Software engineering

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Software engineering
Software engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the design, development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches; that is, the application of engineering to software. In layman's terms, it is the act of using insights to conceive, model and scale a solution to a problem. The first reference to the term is the 1968 NATO Software Engineering Conference and was meant to provoke thought regarding the perceived "software crisis" at the time. Software A software engineer programming for the Wikimedia Foundation development, a much used and more generic term, does not necessarily subsume the engineering paradigm. The generally accepted concepts of Software Engineering as an engineering discipline have been specified in the Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK). The SWEBOK has become an internationally accepted standard ISO/IEC TR 19759:2005. For those who wish to become recognized as professional software engineers, the IEEE offers two certifications (Certified Software Development Associate and Certified Software Development Professional). The IEEE certifications do not use the term Engineer in their title for compatibility reasons. In some parts of the US such as Texas, the use of the term Engineer is regulated only to those who have a Professional Engineer license. Further, in the United States starting from 2013, the NCEES Professional Engineer exam will be available for Software Engineering.

History
When the first digital computers appeared in the early 1940s, the instructions to make them operate were wired into the machine. Practitioners quickly realized that this design was not flexible and came up with the "stored program architecture" or von Neumann architecture. Thus the division between "hardware" and "software" began with abstraction being used to deal with the complexity of computing. Programming languages started to appear in the 1950s and this was also another major step in abstraction. Major languages such as Fortran, ALGOL, and COBOL were released in the late 1950s to deal with scientific, algorithmic, and business problems respectively. E.W. Dijkstra wrote his seminal paper, "Go To Statement Considered Harmful", in 1968 and David Parnas introduced the key concept of modularity and information hiding in 1972 to help programmers deal with the ever increasing complexity of software systems. A software system for managing the hardware called an operating system was also introduced, most notably by Unix in 1969. In 1967, the Simula language introduced the object-oriented programming paradigm. These advances in software were met with more advances in computer hardware. In the mid-1970s, the microcomputer was introduced, making it economical for hobbyists to obtain a computer and write software for it. This in turn led to the now famous Personal Computer (PC). The Software Development Life Cycle or SDLC was also starting to appear as a consensus for centralized construction of software in the mid-1980s. The late 1970s and early 1980s saw the introduction of several new Simula-inspired object-oriented programming languages, including Smalltalk, Objective-C, and C++.

Washington. Injuries in these occupations are rare. while in some areas of Canada. However. and the Java programming language was introduced with its own virtual machine as another step in abstraction. and non-profit organizations. there is a legal requirement to have P. software engineers can hold the Professional Engineer (P. managers) and in academia (educators. middleware analysts. passing the Fundamentals of Engineering Exam. Total cost of ownership represents the costs of more than just acquisition. Programmers collaborated and wrote the Agile Manifesto. In large projects. beginning in 2013. Other organizations require software engineers to do many or all of them. or SWEBOK. developers. As with the other engineering disciplines. Texas. The IEEE also promulgates a "Software Engineering Code of Ethics". technical support. government agencies (civilian or military). Some software engineers work for themselves as freelancers. changing the engineering of software once again. and passing the Software Engineering PE Exam.S.4 million practitioners employed in the U. 2 Profession Legal requirements for the licensing or certification of professional software engineers vary around the world. such as Alberta. researchers). the two main US-based professional organizations of software engineering. software developers cannot use the title "Professional Engineer" unless they are licensed professional engineers who have passed the PE Exam and possess a valid licence to practice. In small projects.S. the SWEBOK v3 is being produced and will likely be released in mid-2013. formal education in software engineering is often taught as part of a computer science curriculum. The IEEE Computer Society and the ACM. people may specialize in only one role. the requirements consist of earning an ABET accredited bachelor€s degree in Software Engineering (or any non-ABET degree and NCEES credentials evaluation). In the USA. to ensure engineers are kept up to date with latest techniques and safest practices.Software engineering Open-source software started to appear in the early 90s in the form of Linux and other software introducing the "bazaar" or decentralized style of constructing software.) designation.840 software engineers holding jobs in the U. publish guides to the profession of software engineering. better. Employment In 2004. architects. and resources needed to support infrastructure. defines the field and describes the knowledge the IEEE expects a practicing software engineer to have. and other.Eng) designation and/or the Information Systems Professional (I. Most software engineers and programmers work 40 hours a week.[1] Then the World Wide Web and the popularization of the Internet hit in the mid 90s. and many software engineers hold computer science degrees. in all other engineering disciplines combined. The IEEE's Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge . Distributed systems gained sway as a way to design systems. which is known as continuous education. In the UK. In Canada. in the same time period there were some 1. Some organizations have specialists to perform each of the tasks in the software development process.S. which favored more lightweight processes to create cheaper and timelier software. the path for licensure of software engineers will become a reality. Specializations include: in industry (analysts.P. . such as Florida.[2] Due to its relative newness as a field of study. the U.Eng when one wants to use the title "engineer" or practice "software engineering". upkeep efforts. The current definition of software engineering is still being debated by practitioners today as they struggle to come up with ways to produce software that is "cheaper. Ontario. Bureau of Labor Statistics counted 760. In some states. and Quebec. Currently. testers. faster" [citation needed]. the British Computer Society licenses software engineers and members of the society can also become Chartered Engineers (CEng). Many software engineers work as employees or contractors. Cost reduction has been a primary focus of the IT industry since the 1990s.. people may fill several or all roles at the same time. but about 15 percent of software engineers and 11 percent of programmers worked more than 50 hours a week in 2008. S. Software engineers work with businesses.[citation needed] This license has to be periodically renewed. having at least four years of demonstrably relevant experience.2004 Version. It includes things like productivity impediments.

mainly the distance / timezone difference that prevented human interaction between clients and developers. the British Computer Society has developed a legally recognized professional certification called Chartered IT Professional (CITP). Impact of globalization The initial impact of outsourcing. The PEO does not recognize any online or distance education however. Russia.Software engineering like other workers who spend long periods in front of a computer terminal typing at a keyboard. Although statistics do not currently show a threat to software engineering itself. In the U. In Canada the Canadian Information Processing Society has developed a legally recognized professional certification called Information Systems Professional (ISP). Nevertheless. Given the difficult certification path for holders of non-SE degrees. These certification programs are tailored to the institutions that would employ people who use these technologies. available to fully qualified Members (MBCS). In Ontario. 3 Certification The Software Engineering Institute offers certifications on specific topics like Security. Software Engineers who graduate from a Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB) accredited program. In 2008 they added an entry-level certification known as the Certified Software Development Associate (CSDA). Broader certification of general software engineering skills is available through various professional societies. but eventually decided that such certification was inappropriate for the professional industrial practice of software engineering. back discomfort. The field's future looks bright according to Money Magazine and Salary. and other developing countries. and managed by the vendors of these technologies. Apple.K. This has sparked controversy and a certification war. a related career. computer programming does appear to have been affected. It has also held the number of P. some students in the developed world avoid education related to software engineering because of the fear of offshore outsourcing (importing software products or services from other countries) and of being displaced by foreign visa workers. the IEEE had certified over 575 software professionals as a Certified Software Development Professional (CSDP). The vast majority of working professionals in the field hold a degree in CS. Microsoft and other companies also sponsor their own certification examinations. the ability to smartly leverage offshore and near-shore resources via the follow-the-sun workflow has improved the overall operational capability of many . and the relatively lower cost of international human resources in developing third world countries led to a massive migration of software development activities from corporations in North America and Europe to India and later: China. this time by CareerCast.[citation needed] which was discontinued due to lack of interest.Eng. and does not consider Computer Science programs to be equivalent to software engineering programs despite the tremendous overlap between the two. The ACM examined the possibility of professional certification of software engineers in the late 1990s. This had a negative impact on many aspects of the software engineering profession. IBM.com. Canada. Many IT certification programs are oriented toward specific technologies. not SE.com. As of 2006[3]. The ACM had a professional certification program in the early 1980s. In 2012. but also the lower quality of the software developed by the outsourcing companies and the massive job transfer.Eng holders for the profession exceptionally low. which rated Software Engineer as the best job in the United States in 2006. Process improvement and Software architecture. most never bother to pursue the license. software engineering was again ranked as the best job in the United States. and hand and wrist problems such as carpal tunnel syndrome. Software engineers may be eligible for membership of the Institution of Engineering and Technology and so qualify for Chartered Engineer status. engineers and programmers are susceptible to eyestrain. For example. successfully complete PEO's (Professional Engineers Ontario) Professional Practice Examination (PPE) and have at least 48 months of acceptable engineering experience are eligible to be licensed through the Professional Engineers Ontario and can become Professional Engineers P. This approach had some flaws.

the effectiveness of CASE tools is limited. according to some researchers. 4 Education Knowledge of computer programming is a pre-requisite to becoming a software engineer. result from the costs of fabrication. many companies sponsor internships for students wishing to pursue careers in information technology. Many software engineers enter the profession by obtaining a university degree or training at a vocational school. communication. there were 244 Campus programs. This provides a continuous ability to have human oversight on business-critical processes 24 hours per day. This includes but is not limited to language. Handling global development successfully is subject to active research of the software engineering community. However. Asians are just arriving to work. and 69 Certificate-level programs in the United States. 41 Doctorate-level programs. One standard international curriculum for undergraduate software engineering degrees was defined by the CCSE. cultural or corporate barriers. Software development process A set of activities that leads to the production of a software product is known as software process. describing the body of knowledge that they believe should be mastered by a graduate software engineer with four years of experience. . These internships can introduce the student to interesting real-world tasks that typical software engineers encounter every day. and updated in 2004. In 2004 the IEEE Computer Society produced the SWEBOK.and generally distributed . like software specification. 70 Online programs. Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools are being used to support the software process activities. Comparison with other disciplines Major differences between software engineering and other engineering disciplines. as of 2010[3]. sleep patterns. the software engineering market is being gradually shifted towards component based. There is no ideal approach to software process that has yet been developed.development can run into serious difficulties resulting from the distance between developers. which has been published as ISO/IEC Technical Report 1979:2004. Although most of the software are custom build. While global outsourcing has several advantages. Some fundamental activities. due to the vast diversity of software processes for different types of products. Europeans are arriving to work. When Asians are leaving work. validation and maintenance are common to all the process activities. 230 Masters-level programs.[4] In addition to university education. A number of universities have Software Engineering degree programs. When North Americans are leaving work. without paying overtime compensation or disrupting a key human resource. Similar experience can be gained through military service in software engineering. global .Software engineering organizations. design.

During this. against the expected behavior. For large systems. and other characteristics of a system or component. meaningful software through a combination of coding. € Software testing: The dynamic verification of the behavior of a program on a finite set of test cases. and reporting•to ensure that the development and maintenance of software is systematic. they often overlap. Various general process models are waterfall model. interfaces. € Software design: The process of defining the architecture. and quantified. Waterfall model The waterfall model was one of the first published models for the software process. integration testing. . These phases are: € € € € € € Requirements analysis Software design [5] Unit testing Component testing System testing Maintenance Theoretically the activities should be performed individually but in practice. verification. These are widely used in current software engineering practice. and debugging. Agile model "Agile Development" is an umbrella term for several iterative and incremental software development methodologies. Some of these methods include: € € € € € € Extreme Programming (XP) Scrum Kanban or Lean Crystal Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) Feature-Driven Development (FDD) Subdisciplines Software engineering can be divided into ten subdisciplines. suitably selected from the usually infinite executions domain. coordinating. disciplined. € Software construction: The detailed creation of working. these are used together. and maintaining the integrity and traceability of the configuration throughout the system life cycle. and validation of requirements for software. analysis. They are: € Software requirements: The elicitation. components. additional problems might be discovered and the need of new feature may arise. This may require the software to undergo the previous phases once again. € Software configuration management: The identification of the configuration of a system at distinct points in time for the purpose of systematically controlling changes to the configuration. evolutionary development model and component-based software engineering model. specification. This model divides software processes in various phases. These are also called process paradigms. measuring. the software is put into use. unit testing.Software engineering 5 Models A software process model is an abstraction of software process. It is also defined as the result of that process. monitoring. € Software maintenance: The totality of activities required to provide cost-effective support to software. controlling. € Software engineering management: The application of management activities•planning. During the maintenance stage.

USDL 05-2145: Occupational Employment and Wages. Robert. November 2004 (http:/ / www. € Sommerville. and the methods which impose structure on the software engineering activity with the goal of making the activity systematic and ultimately more likely to be successful. € Software quality: The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements. Boston. ISBN•978-81-7758-530-8. php?title=Software_engineering& action=edit [4] (http:/ / www.springer. Mehdi Jazayeri. Roger S (2005). Notes [1] Raymond. including hardware and human issues. change. Dupuis.).google. 6 Related disciplines Software engineering is a direct subfield of computer science and has some relations with management science. Leonard L. Eric S.Software engineering € Software engineering process: The definition. gov/ news. Software Engineering (http://books.). IEEE. Springer. Moore. The Cathedral and the Bazaar.). ed 3. It is also considered a part of overall systems engineering. Department of Labor. . Ian (2007) [1982]. ISBN•0-7695-2330-7.pearsoned. Bourque. Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach (6th ed. management. Systems engineering Systems engineers deal primarily with the overall system requirements and design. € Sommerville. Tripp. € Pressman. gradschools.0.com/books?id=PqsWaBkFh1wC) (7 ed. Pierre. wikipedia. 2000. € Software engineering tools and methods: The computer-based tools that are intended to assist the software life cycle processes. Ian (2008). ISBN•0-321-31379-8. England: Pearson Education. and improvement of the software life cycle process itself.co. pdf). Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge. measurement.S. (2004). Pankaj (2005) [1991]. release/ archives/ ocwage_11092005. James W. U.uk/HigherEducation/ Booksby/Sommerville/) (8th ed. implementation. bls. Retrieved 10 January 2013. [2] Bureau of Labor Statistics.. Table 1. Fundamentals of Software Engineering (2nd (International) ed. € Jalote. Carlo.). Further reading € Ghezzi. Alain. see Computer Aided Software Engineering. Software Engineering (http://www. org/ w/ index. ISBN•0-07-285318-2.). ISBN•0-387-20881-X. Pearson Education. Harlow. Pearson Education @ Prentice-Hall. [3] http:/ / en. Dino Mandrioli (2003) [1991]. Mass: McGraw-Hill. An Integrated Approach to Software Engineering (http://www. com/ search-programs/ software-engineering) Degree programs in Software Engineering [5] *Software Construction References € Abran. assessment.com/east/ home?SGWisbn=5-102-22-52090005-0&changeHeader=true) (3rd ed.

org/) OpenSDLC.info/) . Bureau of Labor Statistics € A Student's Guide to Software Engineering Projects (http://StudentProjectGuide.Software engineering 7 External links € Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (http://www.net/amohanty01/ software-engineering-14515160) .Definition and statistics from the U.org the integrated Creative Commons SDLC € Function Oriented vs Object Oriented Software Engineering (http://www.a free online guide for students taking SE project courses € The Open Systems Engineering and Software Development Life Cycle Framework (http://OpenSDLC.slideshare.swebok.htm) .org/) € Computer Software Engineers (http://www.gov/oco/ocos267.S.bls.

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