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Joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference Shanghai, P.R.

China, December 1 !18, 2""#

FrA0 6.2

Motion Control for an Underwater Robotic Fish with Two Undulating Long-Fins
Liuji Shang, Shuo Wang, Min Tan, Xiang Dong
$o #es. 1ai e' $ins a e%!
s*ee' 'oes not see( to &e i(* essive, the o&oti# $ish has (o e ex#e%%ent $%exi&i%it!. In o 'e to si(*%i$! the ana%!ses o$ the #o(*%ex $in un'u%ating, the %ong@$ins (ove(ents a e #on#%u'e' into $ou &asi# (o'es/ (a #hing (o'e, e#e'ing (o'e, otating (o'e an' si'e@s"a!ing (o'e. The e$o e the #o(*%ex (ove(ents #an &e o&taine' &e (eans o$ the #o(&ination o$ the &asi# (o'es. In a''ition the &asi# (o'e #an &e (o'e%e' easi%! an' %a! the $i st stone $o $utu e "o )s.

Abstract—Motion control for one kind of underwater robotic fish#ont i&ute to $o "a ' is presented in this paper. Here our robotic fish protot pe has two * o*u%sion an' (ost%! su**%! long-fins installed s !!etricall on its both sides. "nd one long-fin is sta&i%iEation an' stee ing !ade up b springiness !e!brane co#ered on ten ra -fins. Ten ser#o-!otors are used to control the !otions of the ten ra -fins on *u *oses. 3ut a s*e#ia% one side. $ue to the special structure of the protot pe% swi!!ing * o*u%sion s!ste( "ith %ong@ !otion !odes can be broken into four basic !otion !odes& !arching $ins is *ai' (o e attention in !ode% receding !ode% rotating !ode and side-swa ing !ode. "i!ing e#ent !ea s, "hi#h is at the four !otion !odes% this paper presents rele#ant control #%assi$ie' into M1F. 6 %ot o$ !ethod separatel . 'ur controller is based on F()". Through esea #he s have 'one (u#h reading signal data stored in the !e!or of control chip% ser#o%ong@$ins in#%u'ing !otors !a oscillate the ra -fins at scheduled wa . Therefore% on different fre*uenc and different phase difference of ad+acent ra - * o*u%sion an' (aneuve ing, fins !a bend the long-fin for!ed b !e!brane into rele#ant si'e@s"a! * o&%e(, wa#efor!. ,ecause the !e!brane is soft and elastic% h drod na!ic h!' o'!na(i# ana%!sis, et#. forces produced b e-pelled water !a dri#e fish bod into Stan'en an' Lau'e +A- gave swi!!ing !otions. Using different control !ethods% h drod na!ic force pro#ide fish bod with !an !otion !odes% including the four 'o sa% an' ana% $in $un#tion * o*u%sion an' basic !otion !odes. .n addition% one !otion !odes switch s ste! is 'u ing Dan Xia, designed based on Mega/01. Through producing different #oltage (aneuve ing. le#el co!bination% robotic fish !a switch its !otion !ode b the Weishan Chen et a% +9transferred one in swi!!ing. The e-peri!ents show our !ethod for #onsi'e e' the si'e@s"a! !otion control is #alid.

* o&%e( an' gave th ee est aining (etho's. In I. INTRODUCTION a''ition, (an! esea #he s a%so have #a ie' out (an! ISH exist eve !"he e in the o#ean. Due to its $%exi&%e an' s(a%% #ha a#te s, esea #he s !ie%' )een inte est. Un%i)e othe #o e%ative ex*e i(ents an' un'e "ate vehi#%es, o&oti# $ish is ve ! s(a%% an' has ex#e%%entgiven so(e va%ua&%e esu%ts $%exi&i%it!. It #an s"i( in ve ! na o" an' 'ee* +7-. Ho"eve , $e" (ixe' o#ean +,-. esea #he s %oo) the $ish .ene a%%!, o&oti# $ish * o*u%sion s!ste( #an &e #%assi$ie' into t"o #atego ies/ (e'ian an' *ai e' $in 0M1F2 * o*u%sion (ove(ents as #o(&ination an' &o'! an' #au'a% $in 03CF2 * o*u%sion +4, 5-. 3CF o$ seve a% si(*%e (otion * o*u%sion 'e*en's on #au'a% $in to give the th ust $o #es. 6t (o'es an' (ost #onsi'e $ish the (eanti(e the * o*u%sive "ave t ave ses the $ish &o'! in a (ove(ents as a "ho%e.

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'i e#tion o**osite to the #au'a% $in. 3CF * o*u%sion a%"a!s In this *a*e , ou o&oti# has high s*ee' an' &ig ene g! o*e ating $a#to . M1F$ish e(*%o!s M1F * o*u%sion. 3ut ou o&oti# $ish is * o*u%sion (ost%! 'e*en's on (e'ian $in to give the th ust

* o*e%%e' &! s!((et i#a%%! insta%%e' %ong@$ins "hi#h a e This "o ) "as su**o te' in *a t &! the Nationa% Natu a% S#ien#e'i$$e ent to the M1F Foun'ation o$ China . ants 78789847, 787598,8, 78:4958;, an' in *a t &! * o*u%sion (entione' a&ove. the Nationa% High Te#hno%og! Resea #h an' Deve%o*(ent 1 og a( o$ China 3! vi tue o$ va ie' "ave$o (s 0<75 1 og a(2 un'e . ant 488766,,=449. The autho s a e "ith the >e! La&o ato ! o$ Co(*%ex S!ste(s an' o$ the s!((et i#a% %ong@$ins, Inte%%igen#e S#ien#e, Institute o$ 6uto(ation, Chinese 6#a'e(! o$ S#ien#es, the o&oti# $ish #an !ie%' 3eijing ,88,;8, China. 1hone/ ?<7@,88<47,AA5;. Fax/ ?<7@,8@74798;,4. B(ai%s/ $ineshangC,75.#o(D shuo."angCia.a#.#nD tanC#o(*s!s.ia.a#.#nD$o #es in 'i$$e ent 'i e#tion 'ongC#o(*s!s.ia.a#.#n. . an' (a)e its %o#o(otion (o e (aneuve a&%e. 6n' its s*e#ia% st u#tu e (a)es its g avit! #ent e (aintain $ixe' in the (ove(ents. 6%though its

On the &asis o$ the &asi# (o'es, a (otion (o'es s"it#h s!ste( is 'esigne' $o the o&oti# $ish. Using #onvenient inte $a#e * o'u#e' &! Mega,4<, it #onne#ts the e(ote@#ont o% unit an' ou #ont o%%e . It (a)es ou ex*e i(ent (o e #onvenient an' a#Fui es 'ata $ o( othe senso s. 6nothe *u *ose o$ s"it#h s!ste( is saving esou #es o$ F1.6 an' (a)es ou 'esign (o e in'e*en'ent $o eve ! $un#tiona% (o'u%e. O&vious%!, su&seFuent (o'e%ing "o ) (a! &e #a ie' out on the s"it#h s!ste(.
The e(ain'e o$ the *a*e is o ganiEe' as $o%%o"s. Se#tion II int o'u#es the o&oti# $ish * otot!*e. Se#tion III * esents $ou &asi# (otion (o'es an' gives thei )ine(ati#s ana%!sis. Re(ote #ont o% an' (otion (o'es s"it#h s!ste( is 'es# i&e' in se#tion IG. Se#tion G * esents the ex*e i(ent esu%t an'

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FrA06.2 RO3OTIC ( FISH o 1ROTOTH1B 'e ' G is iy ve sm ! n # s* ar u e# sc ia sh %. iu T o s hi n ni .lo s $i ti F sh ic ha u n s s a o %+: n% %! is ! a a %o t)i n h n g e ' ' o$ # o $ o sa es n % h # $i %" n at u " se it i$i sh h o o n 'i ut st #a ii u s& 'a ut g e' % i $i in v n th e an e n ' N *e ii% %v e n i# G $i sa% n. e %e S # !. " tIt i is o ( * n ( o in * G g Iu% is .si a# o n T hi II.

e" v hi e %e ' its & & o ! ' ! ( )e e e* a s n st sa ig o ht $a% % & a% e o n n ' g. iT n he g %o n tg h ' e o sa %% o ex n hi g &i ts ' a o %o t so$ aa %!@ $i ins n 0u t* o to , s< o 5@ ( 4 e 5 82 " . a S v o e th $o o u g ( h

'i $$ e en t * ha se #o ( &i na ti o n o$ th e a !@ $i ns , $i sh & o ' !I s ( ot io n in 'i $$ e en t 'i e #t is a# hi ev e' . T he se #o ( &i na ti o ns

a S o ' a o t& o ot i# o $i & sh t* a ot iot n ! *e a is n 'e ' si g h ne ! ' ' an ' o 'e ' ve ! %o n *e a ' ( $o i # th se %o u% si o n e se a #h . .a is ve e! #o v ( e *% i# n g@ $i n * o * ! at e' h . .. T he * ot ot ! *e is sh o " n in Fi g.

sh o " n & ! Fi g. . . Fi . sh s& o h ' o ! " sis ( ta' e h o$ a tg% as ts $i h &e e e in o $o & o# te' i*% as # ti $# ian s' ha h s in # st o a% n s%e i' ste tn sse v o@ o $( ot $o is ss! ( ( et i #a %% !. It s #o nt o % s! st e ( is &a se ' o n F 1 .. 6. t Ro& oti# " $ish o * ot %o ot! *e n g@ i$i ns g . 4..h & o '! Fig. Fi s t 1 C se n 's #o ( ( an ' & ! a 'i o ( o ' u% at .

o ' e .%e va T nt h 'a e ta n st o e' o in & F o 1 t. iN sex h t I#o snt o # %% o e n se tn 's o th %es %e e 'a ta to se ev # o@ e ( iot v o e s sse *a #a o te ( %!. T he t " o %o n g@ $i ns #o ns tit ut e o & ot i# . i6 # #h i* $. ( Fi a na n %% ' ! se av n o@ ' ( ot o e s a ' iv e th e %o n g@ $i n to #o ( *% et e * o * u% si o n.

F ig .4 . C o nt o% s ! st e ( $ o o & ot i# $i s h .

si 5 o . n e %o n % g@ o n $i g @n $is ia n an e o n te n eF ua %% ! 'i st i & ut e' th in o 's " hi #h a e a% so #a %% e' a !@ $i s) ns e% . et T T63LB I o a& STRUC TURB n %e 16R6M #o I BTBRS ve sh OF RO3OT e o IC FISH ' " " s it $i h sh ( Is . n T s! h st e e s ( t . 6 u # s t Fi u g. e 5 sh o $o " o n.Wi'theo$ Me(& ane Thi#)ness ( o$ Me(& ane Nu(&e & o$ Ra!@$in Length o$ Ra!@$in Inte va% &et"een Ran@$ins $i sh Is * o F * i u% g .

th e os #i %% at in g a ( *% it u 'e an ' $ eF ue n# ! o$ th e $i n@ a !s a e th e )e !s h o " th e o & ot i# $i sh " o )s .te n 6 $i %n@ %a !s tan h ' e ( a) e a th ! e @( $e i( n & san e a &e n e ' at $so i( x e e " ' av e$ o o n ( " the h n e it s $" ii s( s in " at e. tS u e v e o@ ( * ot a o s a os ( #i e %% tat e e th se .sh t& o u '! # . O & vi o us %!.

" M @ O i%% $ T ( i I O a) n N e s C th O e # N $i T a R sh n O & L o g F ' O .. a $o tu i&a o si n # ( # ot o io n n t( o o 'e %s a o e $th e t$o h #a e % * toi " nt o s. R F O U R 3 6 S I C M O T I O N M O D B S W at e is an i ( * es si &% e $% ui '. so an ! ( o ve ( en ts o$ %o n % I g@ o I $i n I n g .en e T at h e e va i e e' $%o o #o ( e ot io # n. o In o th is ' *a i*e n.

sh an I' n g ot tte h n e so ( * e a #o sn# t%u . S o ( e 'i $$i #u %ti es o n )i ne ( at i# s ( o 'e %i n g a% so ex ist in th e #o ( *% ex $i sh ( ot io ns . sT e he a $i sh # h h ! e ' o s' ! h na a ( v i# e s is sso t#o u ( ' *% iex e th ' at its ' ( e o e 'e * % %is 'i $$i #u %t to #o ns t u# t * e# is e% ! ti% % n o ".! ! h i! n ' o ( ' o ! tna i( o i# n s a& +o < ut -$i .si o ns e .

n ( e o s'e * s e a # e i* a o %* %os ! e' $o i n th e to h & e ot i# t$i u sh " n it ih n t g " o o u n ' u% e at # in e g ' %o in n g@ g $i .ns an S ' o th e $#o o ( u *% ex ( & ot a io sns iis # a# hi ( ev o e' t& i! o ( ea ns o$ #o ( &i na ti o n o$ th e &a si # ( o 'e s. In a' 'i ti o n. h ! ' o ' ! na ( i# ( o 'e %i n g $o th es e si ( *% e ( ot io n ( o 'e s " i%% ..

o 'e T . he a #e t'i n $g o ( o 'e t. h T e he su $& o ( u e si o ( n o ( to i'e o is an ot he ( o 'e o$ th e o & ot i# $i sh n ot in #% u 'e ' in th is *a *e &e #a us e th e 'e ve %o *e ' o & ot i# $i sh * ot ot ! *e ' oe s n ot ha ve a su . ho e ta ti # n o g ( ( * o %'e e an x ' si ( 'e o @ v s e " ( a! e in n g t( .& n e ( o e 'e a s sa ie e ( a #h tin h g a ( n o 'e t.

g O i& n vi g o us ' %!. e ( v os it # o$ e th e i( n o 4 ve ( en ts #a n &e a# hi ev e' th o u g h $ # .& st ( a% e %e '.

I$ 'e$ine the a(*%itu'e as A(ax an' the $ eFuen#! as f .A. = − A. "hat "e nee' is the out*ut signa% o$ se vo@(oto s $o the a!@$ins. Marching Mode Ma #hing (o'e is the (ost #o((on (otion (o'e. 6n' sine "ave is use' $o the %ong@$in. the .#o(&inations o$ the &asi# (otion (o'es. the $i st a!@$in os#i%%ation eFuation (a! &e ex* esse' as/ φ. f is the os#i%%ating $ eFuen#! an' θ 042 A. The $igu e sho"s that the Fig. The u**e 'iag a( is the o igina% "ave$o ( o$ the %ong@$in an' the %o"e 'iag a( is the su&seFuent "ave$o (. as sho"n in Fig. Si(i%a %!. is is the *hase 'i$$e en#e &et"een t"o a'ja#ent a!@$ins. Fo exa(*%e. Let 'e$ine the "ave$o ( $un#tion $o (e' &! the e'ge o$ (e(& ane as φ . The i((e'iate *hase is ϕ . 3e#ause the ten a!@$ins 'e#i'e the (e(& ane e'ge "ave$o (. sin04π ft +8Jθ2 Whe e φ. The $ou (otion (o'es a e 'is#usse' in 'etai% as $o%%o"ing. ea#h a!@$in os#i%%ating $un#tion #an &e #a%#u%ate'. the a(*%itu'e. In Fig. is the a(*%itu'e va%ue $o the $i st a!@ $in.A. A. Then . The a o" e* esents the 'i e#tion o$ the "ave t ave%ing a%ong the %ong@$in. The t ave%ing "ave a%ong the %ong@$in ex#u sion o$ %ong@$in "i%% * o'u#e th ust "hi#h (a)e $ish &o'! (a #hing.A.2 Then t ave%ing o$ "ave in the %ong@$ins is 'es# i&e'. φ = A (ax sin04π ft + ϕ2 0.

6 #hi* an' ex*o t the( to se vo@ (oto s. the o&oti# $ish "i%% 'e# ease its s*ee' "ith the in# ease o$ a(*%itu'e o $ eFuen#! instea' o$ in# easing its s*ee'. The o&oti# $ish "i%% s"i( $aste "ith in# ease o$ the a(*%itu'e an' $ eFuen#! o$ a!@ $ins.4.2Jθ2 i =.A sho"n. 6n' the e%evant a!@$ins os#i%%ating $un#tion is/ φi = Ai sin04π ft + 0i − .7 sho"s the "ave t ave%ing a%ong the %ong@$ins. Fig..4. Fo the t"o %ong@$ins a e insta%%e' at &oth si'es o$ the &o'! an' the $ish &o'!Is (ass 'ist i&ution is a%(ost eFua&%e. Let the s!((et i#a% %ong@$ins * o'u#e the sa(e un'u%ating "ave$o (. 48" C. 3ut the otat ing (o' e is an at :8(( at an' f 4H=. B. "hat "e nee' is sto ing these a(*%itu'e va%ues at eve ! ti(e into F1.9 sho"s the signa% out*ut o$ the ten a!@$ins on #on'ition o$ Ai o$ "ave on %ong@$in in e#e'ing (o'e Fig. 6s Fig. The e$o e.. The out*ut signa% o$ (oto $o the ten a!@ $ins. it is eas! to * o'u#e h!' o'!na(i# $o #e to (a)e $ish e#e'ing. on%! #hanging the os#i%%ating 'i e#tion o$ a!@$in (a! * o'u#e o&oti# $ishIs e#e'ing (o'e..8 0A2 Re#e'ing (o'e is the o**osite (otion (o'e against (a #hing (o'e.. Fig.8 φi = − Ai sin04π ft + 0i − . St i#t%! o s*ea)ing. 6**a ent%! the th ust gene ate' &! %ong@$ins (a)es the o&oti# $ish (a #h $o "a ' s(ooth%!. the 'i e#tion o$ h!' o'!na(i# $o #es is on%! e%ate' "ith 'i e#tion o$ t ave%ing o$ "ave on the %ong@$in..2Jθ2 052 The o&oti# $ish * otot!*e in this *a*e has ten a!@$ins.. So %i)e (a #hing (o'e.. Ai In ae *a a(et "h eFuation an' f the es i#h in$%uen#e the s"i((ing s*ee'.. 052.. so θ is set to 578° K.FrA06. The t ave%ing . the o&oti# $ish uses the s!((et i#a% %ong@ $ins as * o*u%sion s!ste(.9. Fig.. n it 'oesnIt% Rotating &e%ong to! (o'e is a$ishIs s*e#ia% (otion ' (otion (o'e $o o (o'e in$ish $ish a e%! (ove(ent. 3ut "hen the *a a(ete s ex#ee' so(e th esho%'s..7.2 othe a!@$in (a! &e ex* esse' as/ i =. an' then the h!' o'!na(i# $o #es "i%% &e sa(e &ig an' sa(e 'i e#tiona% on the t"o si'es o$ $ish &o'!.. Rotating mode otati ng. Receding Mode In this *a*e .8 = 57° .

: sho"n. "e 'ivi'e otation (otion into t"o #ases./ i$ the a(*%itu'e o $ eFuen#! o$ a!@$insI os#i%%ation in &oth si'es a e eFua%. the otating (otion in #ase . Case . is #hosen $o the o&oti# $ish otating (o'e 'esign &e#ause it is easie to i(*%e(ent than #ase 4. the $ish &o'! 'oes otating (otion an' its #ente o$ g avit! )ee*s (otion%essD Case 4/ i$ the a(*%itu'e an' $ eFuen#! in &oth si'es a e not eFua%.i(*o tant *a t in the &asi# (otion (o'es. The e$o e. the othe %ong@$in un'u%ates to $o ( an o**osite t ave%ing "ave. #ase . the $ish &o'! #an not 'o otating (otion "hi%e )ee*ing its #ente o$ g avit! (otion%ess. So i$ one %ong@$in os#i%%ates its a!@$ins to $o ( a t ave%ing "ave to"a ' one 'i e#tion. #an not #ause (a #hing . In this *a*e . 3ut $o the o&oti# $ish "ith t"o un'u%ating %ong@$ins. Fig. In a''ition. otation #an &e a#hieve' &! (a)ing the t"o %ong@$ins gene ate o**osite un'u%ating "ave$o (s. Fo si(*%i$i#ation. 6 ti#u%ate' o&oti# $ish exe#ute otating (ove(ent th ough #hanging the ang%es o$ &o'! joints an' tai% joint. 6n' the h!' o'!na(i# $o #es * o'u#e' &! the t"o %ong@$ins (a! #ause a ota ! (o(ent $o $ish &o'!. Ro&oti# $ishIs ota ! (o(ent. otating is eas! an' #ont o%%a&%e.:. as Fig. The 'i e#tion o$ th ust is on%! e%ate' to the 'i e#tion o$ the "ave t ave%ing a%ong the %ong@$in.

. The u**e *i#tu e sho"s the signa% o$ ight %ong@$in an' the %o"e one sho"s the signa% o$ %e$t %ong@$in. 'i$$e ent )in's o$ a!@ $insI os#i%%ation #an 'ete (ine the 'i$$e ent th ust 'i e#tions. #ont o%%e ea' sa(e 'ata $ o( F1... sho"s ho" the o&oti# $ish (oves.4. D.. Ro&oti# $ishIs ight si'e@s"a!ing (otion (o'e Fig.. The %e$t otating is si(i%a to the ight otating.6 #hi* $o the ten se vo@(oto s. 3e#ause the "ho%e &o'! o$ the o&oti# $ish * otot!*e has sa(e (ass 'ist i&ution.. $ eFuen#! an' i((e'iate *hase a e a%% the sa(e. Side-swaying Mode Si'e@s"a!ing (o'e is a s*e#ia% (otion (o'e &ase' on t"o %ong@$ins. The ea% %ine sho"s the state o$ the %e$t %ong@$in at a ti(e an' the 'ot %ong@$in sho"s the state at the su&seFuent ti(e. 3ut in the otating (o'e.2 o e#e'ing. Fig.. signa%s $o ten a!@$insI (oto #ont o%. The out*ut 481 . it (a! he%* the o&ot a'just its &o'! *osition an' *ose.....< sho"s the signa% out*ut h t"en o$ e t! se vo@(oto s on #on'ition o$ Ai an' at :8(( an' f Aj at 4H=. the * o'u#e' th ust is on%! on the si'e o$ the (oving %ong@$in. In the t"o (otion (o'es (entione' a&ove. In $a#t this (o'e is ve ! use$u% in un'e "ate o&ot a**%i#ations..4.8 φj . the os#i%%ating $un#tions o$ the ight %ong@ $in an' the %e$t %ong@$in a e 'i$$e ent an' sho"n as $o%%o"ing/ = − Ai sin04π ft + 0i − i =. I$ on%! one %ong@$in os#i%%ates o un'u%ates an' the othe %ong@$in 'oes not.80:2 Cont o% $o this (otion (o'e is (a)ing the ten se vo@ (oto s on one si'e * o'u#e sa(e signa%. so the %e$t otating is int o'u#e as an exa(*%e.. t otate.<.. so si'e@s"a!ing to ight is 'es# i&e' as an exa(*%e. $ish a e%! s"i( at si'e@s"a!ing (o'e &e#ause its * o*u%sion s!ste( #an not * o'u#e h!' o'!na(i# $o #es "hi#h (a)e the $ish &o'! si'e@s"a!... The th ust is on%! e%ate' to the %ong@$insI (otion. In un)no"n #i #u(stan#e.8 φi . The ight %ong@$in "i%% )ee* sti%% an' the %e$t %ong@$in os#i%%ates.2Jθ2 072 So the os#i%%ating $un#tions #an &e use' to gene ate #ont o% signa%s $o the a!@$insI ' iven (oto s to (a)e the o&oti# $ish 6n' i$ the a(*%itu'e. Fig.2Jθ2 092 = A j sin04π ft + 0i − j =. the sa(e os#i%%ating $un#tion a**%ies to the s!((et i#a% %ong@$ins...4.FrA06. the o&oti# $ish (a! 'o si'e@s"a!ing (otion. Fig. The si'e@s"a!ing to"a ' %e$t is si(i%a to si'e@s"a!ing to"a ' ight. In natu e.. That is. The os#i%%ating $un#tion o$ a!@$ins #an &e 'es# i&e' as/ φi = − Ai sin04π ft2 i =...

th T e .#o at ( e' R ( si e an g m 's na o % t& ! an e th ' e 'e C ( oa n 'i o to ' r( u% o o at l' es u% it h at $o e o .2 e he ( n I ot an G ot . #e C Fi iv H s es S t th H 1 e S T C ( B se o M n ' A 's u% .FrA06.e #o he R nt B o a M O %% 'i T e o B is ( C a o O ' Na T 'i u% R o at O L ( o o in 6 N ' st D u% a% M at %e O o ' T I#o o O n n N ne o M #t & O e' ot D B " i# S it $i S h sh W 1 e I T C.

( an F 's i* n e' a e$ %in %e' ! & ! tus h . #o nt o %% e #a n ' iv e th e se v o@ ( ot o s an ' ex e# ut e e %e va nt o *e a ti o ns . e O u # #o o ( n ( tan 's o in %#% %u e 'e a% % ' o$ e th # e o ( ' ot e io sn ( to h 'e e s ( sen iti g o n ne a ' %a& o ve .# an o ' n t tan s% o at %es %it e in to so # ( h e i#o * ( . M ot io n M o . B. 6 ## o 'i n g th e #o ( ( an 's .

d h e s! sst e S ( w e i t( *% c o h !s S M y eg sa.$o o s u " it #h ( ( o ot tio in o ( n o 'e ( s. 6. t4 e < m as #o snt o ( %% e e. 8 sh o " s th e " o )i n g * o# es s. . s4 < s'e " #o i'e tth # e #o ( ( an ' an ' t an s$ e it to #o nt o %% e &a se ' o n F 1 . o M ' ag e e. . n 6 t$t ie oe n #e e iv ' in g a #o & ( o ( v an e ' . Fi g.

.8.#e e iv so e u si #e g s na o$ %s F $ 1 o . Motion o #t (o'es s"it#h ( s!ste( iv o e% ' !. e u% 6 g at n a o ' . an it 4 ' a% < t so an #a h s$ n a e ( s 'a a) ta e g to o o F u o 1 #o ' . o a T %% & e ihi s ( % ( o i et e t h e$ ! o $e #t t' ( iv o a! e sa an ve ' e . nt 6. ( 6 a e$ 'i $e Fig.

ex 4 t < #o .t an T s$ h e it o & u ! g a h hi g * h@ s* o ee g ' %e a ve ( % ( t ian n s% g at o M u e ni g t.e #h a ie sve i'. e th en . L as t o ne ( ot io n ( o 'e is #h os en . a N .nt o # %% o e ( an ( a% a !E n es ' th e sv io% g ta n ge a %e %ve % # #o a ( n &i na & ti e o n a an ' #o ( *a e " it h * o g a ( $o F 1 . 6. T hi s ( et h o ' ha s &e tt e $% ex i& i%i t!. It is #o n .

a 7 # . < e 8 ( ' * o a to% . . ( o L 4.. th e o & ot i# $i sh ( a! e #e iv e th e #o ( ( an 's se nt $ o ( 1 C.v e $u n tu ie e " n o t)s . A t. F ( u L i8. T h o u g h " i e% es s #o ( ( u ni #a ti o n. I n a u s5. 6 n ' th . a th e a ex n *e ' i ( % en a t ! is ' to h ne e " it $h ith e so t& ot si# t$i sh o * n ot e ot ! $*e o sh o " n in Fi g. $ o G.

T e he x * * u e * os ies ( a e e/ n 0. in #% u 'i n g av e ag e s* ee ' an ' o ta ! s* ee ' " it h 'i $$ e en t u n ' u% at in g $ eF ue n# ! an .e t. t2 ste sti $n o g th e to h & e ot i# $$i o sh u Is ( an & eu a ve sa i&i # %it ! ( an o ' t* io o * n u% si ( ve o *e '$ e o s( an a #e D e 04 2 # ( a ea su i in e g ' th e oo u & ot i# $i sh I &a si # ( ot io n *a a ( et e s.

' o% .. ee i' #a g . ..( e . a . us iin sg to t( ea h su e e s* ee o ' & a& o to ive th # e $* io so% . a T ( he *e %is ia thi u g ' h@ e s* . The s"i ((i ng o&o ti# $ish in "ate . h s " i ( ( i n g i n t h e * o Fig.

H e E to ' 4. o th n e $ ( e o F ' u e se n # e ! x * * a e a i( et ( e e is n tse st $ o " ( e . . : ( ( . A ( ( e s* e# ti ve %! in ( a #h in . ( Fi o ts it% !. o 9 n H e E an ' e sth e * a ( *% it u 'e *a a ( et e is se t as A <.Fo e# ti u v e% !. ( ( an ' < A. 7 <.

san a% s!s h es o sh " o " tth h e a e ta e t o " & o o ( tai in # * oi $nt is s" h hi #h ha ve e$ $e #t o n th e e su %ts . O ne is th at th e ( e ( & an e #o ve e ' o n a !@ $i ns %i ( its a !@ $i nI s os #i %% at in g. : ( ( o ( ' . e T .h o B u x g * h e o &s ie ( va e ti n o tn.gs " ( i o ( ' s e $a st a " n he ' n a ( e *% # it e u ' 'e iis n A g <. T he ot he is th e e .

9 H E. 9 H E.. . u B e x *e oi $( en h ts ! a% ' so sh o o ' " ! th n at ao ( & iot # i# $i $sh o s " # i e ( ss $a " st i" the h n $ u eF n ue ' n# u ! %is a 4 tH iE.. 4. W he n th e $ eF ue n# ! is . n W g e ha %ve o ' o ne $ eF ue n# ! te st s at ..in sg@ $i a ns at ( #e at x ai in ( a u ( ( *% it v u a 'e %. th e o & ot i# $i sh ( a! ge t s ( a% % th u stD " he n . 4. o . 4. 9. 4.

' T u h # o e u ' g h & th ie g e g sa e ( e ex " *e ai t( e en ts th " e a av v e ag e s* ee ' is a& o ut 4 5 4 ( ( Ks an ' th e ( ax i ( u ( s* ee ' is a& o ut 5 : 8 ( ( Ks. T he o & ot i# $i sh s " i ( s s ( o ot h% !.ee 9 ' H #a E n . . .M 4 ax i o ( u ( 4 s* .te h ( e a) es $th e eo F & u ot e i# n $i # sh ! u n@ ist sea '! 4 .&e a# thi h ev e e' at * 4 H o E. Fi g. .

' o$ th ie th no e g &a ta si . h e n g ( o 'e ex *e i ( en e ts x a * e e *e $ i o ( Fi ( e g. o$ n R o g o& ta oti # ti a Fi n n sh g ' S ( e# o 'e o e is n # o '% e ne !. . t M 6 s a s #h ( in o g en $ an ti ' o R ( e# ne a e' ' in a& g # M o h o' ve i e . e' n .4 .4 ( ti sot h io o n " ( so 'e t.

t9 H tE h an e ' a ' ( i*% it e u # 'e tis iA o <. ' T e he sex . 6 n ' th e o & ot i# $i sh Is o ta ti o na % s* ee ' in # ea se s " it h th e os #i %% .#o $ ( th o e to i& o ot n i# $i ( sh o . n : ( ( . T he av e ag e o ta ti o na % s* ee ' is a& o ut .*e i I( ten sts " ( e a e i#a n i e' $o u ut n " # he tn ith o e n os #i i%% sat in tg o $ eF a ue ' n# j! u is s. 4 8M Ks..

. T he $ eF ue n# ! an ' a ( *% it u 'e *a a ( et e s a e a% ( os t sa ( e as 8 2 . th @e 4 si . 'e 4 @ H s E " .o 'e 4 ex *e i ( en ts a e ' o ne . t5 ish n o g " s $th e e ex F *e ui e ( n en # ts ! o$ o ita n ti n tg h ( e ot io n a ( n o g 'e e s.a . T o hi $' %!. a! in F ig ( g .

T he e as on is th at su #h os (! aun st #ea '! h i" he n n g th e ( oa !@ ' e$i .ns I 3 os u t#i% %at tin g h #i% %at io n "i %% * o' u# e a &i gg e o ta ! ( o ( . e 5. . o R &o ot at ti# in $is g h ( o &o 'e '! o$ o "i & %% ot &e i# $i ve sh $ eF ue n# ! is &i gg e th an 4 H E.FrA06.2 e o& se v ati on s sh o " th at Fi th g.

T he ex *e i ( en ts sh o " th e av e ag e s* ee ' in si 'e @ s " a! in g ( o' e is a& ou t .eo% n %i tng .A 7 ( ( Ks . aT n hi ' s )i tn' h o$ eo ta ! o ( to a( en ! t in ( # o ea ( se es n "i tth th " e ios %#i% %%at in ( g a$ ) eF eue n# t! h an e' 'e # o ea & se o s tth ie #* o* $u% isi son h e$ $i & #i o en ' #! ! .

ex A *e ( i ( ( Ks en " ts he o$ Fig. *e : s i ( * ( ( e en . %ts sA sh o$ th o a .. su i. Si'e@s"a!ing (o'e n si th 'e e @ $ s eF " ue a! n# in ! g is ( . ot 9 io H n E ( an o ' 'e a th . e t Fi ' e g.& " o s ut th 4 e . n e T ' a& a %e ( ( II *% a gi it x ve u i s 'e ( th is u e A ( ex <.A..

s t ith ne a e %#o %%o ! . t4 i< o is n #a i ( e' o o ' ut e . sFi .e nt &a $se o ' u o n M ( eg o a. T he n o ne *a th &a se ' o n $o u &a si # ( o 'e s is 'e si g ne ' $o o & ot i# $i sh .#o nt ( o o % t*a it# o he n s a ( e o * ' ut e o sn th se "o i& tot # i# h $i ish n $o g 'e e te x #t * & e ! #a i( ( e e a. th o u g h s " it #h in g ( ot io n ( o 'e . . N ex t.

* e i ( e GI. a ne " )i n ' o$ o & ot i# $i sh " it h t " o u n ' u% at in g %o n g@ $i ns is in t o ' u# e' . CONCLUS I n th is *a *e . T he u n ' u% at in g %o n g@ .nt o s & a% o so tsh io # " th $e io s& h ot i# # $i a sh n " it $h it n " io su h n ' tu% h at e in g * %o n e g@ * $i a ns ha e s ' hi g " h o ( an ) eu .ve a 6 &i n %it ' ! an t' h $% e ex i& e i%i x t!.

o ta ti n g ( o 'e an ' si 'e @ s " a! in g ( o 'e .( o F 'e o . ue #e 'i & n g ( o 'e .$as ii# n ( sot io # n a ( n o 'e g s e o$ n th e e o a & tot e i# $i tsh h a e u * so t* os te' o an ' * 'e s# oi * &e e '. #o nt o % ( et h o 's to se v o@ ( ot o . 6 i ( in g at th es e &a si # ( o 'e s. %T he t&a h si e # ( o o 'e & s o in t#% iu # 'e ( $a i#h sin h g .

M. . 3.io n U ( so i'e n s.: 4@ <4 . W e& &. D. g T he ex e *e ( i o ( ten e ts sh # o o " n th te +4*e o$ %o ( " an i#e to$ h th es te h ( e ot io n ( o 'e s o$ th e o & ot i# $i sh . ** . Fo ( an ' $u n# tio n in $is h s" i( (i ng +N. . Sc i. La ne . an ' N. <A . . S$ a) iot a) is. W.. s" e e n 'i t' e th ' e ex s*e +. Da vi es. C. M. A m er. RBFBRBNCBS 1.sa' io a ( o e ' u% * at o e s.ei * ( a en ts a o$ t$o e u %( ! ot .

. @ AA .. G. D o sa% an ' an a% $in $u n# tio n in &% ue gi% % su n$i sh &e %o mi s m ac ro ch ir us/ th ee @ 'i ( en sio . La u' e. M..A . St an 'e n an ' . . G. *a tte " n c s e an a ' n h! i ' c o' !n a n (i g # i $o n #e e s. AA :. Lo a #o F ( u ot a o t $u i n# # tio n % o$ o th # e o 'o ( sa o % t $in i in o ai n n& . ** . 48 89 . +5. B. s** " . o P " to I ut/ )i ne ( ati ! #s . g D u# ( )e o ' an e +A' s ..n . no o .4 i5: ( @ ( 49 i4. 6 $* i i% s. e4A " . h .Ori R ng e. e #h e !o ur na l of e$ %e ri m en tal Bi ol og y. $4. $ La o u' e.. v vo i%.

6. 48 ) 89 i. $o # ig h i' e o &o ! t o $is u h. 48 8< .. Fo nt ai ne . " ce an ic ng +9. .@ . OD esi gn in g $ut u e un 'e " ate ve hi #%e s/ *i n# i*% es an ' ( e# ha nis (s o$ th e "e a) %! e%e #t i# $is h. Se B *t i . r P n R a o' l oti cs( o A f ut o e m $ ati % on e an r d i M m ec e ha n tr t on a ic l s. ( 4: a95 t@ +7i4: #75 s.. <A .n ol aog %y.'Da n u Xi a. an ' W. i W n eis g ha n * Ch en o et * a%.: . B. u OS % i( s u% i ati o on n stu '! a on n th ' e &o ( '! a si' n e@ e s" u a! v #h e a a#t i ei n sti g # . M a%# o% (. n ** e. ** . 3u 'i #) . P I !.

M a! 48 8A. o' 4 e%i .@ * &a * se . aFa n u#i ' . e **. i De n # # 48 h 87. **. P Co m %u tin g in Sc ie nc e * n gi ne eri ng.' 7 un 9 'u .( v ati o # %( .+:- ian n jia eng eH ru. an n ' o '! . iO> n in g e . an ' R. "e n. Co . io L n. Co h e te E. 5< @ A9.P .@ g 7. ng . +<. . na 5 (i . n . T Co i N. %at @io 7 n 9 $in . ntr ol( u Au a to n m g ati ( on i ( n Ro g 'o tic W s a an n d g )is . . L.# Nan u a% %!si ! s o$ 4 th 8 e 8 %o A ng ..SR. n . OS i( u%a tio n o$ s" i( (i ng o ga nis (s / #o u* %in g int e na% (e #h ani #s "i th ext e na% $%u i' '! na (i #s. Di %%o n.

4 8 % D 1 F tW oo .

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