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# QMT412 Pn.

Sanizah's Notes 4/8/2013
1
CHAPTER 4 PART 2

SUMMARY MEASURES
(for GROUPED DATA)

1
TYPES OF DATA

2
Ungrouped
Data
Measures of
Central
Tendency
Measures of
Position
Measures of
Dispersion
Grouped
Data
Measures of
Central
Tendency
Measures of
Position
Measures of
Dispersion
1. Measures of Central Tendency
(for grouped data)
• Mean
• Median
• Mode
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MEAN
Finding the mean for grouped data:

size sample
class each of midpoint
frequency
where
=
=
=
·
=
¿
n
x
f
n
x f
x
m
m
4
n = E f
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QMT412 Pn. Sanizah's Notes 4/8/2013
2

EXAMPLE 1

Using the given frequency distribution, find
the mean. The data represent the number
of miles run during one week for a sample
of 20 runners.

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Frequency distribution
Class Frequency
(f)
Midpoint
(x
m
)
f . x
m
5.5-10.5
10.5-15.5
15.5-20.5
20.5-25.5
25.5-30.5
30.5-35.5
35.5-40.5
1
2
3
5
4
3
2
8
13
18
23
28
33
38
8
26
54
115
112
99
76
Σ f=20 Σf.x
m
= 490
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Solution
miles 5 . 24
20
490
=
=
·
=
¿
n
x f
x
m
7
n = E f
= n
sanizah@tmsk.uitm.edu.my
MEDIAN
C
f
f
f
L x
m
m
m
·
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+ =
¿
¿
÷1
2 ~
class median the of width
class median the of frequency
class median the before intervals
class all of frequency cumulative
class median the of boundary class lower
1
=
=
=
=
¿
C
f
f
L
m
m-
m
where
8
Median location=
2
n
QMT412 Pn. Sanizah's Notes 4/8/2013
3
Example 2
 Refer to Example 1. Find the median.

 50% of the runners run less than 24.5 miles and the
other 50% run more than 24.5 miles.

10
2
20
2
location, Median = =
n
The median class is 20.5-25.5.
5
5
6
5 . 20
1
=
=
=
=
¿ ÷
C
f
f
L
m
m
m
5 . 24
5
5
6 10
5 . 20
~
=
× |
.
|

\
| ÷
+ = x
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MODE
class modal the of width C
class modal the af ter f requency - class modal of f requency
class modal the bef ore f requency - class modal of f requency
class modal the of boundaries class lower L
where
2
1
mo
=
= A
= A
=
C L x
mo
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
A + A
A
+ =
2 1
1
ˆ Mode,
10
Class with
the highest
frequency
sanizah@tmsk.uitm.edu.my
Example 3
 Refer to Example 1. Find the mode.
 The modal class is 20.5-25.5.

5
1 4 5
2 3 5
5 . 20
2
1
=
= ÷ = A
= ÷ = A
=
C
L
mo
8 . 23
5
1 2
2
5 . 20 xˆ
=
· |
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
11
class with the
highest
frequency
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MODE – Estimating from histogram
12
Use graph
paper to
estimate
value
sanizah@tmsk.uitm.edu.my
QMT412 Pn. Sanizah's Notes 4/8/2013
4

Refer textbook and go through
Example 8 pg. 75-79
Find the mean, median and mode.
Estimate the mode from histogram
(refer Figure 4.5 pg. 80).
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Years of
Experience
Class
boundary
No of
employees
(f)
Mid-
point
(x
m
)
f. x
m
1 – 4 16
5 – 8 20
9 – 12 28
13 – 16 24
17 – 20 16
21 – 24 11
25 – 28 5
Ef=120
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2. Measures of Position
(for grouped data)
• First Quartile (Q
1
)
• Third Quartile (Q
3
)
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Formula to obtain Q
1
and Q
3

Step 1: Obtain the cumulative frequencies.
Step 2: Identify the first and third quartile classes.
Location of first quartile -

Location of third quartile -
Then refer to the cumulative frequency column and
determine the locations and classes.

Note: Refer textbook pg. 81-82
4
n
n
4
3
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QMT412 Pn. Sanizah's Notes 4/8/2013
5
Step 3 Find Q
1
and Q
3
Find first quartile value using this formula
size class quart ile first
class quart ile first t he of frequency
class quart ile first t he before frequency cumulat ive
ns observat io of number
class quart ile first t he of boundary class lower
where
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
=
=
=
=
=
×
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+ =
¿ ÷
C
f
f
n
L
C
f
f
n
L Q
m-
m
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Step 3
Find third quartile as follows:

size class quart ile t hird
class quart ile t hird t he of frequency
class quart ile t hird t he before frequency cumulat ive
ns observat io of number
class quart ile t hird t he of boundary class lower
where
4
3
3
3
1
3
3
3
1
3 3
=
=
=
=
=
×
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+ =
¿ ÷
C
f
f
n
L
C
f
f
n
L Q
m-
m
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Refer textbook Example 12 pg. 82
How to find first and third quartile
Using formula
Using ogive or cumulative frequency curve.
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3. Measures of Dispersion
(for grouped data)
• Range
•Interquartile Range
•Variance
• Standard Deviation
• Coefficient of Variation
• Skewness
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QMT412 Pn. Sanizah's Notes 4/8/2013
6
RANGE
21
B B
L U
class lowest of
boundary lower
class highest of
boundary upper
Range
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
Refer textbook Example 4 pg. 100
sanizah@tmsk.uitm.edu.my
( )
1
2
2
2
÷
·
÷ ·
=
¿
¿
n
n
x f
x f
s
m
m
VARIANCE AND STANDARD DEVIATION
size sample
class each of midpoint
frequency
where
=
=
=
n
x
f
m
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Example 4
Class Frequency (f) Midpoint
5.5-10.5
10.5-15.5
15.5-20.5
20.5-25.5
25.5-30.5
30.5-35.5
35.5-40.5
1
2
3
5
4
3
2
8
13
18
23
28
33
38
8
26
54
115
112
99
76
64
338
972
2645
3136
3267
2888
20 490 13310
m
x f ·
2
m
x f ·
 Refer to Example 1. Find the variance and
standard deviation.
23
( )
3 8
7 68
7 68
19
20
490
13310
1
2
2
2
2
.
. s
.
n
n
x f
x f
s
m
m
=
=
=
÷
=
÷
·
÷ ·
=
¿
¿
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Variance
Standard
deviation
QMT412 Pn. Sanizah's Notes 4/8/2013
7
Coefficient of Variation
 Indicate the ratio of the standard deviation to the
arithmetic mean expressed as a percent

 The larger the percentage, the greater the variation.
 Large variation implies less consistency,
small variation implies better consistency.
100
mean sample
deviation standard sample
× = CV
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Pearson Coefficient of Skewness
Measure the skewness

deviation standard
median) 3(mean
or
deviation standard
mode mean
skewness
÷
=
÷
=
26 sanizah@tmsk.uitm.edu.my
SUMMARY

27
Grouped
Data
Measures of
Central
Tendency
Mean
Median
Mode

Measures of
Position
First Quartile (Q
1
)
Third Quartile (Q
3
)
Measures of
Dispersion

Range
Variance
Standard deviation
Coefficient of
Variation (CV)
Pearson coefficient of
skewness