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Proceedings oh the 18th IAHR International Symposium on Ice (2006


Tuomo Kärnä1,2, Yan Qu3 and QianjinYue3 1 Karna Research and Consulting, Helsinki, Finland 2 Formely VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland 3 Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China

ABSTRACT This paper addresses a loading scenario where a sheet of level ice acts on a vertical structure and creates forces due to ice crushing. A simple expression has been derived by the authors to estimate the global ice pressure as a function of ice thickness and the aspect ratio. Full-scale data that has been recorded on a lighthouse structure in the Baltic Sea was used for the original version of this model. The present paper compares the new model with other data that has been obtained in the Beaufort Sea and in the Bohai Bay. Based on this comparison, a modified version of the model of the global ice force is developed herein. KEY WORDS: Ice forces; Vertical structures; Global pressure, Size efect; Ice crushing. INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES This paper addresses the problem of evaluating the magnitude of ice forces on vertical offshore structures. The highest forces due to level ice action arise in conditions where the ice fails by crushing. A common approach is to use a quasi-static ice force as a substitute for the time-varying ice force. Accordingly, the design ice forces for this loading scenario are defined by estimating the global ice force as
FG = pG w h


where pG is the global pressures, h is the ice thickness and w is the width of the loaded area of the structure. According to this definition, the parameter pG represents the maximum peak value of a time-varying total ice force, occurring within a given time of exposure. The global pressure is defined as the average pressure over the nominal ice-structure contact area. The global pressure is also known as the effective pressure. The global pressure depends on the size of the ice-structure contact area. This size effect can be expressed in several ways. A common approach has been to use the nominal contact area A = h w as the main parameter to explain the size effect in the form pG = pG (A). This approach has some disadvantaged as discussed by Blanchet and DeFranco (2001). Therefore, various combinations of the three parameters h, w and w/h have also been used to predict the size effect in the from pG = pG (h, w) or pG = pG (h, w/h). Løset et al. (1999) as well as Shkhinek et al. (2003) made a synthesis of a large amount of results that has been obtained in earlier


Second. Simple formulas were derived for the function f(w/h) to define the effect of the aspect ratio on flat faced and circular structures. most of the data points in the region h > 0. an upper bound curve can be used to study the size effect also in the region of h > 0. Therefore. Force measurements were done on a cylindrical leg using small load panels. Due to this research. Masterson and Spencer (2001) as well as Takeuchi et al. On the other hand. the size effect of the global pressure was expressed in the form p EG ∝ h n ⋅ f ( w / h) (2) where n = -0. rafted ice is weaker than the parent ice.38 h-0. Because of the possibility of flexural failure. the use of these data points in a regression analysis almost certainly yields an uncertain trendline. In many cases.10 m were not shown in Fig. The tests are described in Schwarz and Jochmann (2001). The global forces were reported as 95% cdf values (Wessels and Jochmann 1991. Measured data points for h < 0. Table 1). 2006a. the highest pressure values of such ice may have the same level of competence as the parent ice. Kärnä and Qu (2005) provide further details of the problems related to data analysis as well as solutions to handle these problems. Therefore.50 for the test conditions concerned. which is the northernmost part of the Baltic Sea. Rafted ice can be fully refrozen. however. 2006c. Therefore. Under these circumstances. Pressures on a jacket leg in the Bohai Bay Wessels and Jochmann (1991) describe full-scale tests that were carried out on a jacket platform in 1989 and 1990.35 m. in particular within small ice volumes that create forces on load panels. some of the datapoints in Fig. 1 because of a high probability of flexural failure in thin ice.Proceedings oh the 18th IAHR International Symposium on Ice (2006) experimental research. The markers in Fig. It is known that the parent ice is seldom thicker than 0. 1 show those data points that relate to level ice actions. This data set can be conveniently be used to discuss several practical problems of the present kind of data analysis. The global force acting on the leg was then calculated from the compressive forces measured by these panels. -262- . The results of a regression analysis can be misleading also because the inclusion of data from events with low pressure values depends on subjective judgement. The objective of the present paper is to first compare the results obtained in the Baltic Sea conditions with experimental results obtained in other sea areas. REVIEW OF FULL-SCALE DATA The model derived from the Baltic Sea data can be verified by using full-scale data obtained in the Beaufort Sea and in the Bohai Bay. the original model is modified to take account of other data obtained in thick ice sheets. (2005. this data is reviewed as follows. 2006d) used this data to derive a formula that predicts the size effect. Kärnä et al. Full-scale measurements have been conducted in the Gulf of Bothnia.35 m should be considered as rafted ice. 2006b.10 m may have been influenced by flexural failure.35 is also shown as determined by Kärnä and Qu (2005). The first problem relates to the ice quality. (2002) describe recent exprimental developments in predicting the size effect. An upper bound curve pGUB = 0. The test site was located in the Bohai Bay. 1 for h = 0.35 m in this sea area.

Wright (1998) analysed several case histories that Molikpaq experienced in the winter 1985/86 in the Beaufort Sea. Data on first-year ice events in the Beaufort Sea Blanchet and DeFranco (1996) developed a formula for the global pressure using an extensive database on full-scale first-year ice load data. This data base was used and updated by Blanchet (1998).5 2 Ice thickness (m) Figure 2.00x 1 -0. An upper bound curve is shown as pGUB = 1.8 Measured global pressure Upper Bound p=0.4 0. Figure 3 shows the peak values of the global pressure in forty events where the thickness of first-year ice varied from 0.2 0.Proceedings oh the 18th IAHR International Symposium on Ice (2006) 1 0.6 m to 2.6 0.30 1. ice pressures of the 60 m wide face of the structure were reported.38.y = 1.2 0 0 0. Global pressures due to first-year ice (Blanchet 1998).8 Ice Thickness (m) Figure 1. 2 2 Global pressure (MPa) Global pressure (Mpa) 1. Data that was obtained while first-year level ice was acting on the structure at the -263- .30 is also shown. Figure 2 shows how this data set predicts the global ice force as a function of ice thickness. each data point was accurately digitized from Fig.5 y = 1.5 1 0. Table 4 of their paper provides data on the global pressures.35 Pressure (MPa) 0. 7 of Blanchet (1998).6 0.00 h-0.38 .5 1 1.13 of Wright (1998). All data points were standardised to correspond a width of w = 162 m.4 0.35 h-0.38h-0. Using a special purpose software.0 m. Based on the evaluated face loads and estimations of the corresponding ice thicknesses.02 m wide leg of a jacket structure in the Bohai Bay (Wessels and Jochmann 1991). Peak global pressures experienced by Molikpaq in 1985/86 (Wright 1998). The data points were re-plotted from Figure 4. An upper bound curve pGUB = 1. Timco and Johnston (2004) reported a reanalysis of the forces that were measured on the Molikpaq structure in the Beaufort Sea.5 0 0 0. Figure 3. Maximum crushing pressures measured on a 2.5 0 0.5 Ice thickness(m) 2 0 0.35 x -0.5 1 1.

8 MP at ice velocities v < 0. It can be seen that the global pressures amounted up to around 1.5 2 Ice Thickness (m) v < 0. 1 to 3). The ice forces arising in Arctic sea areas appear to be higher than in the sub Arctic ice regimes.0 0 0.0 0. w = 60 m. the data analysed by Timco and Johnston (2004) was classified herein into two groups in accordance with the ice velocity. it is inferred that the influence of the compliance should be considered in a formula for the global ice pressure.06 m/s (Rogers et al. (2006d). 1996).5 0. (2006d) is in good agreement with the first-year data that covers the thickness range from 0. The thickness effect pEG ∼ h-0. 1986. The results of this classification are shown in Fig. However. the thickness effect appears to be much smaller for multi-year ice in the range h ≥ 2.Proceedings oh the 18th IAHR International Symposium on Ice (2006) geographical location "Amauligak I-65" was used for the present analysis.5 1. This data indicates that the ice thickness has at most a very small influence on the global pressure when h > 2.9 m/s whereas they remain in the range of pG < 1. Data on multi-year ice events in the Beaufort Sea All the data shown in Figs.0 Global pressure (MPa) 2 p 1. 4. MODIFICATION OF THE BALTIC MODEL Three major conclusions can be made from the data that is shown in Figs. The loaded width varied from 60 m to 105 m.5 m. 1 to 5: • • • Global forces on compliant structures can increase at a range of low ice velocities. Therefore. -264- .5 1 0. This phenomenon is apparently a result of a timevarying ice-stucture interaction that was described above.09 m/s Series1 Series2 v > 0. Therefore. 1 to 4 concern actions due to first-year ice.2 m to about 1.5 m (Figs. Figure 5 shows data extracted from these two papers. Global pressures due to multi-year actions have been analysed by Wright (1998) as well as Timco and Johnston (2004). This was not the case in the very stiff lighthouse that provided data for the model described in Kärnä et al.4 Mpa at higher ice velocities.5 0 2 Timo Wright p 3 4 5 6 Ice thickness (m) 7 Figure 4. The markers in Fig.09 m/s 1.1 m/s to a value around 0. 4 show the global pressure in 39 events where the ice failure mode was classified as crushing. Global pressure due to multiyear ice. Previous analysis of the Molikpaq data shows that the panel pressures increased significantly when the ice velocity decreased from the range of v > 0. Fig.5 1 1. Figure 5. Global pressure (MPa) 2. 6.1 of Hardy et al.34 predicted in Kärnä et al.5 m. Global pressures due to first-year ice.

Kärnä et al. However. (2) is not valid for very thick ice.36 ⎪ 80 ⎩ where pEG γD γS AIR is an equivalent global pressure for a quasi-static design. (2006d) and the expression (3) in the prediction of the annual maxima of the global pressure on the lighthouse Norströmsgrund.Proceedings oh the 18th IAHR International Symposium on Ice (2006) The basic structure of Eq. 8(b) shows predicted maximum annual values of the global pressure for first-year ice (FY) and for multi-year ice (MY). It was found that the size effect model described in Kärnä et al.75 for first-year ice and AIR= 2. a dynamic magnification coefficient to consider inertial effects. However. (3). (2005) studied the influence of the ice rubble that accumulates above and underneath an ice sheet that is acting on the structure. The 20% higher AIR value for the multi-year ice is justified due to -265- . The influence of the time of exposure is also considered by this parameter. The first simulations indicated that this kind of rubble accumulations has practically no effect on the global pressure if h < 1 m. The ice regime parameter was assumed as AIR= 1. (2005d) can be modified as ⎛ w⎞ p EG = γ D γ S AIR h n ⎜ ⎟ ⎝h⎠ −0.0 and AIR= 1. Based on Eq. the ice thickness h as well as the width w are expressed in [m] and the global pressure is obtained in [Mpa]. The ice regime parameter AIR is here non-dimensional. a straightforward curve-fitting approach was adopted. The calculation was made using the parameter values of γD =1.4. which considers the variations of the forces encounted in different ice regimes. Hence. a coefficient to consider the magnification of the external force due to alternating ductile-brittle crushing that can occur for a compliant structure. As a first trial.0 and γS =1.36 + h .50 + . the third conclusion made above shows that Eq. (2) such as to make it compatible also with data on thick ice. for n ≥ − 0. an ice regime parameter. The two amplifying coefficients were taken as γD =1.16 . for n < − 0.0. It was appreciated that the physical reasons for the very complicated thickness effect described above is not understood at present. Fig. Soil-mechanical equations were used to evaluate the additional forces created by this phenomenon. Therefore.1 for multi-year ice. Figure 6(a) shows a comparison between the “Baltic model” derived in Kärnä et al.25.36 ⎪ ⎪ 8 n=⎨ ⎪− 0. γS =1. with (3) h ⎧ − 0. In the range of h > 2 m the additional effects were found to have and effect that might explain the change in the thickness effect while the thickness increases. an effort was made to modify the basic form of Eq. this model had to be dismissed because the force magnifying effect arises from this model only in conditions where the height of the rubble pile is assumed to be higher than what is physically possible. (2) copes with the first two of these conclusions.

5 h-0. Predictions of the annual maxima of the global pressures for the lighthouse Norströmsgund (a) and for the Molikpaq structure (b). It is generally known that the external ice forces can increase significantly in a range of low velocities. where n ≈ -0. This was found earlier by Masterson et al. This data is based on short-term measurements.5 1 Ice thickness (m) 1. the comparison is made in Fig. the dotted line in Fig. Figure 8(b) also shows data points determined by Wright (1998) as well as Timco and Johnston (2004). The parameter AIR is also used to consider the fact that the maximum ice force increases with the time of exposure. For a fixed aspect ratio of w/h = 1 the model would predict the size effect as p∼ h-0.5 FY-model 0 0 0 0. (3) predicts the global pressure due to the actions of level ice sheets against vertical structures. 2001). DISCUSSION The new model defined by Eq.5. (2000).5 0 2 4 6 8 Ice thickness (m) (a) (b) Figure 6. Finally.5 MY-Timco MY-Wright FY-Wright MY-model 1 1 0. 2 Baltic Model Modified model Global pressure (MPa) 2 “Gulf”-model Global pressure (Mpa) 1. which is commonly used in the design (Masterson and Spencer. (3) because the ice regime (sea area) has a significant effect on the global pressures. (2000) used the sum of freezing degree days as an explanatory factor to predict the differences that are met in different sea areas. in the range of w/h > 2 where the final model is valid. 8(b) on the basis of annual maxima. (3) to consider the magnification of the external force as a function of the compliance of the structure. 2005). the thickness effect for a fixed width of the structure can be expressed as pEG ∼ hn. The data obtained at the lighthouse Norströmsgrund indicates.Proceedings oh the 18th IAHR International Symposium on Ice (2006) the results provided by Wright (1998).174. Factors that apparently influence this parameter include the ambient temperature. a coefficient γS is adopted in Eq. Kärnä and Qu (2006c) describe a method of extreme value analysis that can be used to consider the influence of the time of exposure. Therefore.5 0. 8(b) depicts the “Gulf” curve pG = 1. however that such an increase can not easily occur if the structure is very stiff at the waterline (Kärnä et al.3 for thin first-year ice and n ≈ -0. -266- . This is what the data obtained on force panels showed on the lighthouse Norströmsgrund. large scale deformations of the pack ice as well as heterogenity of the natural ice sheets. However. The parameter AIR is used in Eq. Three parameters are used to consider other factors that are relevant in the load prediction. Masterson et al. Therefore. The size effect is formulated using a non-dimensional equation where the ice thickness and the aspect ratio are used as two independent factors.1 for thicker multi-year ice.5 1.

D. (2001). An ice regime parameter is used to account for the differences met in the ice forces in different sea areas. Vol. Dan Masterson. (1996). 25. A dynamic magnification factor γD is used to consider this. Blanchet. (2006b) show how this parameter depends on the aspect ratio. Global first-year ice loads: Scale effect and nonsimultaneous failure. A second magnifying factor is needed to consider the dynamic magnification due to inertial forces. Karl Shkhinek. D. Koh Izumiyama. J. 206 . 203 . (3) can most likely be used in a wide range of conditions by using appropriate values of the parameters involved. Dilijan Mirzoev Dmitri Onishchenko. Proc.J. Preliminary values for these parameters can be obtained from Kamesaki et al. Dordrecth 2001 (IUTAM 2000). (2005. Walt Spring. In: IUTAM Scaling Laws in Ice Mechanics and Ice Dynamics. Ice loads from first-year ice ridges and rubble fields.and conference papers. On the understanding of the local ice pressure area curve .Proceedings oh the 18th IAHR International Symposium on Ice (2006) The time varying external force is magnified within the structure due to inertial effects. Beijing. Sveinung Loeset. However. Ice experts working for the working group WG8 gave very valuable comments and advice.42. (6) indicate that Eq. In addition. (1996) and Kärnä et al. 13th IAHR Ice Symposium. Bob Frederking Garry Timco. fundamental frequency and the damping ratio of the structure-soil system. pp. and DeFranco S. a new expression was derived to describe the size effect in ice crushing.Deterministic approach. REFERENCES Blanchet. Blanchet. Dmitri Matskevitch. 2000. (1) and (3) is used as a substitute for the time-varying ice force. Details of this development are further clarified in the main report of this research as well as in four accompanying journal. Lennart Fransson. further research should be conducted to clarify how the parameters γS and AIR should be selected in different conditions. Peter Jochmann. (3) we can justify an approach where a quasi-static load defined by Eqs. (1998). CONCLUSIONS Based on an extensive data analysis. Kärnä et al.31041/503721. 31 . University of Alaska Fairbanks. a magnifying parameter is used to consider that the external pressure on a compliant structure may increase at a low ice velocity. the support provided by Denis Blanchet. Eng. Joachim Schwarz. D.. The aspect ratio and the ice thickness are the main parameters of this equation. Kluver. pp. The results shown in Fig.219. Andrew Palmer. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was funded mainly by the European Commission under the Contract No TREN/04/FP6EN/S07. Can. Takahiro Takeuchi and Naoki Nakazawa is appreciated. S.213. It is a challenge for further research to understand the reasons for this difference. 2006d) as well as from this paper. The experiences obtained in this development show that the ice forces to be expected in the mild conditions such as in the Baltic Sea and in the Bohai Bay are significantly lower than in the Beaufort Sea. By adopting this factor in Eq. -267- . and DeFranco. The working group ISO TC67 SC7 WG8 has also provided significant support along with the companies Petro-Canada and Statoil. pp. Civ. June 13-16. In particular.

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