brazilian artist :are!e$ fro" Bahia$ in the Afri an Itinerary$ due to the fa t that he was ill and ould not !arti i!ate# .airs$ those warrens where !eo!le enter a little roo"$ see work$ et # The roo"s are a "a!$ they have a arto%ra!hi sense$ of restorin% frontiers$ es!e ially where we know that art and ideas ir ulate throu%h and above frontiers$ a%ainst or in s!ite of the"# That division of roo"s would not e&ist based on the !oliti al territories defined by the national re!resentations$ but rather out of an intrinsi $ essential and un"ovable need of the works the"selves+ silen e$ onte"!lation$ isolation$ !enu"bra# In an anti1 .rente :ove"ent# As an everyday e&!erien e I also e&!erien ed the absen e of /io de 0aneiro$ thou%h Sao Paulo is evidently a tre"endously sti"ulatin% ity# There is also .

er%uson and Awa :eite# At the last "inute$ due to illness$ :are!e was unable to !arti i!ate# This frustrated "e a %reat deal be ause I did not want hi" to re!resent the Brazil of Afri an ori%in in a "iserabiliste or vi ti"izin% "anner$ but rather as an a%ent for dialo%ue with his Afri an ori%in# Anthro!olo%ies .esvaraida$ on the over of our four books# At the sa"e ti"e$ the buildin% was o!en to the ity# That is a very i"!ortant orrelation u! to that !oint be ause anthro!o!ha%y has been a !heno"enon of Brazilian ulture for enturies$ and further"ore it found its for"ulation in =swald de Andrade4s '(LA 3Anthro!o!ha%y :anifesto#3 Trans!aren y also indi ates a very !re ise study of ar hite ture whi h is akin to s ul!tin% an absen e of walls$ onstru tin% both ar hite tural absen e and !resen e within the Pavilion# In this onte&t$ it was a %reat !rivile%e to work with Paulo :endes da /o ha and his %reat sensibility# His ad"iration for =s ar 5ie"eyer "ade !ossible the interru!tion of a te"!orary internal tradition of ar hite ture in onfli t with the Biennial4s !er"anent ar hite tural stru ture$ desi%ned by 5ier"eyer# In the desi%n of 3Itineraries sy"bol 'AA Kf 3Sy"bol3 Ks 'L 3 the uratorial arti ulation and interfa e !rovided by Ivo :es)uita was very i"!ortant# This Biennial was to the best of its ability a Biennial where trans!aren y si%nified that ertain !hysi al or "ental stru tures were ne essary to !lay an inter"ediate role between artist and work$ on the one hand$ and for the !ubli $ on the other$ without havin% that inter"ediate role !lay a disturbin% or obs urin% role# Cohesions There were two e&a"!les where territorialization was !arado&i ally i"!ortant# The first ase was Central A"eri a and the Caribbean in the national re!resentations# .!assed throu%h the Afri an Itineraries# The Afri an ontinent was not just !resented as a for"ulatin% for e for Brazil$ but in addition the Afro1 Brazilian suffers e ono"i troubles that an be onne ted ba k to the !eriod of slavery and to ra ist !oli ies# That then a!!eared as a dire t !assa%e$ thou%h not so very e&!li it# *e had also thou%ht of "akin% brid%es between the onte"!orary ultures of Afri a and Brazil with the !resen e of Pierre Ver%er$ who fi%ures a"on% the !hoto%ra!hers fro" :ali$ like Seydou Ne6ta$ and :are!e$ an artist fro" Salvador$ who" we had de ided fro" the outset would be in that se tion to%ether with 7orna .histori ist Biennial in whi h there are dialo%ues between art and riti)ue and !ast and !resent$ trans!aren y is ne essary so that there is no ri%id se!aration between the histori al and the onte"!orary# At the sa"e ti"e$ we o!en the windows onto the ity of Sao Paulo# The resident of Sao Paulo and the Biennial had always denied the ity as a !hysi al fa t$ and there it was$ a Biennial in whi h the ity really a!!eared+ in Staden4s si&teenth entury book$ in Vol!i4s !aintin%s$ in :6rio Andrade4s Pauli 6a .or the first ti"e$ the Biennial visited the re%ion$ and we ta!!ed Vir%inia Perez1/atton$ a lo al urator$ to !ut to%ether an e&hibition of artists fro" the re%ion# This was a sin%ular e&!erien e and of lose dialo%ue$ and in turn we "ana%ed to !resent a ohesive view of the re%ion$ !rovidin% a ertain visibility while "aintainin% a on e!tual relation with the lar%er %rou!# The result was si%nifi ant$ and se ondly Vir%inia herself for the first ti"e !resented a view of Central A"eri a and the Caribbean in an international e&hibition of this "a%nitude$ an effort that was o""ented on by "any riti s# Another very i"!ortant !oint of ohesion was Afri a in the 3Itineraries sy"bol 'AA Kf 3Sy"bol3 Ks 'L 3 MCH>CN SP>77I5IO se tion# =n the se ond story of the Pavilion$ the visitor who attended the Conte"!orary Brazilian Art se tion around the a&is of =ne A"on% =thers .whi h was about an abandoned so iety with intense internal onfli ts$ about abandoned hildren$ the situation of the Indians$ internal "i%rations$ et #.

=iti i a$ Barsotti$ :ira S hendel$ Clark$ .u ha"!$ and the relation of art itself "ay also arry with it i"!li ations of fetish# Therefore what is !arti ularly interestin% is that the redu tivist "anner$ let us even say the !ositivisti "anner$ of relatin% annibalis" to a retro%rade !ri"itivis" has been frustrated# 0ean de 7ery4s story about the e&!erien e of Antar ti .in the Histori al 5u leusF and finally the disastrous sleet shower the ni%ht after the o!enin%# .a !lush and iso!or Cas!ar .ran e in /io de 0aneiro$ a funda"ental te&t on annibalis"$ has su h a se!aration of narrator fro" his subje t that it led 76vi1Strauss to affir" that the tale was a su""ary of ethno%ra!hy# 76vi1Strauss even onsiders that ethno%ra!hy be%ins with a refle tion on annibalis"# It is with annibalis" that :ontai%ne be%ins his refle tion on the relativity of hu"an values and !rodu es so"ethin% akin to a non1 >uro entri reverberation within the dis ourse of the >uro!ean !hiloso!hy of his ti"e# This is then a %rou! of i"a%es of annibalisti Indians in whi h > khout "akes !aintin%s of an ethno%ra!hi hara ter# I was very interested in this ethno%ra!hi itinerary# *e worked with !ie es or "o"ents just as funda"ental in the for"ulation of the ethno%ra!hi idea$ just as if we had no ons ien e of ethno%ra!hy$ and annibalis" was hi%hly !resent in that !ro ess# There is also the !resen e of 76vi1 Strauss with Tristes Tro!i)ues and other te&ts that serve to understand Brazil4s situation$ to%ether with the Brazilian so iolo%ist .eed "e$ >at "e#3 3>at1"e3 is the re)uest of the individual who wishes to be devoured by knowled%e# There was a verti al onta"ination+ i e onfrontin% the tro!i s in the work of =lafur >liasson and the brilliant white of .in de Si le .ontana$ Soto$ Nlein$ =tero$ =htake$ :anzoni$ /y"an and /aus henber%.i&it *itt%enstein+ 3white "ust be the li%htest olor in a !i ture#3 *hite is the olor whi h devours and di%ests all the other olors# >nd The urator always has to anti i!ate the on e!tual and visual relations in an e&hibition 1 the works in the s!a e 1 for at botto" a uratorial !roje t is an arti ulated !ro la"ation of the senses and si"ultaneously a visual revelation of a dis ourse .ran is o Tro!a and 7ourdes Castro4s installation in the 5ational /e!resentationsF the ar ti lands a!e !oetry of Ieneral Idea4s .A Biennial that has as its enter an anthro!o!ha%y jud%ed to be one of the !ro esses throu%h whi h Brazilian ulture has been for"ulated and a dis ussion of how Brazilian a!!ro!riation of annibalis" offers "ulti!le !ossibilities for inter!retation "ust onsider that anthro!o!ha%y already i"!lies an antral onsu"!tionF it is already e)ui!!ed with the Ireek notion of the hu"an bein%# There are those who blindly understand annibalis" to be a s!e ies of !ri"itivis" in whi h Brazilian ulture did not share that kind of attitude# Pnderstandin% said 3!ri"itivis"s3 as a ne%ative notion "ay also be !roble"ati # :ulti!le usto"s asso iated with non1>uro!ean or non1 "odern ultures$ like fetishis" or anthro!o!ha%y itself$ were %reat drivin% ideas in "odernity# In the" resides ./inde .reud4s !sy hoanalysis# The dis ussion of the fetish obje t was in :ar el .riedri h.MCH>CN SP>77I5IO in 3Itineraries sy"bol 'AA Kf 3Sy"bol3 Ks 'L 3F the white e)uatorial !assa%es of /ever6n and the white "ono hro"es .a in% Ca"era-$ by Bru e 5au"an$ where the artist s!e ifi ally s!eaks about anthro!olo%y$ a so iolo%y where anta%onisti situations have been tra ed out+ 3Hel! "e$ Hurt "e$ .lorestan .avid .ernandes and his idea of onstitutin% the history of the Indian$ the Indian as a subje t of history$ whi h also si%nifies a ru!ture with the He%elian histori al !ers!e tive# *hat is "ore$ in the Biennial transfor"ed into art work$ we !resented work where the issue of ethno%ra!hy was loudly announ ed# Si)ueiros4 >thno%ra!hy$ a !aintin% of a tote"i bein% with a head that is so"ethin% between "ilitary ar"or and an ar heolo%i al !ie e$ tra es out a ertain devourin% sense# *e arrive here at one of the %reat "o"ents of the Biennial$ that bein% the installation AnthroESo io .

a"on% diverse sy"bols# That "o"ent of !uttin% u! the e&hibition is like a o"!rehension of the subli"e$ a !ersonal e&!erien e# Thus$ at the be%innin% of the e&hibition$ I also like very "u h to see the dis"ountin% of the e&hibition and the dis!ersion of the works# The "ore "onu"ental the effort to !ut to%ether this Biennial$ I e&!erien ed and very "u h a!!re iated the !ro ess of dis!ersin% the works$ sin e this "eant returnin% the works to their !la e of ori%in where they reside on a "ore !er"anent basis and are steered in the dire tion of new "eanin%s# I a" alive and stron%er than ever$ be ause at last anthro!o!ha%y has not so "u h to do with death as with life$ with the ines a!able and utterly si"!le fa t that we need the =ther in our e&istential e&!erien e# .

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