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Table of Contents Introduction 1. Objectives 2. Research questions 3. Theoretical and descriptive framework 3.1. Phonology 3.1.1. Segments

Description of the phonological system of English consonant sounds Description of the phonological system of Chilean Spanish consonant sounds Chart including English and Chilean Spanish consonant systems 3.2. Interlanguage 3.3. Contrastive Analysis 3.4. Error Analysis 3.5. Taxonomy applied in this study 4. Methodology 4.1. Subjects 4.1.1. Criteria for the selection of subjects 4.2. Data 4.2.1. Data elicitation Reasons for the choice of news headlines 4.2.2. Data elicitation procedure 4.2.3. Data processing Tasks performed prior to the data processing Predictions of possible deviant forms learners may produce Tasks performed to process the data 5. Analysis and discussion of the results 5.1. Description and explanation of deviances produced by the subjects 5.2 Introduction to graphs and tables 5.2.1 General results 5.2.2 Specific results 6. Conclusions 7. References Appendix

the taxonomy of the difficulties English consonant sounds present to Chilean Spanish speakers proposed by Professor C. Conclusions Our research study aimed to identify and classify the deviations in the pronunciation of consonantal sounds in proper names and other capitalized items produced by 12 Chilean Spanish advanced learners of English. which refers to the presence of two or more consonants. Osama Bin Laden). they tend to behave similarly in a second or foreign language. The percentages in these two cases were 20%. The deviances produced by the subjects of the study and their frequency of occurrence are discussed below. the deviations reached 15% of frequency of occurrence. act as allophonic variants in the students’ mother tongue.Vivanco (1991) was applied to elicit the data. reaching 26%. The deviant forms produced by each student were phonetically transcribed and both predictions and deviances were compared. As Spanish speaking learners of English rely upon spelling when reading aloud in their mother tongue.6. The categories that followed it in frequency were sounds that occur in English but are not present in Chilean Spanish and sounds that occur in both phonological systems. one after the other.g. within a word or in the boundaries of words. The category that presented the highest frequency of occurrence was graphemic interference. On the contrary. This behavior is normal in the case of beginners and even intermediate students but not so in advanced learners. thus pronouncing them as if they were Spanish items. with 20% each. Concerning the two categories that followed in frequency of occurrence. Gaddafi. In turn. due to its complexity. learners were requested to read aloud news headlines form the BBC World News. a higher percentage of deviances was expected. The reading of the headlines was recorded. . This percentage seems to be slightly high if we consider that the subjects in the study were advanced students. The fact that graphemic interference shows the highest frequency of occurrence was not expected in a group of advanced students of English. In order to classify these deviances. Gbagbo. is of frequent occurrence in English. In relation to the category of consonant clusters and consonant sequences. predictions of possible deviations were made on the basis of the taxonomy mentioned above. the one related to sounds that occur in English but are not present in Chilean Spanish was not expected to reach such a high percentage in a group of advanced learners. Since in the news headlines the subjects read there were several instances of proper names which were not of Anglo-Saxon origin (e. This category. the deviances concerning the category of problems caused by the transfer of Chilean sounds to English reached 11% of frequency of occurrence. Obama. Therefore. This category involves the phonological environment as well as the fact that the sounds may be significant in the target language and. the learners may have relied on orthography. especially in terms of the number of segments involved. the category of sounds that occurred in both phonological systems. Before processing the data. while in Spanish it is rarely found. at the same time. was supposed to present a higher percentage of deviances even in the case of advanced learners.

Concerning suggestions for further studies. semiconsonants or semivowels. scientists. which makes it difficult to generalize the research findings.The category that presented the lowest frequency of occurrence (3%) was the one related to glides. it may be interesting to do research on some suprasegmental aspects such as word stress in the pronunciation of proper names in English. In addition. Vivanco. 1991) applied in the study. . writers. Regarding limitations of the study. it should be pointed out that the presence ―in the data―of a number of non Anglo-Saxon proper names. mainly of politicians. This taxonomy of difficulties presented by English consonantal sounds to Chilean Spanish learners of English proved to be adequate for the objectives of this research study since it accounted for 95% of the deviances of the data. Nontypical deviations refer to those which cannot be explained on phonological bases and thus they are not included in the theoretical-descriptive framework (C. it would be useful to collect data related specifically to proper names of Anglo-Saxon origin which are frequently used in English such as names of countries. It should be pointed out that non-typical deviances reached 5% of frequency of occurrence. Another limitation of the study is concerned with the small number of subjects (12). This low percentage was expected since the subjects of the research were advanced learners of English. actors. may be considered as an added difficulty. cities.

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