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# CHAPTER 2 SAMPLING AND DATA COLLECTION METHODS

sanizah@tmsk.uitm.edu.my

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LEARNING OUTCOMES
 Explain the different types of sampling methods
 Apply the different sampling methods

 Explain different methods of collecting data and the suitability to their tasks
 Design questionnaires

sanizah@tmsk.uitm.edu.my

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Important statistical terms
Population: a set which includes all measurements of interest to the researcher (The collection of all responses, measurements, counts that are of interest)
CENSUS

or

Sample: A subset of the population
SAMPLE SURVEY

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uitm. Ex. customer list of credit card users sanizah@tmsk.WHAT IS SAMPLING?  Process of selecting sample from population  The sample must be selected in such a way so that it will accurately represent its population  Sampling technique – scientific method of selecting sample from population (must be random and represent population)  Sampling Unit – individuals or items to be sampled Ex. Student. person who uses credit card  Sampling frame .LIST of individuals or items from which the samples can be obtained (list of sampling units).edu.my 4 . Telephone directory. student list.

you can choose a SAMPLING TECHNIQUE sanizah@tmsk.e. Can Do a Better Job of Data Collection Once a sampling frame has been established.Why sampling? Get information about large populations when it’s impossible to study the whole population  Less costs  Less field time  Eliminate any BIAS  More accuracy i.uitm.edu.my 5 .

Types of Sampling Techniques NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING PROBABILITY SAMPLING Simple random sampling Systematic sampling Convenience sampling Judgemental sampling Snowball sampling Cluster sampling Stratified random sampling 6 Quota sampling .

edu. inexpensive and convenient Disadvantage Sample selected not representative of the population sanizah@tmsk.my 7 .Non probability sampling  The selection of the items/individuals without their probabilities of selection  Used when generalization concerning the population is not required or when sampling frames are difficult to obtain  Advantage  Quick.uitm.

edu. or forming hypothesis  Judgemental Sampling selected based on the judgement of researcher  Snowball Sampling select respondent at random. gathering ideas and insights.uitm. After interviewed. sanizah@tmsk.Non probability sampling  Convenience sampling pre-testing of questionnaires.my 8 . ask respondent to identify others who are in the target population of interest  Quota Sampling observes the specific characteristics of potential respondent.

less time.my . less time.edu.uitm. convenient • Weakness • • Selection bias. Not representative of the pop Bias due to experts’ belief may make sample unrepresentative High bias because sample units not independent Time consuming Selection bias maybe in researcher’s clasification of subjects Time consuming 9 • Quota sampling  Sample can be controlled for certain characteristics • • Snowball sampling  Useful in reaching/locating rare populations/characteristic • • sanizah@tmsk.Strengths and Weaknesses of Non-Probability sampling Technique Convenience sampling Judgemental sampling Strength  Less expensive. convenient  No need list of pop Less expensive.

my 10 . based on known probabilities  Random means the item has an equal chance of being selected (unbias)  Used when a researcher plans to make inferences about the population  Advantage  The sample represent the population Disadvantage Sample selected not representative of the population sanizah@tmsk.Probability sampling  The items/individuals are selected randomly.edu.uitm.

How to use simple random sampling:  STEP 1: Prepare sampling frame  i.uitm.: Write everyone's name on a slip of paper or assigned number to each of the people.my 11 . Simple random sampling (SRS) Item/subject is selected from the population in such a way that each item have the same chance of being selected as a sample.e.edu.  STEP 2: Select sample by using:  Lucky draw method  Table of random numbers  Calculator random number generator Notation: N = population size n = sample size sanizah@tmsk.

edu.my 12 .uitm.Simple Random Sampling List of clients = N Random sample = n sanizah@tmsk.

my 13 .Suppose you want to select a sample of 4 people from a group of 12. Our sample would then look this: sanizah@tmsk. and 10. 5.edu.uitm. 8. Let say we get 2.

edu.uitm.Table of random numbers 204029273215632140 582032154785962024 362333254789120325 985263017424503686 sanizah@tmsk.my 14 .

edu.uitm.Simple random sampling sanizah@tmsk.my 15 .

… sanizah@tmsk.  Number units in population from 1 to N. (r + k)th.my 16 . Let the number be r.  Decide on the n that you want or need.edu.Systematic Random Sampling Procedure:  Let N = pop size and n = sample size.  Take every kth unit until the sample size is obtained.  Randomly select a number from 1 to k. (r + 2k)th.  Let the interval size be k = N/n.uitm.

4th element = 8 + 3 = 11 sanizah@tmsk. 2nd element = 2 + 3 = 5 ii.uitm. Find: i. Find the range k = 12/4 = 3 2.my 17 .SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING Suppose you want to select a sample of 4 people from a group of 12 STEPS in using systematic sampling: 1.edu. Let say you get number 2. 3rd element = 2 + (2x3)= 8 iii. r using SRS of every 3rd people. Select first sample. 3.

edu.uitm.Systematic Random Sampling N = 100 Want n = 20 N/n = 5 Select a random number from 1-5: chose 4 Start with #4 and take every 5th unit The samples are 4. 19. 14. 24.my 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 18 . 9.… until the 20th sample sanizah@tmsk.

edu.Stratified Sampling Example: A company has a total of 360 employees in four different categories: Managers Drivers Administrative Staff 36 54 90 Solution: Production Staff 180 How many from each category should be included in a stratified random sample of size 20 ? sanizah@tmsk.my 19 .uitm.

Stratified Sampling  Divide the population into several mutually exclusive groups (strata) and randomly sample from each of these strata  Involves a 2 step process STEP 1:  Divide population into groups called strata  Note: Elements within each stratum should be homogeneous.uitm.my 20 . whereas the differences between strata should be heterogeneous STEP 2:  Select elements from each stratum by a random procedure.edu. usually SRS sanizah@tmsk.

my n3 21 .edu.Stratified Sampling List of clients Malays N Chinese Others Strata N1 N2 N3 n1 n2 sanizah@tmsk.uitm.

 For each selected cluster.my 22 .uitm.Cluster Sampling  The target population is first divided into subpopulations or clusters.edu. sanizah@tmsk. all elements are included in the sample.  Then a random sample of clusters is selected based on a probability sampling technique such as SRS.

my 23 .Cluster Sampling 1 Population 3 2 sanizah@tmsk.uitm.edu.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Probability sampling Techniques Strength Simple random sampling Weakness Easy to apply and analyze Difficult to obtain Results can be projected on sampling frame.uitm.my . cost effective and work is reduced Difficult to assign the element in the cluster Not easy to interpret results 24 sanizah@tmsk. not population recommended for descriptive research Easier to apply than SRS Decrease the no of respondents if a certain pattern is exist (periodic) Includes all important subpopulations. expensive.edu. precision is improved Require accurate information in each stratum Systematic sampling Stratified sampling Cluster sampling Easy to implement.

edu.Multi-Stage Sampling  Designed to reduce time and cost when working with samples from very large populations.my 25 .uitm.  Example:  Suppose we need a random sample of 2000 residents from the Malaysian population.  How to choose the sample using multi-stage sampling? sanizah@tmsk.

sanizah@tmsk.uitm.my 26 .edu.

DATA COLLECTION METHOD Face-to-face Interview Telephone Direct Observation Data collection Questionnaire Direct Indirect Others (e-mail. video record) 27 .

a personal  interview Interviewer initiate to  get information from respondent the questioned asked based on prepared questionnaire   Allow interviewer to clarify term to respondent have high response rate     Disadvantage expensive (cost of travelling error inrecording interviewer bias use a lot of time only short question can be asked restricted to respondent who have telephone limited duration low response rate simple question can be asked Telephone interview  less expensive than personal  interview speed of data collection   Mail questionnaire      cheapest easiest no interviewer influence cover wide area respondent has more time to answer not influenced by others’ perception not effected by the respondent itself   Direct observation    need a high skilled and unbiased Others  internet Same as mail 28 .Advantage Face-to face interview   A.k.

       . questions that involve calculation. and vagueness.  Questionnaires should be short . bias questions. Avoid: doubt. double barrel question.Designing a questionnaire  Before you begin drafting your questionnaire. sensitive questions. simple and easy to understand. confusion. it is important to consider:  Who is the questionnaire for?  What is it intending to find out or measure?  Guidelines in Designing a questionnaire  Design questions to meet the objective of the research.  Begin with simple and less controversial questions. asking questions that are beyond the respondents' capabilities.

Questionnaire checklist Objectives of the study ii. Answers sought from the study iii. a proper questionnaire can be designed. . Variables used in the study iv. Once the above procedures are understood by the researchers. Methods of data analysis i.

encyclopedia.wordpress.uk/projects/mepres/bo ok9/bk9i18/bk9_18i3.html http://www. Laura Lake.plymouth.com/2009/08/16/stati stics-notes-sampling-techniques-2/ http://faculty.html sanizah@tmsk.edu. resources.REFERENCES 1.uk http://rchsbowman.uitm. 2.edu/dkernler/statistics/ch01/41. 4.elgin.jorum.cimt. 5.my 31 . Types of Data.ac. 3.ac.com/video/sYRUYJYOpG0stratified-sampling.aspx http://www.