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The forest contains four areas of pristine wildernesses that have remained largely untouched by human activities such

as mining, logging, and road and building construction. The four regions include the North Absaroka, Washakie, Fitzpatrick and opo Agie Wildernesses.!"#$ Additionally, a small portion of the Absaroka%&eartooth Wilderness e'tends into the e'treme northwestern part of the forest, along the (ontana border. )n *hoshone National Forest, +,,--,--- acres .#/-,--- ha0, constituting #1 percent of the forest is designated wilderness.!,,$ The wilderness designation provides a much higher level of land protection and prohibits any alterations by man to the resource.!,#$ The Wilderness Act of +21, enhanced the protection status of remote and3or undeveloped land already contained within federally administered protected areas. assage of the act ensured that no human improvements would take place aside from those already e'isting. The protected status in wilderness designated zones prohibits road and building construction, oil and mineral e'ploration or e'traction, and logging, and also prohibits the use of motorized e4uipment, including even bicycles. The only manner in which people can enter wilderness areas is either on foot or horseback. 5unting and fishing are permitted in the wilderness, 6ust as they are throughout the forest, provided those engaging in such activities have the proper licenses and permits.!,1$ Fire ecology!edit$ *ee also7 Fire ecology and Wildfire89cology *hoshone National Forest has an active Fire (anagement rogram which recognizes that forest fires are a natural part of the ecosystem: however, this was not always the case. 5istoric fire fighting efforts, which emphasized 4uickly e'tinguishing all fires, created huge sources of fuel in the form of dead and dying trees. This led partly to the &lackwater fire of +2"/ in which +# fighters were killed during a firestorm "# mi .#1 km0 west of ;ody, Wyoming. After the catastrophic fires in the <ellowstone region in +2==, an effort to identify areas of similar fire potential was implemented. Working cooperatively with the National )nteragency Fire ;enter, a multiagency effort of federal, state and local resources, and local land owners on the Wildland%>rban )nterface, a system of fire restrictions, fuels management, and a controlled burn plan was developed to reduce the chances of a huge catastrophic fire.!,/$ ?ightning storms cause /-@ of the wildfires in the forest. These are usually produced by thunderstorms that have a lot of energy but little associated moisture, a common occurrence during midsummer. The remainder of the wildfires are attributed to neglected campfires and other human carelessness.

Ainwoody spot fire in B--+ )n the case of unnatural wildfires, the forest has a policy of complete suppression e'cept in cases of prescribed burns, which are a part of the Fire (anagement lan. An average of B# fires occur every year, and larger fires of over +,--- acres .,.- kmB0 occur about every three years. )n B--" more than #- fires were recorded, of which five affected an area greater than +,--- acres .,-- ha0.!,/$ The forest maintains a full%time fire staff of a dozen individuals through the summer. Their 6obs include maintaining a high level of preparedness, keeping a vigilant lookout for fire activity, responding to reports of fires, maintaining e4uipment, monitoring weather and relative atmospheric dryness, and preparing daily fire activity reports, which are used to post fire information for visitors and staff. The forest has five wildland fire engines, pumps, hand tools and many miles of fire hose at its disposal. A helicopter can be summoned 4uickly, along with a regional base for a team of smoke6umpers and air tankers used to provide air support in the manner of retardant and water drops.!,/$ )n the case of larger fires, the National )nteragency Fire ;ommand can mobilize available resources within days or even hours. Ceography and geology!edit$

lakes in the &eartooth region of *hoshone National Forest.uster National Forest to the north. gneiss and schist rocks are rich in minerals such as chromium and platinum...".m0.+.2/. and bisects a smaller southern section which includes the opo Agie Wilderness and the Washakie Danger Aistrict.--. to +".m0 near . Few lakes e'ist in the Absarokas.miles .. feet .row )ndian tribe.m0 &eartooth ass. the &eartooths consist of vast windswept plateaus and rugged peaks with sometimes sheer cliff faces.!. Ceologists believe that the &eartooths were at one time at least B-. some of them left behind by the receding glaciers of the last glacial ma'imum known as the inedale Claciation.ontinental Aivide demarks the boundary between *hoshone and &ridger%Teton National Forests.". . The &eartooth 5ighway . some of these e'posed recambrian rocks are among the oldest found on the 9arth. but the headwaters of both the &ighorn and <ellowstone Divers are found there.feet . The ma6ority of the Absaroka (ountains are contained within the forest.=-.feet . and from there descends to the northeast entrance to <ellowstone National ark. which provides access to Fackson 5ole and Crand Teton National ark. and at ". they are distinct in appearance and geologic history. and the small ghost town of Girwin is still visited.>.2$ Although often considered a part of the Absarokas./-. an elevation gain of over 2. andesite and breccias.ody. but subse4uent erosion for tens of millions of years has reduced them to an average of +B. with the highest peak being Francs eak at +". There are an estimated "-. the Wind Diver )ndian Deservation also borders on the east. All of the mountains are a part of the Dockies and are at the transitional point between the central Dockies and the northern Dockies.. >plifted appro'imately /..Cannett eak is the highest mountain in Wyoming and the forest *hoshone National Forest borders <ellowstone National ark and &ridger%Teton National Forest to the west.*. )ron and magnesium are found in the biotite.-.million years ago during the ?aramide orogeny.21 billion years old.=$ The rocks themselves are relatively dark and consist of rhyolite. having been the result of volcanic activity estimated to have occurred #. )mportant passes through the Absarokas include *ylvan ass. The .--.=-. which leads to the eastern entrance of <ellowstone National ark: and Togwotee ass. 5ighway B+B0 crosses +-. Along the (ontana border. although they only inhabited the far northernmost part to the mountain range.B-feet .".1-.--. *hoshone National Forest borders . Wyoming. The granite. Wyoming.m0 in altitude. amphiboles and pyro'ene minerals throughout the range.km0 from the (ontana border to south of Aubois.1.m0 for the higher peaks. the Absarokas are 4uite craggy in appearance. which ended roughly +-.!. Cold was mined from the slopes of Francs eak until +2-/.B-/ m0 at the top of Cannett eak. Huartz and feldspars are also commonly found. The altitude in the forest ranges from ..+#" feet .B.%foot .feet .+1. The peaks of the Absaroka are basaltic in origin. Ef the three ma6or mountain ranges found in the forest. &ecause of the erosional influences of glaciers and water and the relative softness of the rocks. they span over +-. they are geologically distinct from each other.. property belonging to the state of Wyoming and lands administered by the &ureau of ?and (anagement form the eastern boundaries.million years ago during the 9ocene epoch. The Absaroka (ountains were named after the . rivate property. *tretching north to south through the northern and eastern sections of the forest.+-. &eartooth ?ake in *hoshone National Forest The &eartooth (ountains in the northernmost section of the forest are intrusive igneous and metamorphic in origin.--2 m0. ?astly.years ago.

there is no controversy that all of the glaciers in the forest are retreating.. Desearch between +2#."# km0 through the forest.years.lakes in the forest.. The area covered by glaciers shrank by #-@ in the century after they were first photographed in the late +=2-s.--. Fremont eak was thought to be the tallest mountain in the Docky (ountains due to its prominence when viewed from the Eregon Trail.unnamed glaciers within the forest. This range is also popular with mountain climbers from all over the world because of its solid rock and variety of routes. At one time. Forest *ervice.+-.m0 as the river winds through a gorge.*. on the northeast slope of Cannett eak.$ Cannett Clacier The behavior of the glaciers of *hoshone National Forest is consistent with this pattern. *hoshone National Forest has the greatest number of individual glaciers of any National Forest in the Docky (ountains.feet .ontinental Aivide.miles .with B#@ of that loss since +2=-. there has been a reduction of mountain glacial ice worldwide of #-@ since +=#-. and B.feet .--feet .+"#-I+=#-0.different climbing routes are located within the peaks that surround the cir4ue. Ever B". )t has reportedly lost over #-@ of its volume since +2B. it will continue to retreat until it disappears. the remaining . Forty%four of these glaciers are in the Fitzpatrick Wilderness. There are over #-.*.#-. however.!#-$ Claciology!edit$ According to the >.m0.. *cientist have obtained ice cores from the Fremont Clacier and found that there have been measurable changes in the atmosphere over the past #-. with cliffs towering up to B..#-.. The forest recreation guide lists +1 named and +.!#"$ Deversing the growth that occurred during the ?ittle )ce Age . seems to be correlated with anthropogenic global warming. !#1$ >pper Fremont Clacier has been studied more than any other in the Wind Diver Dange. centered around the highest mountain peaks. all in the Wind Diver Dange.ir4ue of the Towers >.km0 of streams and rivers.".1+./-. Ence a glacier begins retreating.!#+$ 5owever.and +222 demonstrated that the glaciers shrank by over a third in that period. 5undreds of lakes are located in this region as are the headwaters of the Wind Diver. and another seven peaks also e'ceed +". (uch of this reduction has been well documented by photographic evidence and other data. gneiss and schist. is the largest single glacier in the >. it may fall into dise4uilibrium and be unable to find mass balance .!##$ Cannett Clacier.ir4ue of the Towers in the opo Agie Wilderness is one of the more popular climbing and hiking destinations. The .!#B$ While there is little doubt that the forest has more glaciers than any other in the Docky (ountains. and an estimated B-. Without a favorable climate change. Cannett eak is the highest peak in Wyoming. The .--. and this includes areas outside the forest boundaries.accumulation versus melting rate0 at any size..!#/$ !#=$ The small glaciers in the forest are less able to resist melting than the great ice sheets of Creenland and Antarctica. An increase in recession rate since the +2/-s.!#2$ Claciologists predict that if current trends continue. Docky (ountains. the state water board for Wyoming lists only 1" glaciers for the entire Wind Diver Dange.mountains rise above +B. and the rivers flow into the Atlantic Ecean basin.*.years. Ceological *urvey The Wind Diver Dange is in the southern portion of the forest and is composed primarily of granitic rock.larks Fork of the <ellowstone Diver is designated as a National Wild and *cenic Diver for BB miles .!#. The forest is on the eastern slopes of the . Desearch also indicates that the glacial retreat was proportionately greater in the +22-s than in any other decade of the last +-.m0.

Wyoming is generally considered an arid state. *ome remote areas can be accessed by horseback.inches .!1-$ The average temperature at the lower elevations is /B JF . vigorous radiative cooling occurs throughout the year. and tent camping is not permitted. This. 5unting and fishing are popular recreational activities permitted throughout the forest. 5orseback riding in Creybull Danger Aistrict For some visitors the greater solitude of the LbackcountryL re4uires accessing hiking trails and then backpacking or horseback riding into more remote destinations. provide plenty . with up to B/ individual sites each.!1-$ (ost of the precipitation falls in the winter and early spring.BB J. daily are not uncommon.ody.km0 spread throughout the forest.B.glaciers in the forest will disappear by B-B-. the nights range from very cool in the summer to e'tremely cold in the winter: therefore./-. may have a significant impact on the forest ecosystem over time. !1B$ Two visitor centers provide orientation. provided that proper permits are obtained and the applicable rules and regulations are followed.!1"$ There is also the Nez erce National 5istoric Trail and the &eartooth ?oop National Decreation Trail. There are ".ontinental Aivide Trail weaves its way through the forest. which ensure that glaciers and snowmelt provide water for streams through the dry summer months. 5owever. Wyoming ad6acent to the historic Wapiti Danger *tation: another visitor center is to the south in ?ander.0 less than those figures.lakes that can be legally fished from. and the higher peaks average B. and temperature variances of #-JF3B=J.miles .#-.B. books.K/ J.onse4uently.!#B$ *hrinkage already reduces the summer glacial runoff that supplies water to streams and lakes and provides a cold% water source vital to certain fish and plant species. all%terrain vehicles are allowed.B# cm0 of precipitation annually. and interpretive displays and are staffed by either forest service interpreters or volunteers. though it follows alternatively named trails for some of the distance. All of the campgrounds are on a first come. both of which are in the northern regions of the forest. Wyoming. in turn. west of . Trailheads usually provide enough room for horse and pack animal trailers plus personal vehicles.0 during the winter. visitors should always remember to bring along at least a 6acket.!1+$ Decreation!edit$ *hoshone National Forest receives an average of over half a million visitors a year. maps. some of the campgrounds re4uire what is referred to as Lhard%sidedL camping only. even during the summer. while summer is punctuated with widely scattered afternoon and evening thunderstorms. Appro'imately half of these campgrounds provide running water and restroom facilities and also provide for handicapped accessibility. they also permit recreational vehicle access in most cases./-. There are dozens of trails which total over +.0 during the summer and B. 5unting regulations are altered each year to ensure certain species are protected from overhunting and to ma'imize personal safety. (any of the streams and rivers are considered to be L&lue Dibbon Trout *treamsL.K/ J. *hoshone National Forest is located in some of the largest mountain ranges in the state. Deferred to as Lfront countryL campgrounds.JF . The Wapiti Wayside is on the &uffalo &ill . The fall is usually cool and dry.ody *cenic &yway.km0 of streams and #-.vehicle access campgrounds in the forest.. . The .-. Aue to the presence of grizzly bears. however there are plans to limit their use in most of the forest.limate!edit$ With an average of less than +. which is on the National Decreation Deservation *ervice: a phone and web%based system that permits campsite reservation months ahead of time. . +. first served basis e'cept for the De' 5ale campground.JF . Aue to the altitude and dryness of the atmosphere.miles . Along forest access roads.

feet .peaks in Wyoming are here. &uffalo &ill .$ The southern section of the forest in the Wind Diver Dange is the primary destination for mountain climbers. ?astly. 5unting and fishing licenses are sponsored by the state of Wyoming and are available through the Wyoming Came and Fish Aepartment. &uffalo &ill . *nowmobile activity has increased in the forest with increased restrictions on their use within <ellowstone National ark. ?ander.*.>..ody *cenic &yway . the snowmobile season e'tends usually from the beginning of Aecember to the middle of April. over Togwotee ass and enters Fackson 5ole and Crand Teton National ark. The . The . .ody and the area near Togwotee ass are the hubs of snowmobile activity in the forest.>* +.ody and Wyoming .3+13B-0 heads west from . 5ighway B+B0. weaves through the forest and serves as the northeastern entranceway to <ellowstone National ark.!1#$ . the . With up to .ontinental Aivide *nowmobile Trail is a popular maintained snowmobile route that can be accessed from Togwotee ass. *cenic roads!edit$ *unlight &ridge on the . A federally designated All%American Doad.hief Foseph *cenic &yway .of elbow room during even the most crowded of fishing seasons. *outh of there. Wyoming.avalry in +=//.ody.ir4ue of the Towers is particularly popular as it has numerous peaks within a relatively short distance of each other. and the mountains are primarily of granitic rock with countless cliffs and sheer rock walls. . the Wyoming .>* B13B=/0 heads west from Aubois. Wyoming and crosses *ylvan ass as it enters <ellowstone.entennial *cenic &yway . )mmediately south of the &eartooth 5ighway. the &eartooth 5ighway .hief Foseph *cenic &yway As a gateway to two entrances leading into <ellowstone National ark from the east.hief Foseph. the forest has a number of scenic roadways.hief Foseph and the Nez erce tribe attempted to flee the >.*. Nine of the highest +.!1.+B m0 of snow annually in the higher elevations. The . and a number of motels also remain open during the winter to provide food and lodging. Numerous outfitters rent snowmobiles on a daily basis and can provide guided trips for those less e'perienced. Winter activities include cross%country skiing and snowmobiling.entennial byways have all been designated as Wyoming *tate *cenic &yways.Wyoming 5ighway B210 follows the old trail in which .