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Ancient Architectural History

Geological. bordering the Gulf of Siam. and Mid eastern Mekong region. Climatic -region of Southern Indo China -covers the area of Mekong River delta and China to the south. sandstone and terracotta brick in the hinterland -Cooling rain and wind of the southwest monsoon cools the tropical humid heat . laterite.Influences • Geographical. Vietnam and Laos -Timber was the principal building material in the delta area.

Social and Historical • Funamese Period ( 3rd C AD) Indo China composed of the states that became Cambodia. the first stone temple in the grand • Khmer was arictocratic.Intellectual oligarchy with a middle class of craftsmen and a menial working class . Laos and Vietnam • Later Funamese and early Kmer Period (7th-8th C) characterized by political confusion and war • Early classical Khmer (9th C) foundation of the Angkor Kingdom. Indravarman (877-99) built the Bakong.

-Ta Keo. the most beautiful of Khmer temples.Social. Historical • Transitional Classical Khmer Period (10th -11th C) creation of other capital cities.first temple to be built of sandstone by Suryavarman • Classical Khmer Period (12th-13th C) -Suryavarman II. architectural expression of god-king ideal -also built Angkor Thom .built the great Temple city of Angkor Vatthe supreme achievement of the Khmer genius. -Yajnavahara built Banteay Srei ( Citadel for women).

the Naga princess( water spirit).Belief in the sacred mountain.Buddhism • Khmer period. the God King. worshipped in the form of Siva .cult of Deva.Religion • Pre Kmer . ancestor worship were fused with the Indian religious beliefs of the kings .Hinduism .Raja.

City was surrounded by .Mixture of Indian forms and native elements.Architectural Character • 5th C AD. connected by little canals to larger waterways capable of taking sea going ships • 7th-8th C –bricks and stones replaced wooden structures but imitated timber prototypes .moats and artificial lakes .Javanese influence in the emphasis upon the temple mountain and the concept of the god king . rich decorative sculptures harbinger of the exuberant Angkor ornamental art • Early Classical Khmer .Wooden houses on piles.Raising of the temple cella to the summit of the stepped pyramid .

3 important architectural events a.Character • Classical Khmer .the archetypal Khmer urban irrigation system. Creation of the city temple mountain in 800 Ad on the Hill of Phnom Kulen b. Angkor.walled rectangle Temple at the center intersection of the principal avenues Moated entrance Main gate facing west c. Town plan. Contruction pof Roluos.artificial lake formed by earthen dikes to store water from the river flowing into a system of moats and waterways . Baray Lolei. Building of another capital in the Hill of Phnom Bakeng.5 levelled pyramid.

completed in 1010.Character • Transitional Classical Khmer -Baksei Chamkrong. Unsurpassed town planning in strictly formal sense d.first to be built in stone ( laserite) in pyramidal terrace from the ground -Koh Ker-a constructed artificial lake -Ta Keo. Grandeur of conception b. Exuberant sculptural decoration on grandiose scale but with exquisite refinement -stone was used like wood -stone with wood reinforcements -corbelled vaulting for short spans -domination of architecture by sculpture . Brilliant landscaping c. five terraces with five colossal towers • Classical Khmer -Khmer Architecture a. Angkor.

dedicated to the god Vishnu. the capital of theKhmer Empire. it is the only one to have remained a significant religious centre since its foundation – first Hindu. The temple was built by King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century in Yasodharapura (Khmer. Breaking from theShaivism tradition of previous kings.Architectural Examples • Angkor Wat is the largest Hindu temple complex in the world. then Buddhist. present-day Angkor). The temple is at the top of the high classical style of Khmer architecture. . as his state temple and eventual mausoleum. Angkor Wat was instead dedicated to Vishnu. As the best-preserved temple at the site.

Angkor Wat Angkor Wat viewed from across the moat .

The 12th-century royal Buddhist city is especially famed for its grand Bayon Temple. • Faces of Avalokiteshvara at Bayon temple. Photo Kiran Jonnalagadda.Angkor Thom-"the great city" in Khmer. . Photo Jonathan Lewis. but has several other sights of interest as well • View of Bayon Temple. .

• The Phimeanakas Gate.Angkor Thom • One of five gates with Hindu gods and demons. Photo Bentley Smith. . Public domain.

. The South Gate Pool. Photo Bentley Smith.Angkor Thom • Carved reliefs on a temple of Angkor Thom. Photo Atif Gulzar.

nature-spirits (yakshas). it was later replaced. dedicated to Shiva as Indreshvara ("Lord Indra. demons (rakshasas). birds (garudas).Bakong Temple This view is from the west. which is the "back" • of the temple (the main entrance is east). whose name means "Protected by Indra"). Bakong is the state temple of Indravarman I (877-886) at Hariharalaya (modern Roluos)." the personal god of Indravarman. perhaps representing the five earthly realms of snakes (nagas). from the east entrance). . and kings (rajas). 65m x 67m (214' x 220'). • Its base is a great five-tiered pyramid (closeup. The original tower's fate is unknown. by an incongruous tower in Angkor Wat style which sticks up like a sore thumb above the much earlier base. possibly by Yasovarman II (1150-1165).

. rising over 21.Ta Keo Temple King Jayavarman V ruled from 968 to 1001. Ta Keo was actually called 'Hemasringagiri' or 'the mountain with golden peaks. Jayavarman took up residence on the east side of the East Baray. making it one of the tallest buildings at Angkor. but has now vanished. and moved the capital to the west bank. while the outer moat stretched 255 by 195 meters. The temple is enormous. Sometime during his reign. He must have traveled back and forth to it by boat.' meaning Mount Meru—the sacred peak of Indian lore. work was begun on Ta Keo temple in the center of the new capital. Around the year 975. Its base measures 122 by 106 meters.6 meters.

The temple is distinguished from others in the area by the unusual arrangement of its six central towers. which means 'the sacred bull' (Shiva's vehicle Nandi). and the tower to the south was dedicated to the King's father. . The three towers on the east side are staggered so that the central tower is slightly further to the west. the Hindu god closely associated with the rule of Jayavarman II. was built by Indravarman I in 879.Preah Ko Temple Preah Ko. This tower is dedicated to Shiva. Each of these shrines once contained a statue. It is part of the Roluos group of monuments about 13 kilometers east of Siem Riep. but they were removed at some time in the past. The tower to the north was dedicated to the founder of Preah Ko. the founder of the Khmer Empire. which stand in two rows facing east.