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Hydraulic and Nonhydraulic Cements

• Hydraulic cement - hardens by reacting with water to form a _______________ product. The presence of air is not required for the hardening process. Example: _______________. • Nonhydraulic cement - reacts with water to form a product which is _________ in water. The hydration product may then react with ___ to form a water-resistant product. Example: __________.
CaO + H2O ⇒ Ca(OH)2 hydrated lime Ca(OH)2 + CO2 ⇒ CaCO3 + H2O ↑

Invention of Portland Cement
• Greeks and Romans had used a blend of lime and pozzolanic materials to produce a hydraulic cement. • Modern Portland cement was invented by ______ _______, an English mason who obtained a patent for his product in 1824. • It was named Portland cement because the concrete it produced resembled the color of the natural limestone quarried on the ___________, a peninsula in the English Channel.

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Location of Isle of Portland Scotland Northern Island England Wales Isle of Portland Isle of Portland Beach connecting Isle of Portland to England 2 .

Modern Cement Plant 3 .

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Bags of Portland cement Portland cement transport in bulk Portland cement 5 .

The main oxides in Portland cement are: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Oxides CaO SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 MgO SO3 H2O Calcium Oxide Silicon Oxide Aluminum Oxide Iron Oxide Magnesium Oxide Sulfur Oxide Water Abbreviation C S A F M Ŝ H Chemical Composition of Portland Cement (Cont’d) • The 4 main compounds. 200 sieve (75 μ m) Typical particle size distribution of a normal Portland cement: %Passing Size 75 μm 100 45 μ m 88 30 μ m 74 15 μ m 46 7.S. weighs 94 lbs.5 μ m 22 • Typical Specific Gravity : ______ • Typical Unit Weight: _________ • A commercial bag of Portland cement in the U. 6 . • Results of chemical analysis are usually reported in terms of oxides of the elements present. such as magnesium oxide (MgO). which is added to control the rate of setting of cement.Physical Properties of Portland Cement • Particle Size: Finer than No. Chemical Composition of Portland Cement • Portland cement consists essentially of various compounds of calcium. and (2) impurities. which make up over 90% by weight of the Portland cement are: Compound 3CaO·SiO2 2CaO·SiO2 3CaO·Al2O3 4CaO·Al2O3·Fe2O3 Abbreviation Tricalcium Silicate ______ Dicalcium Silicate ______ Tricalcium Aluminate ______ Tetracalcium Aluminoferrite ______ • Other components of Portland cement are (1) Gypsum (CaSO4 ·2H2O or CŜH2 ).

A cement with a high C3A content is more susceptible to _______________. . the following reactions can take place: C3A + 3CŜH2 + 26H ⇒ C3A·3CŜ·H32 (Ettringite) C3A + CŜH2 + (10-16)H ⇒ C3A·CŜ·H12-18 (Monosulfate) 7 . and thus helps to ____________. which cause expansion and cracking. Thus. • C3A . The reaction is exothermic (heat is generated.Chemical reaction of cement with water to form a hardened paste. while CH (Calcium Hydroxide) is ______ in water. C3A + 21H ⇒ C4AH13 + C2AH8 C4AH13 + C2AH8 ⇒ 2C3AH6 + 9H Unless this rapid reaction is slowed down. .Overview of Hydration of Portland Cement • Hydration .Hydrates and hardens slowly. However. • C4AF . • C2S . it is expected that the ultimate strength of a high C3S cement would be lower than that of a high C2S cement. . • The hydration of C3S produces 61% C3S2H3 and 39% CH.Hydrates and hardens rapidly.Contributes slightly to the early strength. the Portland cement would be useless for most construction purposes.) • C3S .Largely responsible for _________________________. .Contributes largely to ___________________________ ________. while the hydration of C2S produces 82% C3S2H3 and 18% CH.Hydrates rapidly and liberates a large amount of heat. the reaction of C3A with water is immediate and generates a large amount of heat. • With the addition of gypsum (CŜH2). its presence reduces the clinkering temperature in the production of cement.Contributes little to strength. Hydration of C3A • Without the addition of gypsum or other means of retardation. Hydration of C3S and C2S • Chemical Reactions: 2C3S + 6H ⇒ C3S2H3 + 3CH (more rapid reaction) 2C2S + 4H ⇒ C3S2H3 + CH (slower reaction) • C3S2H3 (Calcium Silicate Hydrate) is strong and is ______ __________.

In the presence of ________________. ettringite can react with C3A to form monosulfate as follows: C3A·3CŜ·H32 + 2C3A + (4-22)H ⇒ 3(C3A·CŜ·H12-18 ) • Cements with more than 5% C3A will have most of the hydrates of C3A in the form of monosulfates (C3A·CŜ·H12-18). Comparison of the Characteristics of the Four Main Compounds in Portland Cement C3S C2S C3A C4AF _______________________________________________________ Rate of hydration Moderate Early Strength High Ultimate Strength High Heat of Hydration Medium Typical (cal/g) 120 Slow Low High Low 60 Fast Low Low High 320 Moderate Low Low Medium 100 8 . • The hydration products contribute _____________ ___________ of concrete. However. Hydration of C4AF • Hydration of C4AF in the presence of gypsum is similar to that of C3A. it is slower and evolve less heat. which are susceptible to sulfate attack.Hydration of C3A (Continued) • For cement with high C3A content (over 5%). monosulfate can react with ________ to form ___________ as follows: C3A·CŜ·H12-18 + 2CH + 2Ŝ + (10-16)H ⇒ C3A·3CŜ·H32 The formation of ettringites at a later age of the concrete can cause expansion of the hardened cement paste and ___________ of concrete.

Air-entraining. Minimum of 40% C2S. Maximum limits of 35% and 7% on C3S and C3A. • Type III . Typical Chemical Compositions of Portland Cements Type I Type II Type III Type IV 25 50 5 12 4 210 Type V 40 40 4 10 4 250 C3S 50 45 60 C2S 25 30 15 12 7 10 C3A C4AF 8 12 8 CŜH2 5 5 5 Heat of hydration (7 days.a siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material which in itself possesses no cementing property but will. IIA._____________________. Maximum limit of 5% on C3A. in the presence of water. respectively. Examples: volcanic ash (or pumicite) and fly ash.__________________. • Type V . C3A content is limited to a maximum of 15%. (3) The large capillary spaces are filled up by the reaction products. (2) It consumes calcium hydroxide instead of producing it. react with ___________________ to form a cementitious product which is stable in water. • Type IA.________________________________ _______________________. • Type II . • Type IV .Types of Portland Cement • Type I . Specification limits the C3A content to a maximum of 8%. J/g) 330 250 500 Pozzolan and Pozzolanic Reaction • Pozzolan . making the concrete less permeable and more durable. • Pozzolanic Reaction: Pozzolan + CH + H ⇒ C-S-H • Characteristics of pozzolanic reaction: (1) Reaction is Slow.For ______ use. No limits are placed on any of the four principal compounds. 9 . IIIA .______________________.

blend of Portland cement with 25 to 70% by weight of granulated blastfurnace slag. • Ultimate strength can be _____ than that of normal concrete. the hydration of the slag is accelerated in the presence of calcium hydroxide and gypsum. • When used in combination with Portland cement. Special Hydraulic Cements (1) Portland blast-furnace slag cement (Types IS) . (2) Portland pozzolan cement (Type IP & P) . • Unlike pozzolans. • Granulated slag is a glassy product formed by rapid cooling of the molten blast-furnace slag. • Portland blast-furnace slag cement has a _______________________ than Portland pozzolan cement.Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag • Blast-furnace slag is a nonmetallic waste product from the blast-furnace process in the manufacturing of iron and steel. when it hydrates by itself. granulated blast-furnace slag is ______ _____________.blend of Portland cement with 15 to 40% fine pozzolan by weight. and is used when high early strength is not required. Type P has a lower early strength than Type IP. the amount of cementitious products formed and the rate of formation are insufficient to give adequate strengths for structural applications. The ________________ is also consumed by the slag in a pozzolanic reaction. 10 . It consists mainly of silicates and aluminosilicates of calcium. Effects of Pozzolans and Blast-Furnace Slags on Strength of Concrete • _________ early strength & ______ heat of hydration as compared with normal concrete. However.

– White color is achieved by reducing the iron content of the cement.Effects of Pozzolans and Blast-Furnace Slags on Durability of Concrete • Water resistance is _________ since calcium hydroxide is consumed. • Alkali-aggregate expansion is __________. • Permeability is _______ since more pores are filled by the products of pozzolanic reaction. 11 . • Since the rate of sulfate attack depends on the permeability and the amount of calcium hydroxide. – Similar to normal Portland cement in properties. the sulfate resistance of the concrete is _____________ (with the reduction in permeability and calcium hydroxide. White or Colored Cements White Cement – Used to produce architectural concrete where white color is desired. – Similar to normal Portland cement in properties. or (2) using clinkers having the corresponding colors.) Type IS cement containing 60 to 70% slag is highly resistant to sulfate attack irrespective of C3A content of the Portland cement and the reactive alumina content of the slag. Colored Cements – Produced by (1) adding pigments to white cement.