You are on page 1of 53

Advantage CPs – GJP 7wk Juniors

Border Security

Anti-Corruption Efforts
CP Text: The United States federal government should increase its anti-corruption efforts in regards to border security by thoroughly investigating all Border Patrol, Customs and Border Protection and Immigration and Customs Enforcement agents that work in relation to the U.S.-Mexico border, improving the screening process for new employees, and prosecuting all employees found to be engaging in corrupt practices. Attempts to secure the border have been undermined by a corresponding increase in corruption – anti-corruption efforts are key to ensure border security Kolb 1/15/2013 – (Joseph, Contributor to Fox News, ―Study Finds corruption on rise among border agents, rep says security ‗at
risk‘‖ http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2013/01/15/study-finds-corruption-on-rise-among-border-agents-rep-says-security-atrisk/ )//JS A government watchdog report has identified a dramatic increase in documented corruption cases among

U.S. border and immigration agents, finding nearly 150 have been arrested or indicted since 2005. ¶ In a trend one top lawmaker said puts national security "in jeopardy," the Government Accountability Office tracked the rise in corruption cases among Border Patrol, Customs and Border Protection, and Immigration and Customs Enforcement agents. The report, issued last month, found spotty standards in screening new applicants and keeping tabs on agents after they're hired. ¶ It found the trend was tied in part to the demand to beef up security, particularly along the southwest border, by hiring more agents, and has raised red flags in Congress. ¶ "Just one employee collaborating with a drug smuggler or terrorist can put our entire nation at risk," said Rep. Michael McCaul, R-Texas, chairman of the House Committee on

Homeland Security. ¶ McCaul, who along with Sen. Tom Coburn, R-Okla., requested the report, said one problem is that while the CBP now polygraphs all new hires, it does not follow up and test employees after they join. ¶ "The GAO report confirms that not only is corruption still a problem, CBP still lacks adequate controls to detect corruption, such as post-employment polygraphing," McCaul told FoxNews.com, adding that one CBP official has said that among those who become corrupt, the behavior sets in roughly 8.8 years into service. ¶ According to the GAO's findings, since 2005, 2,170 agents have been arrested for non-corruption charges such as domestic violence and driving while intoxicated. However, 144 were arrested or indicted for direct corruption-related activities such as drug and human smuggling. By Oct. 2012, 125 of these agents had been convicted. ¶ While the GAO downplayed the matter by noting the cases only represented less than 1 percent of the entire agency, a May 2012 article by the Center for Investigative Reporting showed that between 2006 and 2010 the number of corruption cases being

investigated jumped from 244 to 870. ¶ "In fiscal year 2011 alone, the DHS Inspector General received almost 900 allegations of corruption from within CBP and ICE," McCaul said. ¶ McCaul has long asserted the presence of Islamic extremists groups such as Hezbollah -- which has been found to be working in collaboration with Mexican cartels -- coupled with the prospect of a corrupt officer intentionally allowing these individuals into the U.S. could be catastrophic. ¶ The crux of the GAO's report found that the CBP was unable to handle the rapid demand for agents and that there was a disconnect between supervisors and the agency's Office of Internal Affairs, which did not maintain or track information obtained from background checks, drug tests or polygraphs. ¶ The agency has also failed to consistently conduct monthly quality assurance reviews of its adjudications since 2008, hampering efforts to prevent future incidents of corruption. A culture of resisting the efforts of the Office of Internal Affairs was also uncovered. ¶ The GAO report said that Department of Homeland Security officials have testified that CBP's increased hiring of officers and agents since fiscal year 2006 likewise increased the opportunities for attempted corruption. ¶ Between 2006 and August 2012, more than 17,000 new agents were hired, the majority of whom were stationed along the U.S.-Mexico border. ¶ There is speculation that some applicants may have applied to work for CBP with pre-existing ties to drug cartels facilitating drug trafficking. ¶ In 2010, the CBP assistant commissioner for internal affairs told the homeland security subcommittee that only one in 10

applicants was even polygraphed during the rush to hire new agents. Of this group, some

60 percent were deemed unsuitable for hiring. ¶ This prompted the passage of the Anti-Border Corruption Act of 2010 which requires that by January 2013, all applicants be polygraphed before hiring. ¶ With an estimated $40 billion in drugs crossing the U.S.-Mexico border annually, the battle against temptation is daunting. ¶ In 2005, agent Juan Alfredo Alvarez accepted some $1.5 million to let trucks loaded with more than a ton of marijuana through checkpoints in southeast Texas. ¶ Raul and Fidel Villareal were arrested in Tijuana after being charged with smuggling hundreds of undocumented immigrants through the San Ysidro area of California. ¶ In 2011, Abel Canales accepted $8,000 to allow drug shipments to pass from Mexico into the U.S. through Arizona. Solomon Ruiz was sentenced to 14 years in prison after he was caught directing drug shipments into the U.S. Ruiz asked for a $10,000 retainer fee and said that he charged $4,000 to escort a car and $6,000 to escort a van. ¶ "We must ensure that

DHS commits to an effective integrity strategy as part of a comprehensive strategy to secure our borders," McCaul said. "Until the department addresses its own Internal Affairs failures and implements clear ethical standards, our national security will be in jeopardy." ¶ A CBP representative said the agency would follow the GAO report's recommendations. ¶ "CBP agrees

with the seven recommendations the GAO report on CBP's workforce integrity has identified and will implement appropriate measures to address all of them including the feasibility of expanding the polygraph program to incumbent law enforcement officers, developing a plan to implement a comprehensive integrity strategy, and completing post-corruption analysis reports for all CBP employees who have been convicted of corruption-related activities to help identify and prevent future corruption and misconduct risks," CBP spokeswoman Joanne Ferreira said.

Extensions
Current innovations in border security are enough but a comprehensive and coordinated anti-corruption effort is needed to ensure solvency Becker 13

Andrew, Border agency report reveals internal struggles with corruption, Jan 29, http://cironline.org/reports/border-agencyreport-reveals-internal-struggles-corruption-4126//MJ Turf battles, internal dysfunction and other troubles have left U.S. Customs and Border Protection grasping to get a handle on corruption and other misconduct within its ranks, according to an internal study that has been kept secret for more than a year.¶ The agency, the nation‘s largest federal law enforcement force with nearly 60,000 employees, has struggled to

streamline its own disciplinary system, to stamp out an internal ―code of silence‖ that protects corrupt co-workers from exposure or even to fully understand how bad the corruption problem is.¶ These woes and more are highlighted in a study conducted by the Homeland

Security Studies and Analysis Institute, which acts as a think tank for the Department of Homeland Security. The 80-page unclassified report, reviewed by the Center for Investigative Reporting, highlights nagging problems, some of which date back to 2002.¶ As the department has bolstered border security by adding thousands of new

agents, expanding its Southwest border fence and deploying sophisticated surveillance technology, Mexican crime syndicates increasingly have turned to bribing agency employees and have attempted to infiltrate U.S. law enforcement ranks with their own operatives to avoid those obstacles.¶ Customs and Border Protection has
identified at least 15 attempts of infiltration, according to the study, which did not give specific examples. That number could be much higher now as the agency, as mandated by a 2010 law, has ramped up efforts to administer polygraph exams to all new applicants.¶ As part of lie detector tests, prospective hires have admitted to drug trafficking,

human smuggling and other illegal activity, according to examples the agency previously provided to the

Center for Investigative Reporting.¶ One applicant told examiners that he smuggled 230 people across the border and shuttled drug dealers around border towns so they could conduct their business. Another admitted to various crimes, including transporting $700,000 in drug money and 50 kilograms of cocaine across the Southwest border.¶ Since Oct. 1, 2004, 147 agency

officers and agents have been charged with or convicted of corruption-related offenses, ranging from taking bribes to allow drugs into the country to stealing government money. About a dozen of those cases came to light in 2012.¶ ―This is a small minority of the workforce, but it represents a threat to our national security,‖ the authors wrote in the study.¶ The most recent incident involves a Border Patrol agent in Yuma, Ariz.,
who was arrested Dec. 2 when federal agents caught the two-year veteran as he loaded nearly 150 pounds of marijuana into his patrol vehicle while on duty.¶ The border agency has made strides to address the ―persistent problem‖ of corruption, the report contends. In particular, the agency has used data to research and analyze potential threats and security weaknesses. ¶ One example, dubbed Operation Side Door, examines leads and other data from applicants who have admitted to involvement with smuggling to detect possible links to current agency employees. Another, called Operation Southern Exposure, evaluates seizure data to spot potential employee misconduct.¶ Despite those innovations, the agency still lacks a comprehensive

and coordinated approach to ferret out corruption, the study found. Corruption is on the rise and nothing is being done about it Becker 13
(Andrew

, A journalist that has appeared in several prestigious journals. The Washington Journal, The New York Times, Jan 29, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/01/29/as-obama-offers-immigration-plan-report-shows-border-patrolcorruption.html )//JS A prolonged turf battle with the department‘s inspector general, which has been criticized for its own

inefficiencies, has contributed to the border agency‘s blind spots, the internal study found. The department‘s inspector general has withheld information, neglected investigations and accumulated a backlog of investigations that at one point reached more than 1,000 corruption cases.¶ Charles K. Edwards, who is leading the Homeland Security

inspector general‘s office, testified in August during a House government reform hearing that turf battles among the agencies have subsided and his investigators could handle the nearly 1,600 cases of alleged employee misconduct open at the time.¶ The

neglected cases and other inefficiencies have allowed employees suspected of corruption to remain in sensitive security positions or had their careers stunted before they were found not guilty, the study found.¶ Corruption-related cases generally have increased in recent years. Whether that is attributable to a hiring surge that in a decade has roughly doubled

but really it began after the attacks of September 11th.some of which is contracted out to private security companies.¶ This trend comes as no surprise to Terry Nelson. .‖ said Nelson. that‘s because the inspector general has not shared enough information with the agency. According to the report. the Border Patrol is stuck with too many new hires. he said. a former U. not by private contractors.kpbs. too fast. 2001. he said. But according to critics. the study says.S.the size of the U.‖¶ Efforts to the secure the border will fail until steps are taken to address corruption – too many new hires. the current hiring drive makes it difficult to keep up with all the testing -. too fast Guidi 11 Ruxandra. Today. but there are always going to be a few rotten apples in law enforcement.¶ ―I believe that our border security people have been infiltrated by the cartels and I think it began 12 to 15 years ago.¶ Susan Ginsburg.org/news/2011/jun/30/one-out-hundredborder-agents-under-investigation-/ The CBP is now required to administer lie-detector tests to all applicants and to conduct periodic background checks of all employees. Treasury official and 9/11 Commission member. CBP Commissioner Bersin has admitted that one-third of all applicants who take the lie-detector test fail it. a registered Republican and nine-year veteran of the Border Patrol. Still. Nelson has argued that the agency has struggled with corruption and cartel infiltration for a long time . 1 in 100 border security agents under investigation. ―What hurts is when you‘re not doing everything you can to prevent it and to weed them out. background checks were done by the was less turnover of staff. according to Nelson. Border Patrol is inconclusive.‖ Ginsburg said.¶ ―It‘s a pain in the neck for the department. said it‘s critical that agencies combine information and data so the Homeland Security Department and Congress have a clear picture of corruption at the border. http://www. FBI. But back then. and there there were also many temptations.¶ Nelson was an agent in the 1970s and '80s in El Paso where. June 30.S. The agents were older on average and more professional.

http://www.‖ the GAO says. To stop corruption. Such a decision would subject locally recruited U. the Obama administration is considering regularly rotating agents to other locations to distance them from the persuasive power and money of Mexico's drug cartels.php WASHINGTON . U. Jan 11. the Drug Enforcement Administration and other premier federal law enforcement agencies. Also worth noting is that most arrests. Secret Service.As the threat of internal corruption dogs the ranks of border security forces. but serious when it happens. changes may be coming to border. Arrests of ―CBP employees for corruption-related activities since fiscal years 2005 account for less than 1 percent of CBP‘s entire workforce per fiscal year.com/2013/01/11/news/nation/customs-and-border-protectioncorruption-is-rare-but-serious-when-it-happens-study-shows/ The first thing to note about a recent report on corruption at Customs and Border Protection is that the Government Accountability Office study found very few dirty officers.chron. Corruption will be solved in status quo – agents will be rotated Powell 12 Stewart. study shows.com/news/houston-texas/article/Border-agents-could-be-randomlytransferred-to-2760158.S. Washington Post. https://bangordailynews.S. . by far. Customs and Border Protection corruption is rare. not such corrupt activities as drug and people smuggling. Jan 27.AFF Answers Corruption is rare – less than 1% of the border workforce – and most arrests are for minor offenses Davidson 13 Joe. were for such conduct as drunken driving and domestic violence. Border Patrol agents and Customs and Border Protection officers to the periodic relocations already required for agents within the FBI.

Climate Change .

harming both energy
 security and the environment—but the g-20
 has no plan for actually implementing that
 policy. but the practical eaect of both steps has been nil. That means that it is struggling even to fulfill one of its hallmark functions—to stand ready to coordinate government responses to energy shocks—because a large. and it has too many competing issues
 on its agenda. ―The New Energy Order Managing Insecurities in the Twenty-first Century‖.pdf)//SLR The other big shift in the world energy system is growing concern about the environmental impact of energy use. has made little headway in involving the new giant energy consumers in its decision-making. Linda Yueh is Fellow in Economics at St. especially emissions of carbon dioxide.edu/assets/001/500645. where he directs the Laboratory on International Law and Regulation.‖ but the
 cartel has no power to guarantee demand for
 its products. Foreign Affairs V89N1.ucsd. fraction of oil consumers fall outside its ambit and are wary of marketbased approaches to energy security. The traditional solution of creating big new institutions. those measures will have to advance the interests of the most important governments. The big oil producers in opec
 have mobilized around the goal of promoting
 what they call ―demand security. and they will have to align with the needs of the private and state firms that provide most of . these have made up 15 percent of global fiscal stimulus spending. of importers and exporters alike. Other institutions are doing no better. It was a good thing for the g-20 to announce environmental challenges are barely effective: the Kyoto Protocol has had little impact on emissions. will not work. To be effective. But there is no doubt that energy systems are in for a major change. In the face of these new realities. the institutions charged
 with addressing new states that depend on gas imported from Russia have signed a treaty and created an organization aimed at making those sup. Despite the existence of many international institutions attending to energy matters today. Some believe that such green-tinted stimulus measures will spur a revolution pushing for cleaner and more secure energy. the iea. Edmund Hall. and that goal cannot be achieved by just tinkering at the margins. dangerous vacuums in governance have appeared. at the University of Oxford. an intrinsic byproduct of burning fossil fuels with conventional technology and the leading human cause of global warming. (David and Linda. and growing. San Diego. such as a world energy organization to replace the more exclusive iea. European a cut in energy subsidies at a summit in Pittsburgh
 last September—energy subsidies encourage
 excessive consumption. Curbing global warming will likely require cutting emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases by more than half over the next few decades. Perhaps. The most important one. the international and national institutions that were created to help promote energy security over the last three decades are struggling to remain relevant.Energy Stability Board CP CP text: The United States federal government should initiate the creation of an Energy Stability Board. where she directs the China Growth Center. CP solves for global energy security and climate change Victor and Yueh 10 David G.plies more secure. http://ilar. and the disputes that arose at the international climate conference in Copenhagen in December over how to craft a successor treaty are making it hard for investors to justify spending the massive capital needed for cleaner energy systems. Victor is a Professor at the School of International Relations and Pacific Studies at the University of California. Worries about climate change are one reason why the major stimulus packages passed since the global financial crisis began in 2007 have included hefty green-energy measures: by some accounts. Likewise. What is needed instead is a mechanism for coordinating hard-nosed initiatives focused on delivering energy security and environmental protection.

the world economic system developed a series of ad hoc arrangements during the last several decades that have evolved into an effective management system. The Financial Stability Board.ments and existing international institutions better manage today‘s energy problems. it now governs most international trade and a growing proportion of finance and banking. A similar Energy Stability Board could be created to help govern. is a particularly apt example of the system‘s success. A model for these efforts exists in international economic law. each group unsure of the other. It could work with the major new energy consumers. to set investment standards that both align with their interests and are consistent with the market rules that govern most trade in energy commodities and have worked well for some time now. created after the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s. without better governance. cannot agree on how best to finance and manage a more secure energy system. success with these initiatives would undoubtedly help the existing energy institutions do a better job and could also spawn broader norms for governing energy security. It could also help the governments that are spending the most on green energy coordinate their efforts. have been highly eaective: many countries and banks have adopted them on the understanding that it is in their interests to run well-governed financial sectors that conform to widely recognized criteria.the investment in energy infrastructure. Although the system is still imperfect. these green stimulus programs risk triggering trade wars and wasting vast sums of money. foreign affairs. Following the example of economic law. such as China. . Once saddled with too many institutions and too little governance. Producers and consumers. Its so-called Basel standards. which issues standards for judging the adequacy of banks‘ capitalization.

leading firms could formally assess governments‘ green stimulus programs and identify those areas in which governments need to coordinate more effectively. For its administration. initiatives by a small number of states.Extensions CP catalyzes global cooperation on energy . A key test for the Energy Stability Board would be for it to prove its ability to engage businesses. which control access to most of the world‘s oil and gas resources and a large fraction of the world‘s electric power grid.pdf)//SLR Existing institutions cannot fill these vacuums. For example. and the other important countries. largely because they have taken on too many diverse and contentious topics. San Diego. Firms will not provide the trillions of foreign affairs dollars needed to develop energy infrastructure in the coming decades without credible signals that governments are serious about instituting policies that will allow the private sector to cash in on such investments. it might rely on the secretariat of the iea—by far the most competent international energy institution at present— much like the Financial Stability Board drew on help from the Bank for International Settlements to catalyze cooperation in the global financial markets. In both those cases. failed to establish a multilateral agreement on investment to govern foreign investments of all types. (David and Linda. One way to reassure these companies would be to allow them to cooperate with governments in performing some of the Energy Stability Board‘s tasks. the Energy Stability Board‘s activities would need to be ad hoc so that other institutions.) The Energy Stability Board could also become a forum for privately owned firms to work with state-owned companies. India. ―The New Energy Order Managing Insecurities in the Twenty-first Century‖.an Energy Stability Board is uniquely able to facilitate public-private coordination Victor and Yueh 10 David G. a priority should be engaging China (and other large new energy consumers) in developing standards for overseas investments and in coordinating the greenenergy investments that constitute a large pro. at the University of Oxford. which have been left on the sidelines of energy governance systems so far. could have a large practical impact. where he directs the Laboratory on International Law and Regulation. where he directs the Laboratory on International Law and . A sharper focus on energy infrastructure is more likely CP solves spillover – coordination is key to making existing energy efforts successful Victor and Yueh 10 David G. all rooted in these states‘ national interests. such as opec and one or more of the Asian security organizations. could easily join its efforts. where she directs the China Growth Center.edu/assets/001/500645. Governments have repeatedly to succeed. Success at these steps would create the right conditions to bring about cooperation in other important areas.ucsd.portion of many governments‘ economic stimulus programs. At first. The Energy Stability Board could gather together the dozen biggest energy producers and users. Foreign Affairs V89N1. A small. Edmund Hall. especially in developing countries. http://ilar. Victor is a Professor at the School of International Relations and Pacific Studies at the University of California. San Diego. These national enterprises are pivotal in the world energy system yet have not been well integrated into international energy institutions. it would need to be especially welcoming to China. Victor is a Professor at the School of International Relations and Pacific Studies at the University of California. (Governments usually are not effective coordinators of leading-edge technologies on their own because they have neither the necessary knowledge nor the necessary control over investment. Although the list of needed efforts is long. Linda Yueh is Fellow in Economics at St. nimble body is needed: an Energy Stability Board modeled after the Financial Stability Board in the banking sector.

has argued that a better-coordinated effort would do more to boost the global economy. Edmund Hall. Yet for the most part. ideas promoted in one country can quickly spread to the rest of the world through the marketplace. The board could also help build support for important initiatives.pdf)//SLR Another disappointment has been the failure of the world‘s leading governments to invest adequately in energy research and development. even though the International Monetary Fund. Edmund Hall. as well as the Chinese ones. This is partly because climate change is transforming what societies expect from energy supplies. given their dominant roles as the world‘s largest energy . and European firms that supply solar cells and wind turbines. after it had proved itself. The United States‘ program. however. Linda Yueh is Fellow in Economics at St.S. because the market for green-energy technology is global. among other international institutions.ucsd. (David and Linda. ―The New Energy Order Managing Insecurities in the Twenty-first Century‖.and Chinese-led efforts to build a more secure system for nuclear fuel. Yet a true energy revolution cannot happen if technologies are nationalized. Victor is a Professor at the School of International Relations and Pacific Studies at the University of California. governments have talked a great deal about coordinating their efforts to revive economic activity worldwide. the European Union. where she directs the China Growth Center.cent of its stimulus package to green investments.) Just as the Financial Stability Board. ―The New Energy Order Managing Insecurities in the Twenty-first Century‖. promoting energy efficiency and low-emissions power plants. Getting started will require leadership. South Korea has devoted 85 per. at the University of Oxford.ucsd. includes rules that favor U. Only the United States and China can play the part. such as the new U. all the best and most competitive energy technologies have been improved by global competition. In practice. however. And Chinese spending on new power grids can benefit the Western companies. the proportion of global economic output devoted to energy research and development is lower today than it was in the early 1980s. CP is key to the credibility of other bilateral efforts and best solves for China – U. the United States.5 trillion. such stimulus plans are prone to economic nationalism. leadership is key Victor and Yueh 10 David G..Regulation. the Energy Stability Board could be asked to issue guidelines for how to handle research and development and other issues that are difficult to keep on the agenda of existing institutions yet crucial to the long-term development of the energy system. are needed. to cite an ongoing example.S. Over the past year. The British government has set aside hundreds of millions of pounds to support research and development in green industries. but it is also. (Despite the world‘s growing energy problems. including a large fraction on energy projects.pdf)//SLR Support for new green technology is a second area regarding which a vacuum in governance has made it hard for governments to achieve their common interests. and most immediately. Foreign Affairs V89N1.5 trillion that is being spent globally to stimulate the world economy. The problem is most obvious regarding the ―green‖ part of the $2. The energy sector is one of the most exciting technological frontiers today. and one of the results. such as devising internationally acceptable rules for bankers‘ compensation in light of the globa l financial crisis. For example. http://ilar. Foreign Affairs V89N1. San Diego. Coordinating these green-technology programs offers the prospect of a viable new global industry in clean technology. (David and Linda. each state is making decisions on its own. suppliers.S. U. Chinese. where he directs the Laboratory on International Law and Regulation. One way to get coordination started would be to require the leading spenders on green technology— in decreasing order.edu/assets/001/500645. where she directs the China Growth Center. at the University of Oxford. including joint ones. because of the role that governments hope investments in energy infrastructure will play in economic recovery. and China—to offer periodic assessments of how their own programs are working and where new efforts.. boosting all three economies at the same time. Coordination is needed. Linda Yueh is Fellow in Economics at St. And with the right forum for coordination in place. at least in theory. that develop the requisite technology. indeed.S. Japan. for example. is that a Chinese company trying to bring Chinese technology to a wind farm in Texas will find itself in a hostile investment climate. spending on renewable sources of energy can invigorate U. such early endeavors could eventually spread more widely. The United States and China alone are spending $1. was asked to take on new tasks. http://ilar.edu/assets/001/500645.S.

pdf) One lesson from this experience is that any effort to coordinate global energy policy¶ must include all the most powerful players. where she directs the China Growth Center. without giving a prominent role to other major energy consumers and other potential technology suppliers. Victor is a Professor at the School of International Relations and Pacific Studies at the University of California. San Diego. Thus. the G-20's norms against tax¶ havens have spread more widely following success in such states as Liechtenstein and¶ Switzerland.¶ Another lesson to be drawn from the success of global economic governance is that¶ cooperation must have broad appeal.edu/assets/001/500645. Although energy commodities and technologies are traded globally. http://ilar. such as the¶ reduction of tariffs. A nimble energy agency focused on practical approaches to the new realities of the world energy market can fill the gaps. would give their bilateral efforts more credibility with other important actors and with international institutions. ―The New Energy Order Managing Insecurities in the Twenty-first Century‖. Partial solutions have been devised -. The only comprehensive solution would¶ be to rewrite the IEA's membership rules. Nor is it necessary to devise grand new institutions to fix the problem. conducting joint studies with the IEA's highly competent¶ secretariat -. (David and Linda. or OECD. beyond the most important players. the most visible institutions for¶ governing energy do not do this. But although the two countries have long professed their common desire to cooperate on energy issues. too: Washington will achieve very little of what it wants to get done in the world of energy. that have a big impact on trade. important players with large oil stockpiles. Working through the Energy Stability Board would serve the United States‘ interests. and¶are easy to enforce. where he directs the Laboratory on International Law and Regulation. Similarly. the system for governing the markets for these important goods is fragmented and increasingly impotent. Beijing‘s current strategy of locking up energy supplies is not sustainable without strong norms to make these investments seem less toxic politically to other important countries. they have struggled to do anything practical. Foreign Affairs V89N1. have no voice. such as a more effective scheme for cutting greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. however. Moreover. One of the biggest hurdles in doing so has been its inability to convince a skeptical Amer. Such successes then set the stage for governments to extend¶ existing trade rules to many more countries and to take on harder tasks.granting¶ various states observer status.¶ which could be the most helpful. Yet today. Since the financial crisis . that need not be the case. such as¶ building the WTO's disputeresolution system. But this idea is a nonstarter partly because it¶ would mean turning the organization into an even bigger forum.ican public that China. as happened to the members of the G-8 when¶ the G-20 grew more important.but they have not resolved the fundamental problem: when the IEA¶ coordinates responses to an energy crisis. India.ucsd. such as China and India. As the experience with global financial and trade regulation shows. Global trade¶ talks have made the most progress when they have focused on actions.consumers. and other major developing countries are also willing to play useful roles. especially the key Western ones . the 28-strong IEA includes many¶ countries with small and shrinking energy needs but excludes emerging giant energy¶ consumers. The United States and China know that such cooperation would serve their interests. the United States and China cannot set the agenda entirely on their own. Working in tandem through the Energy Stability Board. strictly one-on-one dealings cannot solve the world‘s most pressing energy problems. Current international institutions aimed at energy security fail Victor and Yueh 10 David G. Efforts to expand the IEA have been hobbled by the¶ requirement that the agency's members also belong to the Organization for Economic¶ Cooperation and Development. Edmund Hall. are rooted in mutual interests. Linda Yueh is Fellow in Economics at St. and existing members¶ fear that their power would be diluted. An effective mechanism for engaging China would also give the Obama administration the political cover it needs to pass national legislation on global warming. at the University of Oxford.

not least because these havens have supported a shadow¶ banking system that is hard to govern. many governments have seen the benefit¶ of curtailing tax havens.and serves their interests.the large consumers and the large¶ producers -. That awareness. along with pressure on a few¶ holdouts. . explains why the last two years have seen much more effective tax¶ enforcement worldwide.broke. Success will require both that those countries¶ reap practical benefits from cooperation and that the rules be designed so that they can¶ spread widely as their legitimacy increases.¶ Applying these lessons to energy means realizing that no system will be effective unless¶ it starts with the countries that matter most -.

Geoengineering .

THE RAINMAKERS Geoengineering is not a new idea. and most governments have been reluctant to force the radical changes necessary to reduce those emissions. Barely a month goes by without some fresh bad news: ice sheets and glaciers are melting faster than expected. much of it remains for over a hundred years. and an Adjunct Senior Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations. As with a bathtub that has a large faucet and a small drain. These strategies could cool the planet. For this reason. water supplies and habitats are in danger. Jay Apt is Professor of Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University. Military experts also dreamed of using nuclear explosions and other interventions to create a more advantageous climate. Economic growth tends to trump vague and elusive global aspirations. but they would not stop the buildup of carbon dioxide or lessen all its harmful impacts. key ocean currents. Tokyo is struggling to square the need for economic growth with continued dependence on an energy system powered mainly by conventional fossil fuels. The United States has yet to impose even a cap on its emissions. Serious research on geoengineering is still in its infancy. geoengineering has been widely shunned by those committed to reducing emissions. thanks to coalfueled industrialization and a staggering pace of economic growth. too. Despite offering no clear advantage to the military.S. John Steinbruner is Professor of Public Policy and Director of the Center for International and Security Studies at the University of Maryland. sea levels are rising more rapidly than ever in recorded history. let alone a reduction. when President Lyndon Johnson received the first-ever U. and thawing permafrost could release huge amounts of additional greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. the climate system is slow to respond to attempts at reversal. often called "geoengineering. The odds that the global climate will reach a dangerous tipping point are increasing.an emergency shield that could be deployed if surprisingly nasty climatic shifts put vital ecosystems and billions of people at risk. That advice reflected the scientific culture of the time. Most human emissions of carbon dioxide come from burning fossil fuels. government researchers for Project Stormfury tried to make tropical hurricanes less intense through cloud seeding. has not yet had much real effect because carbon prices are still too low to cause any significant change in behavior." envision deploying systems on a planetary scale. "weather makers" were routinely employed (rarely with much effect) to squeeze more rain from clouds for thirsty crops. Starting in 1962. Over the course of the twenty-first century. Once dioxide enters the atmosphere. which stay in the atmosphere for only hours or days. Eliminating all the risks of climate change is impossible because carbon dioxide emissions. and once headed in the wrong direction. Even Norway. M. In 1965. Director of Stanford's Program on Energy and Sustainable Development. the only remedy prescribed to counter the effects of global warming was geoengineering..edu/pubs/22456/The_Geoengineering_Option. could shift radically. The global economic crisis is stanching emissions a bit. the only practical way to lower the level is by dramatically cutting the inflow. but it will not come close to shutting off the faucet. These strategies. Holding global warming steady at its current rate carbon would require a worldwide 60-80 percent cut in emissions.pdf ) Each year. Such scenarios.S. are unlike conventional air pollutants. and it has not received the attention it deserves from politicians. plants are blooming earlier in the spring. would be a political choice. The European Union has adopted an emissions-trading scheme that.stanford. The world's slow progress in cutting carbon dioxide emissions and the looming danger that the climate could take a sudden turn for the worse require policymakers to take a closer look at emergency strategies for curbing the effects of global warming. presidential briefing on the dangers of climate change. Granger Morgan is Head of Carnegie Mellon University's Department of Engineering and Public Policy and Director of the Climate Decision Making Center. Geoengineering could provide a useful defense for the planet -. although promising in theory. which in 1991 became one of the first nations to impose a stiff tax on emissions. would dramatically accelerate and compound the consequences of global warming. Governments should immediately begin to undertake serious research on geoengineering and help create international norms governing its use. however.+Sunshades CP Text: The United States federal government should develop and deploy sunshades. U. the effects of climate change are coming into sharper focus. and it is unlikely that all countries will have similar assessments of how to balance the ills of unchecked climate change with the risk that geoengineering could do more harm than good. Scientists are taking these doomsday scenarios seriously because the steady accumulation of warming gases in the atmosphere is forcing change in the climate system at rates so rapid that the outcomes are extremely difficult to predict. Katharine Ricke is a doctoral student at Carnegie Mellon University (David G. Emissions from anywhere on the planet contribute to the global problem. has seen a net increase in its carbon dioxide emissions. By the late 1940s. such as launching reflective particles into the atmosphere or positioning sunshades to cool the earth . such as the Gulf Stream. One nation's emergency can be another's opportunity. both the United States and the Soviet Union had begun exploring strategies for modifying the weather to gain battlefield advantage. The counterplan solves warming better Victor et al 2009 – a Professor at Stanford Law School. the chief human contribution to global warming. has professed its commitment to taming global warming. birds are being forced to find new migratory patterns. but with no clear success. Many schemes focused on "seeding" clouds with substances that would coax them to drop more rain. which imagined that engineering could fix almost any problem. Nevertheless. March/April 2009 ―The geoengineering option‖ http://iisdb. and it would still take decades for the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide to stabilize. Actually raising the shield. . The time has come to take it seriously. although still remote. And China's emissions recently surpassed those of the United States. Japan.

Today's proposals for geoengineering are more likely to have an impact because the interventions needed for global-scale geoengineering are much less subtle than those that sought to influence local weather patterns. Increasing the reflectivity of the planet (known as the albedo) by about one percentage point could have an effect on the climate system large enough to offset the gross increase in warming that is likely over the next century as a result of a doubling of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. . about 70 percent of the earth's incoming sunlight is absorbed by the atmosphere and the planet's surface.These applications were frightening enough that in 1976 the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques to bar such projects. By the 1970s. The earth's climate is largely driven by the fine balance between the light energy with which the sun bathes the earth and the heat that the earth radiates back to space. after a string of failures. the remainder is reflected back into space. Making such tweaks is much more straightforward than causing rain or fog at a particular location in the ways that the weather makers of the late 1940s and 1950s dreamed of doing. the idea of weather modification for war and farming had largely faded away. On average.

5 million km (Gm) (Fig. observed after volcanic eruptions. "The earlier ideas were for bigger. then a method to reduce the sun‘s heat input would become an emergency priority. Nick Woolf of UA's Steward Observatory.full. There's nothing to assemble in space.org/content/103/46/17184. Angel has been looking at ways to cool the Earth in an emergency. One way known to reduce heat input. Angel. His collaborators on the grant are David Miller of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.' small. A 1. but recent studies suggest a larger range of uncertainty. cylindrical cloud with a diameter about half that of Earth. rather than a gradual increase (4). and NASA Ames Research Center Director S. For the past year. is to increase aerosol scattering in the stratosphere (6). the same as a large butterfly. called the L-1 orbit. including aerosol scatterers in the Earth's atmosphere. in-line with the sun at a distance 1. pointing lengthwise between the Earth and the sun would be diverted away from our planet. This amount is not incompatible with a major reduction in the current atmospheric sulfur pollution of 55 million tonsyear that goes mostly into the troposphere. a University of Arizona Regents' Professor and one of the world's foremost minds in modern optics. Pete Worden. heavier structures that would have needed manufacture and launch from the moon. . although not the chemical effects.eurekalert." The lightweight flyers designed by Angel would be made of a transparent film pierced with small holes. global warming reasonably could be expected to take the form of abrupt and unpredictable changes.org/pub_releases/2006-11/uoa-ssm110306.000-mile length of the cloud. and about 10 times longer. Unfortunately.an astronomer and optics expert at the University of Arizona (Roger. But University of Arizona astronomer Roger Angel thinks about it.php) The possibility that global warming will trigger abrupt climate change is something people might not want to think about. in stacks of a million at a time. http://www.Extensions CP solves Angel 06 .5°C by 2100 (1). The idea for a space shade at L1 to deflect sunlight from Earth was first proposed by James Early of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1989. When 1/5000 of an inch thick and weigh about a gram. "I wanted to make the sunshade from small 'flyers.pnas. Each flyer would be two feet in diameter. The preferred location is near the Earth–sun inner Lagrange point (L1) in an orbit with the same 1year period as the Earth. ―Feasibility of cooling the Earth with a cloud of small spacecraft near the inner Lagrange point (L1)‖ http://www. The spacecraft would form a long. He's been studying the practicality of deploying a space sunshade in a global warming crisis. Angel is now publishing a first detailed. The flyer's transparency they reached L1.Professor at the University of Arizona (Lori. they would be dealt off the stack into a cloud. The approach we examine here to reduce solar warming is to scatter away sunlight in space before it enters the Earth‘s atmosphere. From this distance. enough to balance the heating of a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere. which is pretty futuristic. Angel presented the idea at the National Academy of Sciences in April and won a NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts grant for further research in July. If it were to become apparent over the next decade or two that disastrous climate change driven by warming was in fact likely or even in progress. It would use "MEMS" technology mirrors as tiny sails that tilt to hold the flyers position in the orbiting constellation. Back to Eurek Alert. 1). Increases as high as 11°C might be possible given CO2 stabilizing at twice preindustrial content (2).pdf) Projections by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change are for global temperature to rise between 1. The plan would be to launch a constellation of trillions of small free-flying spacecraft a million miles above Earth into an orbit aligned with the sun.8% reduction is projected to fully reverse the warming effect of a doubling of CO2 (5)." in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. light and extremely thin spacecraft that could be completely assembled and launched from Earth. "Feasibility of cooling the Earth with a cloud of small spacecraft near L1. The effect would be to uniformly reduce sunlight by about 2 percent over the entire planet. Sunshades are a feasible alternative – solves warming Stiles 06 . the penumbra shadow covers and thus cools the entire planet. He has won top honors for his many extraordinary conceptual ideas that have become practical engineering solutions for astronomy.5 and 4. Deployment of 3 to 5 million tonsyear of sulfur would be needed to mitigate a doubling of CO2. Researchers have proposed various alternatives for cooling the planet. About 10 percent of the sunlight passing through the 60. directs the Steward Observatory Mirror Laboratory and the Center for Astronomical Adaptive Optics. Holding to even this level of CO2 will require major use of alternative energy sources and improvements in efficiency (3)." Angel said. "Space Sunshade might be feasible in global warming emergency". scholarly paper. a crisis where it becomes clear that Earth is unmistakably headed for disastrous climate change within a decade or two.

"The sunshade is no substitute for developing renewable energy. So the average cost is about $100 billion a year. At $10. it would be good to be ready with some shading solutions that have been worked out. conventional chemical rocket launch is prohibitively expensive. the only permanent solution." Angel said." . "It seems feasible that it could be developed and deployed in about 25 years at a cost of a few trillion dollars. the flyer stacks would be steered to L-1 orbit by solar-powered ion propulsion. A total 20 electromagnetic launchers launching a stack of flyers every 5 minutes for 10 years could deploy the sunshade. each ton of carbon used to make electricity would mitigate the effect of 1000 tons of atmospheric carbon. The electromagnetic launchers would ideally run on hydroelectric power. Once propelled beyond Earth's " The atmosphere and gravity with electromagnetic launchers. Radiation pressure is the pressure from the sun's light itself. With care. concept builds on existing technologies.000 a pound. A similar massive level of technological innovation and financial investment could ensure that. The total mass of all the fliers making up the space sunshade structure would be 20 million tons. or about two-tenths of one percent of the global domestic product. "But if the planet gets into an abrupt climate crisis that can only be fixed by cooling.and steering mechanism prevent it from being blown away by radiation pressure. Angel proposes using a cheaper way developed by Sandia National Laboratories for electromagnetic space launches. the solar shade should last about 50 years. but even in the worstcase environmental scenario with coal-generated electricity. a new method proven in space by the European Space Agency's SMART-1 moon orbiter and NASA's Deep Space 1 probe." He added. which could bring cost down to as little as $20 a pound.

1/26. they could wreak havoc on future food supplies. Pongratz's team. If the problems are left untreated. a new study led by Carnegie's Julia Pongratz is the first to examine the potential effect of geoengineering on food security. Russia. A shifting global climate is worrying lawmakers throughout the world. Over the past few years. as well as Stanford University's David Lobell. Researchers contend that geoengineering technologies could be used to fight global climate change. 1/27. To assess the impact of sunshade geoengineering on crop yields. according to the researchers. for example." Pongratz said. Carnegie researcher Julia Pongratz said that by using high-flying airplanes to constantly replenish a layer of small particles in the stratosphere. For nations that rely on others for such critical food staples. Scientists have posited a slew of geoengineering theories.knovel. ―Study finds sunshade engineering could improve crop yields‖. Stanford University environmental scientist Ken Caldeira noted that governments could decide to employ geoengineering as they "do something desperate to protect our food and our people. Inclement weather in Australia. The Carnegie Institution for Science recently championed such an approach. The team of scientists concluded. some have proposed drastic solutions to counteract climate change such as reflecting sunlight away from the Earth. among other concerns. published online in Nature Climate Change. Prior to the start of the 2008 Olympics. "In many regions. scientists are increasingly studying how geoengineering could potentially allay food shortages. A new study from the Carnegie Institution for Science examining the effects of sunshade geoengineering has concluded that such an approach would be more likely to improve food security than threaten it. Some parts of the world are already feeling the effects of a simultaneous uptick in temperatures and drop in precipitation. While climate change in recent decades has been found to negatively affect crop yields in many regions." Sunshades solve warming while accessing the benefits of CO2 Quick 12 (Darren. the beneficial effects that a higher CO2 concentration has on plant productivity remain active. one sunshade geoengineering proposal would involve using high-flying airplanes to release small particles in the stratosphere that would scatter sunlight back into space.com/sunshade-geoengineeringstudy/21225/) In the face of potentially catastrophic effects on global food production. among other locations. whose sulfate droplets naturally do so. is because deflecting sunlight lowers global temperatures but does not affect carbon dioxide concentrations. governments could cultivate food growth. with some more plausible than others. The team first simulated climates with CO2 levels similar to what exists today. Farmers in areas in the Middle East and Africa. China and North America hurt grain production. The fear is that such an approach could have unintended consequences for the climate.gizmag. as higher temperatures and a dearth of precipitation in many regions have eroded crop yields. http://why. Just like the volcanic particles. http://www. "At the same time.html) Julia Pongratz=postdoc researcher at Stanford Department of Global Ecology With global temperatures and population rising.com/all-engineering-news/1232-scientists-studying-whether-geoengineering-couldoffset-global-climate-change. Pongratz and her colleagues argued in their findings. sending prices soaring. Geoengineering enthusiasts assert that such a system would mimic the effects of volcanic ash clouds.CO2 Ag NB Sunshades is the best of both worlds – solves the impact to warming while gaining the benefits of CO2 Knovel 12 (―Scientists Studying Whether Geoengineering Could Offset Global Climate Change‖ . the prices of many commodities have surged. that so-called "sunshade geoengineering" could spur the growth of crops in many regions of the world. used two different climate models. scientists are working to develop geoengineering schemes that could combat such negative effects. are struggling to cultivate crops amid current environmental conditions. Just as large volcanoes cool the planet by ejecting massive amounts of small particles into the stratosphere. the jump in prices was particularly worrying. which included Carnegie's Ken Caldeira and Long Cao. that sunshade geoengineering was beneficial when compared both with current atmospheric conditions and with the future projection of doubled carbon dioxide. A third set doubled the . NPR reports. these would fall back to Earth within a year so they would have to be constantly replenished to stop the planet heating back up." China has famously employed geoengineering technology for the better part of the past decade. One such scheme involves the blasting of tiny particles into the upper atmosphere that could disperse sunlight before it reaches Earth's surface. moreover. future climate change is predicted to put crops under temperature stress. officials said they were working to prevent rain from affecting opening ceremonies through a geoengineering scheme. reducing yields. A second set doubled CO2 levels to simulate levels that could be reached in several decades if current trends in fossil-fuel burning continued unabated. This. particularly in terms of its effect of precipitation. With total global population projected to continue to climb at a rapid clip over the next century.

future climate change is predicted to put crops under temperature stress. it wouldn't affect the levels of CO2 . but with a layer of sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere deflecting about two percent on incoming sunlight away from Earth. sunshade geoengineering would lead to increased crop yields in most regions. the beneficial effects that a higher CO2 concentration has on plant productivity remain active. The team then applied the simulated changes to crop models that are commonly used to project future yields. This because while such an approach would reduce temperatures by deflecting sunlight back into space. "At the same time.levels of CO2. This stress is alleviated by geoengineering." . reducing yields. "In many regions. They found that for both current and doubled CO2 levels." Pongratz said.

Further carbon emissions with initiatives to dissipate increasing amounts of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. And simply cutting temperatures won't stop the rise in ocean acidification arising from increased carbon dioxide levels in the air. Balancing budgets on a variety of scales is part of our daily lives. ethical. . Another likely consequence is ozone destruction. http://dailycollegian. By attempting to regulate one aspect of carbon emissions through geo-engineering. on occasion. high risk. and even national security concerns. yet not constantly over a span of 20 years by which this programs proposes." the statement added. And a recent Geophysical Research Letters space tourism report suggests the rocket fuel burned to launch the needed number of shades would dump enough black soot — which absorbs sunlight and heats the atmosphere — to increase average global temperatures about 1. a phenomenon which occurs via large volcanic eruptions. The geo-engineering process provides a cover up of carbon emissions issue without actually reducing the amount carbon in the atmosphere. "Geoengineering technologies. Leaving aside the environmental risks each one carries. This would result in an increase in ultraviolet radiation into the atmosphere. Cost aside.com/tech/science/environment/2011-02-25-geoengineering25_CV_N. quick fix of geo-engineering. diplomatic. once developed.AFF Answers CP can‘t solve warming and will cause food crisis and ozone destruction Ovitz 12 .4 degrees. like that of ocean acidification. 1/29." said a 2009 American Meteorological Society statement. A program such as this — which masks takes the impacts of human error into account — would likely avert political and scientific focus on reducing the entirety of carbon impacts in favor of a low cost. Hundreds of thousands of thin reflective yard-long disks fired into a gravitational balance point between the sun failures or collisions might lead to a tremendous orbital debris cloud circling the Earth.usatoday. ―Sci-Fi Fix for carbon emissions‖. Turning over weather management to human beings raises. "legal. they also pose serious consequences. Reducing the sunlight that reaches the earth‘s surface could impact agricultural yields and reduce precipitation rates. with potentially serious unforeseen consequences. the estimated costs tend to increase with how quickly each method removes carbon or deflects sunlight. threatening food security and causing hunger and famine. may enable short-sighted and unwise deployment. Simultaneously. The space reflectors would top the bill at a cost of several trillion dollars over 25 years. sunshade geo-engineering doesn‘t account for the non atmospheric impacts of carbon emissions. ―Can Geo-engineering put the freeze on global warming‖ and Earth could dim sunlight.com/2012/01/29/sci-fi-fix-for-carbon-emissions/) Though sunshade and other geo-engineering processes attempt to alleviate anthropogenic effects on the environment. and carbon emission is one of them.htm) Space mirrors. the uncertainty of the process creates many more uncertainties. which may affect marine life underlying the ocean food web. Deflected storm tracks could result in floods such as the ones hitting Australia last month or Pakistan last year. Sunshades wont solve warming and will actually hurt the environment Vergano 2/25/11 – science reporter (Dan.is a Collegian columnist (Kimberly. appears counterintuitive to the matter of reducing an abundance of emissions. rocket http://www.

Some scientists theorize that adding iron to the Southern Ocean alone could reduce carbon dioxide levels by 15 percent [source: Schiermeier]. environmental studies Emory University Jennifer.howstuffworks. The idea of dumping iron in the oceans to lower temperatures has been around since the late 1980s and has been known variously as carbon sinking.S. One trial conducted in 2004 indicated that each atom of iron added to the water could draw between 10. which would in turn reduce temperatures.com/environmental/green-science/iron-sulfate-slow-global-warming. . arguing that adding massive amounts of iron to the ocean could cause a major cooling of more than 10 degrees Celsius [source: Wingenter].+Iron Fertilization CP Text: The United States federal government should fertilize the Southern Ocean with iron. DMS is largely responsible for cloud formation in the polar region and could increase cloud reflectivity. namely dimethyl sulfide. in turn. and some. He recommends fertilizing just 2 percent of the Southern Ocean to cause a 2 degree Celsius cooling and to set back the tipping point of global warming 10 or more years [source: Wingenter]. March 31. which in turn gobble up carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. B. Wingenter's research concentrated on increasing other gases that result from the phytoplankton blooms. need it to grow. http://science. who propose adding iron to the world's oceans to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and.000 atoms of carbon out of the atmosphere by encouraging plankton growth [source: Schiermeier]. or DMS. like the phytoplankton that form the base of the marine food web. ocean seeding or iron fertilization. How can adding iron to the ocean slow global warming?.htm Enter forward-thinking scientists and companies like Planktos and Climos. During his iron fertilization experiments. Wingenter found that adding iron increased the concentration of DMS five-fold [source: Wingenter]. to decrease temperatures. Adding iron to the water stimulates phytoplankton growth.¶ Scientist Oliver Wingenter suggests a more cautious approach.¶ Numerous iron dumping trials have been conducted since oceanographer John Martin suggested the idea more than 15 years ago [source: Haiken].000 and 100.¶ Instead of focusing on cutting carbon dioxide levels.¶ The premise is actually simple. Iron acts as a fertilizer for many plants. CP solves CO2 – iron fertilization could cut emissions by up to 15% and delay the tipping point of global warming Horton 08 – contributing writer. The resulting decrease in carbon dioxide is supposed to help reduce temperatures since carbon dioxide is one of the main gases responsible for trapping heat on the earth's surface through the greenhouse effect.

this loose matter flattens into the sediments and a part gets buried. Dissolved inorganic carbon. their measurements revealed particulate organic matter. an element these organisms need to grow. 3.com/21684-geoengineering-iron-fertilization-climate. of the many geoengineering options at hand should be deployed. geoengineering proposals like iron fertilization tend to raise many uncertainties and risks. and. However. unable to contribute to global warming.000 m). with the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Potsdam. Smetacek said. In the weeks that followed. could help solve global warming. Smetacek said. becoming available for export into deeper water. which turned the water from blue to turquoise. Moving carbon The team found that after they added the iron. July 18. writing in Thursday's (July 19) issue of the journal Nature. By mixing an iron fertilizer into the seawater. 2012. this stuff is sequestered for geological time scales. depending on ocean circulation. of years. modifying the planet to address climate change. Meanwhile." Buesseler wrote.livescience. about 12. although important questions remain. the particulate matter — the remains of the algae that had sucked up the carbon — sank. declined until around 24 days after the fertilizer was added.‖ http://www. which algae called diatoms use to construct their glass shells. there is only limited iron. where it will remain sequestered for some time. If this organic matter settles into the deep ocean. which normally remains in equilibrium with the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. and chlorophyll. "Most scientists would agree that we are nowhere near the point of recommending [iron fertilization of the oceans] as a geoengineering tool. the researchers created the equivalent of a good-size spring bloom like those seen in the North Sea or off Georges Bank off the New England coast. [Top 10 Craziest Environmental Ideas] Ocean fertilization is a controversial idea. This experiment provides some important insight into this potential approach to combating climate change. . also declined more quickly than it could be replaced by the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. which includes microscopic marine plants and photosynthetic microbes. it may not reach the surface for centuries or millennia.800 m) below. "Eventually. ―Could Fertilizing the Oceans Reduce Global Warming?. or "a gigantic test tube. prompting them to suck carbon dioxide out of the air.Extensions CP solves CO2 Parry12 – LiveScience senior staff writer (Wynne. so by adding iron to seawater.280 feet (1. A new experiment confirms this controversial idea has some merit. phosphorus and silicic acid. Other geoengineering ideas have included pumping aerosols into the atmosphere to block out solar radiation or tucking away excess carbon in underground reservoirs. if any. floating plants in the ocean. A potential solution? This general approach.000 carbon atoms were taken up into the biomass of the algae.) His half of the organic matter associated with the bloom — nearly all of it made up of glass-walled diatoms — sank below. it's possible to make a man-made bloom. the levels of nutrients. including nitrogen. including the silica the diatoms used to make their shells." Smetacek told LiveScience in an email. Using an eddy in the Southern Ocean near Antarctica." said lead researcher Victor Smetacek. the researchers fertilized an eddy because it offered a largely self-contained system. in seawater. In this study. prompting protest from those who fear the unintended environmental impacts it may have. But many think that larger and longer [iron fertilization] experiments should be performed to help us to decide which. is known as geoengineering. at least 13.html) Some hope fertilizing tiny. said Ken Buesseler. however. even billions. this bloom funneled a significant amount of Earth-warming carbon down into the ocean's depths." team estimated that for every iron atom they introduced into the eddy. blooms naturally in the ocean. They also found that at least (Geologists measure time in terms of millennia to many millions. researchers say. of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. falling to depths between 328 feet (100 meters) to the seafloor. researchers used iron fertilizer — the sort used to improve lawns — to create a man-made algal bloom. Germany. the green pigment used in photosynthesis.467 feet (3. Phytoplankton. Much of the former phytoplankton bits are likely to have settled on the seafloor as "fluff" — "like a layer of fluff that you would find under your bed if you did not vacuum it for a long time. increased within the surface waters. traveling down from the surface layer. After day 24.

citing Michael Steinke.800m. chair of the report." said Ken Buesseler. PhD.uk/environment/2012/jul/18/iron-seacarbon?newsfeed=true) Dumping iron into the sea can bury carbon dioxide for centuries. it's still far too early to run with it. within a 60km-wide self-enclosed eddy in the ocean that acted as a giant "test tube". http://www. But sequestering some CO2 could make the difference between crossing a climate "tipping" point. "The ocean's capacity for carbon sequestration in low-iron regions is just a fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. July 18. concluded that while cutting emissions is the first priority. taking the carbon they had incorporated with them. began to die after three weeks. but this is the first study to show that the carbon the plants take up is deeply buried." Dave Reay. After a month of monitoring nutrient and plankton levels from the surface to the depths the team concluded at least half of the bloom had fallen to depths below 1. Senior Scientist. according to a major new study. potentially helping reduce the impact of climate change. The addition of the missing nutrient prompted a massive bloom of phytoplankton to begin growing within a week. they sank towards the ocean floor. citing John Shepherd. said on Wednesday: "It is important that we continue to research these technologies but governance of this research is vital to protect the oceans. This meant that it was possible to compare what happened within the eddy with control points outside the eddy. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. said: "This represents a whole new ball game in terms of iron fertilisation as a geoengineering technique. who led the new research. CP solves ocean biodiversity Parry 12 – LiveScience senior staff writer . citing Ken Buesseler. Marine Chemistry & Geochemistry. and then by whales. Professor of Biological Oceanography. Geoengineering – technologies aimed at alleviating global warming – are controversial. PhD in Marine Chemistry. how many of the diatoms were eaten by krill.CP solves warming The Guardian 12 (Damian Carrington – staff writer. citing Dave Reay. said: "Will this open up the gates to large-scale geoengineering using ocean fertilisation? Likely not. School of Ocean and Earth Science." Michael Steinke. of which 4Gt accumulates in the atmosphere. The scientists conclude in the journal Nature that the carbon is therefore likely to be kept out of the atmosphere for many centuries or longer. said: "The time has come to differentiate: some geoengineering techniques are more dangerous than others.co. at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the US. at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Germany. He acknowledged more experiments were needed over longer periods to examine. Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research. University of Edinburgh. where feedback effects lead to runaway global warming." Smetacek responded that ocean iron fertilisation is much cheaper than other possible geoengineering techniques. ―Dumping iron at sea can bury carbon for centuries. National Oceanography Centre. Professorial Research Fellow in Earth System Science.000m and that a "substantial portion was likely to have reached the sea floor" at 3. 2012. Senior Lecturer in Carbon Management. School of GeoSciences. The work shows for the first time that much of the algae that blooms when iron filings are added dies and falls into the deep ocean. where iron levels are extremely low. senior lecturer in carbon management at the University of Edinburgh. Doing nothing is probably the worst option. The scientists chose the experiment location carefully. since the logistics of finding the right spot for such experiments are difficult and costly. with critics warning of unintended environmental side effects or encouraging complacency in global deals to cut carbon emissions. citing Victor Smetacek. as the scientists themselves acknowledge.guardian. Smetacek said ocean iron fertilisation could bury at most 1 gigatonne of CO2 per year compared to annual emissions of 8-9Gt. the UK's science academy.‖ The Guardian. director of marine biology at the University of Essex. But Prof Victor Smetacek. study shows." Smetacek's team added seven tonnes of iron sulphate to the ocean near Antarctica. University of Southampton. Other researchers recognise the significance of this but warn of other issues that might prevent the iron fertilisation of the ocean as being a useful geoengineering technique." A 2009 report from the Royal Society. School of Biological Sciences. for example. meaning they did not fall to the ocean floor. Maybe deliberate enhancement of carbon storage in the oceans has more legs than we thought but. wider environment and public interests. As the phytoplankton. University of Essex. Prof John Shepherd. careful research into geoengineering was required in case drastic measures – such as trying to block sunlight by pumping sulphate into the atmosphere – were one day needed. A dozen other experiments have shown that iron can prompt phytoplankton blooms. and such sequestration is not permanent — it lasts only for decades to centuries. mostly species of diatom. he said: "I don't see what will stop Arctic sea ice from decreasing. PhD.

where whales once fed on abundant swarms of krill.‖ http://www. In spite of the loss of whales to whaling.com/21684-geoengineering-iron-fertilization-climate. have declined dramatically. Smetacek said. which feed the krill.(Wynne. their prey. one unrelated to climate change. shrimplike krill. ―Could Fertilizing the Oceans Reduce Global Warming?. Smetacek believes this is because the whales played a crucial role in keeping the waters fertilized with iron.html) Iron fertilization has another potentially important application. which prompted the blooms of phytoplankton. 2012. He has proposed fertilizing a stretch of Antarctic sea ice with iron to see how it affects krill growth.livescience. suggesting that it may have the potential to restore an ecosystem in the Southern Ocean. . July 18.

It should be noted.ipcc. Potential negative effects of iron fertilization include the increased production of methane and nitrous oxide. partly due to the time and space constraints.AFF Answers Iron fertilization doesn‘t solve – fails to sequester enough carbon. The idea is that it stimulates the growth of phytoplankton and therefore sequesters CO2 in the form of particulate organic carbon (POC). . where iron depletion prevails. 2007. too costly. ―Ocean Fertilization and Other Geo-Engineering Options‖. the equatorial Pacific and the Sub-Arctic Pacific). and negative side effects IPCC 07 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2003) have reported on the second phase. offset by transportation of iron to remove ocean regions. with the biomass being largely recycled back to CO2 in the upper water column (Boyd et al. Only two experiments to date (Buesseler and Boyd. commercial tests are being pursued with the combined (and conflicting) aims of increasing ocean carbon sequestration and productivity. however. This suggests that the field-study estimates of the actual carbon sequestered per unit iron (and per dollar) are over-estimates.html Iron fertilization of the oceans may be a strategy for removing CO2 from the atmosphere. There have been eleven field studies in different ocean regions with the primary aim of examining the impact of iron as a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton by the addition of small quantities (1 –10 tonnes) of iron sulphate to the surface ocean. 2004).ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg3/en/ch11s11-2-2. the sinking and vertical transport of the increased phytoplankton biomass to depths below the main thermocline (>120m). In addition.. None of these effects have been directly identified in experiments to date. transportation and release of large volumes of iron in remote oceanic regions. The cost of largescale and long-term fertilization will also be offset by CO2 release/emission during the acquisition. http://www. that iron addition will only stimulate phytoplankton growth in ~30% of the oceans (the Southern Ocean. The efficiency of sequestration of the phytoplankton carbon is low (<10%). deoxygenation of intermediate waters and changes in phytoplankton community composition that may cause toxic blooms and/or promote changes further along the food chain.

and it has not received the attention it deserves from politicians. The time has come to take it seriously. Governments should immediately begin to undertake serious research on geoengineering and help create international norms governing its use. . would be a political choice. Actually raising the shield. March/April.edu/pubs/22456/The_Geoengineering_Option.an emergency shield that could be deployed if surprisingly nasty climatic shifts put vital ecosystems and billions of people at risk. http://iis-db.+AT Geoengineering Now Geoengineering in its infancy – needs more attention Victor et al 9 – (David G. however. One nation's emergency can be another's opportunity. and it is unlikely that all countries will have similar assessments of how to balance the ills of unchecked climate change with the risk that geoengineering could do more harm than good.stanford. ―The Geoengineering Option‖. Foreign Affairs.pdf)//mm Serious research on geoengineering is still in its infancy. Geoengineering could provide a useful defense for the planet -..

html) Some geoengineering proposals. and thus more likely to succeed . it is easy to see why those who have the most resources (and thus. argue that a ―plan B‖ for climate change will be needed if the UN and politicians cannot agree to making the necessary cuts in greenhouse gases. ―Every scientist has some conflict of interest. I have been calling for making CO2 emissions illegal for many years. Even if geoengineering were expensive. and their backers. usually the most political power) depend the most on the environmental status quo. Concern is now growing that the small but influential group of scientists. ―The eco-clique are lobbying for a huge injection of public funds into geoengineering research. especially using proprietary intellectual property. there would be no need for money from Gates. ―Geoengineering: A Climate Change Manhattan Project.phantomreport. ―Do I have too much influence? I feel like I have too little. They dominate virtually every inquiry into geoengineering…. are lobbying governments and international bodies to back experiments into manipulating the climate on a global scale to avoid catastrophic climate change. would carry lower overall politicaleconomic costs than legislative solutions because the costs are relatively minor to the distributionally advantaged actors. it may yet be the cheapest available strategy in terms of political economy because it carries almost no social costs .‖ said Caldeira.com/bill-gates-backsclimate-scientists-lobbying-for-large-scale-geoengineering) A small group of leading climate scientists. The scientists. in contrast to regulation. http://www. leaves powerful actors and their interests relatively intact.maximizing activities. Yale Law School. in a paper delivered to a recent geoengineering conference on ethics. however. director at large for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the US. Geoengineering. and transportation). If the federal government played the role it should in this area. even if it were to carry a higher immediate price tag.+Politics NB The CP is backed by a powerful geo-engineering lobby – doesn‘t drain capital Phantom Report 12 (―Bill Gates backs climate scientists lobbying for large scale geoengineering‖. but no one is listening to me.‖ Stanford University.‖ said Jane Long. geoengineering may be cheaper in politicaleconomic terms because of the relative distribution of costs among politically relevant entities . In terms of political economy.C. industry. which presently are tied to environmentally destructive practices. playing well on Wall Street is a significant asset. because existing concentrations of wealth are largely a result of the most effective wealth. Geoengineering. may have a disproportionate effect on major decisions about geoengineering research and policy… ―We will need to protect ourselves from vested interests [and] be sure that choices are not influenced by parties who might make significant amounts of money through a choice to modify climate.metatronics. The best way to reduce my influence is to have more public research funds available. so that our funds are in the noise. because we would all like to see more resources going to study things that we find interesting. and infrastructure is dependent on greenhouse-gas-producing activities (including energy production. 2-6. Since overall growth is dependent on infrastructure. Insofar as it does.net/lit/geo2. Yale University (Jay. In other words. Recall from part II. People who disagree with me might feel I have too much influence. who advocate geoengineering methods such as spraying millions of tonnes of reflective particles of sulphur dioxide 30 miles above earth. the Big Fix may act as a plowshare but pay like a sword. and thus may more closely resemble politically attractive military investments than politically painful restraints on economic growth. 1998. and say the US government and others should pay for a major programme of international research…. financially supported by billionaires including Bill Gates. may actually carry economic benefits for the parties who develop the technologies.1 that climate change regulation *113 faced the unfortunate challenge of forcing the most powerful members of the industrialized world to incur the majority of the costs of GHG emissions reduction. Finally. and even if it were not superior to climate change regulation in terms of its effects on elites. Geoengineering is popular – specifically iron fertilization Michaelson 98 – JD. http://www. Social costs. it is logical to conclude that a geoengineered solution will be far less offensive to them.

they include undesirable political and social effects of implementation. can continue unabated. if geoengineering can offset the climate effects of business as usual. the costs of a policy are not only the immediate financial investments or sacrifices that are necessary. which the majority of Westerners seem to enjoy. particularly one which may carry a large taxpayer-funded price tag. for example. it is not a trivial political point that no one will bear the significant economic and/or social *114 costs of changing those behaviors. take a bus instead of a car.whatsoever. To be sure. Unlike reducing automobile use in the United States. For a policy-maker. compared with reducing fossil fuel use. geoengineering is more likely to succeed in the long term than climate change regulation. [FN162] But it should be obvious that. [FN160] While these features may make geoengineering less attractive to some environmental advocates. . No one need change lifestyles. [FN161] extent that this reduced burden of social costs translates into ease of implementation. geoengineering requires very little commitment from "ordinary people. with its avalanche of economic effects and perceived interference with Western seeding iron filings in the sea and layering particulate matter in the sky carry very low social costs ." [FN163] To the consumptive patterns. [FN159] Nor (unfortunately) does geoengineering limit destructive practices like deforestation. Consumptive patterns of life. or pay more at the gas pump to combat climate change. there are "social costs" associated with any government program.

their effects would necessarily be felt globally (Caldeira and Wood 2008). Also. If so. New Economics Foundation. with possibly catastrophic effects on ecosystems (Matthews and Caldeira 2007). Monash University. The potential use of geoengineering for climate mitigation received a boost with a paper by Nobel laureate Paul Crutzen (2006). Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.D. The cooling resulted from the emission of some 10 Mt of sulphate aerosols into the lower stratosphere in the tropics. Continuous deliberate placement of fine sulphate aerosols in the lower stratosphere would reflect some of the incoming short-wave solar radiation. The options available for geoengineering use of giant space-based mirrors).2010. Journal of Cosmology.org/files/Growth_Isnt_Possible. http://www. the cheapest is likely to be aerosol placement. Rather than global year-round aerosol coverage. some researchers have modelled the effects of more modest aerosol placement schemes. http://journalofcosmology. we are merely arguing about different forms of the practice. so too must geoengineering —the continuous placement of aerosols. albedo enhancement of marine stratiform clouds and reflective mirrors in space would have the potential to counteract a doubling or more of atmospheric CO2 ppm (Lenton and Vaughan 2009). geoengineering is gaining acceptance. 10 Andrew Simms. Because of can be either local in extent (such as altering the albedo of deserts. because elevated levels of CO2 will persist for centuries. Monash University. Vol 8. or at least regional. His inspiration was the significant drop in global temperatures recorded in the year following the Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption in the Philippines in June 1991. potentially destabilising ocean ecosystems (Doney et al. Policy and Advocacy Officer at the Bretton Woods Project. for part of the year. Acidification of the oceans would continue. geoengineering schemes are viewed as a stopgap between now and some point in the future where mitigation technology is cheaper and more widespread. large technical and scientific uncertainties. the combined gobal effects might be extremely uncertain. and can‘t be sustained .com/ClimateChange107. the approaches appear both far cheaper and far faster to implement than more conventional mitigation methods. the overall cost of countering the unwanted consequences could be very high. geoengineering is action intended to manipulate climate on a global. policy director of New Economics Foundation. they have looked at techniques that might prevent melting of the Greenhouse ice cap or Arctic summer sea ice. for example.+AFF Answers Geoengineering fails – costly. Any abrupt cessation because of dangerous side effects discovered would rapidly raise the forcing to levels corresponding to the GHG concentrations at that time. But implementing measures to reduce the planetary albedo run enormous risks. Recently. increasing the Earth‘s albedo.html As discussed here. Dr.K. and counteracting the positive forcing from increased levels of GHGs. Geoengineering fails – large technical and scientific uncertainties and doesn‘t eliminate the need to reduce GHGs Johnson et al. and if several of these projects were to be implemented simultaneously. The U. 2009). or summer warming of the north Atlantic during the hurricane season (Caldeira and Wood 2008.org/sites/neweconomics. however. and Damon Honnery. For example Professor David Victor. But to be effective.neweconomics. and head of NEF's Climate Change Programme. risky. crops or urban areas) or global (such as the the lack of progress in slowing emissions and the low cost and rapid cooling resulting from global measures. Of these global approaches. to address a very specific problem resulting from climate change. Corner and Pidgeon (2010) have pointed out that our emissions of CO2 (which have raised atmospheric CO2 levels from the pre-industrial 280 ppm to the present 387 ppm) could also be considered geoengineering. resulting in very rapid warming. 2010. Thus although the costs of aerosol placement may well be modest. scale. ―Why Technical Fixes Won‘t Mitigate Climate Change‖. Like the present authors. January 25. researcher for the climate change and energy programme at NEF. MSc with distinction in Climate Change from the University of East Anglia and PhD in Atmospheric Physics at Imperial College.guarantees environmental catastrophe Moriarty and Honnery 10 Patrick Moriarty. 1921-1927. Department of Design. Global precipitation would on average be reduced—it is not possible to bring both global temperatures and precipitation to their previous levels (Bala 2009). Victoria Johnson. Director of the Laboratory on International Law and Regulation at Stanford University argues: ‗…real-world geoengineering will be a lot more complex and expensive than . Royal Society (2009) has endorsed it as a technique to be used alongside other mitigation methods. The aerosols might be locally applied. London and Peter Chowla. he argued that conventional methods of mitigation were not working—the CO2 atmospheric concentration continues to climb at about 2 ppm each year. ―Growth isn‘t possible‖. There are.D. UK think tank. MacCracken 2009). perhaps because of these serious drawbacks. Only aerosol placement in the tropical stratosphere. Except for space-based mirrors.pdf In most cases. Ph. Ph.

forcing us to commit to the artificial release of aerosols for several hundred years.‘327 The large majority of academics working in the field of geoengineering research have been clear that their research and technical propositions are not intended to distract from the efforts of reducing greenhouse gas emissions as the first priority for controlling climate change.edu/academics/classes/2012Q1/111/20Reasons. the National Science Foundation. In a series of editorial comments8.in/files/Problems%20with%20geoengineering%20schemes. are impractical. (―Problems with geoengineering schemes to combat climate change‖. cumbersome to manage. (2) There is large difference in the timescale between the effects of CO2 and the effects of aerosols.washington. 1/23. And thus the debate on combating climate change via geoengineering continues3 CP can‘t solve for ocean acidification or other effects of warming Nicholson 12 . or too expensive. However. (―20 reasons why geoengineering may be a bad idea‖. The serious debate indeed started when Nobel laureate Paul Crutzen8 published his influential editorial article on geoengineering. ―Blocking the sun to save the planet‖. To address the last two issues. whether due to our option than geoengineering to avert risks to global food security. (3) There are serious environmental problems such as ocean acidification.30–33. Plus there are plenty of political issues regarding high-flying planes traversing the Earth spewing aerosols. the ocean would continue to become more acidic. While acknowledging that all geoengineering schemes have serious flaws. the models also predict that some areas might be harmed by the slightly darker days. ―Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is therefore likely a safer Geoengineering results in further ocean acidification and loss of biodiversity Robock 08 Alan. pdf)//RN The conclusion of the 1992 NAS report13 was that most geoengineering schemes. ―The climate system is not well enough understood to exclude the risks of severe unanticipated climate changes.McGill University. the National Research Council. climatologist and Professor II in the Department of Environmental Sciences at Rutgers University. Keith10 judged that this century is likely to see serious debates about geoengineering.328 No solvency – impractical. many now argue that a technological intervention may be required parallel to current mitigation efforts. but did not find it worthy of great effort. http://www.‖ fossil-fuel emissions or due to intentional intervention in the climate system. Schneider29 suggested to reduce slowly our economic dependence on carbon fuels. 2008.has spoken at MIT/Stanford VLAB.smartplanet. because about half of all excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is removed by ocean uptake. negative effects Govindswamy 09 Bala. which is causing massive deterioration of coral reefs and basically impacting every corner of sea life. Crutzen suggested that the usefulness of artificially enhancing the planetary albedo to counteract the climate forcing of growing CO2 emissions might again be explored and debated. http://www. which are not mitigated by the albedoenhancing geoengineering schemes. SXSW Interactive. the Space Studies Board and Brookhaven National Laboratory (Christie. Since the attempts to curb fossil-fuel emissions have been unsuccessful. Wigley advocated a combination of mitigation and geoengineering to prevent both climate change and ocean acidification. Bengtsson34 expressed his reservations against geoengineering schemes for the following reasons. ¶ However. in a press release. (1) There is a lack of accuracy in climate prediction. The ocean is already 30 percent more acidic than it was before the Industrial . though feasible. http://indiaenvironmentportal.org.atmos. however.‖ said Julie Pongratz of Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution.Bangalore . Some experts also worry that such a drastic measure doesn‘t solve the issue of ocean acidification. 9/22/08. In support of this conclusion.com/blog/thinking-tech/blocking-the-sun-to-save-the-planet/10004) To be sure.currently thought because simple interventions—such as putting reflective particles in the stratosphere—will be combined with many other costlier interventions to offset nasty side effects. New Jersey. climatologist at the Indian Institute of Science .pdf)//RN If humans adopted geoengineering as a solution to global warming. It suggested some further study. rather than try to counter the side effects using risky options such as centuries of injecting sulphur into the atmosphere or iron into the oceans. with no restriction on continued carbon emissions. expensive. broad recommendations were made to pursue scientific research on the effects of geoengineering schemes.

17 . climatologist and Professor II in the Department of Environmental Sciences at Rutgers University. from coral reefs right up to humans.washington. Such an abrupt shift would result in rapid climate warming.edu/academics/classes/2012Q1/111/20Reasons. New Jersey. societal. and continued acidification threatens the entire oceanic biological chain.atmos.pdf)//RN A technological. 2008.7 Rapid warming if deployment stops – that‘s worse Robock 08 Alan. http://www.Revolution. or political crisis could halt a project of stratospheric aerosol injection in middeployment. which would produce much more stress on society and ecosystems than gradual global warming. (―20 reasons why geoengineering may be a bad idea‖.

Nuclear Terrorism .

in some areas.org/gsn/article/iaea-security-chief-seeks-more-money-prevent-nuclearterrorism)//SLR The International Atomic Energy Agency‘s top nuclear security official said hi s operation must have more money and people if it is to meet nations‘ growing demand for help in ensuring their atomic facilities are protected against terrorism. IAEA security official seeks more money to prevent nuclear terrorism. though.nti.164 cases of smuggling or other incidents involving nuclear and radioactive substances between January 1993 and last December. branch‘s Nuclear Security Office.‖ The level of defense is based on a nation‘s resources. stored or moved.700 radioactive sources and sending more than 1.‖ said Roger Howsley. though usually only grams of the materials. As it stands. 1 priorities is absolutely characteristic of large bureaucracies. Physical protection at hundreds of civilian nuclear plants and thousands of sites holding other radioactive materials worldwide sometimes go ―too far. The majority of the more than 70 broad security plans prepared for nations are being implemented. and the office has assisted with securing in excess of 4. They want more and a bigger department. according to the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database. There were 16 cases of ―unauthorized possession‖ of nuclear weapon-usable highly enriched uranium or plutonium. It should not be assumed. CP solves nuclear terrorism Schneidmiller 12 (Chris. expert guidance and other assistance to more than 120 nations with the intention of preventing nuclear security breaches and establishing detection and response capabilities when incidents do occur. World leaders for years have expressed worry that bad actors might gain access to the ingredients for a nuclear weapon or a dirty bomb‖ that would spread radioactive material with conventional explosives. Laura Holgate. The most recent multinational Nuclear Security Summit in South Korea ended in March with a call for countries to deliver increased voluntary funding for the office. … The sooner the better. attitude on the threat and other matters. he said. governments in some cases could wait for years to receive expert guidance in preparing a comprehensive protection program. technology. Aug 20. The Nuclear Security Office‘s job is to lead the IAEA component of the international push for security of atomic materials being used.‖ Howsley said.000 people. ―The risk is that there will be gaps in nuclear security in some countries. In other locations ―you might be quite alarmed at how lax they are. according to Khammar Mrabit. Nations reported 2. according to one issue expert. that is not acceptable. A large part of that mission has involved providing training to more than 12. National Security Council‘s lead threat reduction official.US Fund IAEA CP Text: The United States federal government should increase its funding for the IAEA‘s nuclear security efforts. the U. head of the U.‖ he told Global Security Newswire. http://www. ―This is the risk and we would like to speed up the process of establishing and strengthening nuclear security in these countries. a former safeguards adviser to the agency and executive director of the World Institute for Nuclear Security.N. that providing more money and staff would automatically translate into benefits on the ground. ―Focusing on those two issues as the No. in June also discussed the potential for boosting the office‘s ―clout‖ via an upgrade to divisional status.050 kilograms of highly enriched uranium back to .‖ While Mrabit has an obvious reason to advocate for his office. he is not alone in promoting an enhanced IAEA nuclear security operation.S. The global response to the threat has been highlighted by the two Nuclear Security Summits and President Obama‘s 2009 announcement of a global push to lock down all unsecured material within four years.

proxy. Yet the agency‘s safeguards budget is less than that of the police budget of Vienna. and ideally adding five to 10 personnel to its staff of about 60. where the IAEA is headquartered.S. Austriabased organization help to prepare additional nuclear security plans.the nation of origin. As an example of the need. . A June meeting led additional nations to request that the Vienna. It should also make adherence to the Additional Protocol (which provides for strengthened safeguards) a condition of nuclear supply to recipients. ―This is where exactly the resources available to us are not sufficient to meet the current and future needs of nuclear security. though. as well as in-kind contributions. He argued.both are former Secretaries of Defense (William and James. http://www. Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States . ―Now the issue is to have resources to meet those requests and those needs. One panel of IAEA-commissioned experts last year recommended a one-time injection of approximately $100 million to the agency‘s Safeguards Analytical Laboratory and Incident and Emergency Response Center.mil. 2009)//SLR The IAEA is the world‘s watchdog against the diversion of peaceful nuclear technologies and material for illicit weapons purposes. Such funding would help the agency bolster its technical and human capital.‖ Mrabit.5 million from the core IAEA budget and another $24. The United States should lead the effort to make this so. Austria.$6 million to $12 million per year.―America‘s Strategic Posture: The Final Report of the Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States‖. he said the office has only one specialist to manage a large number of requests from nations in helping to establish some level of capacity in nuclear forensics – the ability to determine the point of origin of atomic material that might be seized from smugglers or used in an act of terrorism. when its total budget was slightly less than $10 million.dtic. That panel also urged annual budget increases equivalent to roughly $60 million. The IAEA should also be authorized to identify nuclear security weaknesses and illegal weapons activities inside countries and charged with responsibility to create an international nuclear materials database. Heads of state from more than 50 nations at the March summit in Seoul called in a final declaration for governments ―in a position to do so and the nuclear industry to increase voluntary contributions to the IAEA‘s Nuclear Security Fund. The present financing plan means the office cannot be absolutely sure of its funding levels from year to year. said in a July interview.edu/cgibin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA501604. U.6 million in voluntary ―extrabudgetary‖ support from agency member nations. Mrabit said.lib. The United States should persuade the IAEA Board of Governors to increase funding for the agency. an IAEA veteran who took over the security office in April 2011. The current disparity between the agency‘s resources and workload must be remedied. The United States should encourage proposals by other interested parties to strengthen the IAEA and especially the process by which it coordinates its actions with the United Nations Security Council to deal with concerns about compliance. Mrabit acknowledged that the funding is a major boost from the service‘s inception in 2002. from its current base of approximately $385 million. he added.‖ There was no mention of making nuclear security a greater part of the core agency budget. that growing need for his office‘s services requires greater resources -. and how the money is used is to some degree controlled by the nations providing the voluntary support. funding is key Perry and Schlesinger 09 .‖ The office in its current spending year received more than $5.umich. This disparity will only grow if nuclear power usage grows as some predict.

¶ Failure to close this resource gap with additional¶ funding makes it difficult for the agency to keep¶ pace with the growing security requirements¶ asked of it and to meet the hefty requirements¶ expected of it during the NSS. U.A top Obama administration official on Tuesday voiced support for the International Atomic Energy Agency expanding its role in the global nuclear security realm. but noted that the Energy leader said in Vienna that IAEA work on nuclear security should be bolstered.S. formerly worked at Center for Nonproliferation Studies) & Dr.pdf//MJ Slightly less than $1. mission at the International Atomic Energy Agency seeking more information were not returned by press time.‖¶ Moniz. agency does offer some nuclear security assistance that member states can voluntarily seek out.nationaljournal.¶ ―We are strongly supportive of the increased attention at IAEA on nuclear security. said in an e-mailed statement. spokesman for the Energy Department‘s National Nuclear Security Administration. said he was encouraged to see ―a very.‖ Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz said in remarks at a State Department conference. The agency serves as a nuclear watchdog for the United Nations. ―International venues like the IAEA present an opportunity to share ideas and best practices that ensure that nuclear material around the globe is as safe as it can be. ―We believe it‘s an important mission and we believe they have an important role. nuclear safety and security. December 2010.‖ Josh McConaha.‖¶ Washington. evidenced by pledges of¶ additional funds by several participating states at¶ the NSS. for a ministerial-level conference focused on improving efforts to secure nuclear materials from potential acquisition by terrorists. The amount¶ approved for 2010 increased to about $4 million¶ and slightly more has been requested for 2011. ¶ The U.‖ which has been a traditional focus of the body.S. former first executive director of US-China Security Review Commision.¶ A spokesman for Moniz would not elaborate on the secretary‘s comments this week.com/global-security-newswire/u-s-energy-chief-hopes-for-bigger-iaea-role-in-globalnuclear-security-20130719 WASHINGTON -. The Stanley Foundation. energy chief this week did not say exactly how the watchdog agency might expand its atomic protection activities. very broad base of support for having nuclear security as an additional focus at IAEA in some sense on par with safety. may translate into more resources and¶ greater flexibility by member states in future¶ IAEA budget decisions.‖¶ The declaration also affirmed ―the central role of the IAEA in strengthening the nuclear security framework globally and in leading the coordination of international activities in the field of nuclear security. Aid in the past has included the provision of radiation .S. energy chief hopes for bigger IAEA role in global nuclear security.¶ In his recent official remarks to the IAEA conference. former senior legislative assistant for foreign policy to Senator Richard Lugar).‖¶ Earlier this month. Moniz said ―the United States supports increased resources for all pillars of the IAEA‘s work. Funding key Oswald 7/19 Rachel. Enthusiasm and¶ goodwill toward securing nuclear materials and¶ radiological sources.¶ A joint declaration released at the event highlighted the principle that ―the responsibility for nuclear security within a state rests entirely with that state. ―remains committed to the IAEA‘s efforts to develop international standards on nuclear and radiological security. http://www.7¶ million. former safeguards info analyst at IAEA. and hopes to see those strengthened and implemented. there is a mismatch between the¶ resources that are needed and those that are¶ available to manage a robust and credible nuclear¶ security program at the international level. The IAEA and Nuclear Security: Trends and Prospects. http://psaonline. July 19. specialized in nuclear security and safeguards and illicit nuclear trade issues. Austria.5 million was included in the¶ regular assessed budgets for nuclear security¶ activities in 2008 and in 2009.¶ When regular budget funds are combined with¶ voluntary donations and unexpended funds carried over from previous years. Clearly.Extensions Funding key Boureston & Semmel 10 Jack (managing director at FirstWatch International.org/downloads/The%20IAEA%20and%20Nuclear%20Security. representatives from 125 IAEA member states convened in Vienna. who participated in the Vienna conference. former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Nuclear Nonproliferation Policy and Negotiations in the Department‘s International Security and Nonproliferation bureau. and safeguards. including technical cooperation. annual funding¶ available for all nuclear security activities around¶ the world in 2009 amounted to roughly $36. A reporter‘s calls to the U. he added. 2013.N. Andrew K (private consultant at AKS Consulting.‖¶ ―The security of our nuclear materials is a top priority for Secretary Moniz.‖¶ The U.

S. as well as training of member states‘ nuclear security professionals.¶ The agency also maintains an Incident and Trafficking Database that documents each new incident of global atomic and radiological material theft or other unpermitted uses involving such substances.‖ Pomper said. In the last decade. the IAEA International Physical Protection Advisory Service offers practical guidance to countries on how to develop domestic rules and regulations for the enactment of international agreements. it‘s not saying much. according to the watchdog organization. it‘s a political problem. and provides recommendations on the safeguarding of nuclear and radiological substances.¶ Moniz‘s Vienna address did not include mention of any specific financial contributions by Washington to IAEA nuclear security activities in the future.‖ explained Pomper.¶ Asked to respond to Moniz‘s Tuesday remarks.¶ Additionally. a senior research associate with the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. which is the collective view of its member states."¶ At least one U. IAEA spokeswoman Gill Tudor said in an e-mail that ―the IAEA view is that the ministerial statement. member states would have to agree to fund such activities through the body‘s regular budget. particularly on the funding level. who supports additional such work. For the International Atomic Energy Agency to expand its role in nuclear security. in excess of 120 nations have taken advantage of this training.¶ Miles Pomper. Presently nations underwrite IAEA atomic protections work through voluntary contributions made on an irregular basis.‖¶ ―The problem is. agency would play a greater nuclear security role anytime soon.detectors. said if the ministerial statement ―was any indi cation of the IAEA‘s ability to take a leadership role in this issue.¶ ―I would look for what countries are willing to pledge in next year‘s security summit in this regard. .N. speaks for itself and the IAEA does not comment on declarations made by its member states. referring to a global nuclear security gathering set to take place in the Netherlands in March 2014.-based expert who attended the Vienna event was not optimistic that the U.

OAS .

and other Related Materials . From armed guerrillas and paramilitaries in Colombia to street gangs in El Salvador. In January 2001. breed the lawlessness in which terrorism. The weapons were for the West African's "friends in Africa. strengthening controls at export points. Latin America is a textbook example of the ill effects of this trade. these criminals have the capacity to move weapons from country to country. sharing information that is needed by law enforcement officials who are investigating arms trafficking offenses. Currently. the deal fell through but not because Nicaragua's arms export controls were air tight.S. Explosives. By creating a mechanism for exchanging information. If the price is right.html. 2013) //SLR For arms traffickers. It would require no new laws. the world is a very small place. it is now one of only a handful of other countries that still have not ratified it.org/programs/ssp/asmp/issueareas/oas. 2013)//SLR The United States and the Convention: While the United States was among the first countries to sign the Convention. The Israeli forwarded the request to another Israeli. Less than a year later.fas. illicitly trafficked and manufactured SA/LW contribute to many of the region's most pressing problems.org/programs/ssp/asmp/issueareas/oas. Ammunition. al Qaeda. Explosives.html. or even from continent to continent. import and transit of firearms. Colombia. Ratification would boost the credibility of the Convention and U. included the horrifically brutal Revolutionary United Front in Sierra Leone and America's enemy number one. investigate and prosecute illicit firearms manufacturers and traffickers.Firearms Convention CP text: The United States Federal government should ratify the Inter-American Convention Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms. drug trafficking and other transnational crime thrives. By signing the Convention. the Convention raises regional standards for firearms export controls. marking firearms at the time of manufacture. a West African arms and diamonds dealer emailed a long list of weapons. these states commit to: establishing as criminal offenses the illicit firearms manufacturing and trafficking." The West African had many friends. in turn. and and ensuring that law enforcement personnel receive adequate training. Ammunition. and when they are imported. the same arms dealer duped the Nicaraguan government into selling them 3000 AK series assault rifles and 2. setting up and maintaining an effective system of licenses and authorizations for the export. In addition to arming terrorists. cooperating on investigations. and other Related Materials. and shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles. anti-tank weapons. http://www. On 14 November 1997 the Organization of American States (OAS) took a significant step toward reining in this deadly trade by adopting the Inter-American Convention Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms. where they ultimately ended up in the hands of the United Self-Defenses Forces of Colombia (AUC) .a paramilitary organization that is on the State Department's list of international terrorist organizations. CP solves for US and OAS credibility FAS 13 (Federation of American Scientists. which he claimed was for the Pananamian National Police.5 million rounds of ammunition. CP solves arms trafficking – the impact is instability and terrorism FAS 13 (Federation of American Scientists. who forwarded it on to one of his contacts in the Nicaraguan military. including sniper rifles. ―OAS Firearms Convention‖. and ensuring that law enforcement personnel are adequetely trained. Through these requirements. and any modifications to . the weapons were shipped via boat to Turbo. it also increases the regional capacity to identify.fas. Instead. Fortunately. 33 states have signed the Convention and 24 have ratified it. ―OAS Firearms Convention‖. http://www. Examples are plentiful. to an Israeli arms dealer operating out of Guatemala. exhortations to comply with its provisions. the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons (SA/LW) fuels internal conflicts which.the first legally binding regional agreement on illiicit firearms trafficking.

S. representatives of full States Parties to the Convention have expressed annoyance with observers that make strong recommendations at Consultative Committee meetings.S. continued failure on the part of the United States to ratify the convention would damage its prestige over time. laws are already largely in compliance with the provisions of the Convention.S. international cooperation on terrorism and other important issues. credibility in OAS Meetings. off the UN Human Rights Commission in May 2001 in part because of U.S. their status detracts from the persuasive power of their statements and recommendations. the international community took the unprecedented step of voting the U. Ratification would boost the credibility of the Convention.S. This resentment has a direct impact on the pursuit of U.S. Officials from member states and the OAS General Secretariat emphasize the importance of U. several member states have yet to implement many of the Convention's key provisions. U. . Failure to ratify undermines U.US regulations and policies needed to comply with the Convention would be minimal. itself has not ratified it.S. exhortations to comply with the Convention ring hollow when the U. has relegated itself to observer status at meetings of the Convention's Consultative Committee. Ratification of the OAS Convention would send a strong signal to the international community that the United States does in fact recognize the value of. Ratification would help to reduce resentment generated by our refusal to adopt other popular international agreements. While observer states are permitted to attend meetings and make statements. efforts to compel other states to implement the Convention's many important provisions.S. and need for.S. By not ratifying the Convention. As revealed by a recent OAS survey of compliance with the Convention.S. foreign policy objectives. Conversely. ratification. claiming that it would provide an immediate boost to the Convention's credibility. For example. ratification by the United States is important for several reasons: Failure to ratify reduces U. Even though U. the U. rejection of the Kyoto Protocol and the International Criminal Court Statute.

and make straw purchasing a federal crime.S.Extensions CP solves for U. Council on Foreign Relations. the ATF intercepted only 15 percent of the roughly 250. U.S. influence in the Western Hemisphere.¶ Six years later.¶ The U. manufacturers and importers. Across the board. especially from unlicensed individuals at gun shows. action will strengthen those regional heads of state who want to work with the United States and who also regard lax U. import. Among its domestic obligations.cfr.S. Firearms and Explosives' (ATF) Web-based firearm trace request and analysis system. The ATF has not released data for Central America. the treaty encourages information exchange and cooperation on initiatives including the marking and tracing of weapons and the identification of criminal transit routes. Their patience—and the United States' credibility as a responsible partner—is waning. to legally procure thousands of AK-47 and AR-15 variants every year and traffic them across the border to sell them illegally to criminal factions. flea markets. and Other Related Materials (CIFTA).S. Brazil. reinstate a federal assault-weapons ban. Since 2012. the U. these efforts notwithstanding.000 guns smuggled into Mexico between 2010 and 2012. civilian firearms market continues to supply the region's transnational criminal networks with high-powered weaponry that is purchased with limited oversight. Though the Senate rejected measures to expand background checks on firearms sales. July 2013. it has yet to sign or ratify the treaty.org/arms-industries-and-trade/strategy-reduce-gun-trafficking-violenceamericas/p31155//MJ The flow of high-powered weaponry from the United States to Latin America and the Caribbean exacerbates soaring rates of gun-related violence in the region and undermines U. With the launch of the Merida Initiative in 2007. Likewise.38 and Colombia bans civilians from carrying firearms in Medellin and Bogota. Mexico.S. pawn shops. Tobacco. government data highlights the problem. 2011 eTrace data for the Caribbean indicates that over 90 percent of the weapons recovered and traced in the Bahamas and over 80 percent of those in Jamaica came from the United States.S. and Mexican governments agreed to a regional security framework guided by the principle of shared responsibility. government has empowered law enforcement in the region to recover and investigate the source of weapons used by criminal factions. influence in Latin America and OAS legitimacy – U. heads of state demanded a new approach to the failed war on drugs. security. enables law enforcement officials to collaborate with ATF to track the path of recovered weapons from the manufacturer or importer though the distribution chain to the first retail purchase. or export of high-powered weapons. President Bill Clinton signed CIFTA in 1997 and submitted it for ratification to the Senate. Latin American governments are turning . The Bureau of Alcohol. U. the gun-related homicide rate in Latin America exceeded the global average in 2010 by more than 30 percent. action against weapons trafficking sends a key signal Sweig 13 Julia. In addition to requiring parties to criminalize the illegal manufacture. including greater efforts to disarm criminal networks. A strategy to reduce gun trafficking and violence in the Americas. Latin American governments have moved to disarm criminal networks by tightening their own gun codes: Mexico prohibits the sale of handguns with calibers greater than . the United States undermines its own efforts at preventing arms trafficking with its unwillingness to strengthen oversight of the firearms industry and lukewarm support for multilateral agreements.S. In December 2009. Lax U. In effect.¶ U. Yet. and on the Internet. The World Bank estimates that crime and violence cost Central America nearly 8 percent of its GDP when accounting for the costs of law enforcement.S. eTrace. the Obama administration can still take executive action to reduce the availability and trafficking of assault weapons and ammunition in the Americas. gun laws enable straw purchasers. where it has lingered for over a decade. including those under investigation in Operation Fast and Furious.S.¶ The UN Office on Drugs and Crime reports that easy access to firearms is a major factor influencing homicide trends in Latin America and the Caribbean. although the United States voted in favor of the United Nations' Arms Trade Treaty in April 2013. little has changed: the U. allies have repeatedly urged the United States to reinstate the federal assault-weapons ban and take action against weapons trafficking. and health care. the United States committed to intensify its efforts to combat the illegal trafficking of weapons and ammunition to Mexico and elsewhere in the Americas. the State Department has funded the Organization of American States' (OAS) program to provide firearm-marking equipment and training to law enforcement in twenty-five countries. and El Salvador have implemented gun buyback programs. Ammunition. Explosives. Over 70 percent of the ninetynine thousand weapons recovered by Mexican law enforcement since 2007 were traced to U.S.¶ Given the political complexity of legislative action to reduce arms trafficking. but the numbers are likely similar.S.S. Likewise. the ATF introduced the Spanish version of eTrace. http://www.¶ At the 2012 Summit of the Americas. gun laws as fueling violence and anti-Americanism among their own publics.¶ The United States is one of three countries that have not ratified the Inter-American Convention Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms.

relevance in the region. . which pointedly exclude the United States.S. to handle regional political and security dilemmas.toward the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Union of South American Nations. especially at the early stages of new regional institutions and security protocols. Stronger action to regulate the southward flow of weapons represents an opportunity for the Obama administration to enhance U.

The convention promises to serve as a legal mechanism for stemming the flow of firearms into Mexico.S. testified before the House Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere on June 19. Jess T. Supporters argue that 87 percent of the guns seized in Mexico from drug cartels originate in the U.heritage. ―The OAS Firearms Convention Is Incompatible with American Liberties‖. In an increasingly polarized hemispheric environment. a range of armed non-state actors. Ray Walser and David Kopel.[46] However. where weapons legally purchased in the U. notably narco-terrorists belonging to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and paramilitaries of the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC).000 heavily armed combatants. this figure is not supported by the data from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) that they cite. but illegally exported to Mexico help to fuel drug violence. http://www. The primary reason that the Obama Administration has revived the treaty at this point is that the Administration views it as a deliverable that would send a political and diplomatic signal to Mexico and other OAS members that the U. CP doesn‘t solve for arms trafficking or OAS credibility – faulty stats and other member states won‘t abide Bromund et al 10-Phd . Senior Research fellow in Anglo American relations at the Margaret Thatcher Center for Freedom (Theodore.[54] Venezuela made no commitment to Colombia or the OAS to cooperate in an investigation or fact-finding process. Both Colombia and Venezuela have ratified the convention.S. were maintaining field armies of more than 50. Director of International Affairs and Trade at the GAO.S.[45] An arms control agreement of such scope and complexity would normally take years to negotiate. 2009. Venezuela and Hugo Chávez responded with silence. using it as a signaling device during a previous episode of heightened concern over drug-related violence in Mexico. Heritage Foundation.[53] The OAS does not even consider the FARC to be a terrorist organization. Venezuela‘s response to the Colombian military‘s capture of sophisticated. that it ―is impossible to know how many firearms are illegally trafficked into Mexico in a . http://www. Swedish-made AT-4 anti-tank weapons from the FARC illustrates the increasing lack of cooperation. Yet when Colombian officials sought an explanation through diplomatic channels as to how the weapons reached the FARC.S. Senior Research fellow in Anglo American relations at the Margaret Thatcher Center for Freedom (Theodore. Heritage Foundation. Ford. 5/19/2010)//SLR Those seeking ratification of the convention must also ask whether it will truly address the security challenges that the U. President Clinton and President Ernesto Zedillo of Mexico first negotiated the convention in 1997. As President Clinton proudly asserted in his remarks. noncooperation on critical matters relating to the illicit sale and transfer of small arms and light weapons remains distressingly the norm.heritage.‖ taking only seven months from a public agreement to negotiate in May 1997 to signing in November of that year. ―The OAS Firearms Convention Is Incompatible with American Liberties‖. outrage.org/research/reports/2010/05/the-oas-firearmsconvention-is-incompatible-with-american-liberties. the convention was ―conclude[d]…in record time. denial. is serious about supporting Mexico‘s authorities in addressing the ongoing challenge to law and order in Mexico. When current Colombian President Alvaro Uribe took office at the height of the conflict in 2002. The rapidity with which it was concluded raises doubts about the care with which it was negotiated and the extent to which it was ever intended as a serious diplomatic response to illegal arms trafficking. with weapons arriving from military stocks throughout the Americas.AFF Answers CP fails – OAS empirically fails to influence arms trafficking – Columbia and Venezuela‘s behavior proves Bromund et al 10-Phd . Yet the OAS failed to take a single action to sanction or punish those who provide arms to these illicit organizations. The convention‘s record in enforcement and utility should also be considered.org/research/reports/2010/05/the-oas-firearmsconvention-is-incompatible-with-american-liberties. Arms shipments continue today. 5/19/2010)//SLR A Poor Track Record. and other states face in the Western Hemisphere. Lack of Statistical Support. Ray Walser and David Kopel. and finally an explanation that the FARC had stolen the weapons years earlier from a Venezuelan arsenal.

Mexican authorities have been 87 percent accurate in their preliminary assessment that a seized weapon originated in the U. this number says nothing about the percentage of guns seized in Mexico that originated in the U. It says nothing about the percentage of guns in Mexico that originated in the U.S.‖[51] Mexico‘s problems are fundamentally homegrown. Heritage Foundation.S.950 in 2006 to 3.‖[47] and given to the ATF for tracing from 2004 through 2008.000 guns have been seized ―since 2006.‖[14] This phrasing. because the ATF did not trace the majority of guns seized in Mexico. it does nothing to guarantee that other member states.S. and Transit Licenses or Authorizations. It also raises both Second Amendment and free trade concerns. Ray Walser and David Kopel. ratification of the convention. will not substantively improve the situation on the ground in Mexico. For example. The figure shows only that over the past five years. commitment to the convention.. but authorization is not required in most cases for the import or export of items such as slings.‖ implies that all relevant states parties must outlaw all trade in this broad range of items. but this implies that U.[49] Information on the total number of guns seized in Mexico annually is much less precise. no more than 25 percent of the seizures were traced back to the U. ―The OAS Firearms Convention Is Incompatible with American Liberties‖. ratification may demonstrate U.‘s eTrace system.S. the number of guns seized in Mexico that have been traced back to the U. or transfer of firearms.S.‖[50] This implies that only about 12.S. Mexican officials have occasionally refused ATF requests to trace the guns found in huge arms caches or used in the murders of police officers. springs.S. it points out that. However.260 in 2005 to 1. as Ford stated. has ranged from 5.060 in 2007 to 6.[48] It is reasonable to infer that these requests were refused because ATF tracing might have uncovered arms smuggling operations that corrupt Mexican government officials wished to protect. but a recent study reported in mid-2009 that 55. In other words. Senior Research fellow in Anglo American relations at the Margaret Thatcher Center for Freedom . 2007. democracy promotion Bromund et al 10-Phd . ―Export. Of the weapons that have been seized in Mexico given year. More broadly. delivery. CP restricts free speech and undermines U.S. Senior Research fellow in Anglo American relations at the Margaret Thatcher Center for Freedom (Theodore. acquisition. it is misleading to argue that ―the most significant source of illegal firearms in Mexico is guns purchased in the United States and then smuggled into Mexico.000 of the seized guns (the total for 2006. while U. will vigorously enforce its requirements. Venezuela is acquiring its own manufacturing plant for AK-47s.S. if any one of the States Parties concerned does not authorize it. sale. Yet the convention requires a license for commercial or noncommercial cross-border transfer of the same set of items for which a manufacturing or assembly license is required. Thus. Figures like ―87 percent‖ sound impressive. which often have weak enforcement regimes and different political agendas.org/research/reports/2010/05/the-oas-firearms-convention-is-incompatible-with-americanliberties. in a given year.S. because. http://www.It is therefore impossible to know what proportion of firearms is illegally trafficked into Mexico from the U. All countries require official authorization for the commercial import or export of firearms.heritage. and 2008 plus an unknown number for part of 2009) were ultimately traced back to the U.S.[52] It is unlikely to abide by the convention‘s provisions. explosives. Import. except when the trade is explicitly authorized. like the phrasing of Article 9. 5/19/2010) The convention has broad implications for international trade. movement. but actual numbers are more illustrative. much less how many are acquired or manufactured illegally inside Mexico. especially as it is intended as a signal. ammunition. CP hurts free trade Bromund et al 10-Phd . or screws.S. export. the GAO reports that approximately 87 percent originated in the U. and other related materials from or across the territory of one State Party to that of another State Party. This requirement would impose serious burdens on currently legal trade far beyond the firearms industry. It defines illegal trafficking as ―the import. According to the GAO. no one knows how many guns enter Mexico illegally.S.700 in 2008. according to the data cited by some of the convention‘s strongest supporters. and should be traced through the U.

the convention strikes a blow against the efforts of citizens of foreign countries to resist tyrannical authoritarian and Marxist–Leninist leaders. it would be illegal for a citizen of a signatory foreign tyranny to say that his fellow victims should seek to arm themselves. to offer aid and comfort to regimes that would deny the freedom of speech in other countries. Ray Walser and David Kopel. Of course.S. However.org/research/reports/2010/05/the-oas-firearmsconvention-is-incompatible-with-american-liberties. against which the First Amendment offers only partial and limited protection. http://www. such as the U. while the First Amendment protects the free speech rights of Americans and foreign nationals living in the United States. should not give them legal sanction for their tyranny. Other OAS member states may have assented to this by signing and ratifying the convention. Second. Patrick Henry‘s famous ―Give me liberty or give me death‖ oration in 1775—with its claim that ―An appeal to arms and to the God of hosts is all that is left us!‖—could be ruled illegal in a signatory that lacked protections akin to those of the First Amendment. such reservations. 5/19/2010)//SLR Even more troubling.S. because of the correct perception that it is contrary to American freedoms and the American desire to see those liberties flourish abroad as well as at home.S. ―The OAS Firearms Convention Is Incompatible with American Liberties‖.N. the convention seeks to restrict the freedom of speech and requires signatories to afford each other ―the widest measure of mutual legal assistance‖ in enforcing these restrictions.‘s effort through the Durban Review Conference to prevent the ―defamation of religion. such a restriction on speech is inherently undesirable and impossible under the First Amendment.[31] The convention embodies a philosophy on free speech that has been widely rejected in the U. but the Senate should consider carefully before doing likewise. the right of rebellion applies. the U. dictators will curtail free speech in any case. Third. the Chávez regime in Venezuela) legal justification to curtail free speech on the grounds that they are only fulfilling their international obligations. Under the convention.[30] The Senate would need to enter two additional reservations: The U. would not fully resolve the problem. Heritage Foundation. and the U.S. even if their validity were universally accepted. and then travel to an OAS member state that is less vigilant in protecting free speech and less willing to reject extradition requests. In other words. By criminalizing the ―counseling‖ of any of the measures that it defines as illegal. the convention criminalizes the ―counseling‖ of any of the activities that it prohibits. but the U.[32] The existence of First Amendment protections in the United States is no reason for the U.‖ that sought to curb free speech for the sake of other supposedly desirable ends. will not provide any legal assistance to any investigation by signatories of supposed crimes based on the ―counseling‖ of activities prohibited by the convention. Both conservatives and liberals. The Founding Fathers appealed to this right when they broke away from Great Britain in 1776.heritage. politics must proceed through the democratic process.S.S. In the United States. even if other signatories regard their speech as an extraditable offense. First.S. it would not protect exiles who speak in the U. the convention‘s subject raises particular concerns about its restrictions on spe ech. The convention acknowledges this necessity by stating that the requirement to criminalize ―counseling‖ is ―[s]ubject to the respective constitutional principles and basic concepts of the legal systems‖ of the signatories. . including the Obama Administration. would be approving the creation of international legal instruments that restrict free speech. have opposed other international instruments. by ratifying the convention. will not extradite foreign nationals for exercising their free speech rights. Under its provisions. The convention thus creates a chilling effect on free speech throughout the hemisphere. Under a tyranny. and it would need to be the subject of a Senate reservation.(Theodore. This is undesirable both on principle and because it would give dictatorial governments (for example. In a democracy.

Trafficking .

posters. motivations. CP solves trafficking IOM 13 (International Organization for Migration. Specific areas of focus have included human trafficking routes and trends. http://www.¶ IOM's Vision¶ Building on its individual commitment and global presence. All of IOM's counter-trafficking activities are developed and implemented within a framework centered on the well-being of the trafficked person. Its primary aims are to prevent trafficking in persons. This includes training non-governmental organizations and government officials. and infrastructural upgrades.int/cms/countertrafficking) IOM operates from the outset that trafficking in persons needs to be approached within the overall context of managing migration. policies and procedures. While much of this work has been done at national level. To support these efforts.S. mental and social wellbeing of the individual and his or her community¶ Sustainability through institutional capacity building of governments and civil society¶ IOM conducts both quantitative and qualitative research as an essential information source to improve its . or resettlement to third countries in extreme cases.¶ IOM's use of mass media ensures that the information reaches large populations quickly. and equip vulnerable populations with the information necessary to better protect themselves from the recruitment tactics of traffickers. IOM carries out considerable research in the areas of legislation and policy. and the options of voluntary. and interpersonal communicative methods. reintegration assistance. The approach is based on three principles that govern all its counter-trafficking activities:¶ Respect for human rights¶ Physical.¶ IOM has been working to counter the trafficking in persons since 1994. and to protect victims from the trade while offering them options of safe and sustainable reintegration and/or return to their home countries. medical and psychosocial support. the causes and consequences of human trafficking both for the individual trafficked person and for society as well as the structures.fight against human trafficking. while it also works with local media.000 trafficked persons. Countertrafficking.¶ Direct Assistance¶ IOM offers direct assistance to victims of trafficking in collaboration with its partners. June 20 2013. and¶ bring justice to trafficked persons. men. and has provided assistance to approximately 20.¶ Technical Cooperation¶ IOM's technical cooperation activities build capacities of both government and civil society institutions to better address the challenges posed by human trafficking. NGOs and international organizations. This includes accommodation in places of safety.iom.IOM CP Text: the International Organization for Migration should increase its efforts to combat human trafficking along the U.and others . technical support in the development of counter-trafficking legislation. IOM increasingly collects and analyzes data on human trafficking from a regional perspective to better support cooperation between states to combat cross-border trade.¶ Prevention¶ Prevention is better than cure. Its broad range of activities is implemented in partnership with governmental institutions. encourage people to report suspected cases. International Organization for Migration Online. such as community theatre. to target particular populations with bespoke messages. and modioperandi of organized criminal groups. skills development and vocational training.¶ raise awareness and understanding of the issue. IOM strengthens the capacities of its partners in government and civil society and sets operational standards to achieve sustainable results that will:¶ provide protection and empower trafficked women. safe and dignified return to countries of origin. and IOM carries out information campaigns in both source and destination countries to educate the general public about trafficking in persons.¶ IOM estimates that as many as one-third of trafficked persons are minors. girls and boys. it has implemented more than 800 projects in over 100 countries.¶ IOM recognizes that each victim is unique and requires and desires .-Mexico border. such as police. and adheres to a policy of offering specialized protection to this most vulnerable group. In this time.

bespoke assistance. the nature of trafficking differs from area to area and keeps evolving. Likewise. . requiring changing responses.

¶ Jayasree.
1998.
¶ Regardless
of
how

women
and
children
first
became
involved
in
the
trade.
the
majority
of
organizations
and
 centers
working
in
this
¶ area
are
small.
In
addition.
¶ employment
skills.
2007). support
and
protection
by
governments
and
international organizations
¶ for
the
 rehabilitation
and
reintegration
of
women
and
children
recovering
from
the
 sex
¶ trade
is
extremely
limited.
Kara. 
2008.
a
stationery
shop
and
a
grocery
shop (Shakti
Samuha.
¶ Other
women
and
children
entered
the
sex
trade
near
their
own
homes
and
therefore
¶ require
local
facilities
in
which
they
can
access
services. http://www.ipg.ipg. http://www.
recovery
centers
Leah Wickham¶ 11¶ often
partner
with
private
care
facilities
and
public
social
workers
in
order
to
offer
¶ counseling
services.
has
implemented
a
program
titled
¶ JewelGirls
in
 which
survivors
of
sex
trafficking
make
and
sell
jewelry.
2001).
2006.
 international
organizations.
¶ medical
care
is
provided
largely
by
private
or
public
healthcare
providers.
Such 
individuals
were
more
than
likely
trafficked
into
the
sex
trade
and
are
¶ unable
to
return
to
their
communities
due
to
distance.


¶ Counseling¶ Because
of
the
extensive
psychological
and
behavioral
 effects
arising
from
¶ involvement
in
the
sex
trade.
education
and
employment
training
must
be
locally
¶ applicable.
as
well
as
of
one‘s
future
and
the
¶ world.
¶ Medical
Care¶ Most
shelters
or
drop‐in
centers
are
only
capable
of
providing
basic
health
¶ services
such
as
 nutrition.
Following
 ¶ is
an
overview
of
the
range
of
rehabilitation
and
reintegration
efforts
offered
by
NGOs.
2009.
education. ¶ While
both
local
and
 international
NGOs
provide recovery
services
to
previous
¶ sex
slaves
and
sex
workers.
A
local
organization
in
India
called
Shakti
Samuha
¶ provides
vocational
training
to
prepare
women
for
electrical
work.
 successful
recovery
must
include service
coordination
by
¶ governments.
a
nonprofit
organization
focused
on
the
empowerment
of
¶ young
girls
recovering
from
gender
violence.
Doctors
or
¶ nurses 
periodically
visit
rehabilitation
centers
or
individuals
must
be
taken
to
clinics or
¶ hospitals
(Chatterjee
et
al.
Recovering
sex
slaves
may
also
require
extensive
psychological
¶ counseling
and
long‐term
care
(Chatterjee
et
al.
Crawford
and
 Kaufman. 
health
clinics.
safe‐sex
training.
1998.
and
a
supportive
community
(Crawford
¶ and
Kaufman.
These
girls
report
a
¶ sense
of
self‐worth
in
their
ability
to
create
something
that
others
want
to
purchase 
¶ (FAIR
Fund).
the
majority
of
rehabilitation
and
¶ reintegration
 programs
must
be
developed
and
implemented
by
NGOs.
For
example.
¶ childcare.
and
legal
support
 (Crawford
and
Kaufman.
counseling
services
are
developed
to
 accommodate
each
¶ individual
as
appropriate.
Many
programs
have
also
found
when
survivors
of
violence
and
¶ exploitation
assist
other
survivors
in
their
recovery
they
develop
a
larger
sense
 .
2007). The Rehabilitation and Reintegration Process for Women and Children Recovering from the Sex Trade.
and
economic
issues
encountered
by
¶ these
individuals.
However.
Overall.
2008).
Similar
to
counseling
services. Rehabilitation
centers
seek
to¶ provide
literacy
programs.
2006).
autonomous
women‘s
groups
(Ploumen. The Rehabilitation and Reintegration Process for Women and Children Recovering from the Sex Trade.
As
often
as
possible.
and
primary
care.
¶ or
community
rejection.
Because
each
community
has
¶ unique
cultures
and
 industries.
¶ Empowerment
¶ While
 the
rehabilitation
and
reintegration
process
depend
on
a
variety
of
¶ services. The Institute for Policy and Governance.
2004.
hygiene.
¶ NGOs
 work
with
governments
and
international
organizations
to
provide
legal
and¶ financial
support.
psychological.
social.
Farr. April 21 2009.
group
¶ therapy
sessions
and
family
integration
are
also
increasingly
incorporated
 into
¶ counseling
programs
(Chatterjee
et
al.
2007).
counseling.
hotel
cooking. staff member at the Virginia Tech School of Public and International Affairs.
2008).
and
security
(Jayasree.
2006.
Kara.
 Increasing
numbers
of
NGOs
are
recognizing
the
importance
of
¶ providing
counselors
with
previous
experiences
of
violence
and
exploitation
as
well
as
¶ the
same
 ethnic
and
cultural
background
of
survivors.
counseling.
some
¶ organizations
use
art
therapy
as
a
means
of
emotional
and
economic
empowerment.
2005.
Robinson
¶ and
Páramo.edu/) http://www.
¶ 1998).
local
agencies.
an
organization
in
Nepal
focuses
on
providing
education
and
¶ skills
such
 as
driving.
Consequently.
medical
care.
2004.vt.
2009.
Thus.edu/papers/Wickham_Sex%20Trafficking%20Victims.
Individuals
participating
in
¶ counseling
are
better
able
to
identify
with
someone
who
has
undergone
similar
¶ experiences
or
suffered
similar
ethnic
or
cultural
discrimination.
Kempadoo
and
Doezema.Jayasree. The
Ministry
of
Women
and
Child
Development 
of
¶ India).
sleeping
and
bathing
facilities.
NGOs. Shakti
Samuha.
All
survivors
require
a
central
location
for
support.
and
families
(Crawford
and
 Kaufman.
community
heath.pdf Overall.
¶ For
example.




¶ Shelters
versus
Drop‐in
Centers¶ Many
women
and
children
recovering
from
the
sex
trade
require
temporary
¶ housing.
roles
in
beauty
salons
¶ and
office
work
the
NGO
also
provides
loansto
support
small
businesses 
such
as
goat‐¶ rearing. April 21 2009.
surrounding
¶ communities.
Because
many
¶ women
and
children
were
often
denied
access
to
school
and
 educational
opportunities.
Few
nongovernmental¶ organizations
are
able
to
employ
staff
counselors
of
 their
own.
and
micro‐credit
opportunities
¶ (Crawford
and
Kaufman.
2006.
education
and
employment
¶ play
a
large
role
in
their
rehabilitation
and
reintegration.
affected
individuals
involved
in
the
sex
trade
 develop
a
distorted
¶ perception
of
themselves
as
sex
objects
with
their
only
skill
to
please
men.


 Reintegration is a long-term effort that only coordination between NGOs and international organizations can solve Wickham 9 (Leah.
2004).
¶ education
and
skills
training.
¶ Empowerment
programs
enable
women
and
children
to
recognize 
the
sources
of
their
¶ low
self‐esteem
and
to
construct
a
more
positive
identity.
¶ Education
and
Employment
¶ The
incorporation
of
women
and
children
into
the
sex
trade
is
often
attributed¶ to
a
lack
of
educational
and
economic
 opportunities.
Robinson
and
Páramo
(2007)
¶ refer
to
this
process
as
cognitive
restructuring
 ―which
enables
the identification
and
¶ alteration
of
abuse‐distorted
thoughts.
Kempadoo
and
Doezema.vt.
Kempadoo
and
Doezema.
As
¶ mentioned
above. The Institute for Policy and Governance.
behavioral.
¶ whether
as
sex
workers
or
sex
slaves.
the
rehabilitation
and
 reintegration
strategies
for
¶ their
recovery
are
similar.

Additionally.
2008. Instead.
2008).
recovery
facilities. developing
increased
self‐esteem
and
a
sense
of
self‐empowerment
among
¶ recovering
 women
is
perceived
as
the
most
important
element
for
recovery
from
Leah Wickham¶ 12¶ violence
and
exploitation.Extensions Lone governments have insufficient support networks – international organizations are key to coordination Wickham 9 (Leah.
2008). staff member at the Virginia Tech School of Public and International Affairs. 
Some
of
these
individuals
may
¶ also
remain
active
in
the
industry
and
seek
services
to
improve
their
experiences
such
as
¶ condom
distribution.
counseling
services
are
imperative.
for
 those
who
were
removed
from
their
original
communities
¶ counselors
often
suggest
that
a
period
of
recovery
based
on
individual
need
precede
¶ reintegration
into 
society
(Chatterjee
et
al.‖
¶ Empowerment
programs
often
include
leadership
training.
Recovery
efforts
must
simultaneously
 address
¶ the
physical.
especially
sexual
abuse
(Crawford
and
Kaufman.
danger
from
criminal
networks.
¶ it
is
important
for
them
to
learn
to
read
and
write.
beliefs
and
assumptions…by
gently
challenging
¶ abuse‐distorted
views
of
oneself
and
of 
others.vt.ipg.
and
education.
medical
 services.
Moreover.
FAIR
 Fund.edu/) Rehabilitation
and
reintegration
programs
and
strategies
targeting
individuals
¶ recovering
from
violence
and
exploitation
 within
the
sex
trade
require
multifaceted
¶ approaches
involving
a
variety
of
actors.

in some cases.
Women
and
children
recovering 
from
the
¶ sex
trade
need
consistent
and
reliable
access
to
counseling.
preferably
in
¶ their
home
 communities.
¶ many
NGOs 
report
that
successful
strategies
include
family
visits
during
rehabilitation.
medical
care.¶ As women and foreigners. June 20 2013. They are more vulnerable to physical. Migration and Gender.
a
large
challenge
in
¶ economically
 poor
areas. men are also the target¶ of trafficking.¶ Psychosocial pressures and divergent sets of cultural expectations often bring marginalization in¶ the host country and the dual responsibility of¶ work and family hit women hardest. ensuring that all background information is disaggregated by age. sexual and¶ verbal abuse when travelling.¶ However.int/cms/iom-and-gender) A network of Gender Focal Points was set up throughout the IOM Missions and HQs who currently number over 102 persons (20 in HQs and 82 in the Missions). a migrant woman¶ may lose her legal status and face deportation. promoting migrant gender issues in public administration programmes of countries). including gender knowledge and experience as a requirement in Terms of Reference.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/published_docs/brochures_and_info_sheets/gender _factsheet_en. These staff members volunteered to devote between 5 and 10% of their time to further the understanding of gender issues in IOM.
¶ Most
 importantly.of
¶ purpose
in
their
own
lives. ¶ . IOM successfully addresses gender issues IOM 13 (International Organization for Migration.¶ Advocating for the inclusion of migrant gender issues in project/programme formulation (such as identifying and updating gender issues relevant to programmes.
reintegration
is
often
one
of
the
greatest
challenges
¶ for
individuals
because
of
the
stigma
attached 
to
the
sex
trade
regardless
of
how
they
¶ were
involved. And they are more likely to fall prey to human traffickers for the sex industry.¶ Their status as ―dependants‖ often limits their¶ access to employment. raising gender issues in project meetings). June 20 2013. understanding and applying indicators of success).
2004.¶ Contributing gender migration information and analysis to general policy (for example: preparing documentation reflecting IOM's policy on gender issues. training and meetings.
Ploumen. Migration and Gender.
Crawford
 and
Kaufman. sex and ethnic origin. migrant women often¶ face double discrimination in the labour market.
they
continuously
need
to
feel
empowered
in
order
to
confront
the
¶ many
obstacles
they
will
encounter.
despite
the
difficulties
inherent
in
reintegration. International Organization for Migration Online.pdf) But migration holds more dangers for women than men. participating in project design. taken into¶ consideration and addressed by IOM projects and services‖.

¶ Reintegration¶ Ultimately. programmes and projects).
and
seed
money
to
establish
a
¶ self‐sufficient
livelihood
(Chatterjee
et
al. social and health programmes.
and
training.
¶ gradual
reintroduction
into
 the
community. This goes beyond being a simple post-box for information dissemination.
job
training.¶ Supporting the inclusion of gender issues in all migration project/programme implementation activities (for example. International Organization for Migration Online.
2006. ensuring that both migrant women and men have information on IOM services.iom. The Terms of Reference inter alia involve:¶ Contributing to the formulation of gender- sensitive programming (for example.
2001). liaising with the field Missions on gender issues.¶ Supporting migrant gender-sensitive project or programme evaluation (such as providing Missions with documentation on relevant gender issues.
¶ Jayasree. ¶ ―IOM is committed to ensuring that the particular needs of all migrant women are identified. http://www.
2008).
Nonetheless. and since the focus is usually on¶ women.¶ If the relationship changes.
However. 
shelters
and
drop‐in
centers
for
individuals
recovering
from
¶ involvement
in
 the
sex
trade
seek
to
reintegrate
their
clients
into
society.
2006.
Without
the
support
of
their
families
or
the
possibility
of
 marriage.iom.
Mentorships
and
peer
education
by
those
who
have
¶ experienced
similar
situations
also
enable
women
and
children
to
envision
a
 future
¶ without
violence
and
exploitation
(Chatterjee
et
al. IOM creates sustainable migration practices that mitigate gender discrimination IOM 13 (International Organization for Migration. these men can find themselves in an¶ even more precarious situation. http://www. identifying relevant gender information.
Crawford
and
Kaufman.
the
rehabilitation
process
should
¶ continue
far
into
the
future
and
 potentially
may
never
end. and their residence may depend on¶ their relationship with an employed male partner. ¶ IOM‘S GENDER POLICY¶ In 1995 IOM adopted a gender mainstreaming policy. promoting gender balance among staff.
In
 other
words.
2008.¶ Most
aid
organizations
advocate
that
the
recovery
process
not
end
once
¶ reintegration
into
society
has
been
achieved. ensuring that final project reports specifically identify gender gaps). ¶ Migrants move between two cultures – their culture of origin and the culture of their new home.
many
¶ women
and
children
require
marketable
skills
to
be
self‐sufficient.

IOM‘s AVRR programmes promote international dialogue and cooperation on migration of trafficking. and downstream to ensure that the¶ needs and contributions of migrant men and women are addressed by the organization‘s programmes. including information and referral to local partners if necessary¶ Onward travel to the final destination¶ Short.Gender mainstreaming is now an integral part of IOM‘s work. IOM and partners in countries of origin provide migrants with socio-economic support to promote their self-sufficiency and contributions to their local communities. International Organization for Migration Online. including business set-ups. ultimately only be ensured in tandem with socio-economic development. policy and advocacy measures.¶ Mainstreaming works upstream to sensitize policy-makers in gender issues.¶ The successful implementation of AVRR programmes requires the cooperation and participation of a broad range of actors. including the migrants.and/or medium-term reintegration assistance (depending on the respective AVRR project and resources made available by donors). June 20 2013. medical assistance and other tailor-made assistance according to the returnees‘ special needs.iom. or those with health-related needs. Targeted research also provides¶ timely information on trafficking in the countries concerned and maps the regional networks and routes that¶ facilitate the trade. Building on experience and a world-wide network of offices and partners. and¶ other vulnerable groups. Beneficiaries of IOM‘s assistance include:¶ individuals whose application for asylum was rejected or withdrawn¶ stranded migrants¶ victims children.¶ IOM‘s Assistance Over the Years¶ 1. and¶ Capacity-building activities with emphasis on:¶ linking return to local development¶ access to services¶ strengthening of local networks¶ improving local capacity to deliver reintegration assistance.2+ million migrants assisted since 1979¶ 400. ¶ Here are some examples of gender mainstreamed projects implemented by IOM throughout the world:¶ Counter-Trafficking¶ Voluntary return and reintegration of trafficked and other vulnerable migrant women and children in the¶ Mekong region in South-East Asia.¶ with warmth.¶ AVRR Activities¶ In host countries:¶ Awareness-raising for AVRR¶ Gathering of country-of-origin information¶ Profiling of diasporas¶ Outreach and information dissemination to migrant communities.int/cms/return-assistance-migrants-governments) Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration (AVRR) is an indispensable part of a comprehensive approach to migration management aiming at orderly and humane return and reintegration of migrants who are unable or unwilling to remain in host countries and wish to return voluntarily to their countries of origin. projects¶ and services.000+ migrants assisted over the last ten years¶ 25. including country-of-origin information¶ Specialized assistance and referral services to vulnerable individuals¶ Temporary accommodation¶ Facilitating travel documentation¶ Travel arrangements¶ Arrangement of escorts. including referral systems to public services¶ Individualized counselling on return and reintegration assistance. There are many things to do.000 migrants assisted per year on average¶ Beneficiaries¶ For migrants who need to return home but lack the means to do so. AVRR assistance to thousands of migrants returning home every year. however. The sustainability of returns may. civil society and the governments in both host countries and countries of origin. if required¶ In transit:¶ Assistance with travel in transit¶ Assistance with escort in transit.¶ Objectives¶ The provision of reintegration assistance to migrants in their countries of origin is an essential element to ensure sustainability of returns. Like bamboo shoots they need a chance to grow. formal education.000 to 30.¶ IOM‘s Approach¶ IOM is mandated by . many children to help. ¶ Solida. Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration. The partnerships created by IOM and a diverse range of national and international stakeholders are essential to the effective implementation of AVRRs – from the prereturn to the reintegration stages. if required. Director of the IOM-supported Battambang Reception Center: ¶ ―It‘s all step by step. http://www.¶ In countries of origin:¶ Assistance through immigration and customs on arrival at the airport¶ Post-arrival reception arrangements. This project is establishing a sustainable cross-border working arrangement in six countries by strengthening the ability of governments and NGOs to provide voluntary return and¶ reintegration assistance to the victims. and to promote the necessary cooperation in the region to counter trafficking effectively through legal. to help them grow. including unaccompanied migrant activities provide vital management issues among host countries and countries of origin.¶ Vision¶ As a core activity of IOM. That is what we aim to do. administrative. IOM‘s AVRR programmes are often the only solution to their immediate plight. It tries to ensure that women and men are provided with equal opportunities to develop and utilize their skills and to participate in decisions affecting their¶ lives. care and dignity IOM solves reintegration – key to improving lives of women after being rescued IOM 13 (International Organization for Migration. vocational training. But they are all Cambodian¶ children.

¶ BUSINESS OWNERSHIP¶ Rapha House has an aggressive and generous program that encourages girls with an entrepreneurial spirit to launch businesses of their own. the root causes of irregular migration¶ advocating for the adoption of comprehensive approaches towards voluntary return. 2013. One that we continue to promote. including post-return reintegration assistance. while seeking adherence to applicable international principles and standards¶ preserving the integrity of regular migration structures and asylum procedures¶ enhancing dialogue and cooperation between origin.org/what-we-do/reentry) Four doors lead to lasting freedom for a rescued girl. Many families of trafficked children were not complicit with the traffickers. and we offer them with economic opportunities that help them and their children to remain free. trafficked and exploited girls are regarded as throwaways. Banks. .raphahouse. Still others in offices. And we encourage relationships that are culturally appropriate and in keeping with high values. For in many of the cultures in which we work. All have found real independence. to the extent possible. For this reason.¶ This is huge. Some even work for Rapha House! Restaurants.¶ STRENGTHENING FAMILIES¶ It‘s a fact. some of our girls have gone on to create families of their own.its Constitution to ensure orderly migration.¶ This is a remarkable achievement. Some have started their own sewing shops.¶ Some work in factories. The list is endless. IOM emphasizes that voluntariness remains a precondition for all its AVRR activities. And it‘s a fact that many of our girls return home whenever their families are evaluated by our social workers to be safe. Others have begun their own beauty salons. http://www. The goal is the same—to find reasonable employment that allows girls to remain free.¶ In line with its mandate. Rather they were duped. Travel agencies. Others in marketplaces. transit and host countries involved in the return process and reinforcing the responsibility of countries of origin towards their returning nationals ¶ addressing.¶ EMPLOYMENT¶ All of our girls deserve to live freely. But not all of our girls will marry or become business owners. Re-entry. While others run their own retail shops. through voluntary return and reintegration assistance. In particular. Strong reintegration programs key to promote independence Lane 13 (peace activist. we guide our girls in appropriate interactions with the opposite sex. and¶ working with national and international partners in both host country and country of origin. By encouraging respectful and appropriate opposite-sex relationships. Rapha House Online. to promote international dialogue and implement capacity-building for AVRR initiatives.¶ MARRIAGE¶ Marriage is an institution ordained by God to benefit and strengthen society. inter alia. we work hard to strengthen families with solid information to avoid revictimization. At Rapha House. And one that opens the door to lasting freedom for a rescued girl. Hotels.¶ Marriage¶ Employment¶ Business ownership¶ And strengthening families. we seek to find opportunities for meaningful and dignified employment. IOM‘s key policy considerations when developing and implementing AVRR projects encompass: ¶ safeguarding dignity and rights of migrants in operating returns. For these girls.