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Thailand

Ancient Architectural History

Influences
• Geographical, Geological, Climatic -Siam, in 1939 Muang T’ai or Thailand -Borders: Burma on the west and north, Laos and Cambodia on the northeast, -Rich in durable and decorative timbers. Teak, Ebony -Principal building material- brick - Stone was of little use, for foundations during the years of Kmer influence - Tropical climate with monsoon rains and winds

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Portuguese and British influences Thailand has managed to evade colonialist intrusion • 1782.Kmers annexed Dvaravati .Mon people (Buddhist) from Lower Burma imposed their authority ion Central Thailand. Capita set at Ayudya • Despite French.Bangkok became its capital . • 11th c. Social.Dutch . their influence became paramount but Dvaravati’s prestige unimpaired • 13th c. founded the kingdom of Dvaravati.Historical.Thai Syam migrants from South west China fused with the Mons. Religious • 6th Century.

Buildings were built of bricks and stone. Kmers introduced the use of stone in place of bricks or rubble bonded with vegetable glue . Granite bases with mortise holes for pillars supporting timber superstructures. 6-10th c. mouldings similar to the Buddhists structures from Ceylon to North India. -Kmer-Lopvuri(Mon-Kmer) period.Architectural Character • Buddhist Influence • Periods -Dvaravati Period. manifestation of Kmer Angkor style of Architecture. but also mirrored Mons and Tailaings traditions. 10-13th c.

The north had ample forests. Sinhalese and Kmer motifs. and rectangular windows. lintels.not inventive but harmoniously eclectic using Indian. Mon Dravidian. when later architects used stucco (a sand.Thai Periods 13-17th C • Sukhothai style. Yet another change came. Out of these emerged distinct Thai features. Bound with vegetable glue. to form door parts. so wood was used by craftsmen and in temple construction. and glue mixture strengthened by a terra cotta armature) to cover brick walls. • sandstone was used. • Brick replaced sandstone and the preferred material during the 12th century. the bricks were laid without mortar and then sheathed in carved stone. lime. . in the Khmer manner. Mon Pagan.

. white stuccoed bricks for walls. Carved wood for doors and windows. mural painting • Bangkok Style-18-19th c.Periods • Ayudya Style. Chinese influence.the stupa was in circular plan.lacquered. bone in laid with mother of pearls. Use of sculptures. brightly colored glazed tiles of multileveled overlapping timber roofs. painted. ring based and bell shaped as in Ceylon. Porcelain tiles for floors.

Wat Kukut Temple .

The name Jet Yot (seven spires) refers to the design of the temple’s chedi with seven towers.Wat Jet Yot Temple Wat Jet Yot was built in the 15th century to host the eighth World Buddhist Council in 1477. The temple is located just north of the city next to the National Museum. The design is based on the Mahabodhi Temple at Bodhgaya. India. . site of the Buddha’s enlightenment.

The chedi was damaged in an earthquake in 1545 and now only two-thirds of it remains. Wat Chedi Luang.Wat Chedi Luang. Thailand’s most sacred cultural treasure. Wat Chedi Luang was the home of the Emerald Buddha. built about 600 years ago is one of the most impressive temples of Chiang Mai. and a jade replica is sitting in its place. The original Emerald Buddha is now in Bangkok. Wat Chedi Luang’s massive Lannastyle chedi (pagoda) is visible from any part of the city. . The temple is located on Phrapokklao Road.

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The Temple Complex of Wat Arum .

Temple Complex of Wat Arum .

Wat Arun .

Wat Arun .

perhaps representing Garuda. which resembles the beak of a bird. which usually takes the form of a naga's head turned up and facing away from the roof. the long. The naga head may be styled in flamelike kranok motifs and may have multiple heads. The decorative structure is called the lamyong. The lamyong is sculpted in an undulating.Roof • Roof finials Most decorations are attached to the bargeboard. Perched on the peak of the lamyong is the large curving ornament called a chofah. . A roof with multiple breaks or tiers has identical hang hong finials at the bottom of each section. Its blade-like projection called bai raka suggest both naga fins and the feathers of Garuda. Its lower finial is called a hang hong . serpentine nag sadung shape evoking the nāga. thin panel on the edge of the roof at the gable ends.

This viharn was tastefully renovated in 1987. The most important building in the temple complex is the old wooden viharn or sermon hall. is a fine example of traditional Lanna architecture. dating back to 1823. It dates back at least as far as the 16th century CE. or probably still older. which naturally faces east. Built in traditional and distinctively Lanna style. is reached by a low flight of steps flanked by naga balustrades. the viharn is built of skillfully-crafted teak wood panels on a whitewashed brick and stucco base. one of the most famous of the 100 temples within the old city.Wat Prasat • Wat Prasat (วัดปราสาท) . . The main entrance.

and the monks stayed in this Temple. There is no record of the founding date for this temple. Phra Kæw Maung ordered the Chedi built in 1527. but its name first appeared in historical texts in 1367. The sixth King of Lanna in the Mengrai Dynasty invited a group of ten monks from Burma to bring their study and practice of Buddhism to the Kingdom. and the main Viharn in 1545. and was maintained by the Royal family until the end of the dynasty (based on a signboard inside the grounds). Its located just outside the moat on the North side of the Old City. The Lanna king. .Wat Lok Molee or Wat Lok Moli • Wat Lok Molee or Wat Lok Moli is an attractive and often overlooked little temple that's recently received a facelift. and while not being one of Chiang Mai's most well known Wats (temples) is well worth visiting. The temple is thought to date to the 14th century though its origins are somewhat obscure. The Temple also houses the ashes of members of the Royal Mangrai Dynasty.

Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep. The temple is often referred to as "Doi Suthep" although this is actually the name of the mountain it is located on. From the temple. The temple is located 15 km from the city of Chiang Mai and is a sacred site to many Thai people. Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep is a Theravada Buddhist temple in Chiang Mai Province. . • The main Stupa of Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep. impressive views of Chiang Mai can be seen and it remains a popular destination of foreign visitors. Thailand.

Stairs to Wat Doi Suthep • The mountain of Doi Suthep overlooking the city of Chiang Mai and its top is one of the most popular temples of Thailand. the view of the valley is superb. Wat Phra That Doi Suthep. if the weather is clear. . From above.Un long staircase where each ramp is a body of dragon and has 309 steps allows arriving at the temple.

Thus Wat Saen Fang like quite a few Wats in Chiang Mai is a confluence of two architectural styles & the influence of Burmese style is strong. mainly used in Thailand). The prayer hall (viharn). on the right is in the Lanna style and had served as the Royal Hall. Indeed. featuring a Lanna style prayer hall viharn.Wat Saen Fang is one of the most important temples in the east of Chiang Mai city is one such Wat or temple. the elaborately carved exterior and use of rich colors like gold and blue reminded us of the Wat’s glorious past. Wat Saen Fang . and a Burmese style chedi (an alternative term for a Buddhist stupa. chedi and the ordination hall (ubosot) on the west side of the compound were built during the Burmese occupation of Chiang Mai. which epitomizes this confluence of styles….

the "gilded hall") of Chiang Mai's king. also written Wat Pantao. Wat Chedi Luang. located right next door. is a Buddhist temple in the heart of the old city. . who ruled from 1846 to 1854. Chao Mahawong. The viharn was originally the ho kham which means the palace (or literally.Wat Phan Tao. The name is believed to refer to the casting of the numerous Buddha images for its even bigger neighbour. Wat Phan Tao has a beautiful viharn (main prayer hall). The name Wat Phan Tao means "Monastery of a Thousand Kilns". a majestic structure that is today one of the few remaining all-wood buildings in Chiang Mai . • Wat Phan Tao.

chedi • The chedi (stupa) and umbrella at Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep. .

This place was so peaceful and the reflection of the sun on the gold was just breathtaking.Wat Chiang Man • Wat Chiang Man on a mid November afternoon. .

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