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# Finite Element Method

:
Finite Element Method:
One
One
-
-
Dimensional Heat
Dimensional Heat
Conduction II
Conduction II
Engineering 471
Engineering 471
Heat Transfer
Heat Transfer
Boundary Conditions
Boundary Conditions
x=0
x=L
x
( )
( ) 0 T T h n
ˆ
i
ˆ
x
T
k
T 0 T
L
= − + ⋅

=

or
( )
( ) 0 T T h n
ˆ
i
ˆ
x
T
k
T L T
R
= − + ⋅

=

or i
ˆ
n
ˆ
n
ˆ
Each end can have either a
specified temperature or
convection boundary condition.
Galerkin
Galerkin
Finite Element Process
Finite Element Process
(Simplified Integral Equation) (Simplified Integral Equation)
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 T L ! hA L ! T 0 ! hA 0 !
dx T ! !hP dx
x
!
KA
x
!
dx A! q dx
t
!
!CA
L
0
L
0
L
0
gen
L
0
= − − − +
− +

− ⋅ −

∞ ∞

We seek a solution Θ(x,t) to this integral equation. Θ(x,t) will
be an approximation to the solution of the governing
differential equation and boundary conditions.
Governing Integral Equation
( )

− −

+ =

T T hP
x
T
kA q A
t
T
CA
2
2
gen

( ) 0 T T h n
ˆ
i
ˆ
x
T
k = − + ⋅

Governing
Differential
Equation
Convection Boundary
Condition
Integration
Integration
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 T L ! hA L ! T 0 ! hA 0 !
dx T ! !hP dx
x
!
KA
x
!
dx A! q dx
t
!
!CA
L
0
L
0
L
0
gen
L
0
= − − − +
− +

− ⋅ −

∞ ∞

Governing Integral Equation
Nodes
Elements "
2
3
i
j
"
2
k
( ) ( )dx x F dx x F
elem
x
x
L
0
j
i

=
x
Element Geometry
Element Geometry
"
2
3
i
j
"
2
k
( ) ( )
( ) ( )dx # f dx x F
x x #
dx x F dx x F
elem
0
elem
x
x
i
elem
x
x
L
0
j
i
j
i

=
− =
=

x
i
j
#

k
Interpolation Functions
Interpolation Functions
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )

#
# N
#
" # N
! # N ! # N # !
j
i
j j i i
=

− =
+ =
( ) # N
#
".0

( ) # N
i
( ) # N
j
( ) ( )
known. are points node
at the ! of values the if
# any at ! of value the
find to used be can They
functions.
ion interpolat called
are # N and # N
j i
Thermal Conductivity Integral
Thermal Conductivity Integral
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 T L ! hA L ! T 0 ! hA 0 !
dx T ! !hP dx
x
!
KA
x
!
dx A! q dx
t
!
!CA
L
0
L
0
L
0
gen
L
0
= − − − +
− +

− ⋅ −

∞ ∞

=

elem
0
L
0
d#
#
!
KA
#
!
dx
x
!
KA
x
!

d#
#
!
#
!
KA d#
#
!
KA
#
!
0 0

=

Thermal Conductivity Integral
Thermal Conductivity Integral
(Continued) (Continued)
d#
!
!
" "
"
"
! ! KA d#
#
!
#
!
KA
j
i
0
j i
0

=

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )

#
# N
#
" # N
! # N ! # N # !
j
i
j j i i
=

− =
+ =

− =
+ − =

j
i
j i
!
!
" "
!
"
!
"
#
!

Thermal Conductivity Integral
Thermal Conductivity Integral
(Continued) (Continued)
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦

¹
)
¹
`
¹
¹
¹
¹
´
¦

j
i
j i
j
i
0
2 2
2 2
j i
j
i
0
j i
!
!
" "
" "
! ! KA
!
!
" "
" "
! ! KA
d#
!
!
" "
"
"
! ! KA

Convection Integral
Convection Integral
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 T L ! hA L ! T 0 ! hA 0 !
dx T ! !hP dx
x
!
KA
x
!
dx A! q dx
t
!
!CA
L
0
L
0
L
0
gen
L
0
= − − − +
− +

− ⋅ −

∞ ∞

( ) ( )

∞ ∞
− =
− = −
elem
0
elem
0
elem
0
L
0
d# T !hP !d# !hP
d# T ! !hP dx T ! !hP

First Integral
Second Integral
Convection Integral
Convection Integral
(First Integral) (First Integral)
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
− =
=
|
.
|

\
|
− =
+ =
j
i
j
i
j j i i
!
!
# #
" # !
#
# N
#
" # N
! # N ! # N # !

Convection Integral
Convection Integral
(First Integral) (First Integral)
d#
!
!
# # #
"
# #
"
#
"
! ! hP
d#
!
!
# #
- "
#
#
- "
! ! hP !d# !hP
j
i
2
2
0
j i
j
i
0
j i
0
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=

Convection Integral
Convection Integral
(First Integral) (First Integral)
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=

j
i
j i
0
!
!
3 6
6 3
! ! hP !d# !hP

Second Integral

=
∞ ∞

2
2
! ! hPT d# T !hP
j i
0

Heat Capacity Integral
Heat Capacity Integral
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 T L ! hA L ! T 0 ! hA 0 !
dx T ! !hP dx
x
!
KA
x
!
dx A! q dx
t
!
!CA
L
0
L
0
L
0
gen
L
0
= − − − +
− +

− ⋅ −

∞ ∞

¹
)
¹
`
¹
¹
¹
¹
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=

j
i
elem
j i
L
0
!
!
3 6
6 3
! ! CA dx
t
!
!CA

Internal Heat Generation Integral
Internal Heat Generation Integral
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 T L ! hA L ! T 0 ! hA 0 !
dx T ! !hP dx
x
!
KA
x
!
dx A! q dx
t
!
!CA
L
0
L
0
L
0
gen
L
0
= − − − +
− +

− ⋅ −

∞ ∞

=
elems
j i gen
elems
0
gen
2
2
! ! A q d# A q !