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Lab Session 2: Directional Coupler

Title: Directional Coupler

Objectives: To investigate the operation of various microwave coupler.

Equipments: a. Combo Tester (ED-4770) b. VCO (ED-3300A) c. Detector (ED-33008) d. Circulator (ED-3300C) e. Directional Coupler (ED-3300D) f. BNC - Banana g. Banana Banana h. 50 Load 1pc 1pc 2pcs 3pcs 1pc 1pc 1pc 1pc

Procedures: 1. At the beginning of the experiment, combo tester, circulator, detector, and directional coupler are connected according to the correct sequence. 2. Port 2 (P2) of directional coupler is connected to circulator in order to measure the signal of port 2 (P 2 ), and port 3 (P 3 ) and 4 (P4) are matched using 50 resistor. 3. Channel 1 is adjusted and voltage is channelled within 1 V to 12 V respectively in order to supply the operational power to the ED-3300A (VCO) module. 4. Channel 1 V tune voltage of the ED-3300A (VCO) module is changed such that the output voltages can have values shown in the V tune table. Then, the detected values with the detector are measured and recorded in P 2 in the table. The frequency to the Vtune voltage is adjusted by referring to V tune table. 5. Port 3 (P3) of directional coupler is connected to circulator in order to measure the signal of port 3, and port 2 (P 2 ) and 4 (P4) are matched using 50 resistor.

Lab Session 2: Directional Coupler

6. Channel 1 V tune voltage of the ED-3300A (VCO) module is changed such that the output voltages can have values shown in the V tune table. Then, the detected values with the detector are measured and recorded in P 3 in the table. The frequency to the Vtune voltage is adjusted by referring to V tune table. 7. Port 4 (P4) of directional coupler is connected to circulator in order to measure the signal of port 3, and port 2 (P 2 ) and 3 (P3) are matched using 50 resistor. 8. Channel 1 V tune voltage of the ED-3300A (VCO) module is changed such that the output voltages can have values shown in the V tune table. Then, the detected values with the detector are measured and recorded in P 4 in the table. The frequency to the Vtune voltage is adjusted by referring to V tune table. 9. The complete table is showed in result part.

Lab Session 2: Directional Coupler

Result: Frequency [GHz] Voltage [Vtune] 1.4 1.4 1.5 2.4 1.6 3.7 1.7 4.9 1.8 6.1 1.9 7.3 2.0 8.4

Table 1: Vtune for measured frequencies

P1 Frequency [GHz] 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 Input Voltage [mV] 235.88 502.92 721.10 745.58 708.76 691.83 648.63 Input Power [dBm] 0.40 7.04 10.15 10.38 9.99 9.79 9.25 Output Voltage [mV] 199.06 495.45 650.87 708.76 666.80 654.63 600.48

P2 Output Power [dBm] 0.47 6.94 9.42 9.80 9.41 9.10 8.66 Output Voltage [mV] 35.85 126.61 181.13 193.64 183.23 172.98 155.77

P3 Output Power [dBm] -12.63 -4.84 -1.97 -1.34 -1.88 -2.47 -3.10 Output Voltage [mV] 1.65 25.03 38.15 44.36 45.49 46.18 42.02

P4 Output Power [dBm] -30.79 -19.17 -15.36 -14.13 -13.86 -13.70 -14.54

Table 2: Measured voltage and power of each port

Coupling Frequency [GHz] Coefficient P1[dBm] P3[dBm] = [dB] 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 -14.993 1.627 7.119 8.909 7.254 5.980 4.747

Transmission Coefficient P1[dBm] P2[dBm] = [dB] -0.700 0.062 0.324 0.249 0.259 0.317 0.286

Isolation Coefficient P1[dBm] P4[dBm] = [dB] -18.863 -4.350 -1.799 -1.339 -1.421 -1.459 -1.964

Directivity P3[dBm] P4[dBm] = [dB] -3.963 -5.977 -8.919 -10.230 -8.676 -7.440 -6.712

Table 3: Characteristic of Directional Coupler

Lab Session 2: Directional Coupler

Sample calculation: For frequency = 1.5GHz, Coupling coefficient ( )

Transmission coefficient (

Isolation coefficient (

Directivity (

Lab Session 2: Directional Coupler

Observation: 1. What is the average coupling coefficient [dBm] of the used coupler in the rage of 1.7GHz 1.9GHz? In other words, which decibel [dB] Coupler is it?

Average coupling coefficient of 1.7 1.9 GHz

Hence, a 7.3818 dB Coupler is used in this experiment.

2. What kinds of problems are caused when the unused ports for the measurement are not matched?

When the unused ports of measurement are not matched, the signals are reflected back towards the source, causing standing wave and leads to inaccuracy in the measurements

Lab Session 2: Directional Coupler