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August 2012 This month's newsletter is the first in a multi-part series on using the ANOVA method for

an ANOVA 5 2.2 2.08 2.16 Gage R&R study. This method simply uses analysis of variance to analyze the results of a gage R&R study instead of the classical average and range 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 3.08 2.53 4.19 3.01 2.44 3.04 1.62 3.88 3.14 1.54 3.25 1.78 3.94 4.03 1.8 2.89 1.87 4.09 3.2 1.93 3.07 2.9800 0.0013 2.32 4.34 3.2 1.72 2.85 2.6947 0.0621 2.04 3.67 3.11 1.55 Sum of 0.1087 Deviations 15(Sum of 1.6304 Deviations)

B

C

Thus, SSO = 1.6304 So, you can see that the sum of squares due to the operators is based on how the operator averages deviate from the overall average. There are three operator averages. Since we calculated the overall average, we lost one degree of freedom. The degrees of freedom associated with the operators are 3 - 1 = 2, or k -1 = 2. The variability chart below shows the results by operator by part. The horizontal blue line is the average for the operator. The horizontal green line is the overall average. The difference between those two lines is the deivation.

The calculations with these two columns were covered in the first part of this series. The third column is the sum of squares. So. The fourth column is the mean square associated with the source of variation. the mean square is the sum of squares divided by the degrees of . the part. The second column is the degrees of freedom associated with the source of variation. the interaction between the operator and part. The mean square is the estimate of the variance for that source of variability (not necessarily by itself) based on the amount of data we have (the degrees of freedom). the equipment and the total.The first column is the source of variability. Remember that a Gage R&R study is a study of variation. There are five sources of variability in this ANOVA approach: the operator.

There are other sources of variation present in all put one of these variances.142 p Value 0.815 MSParts = 7. This is the column we want to examine first. for example. To find the variance of each source of .0000 0.008 MSEquipment = 0. This is the statistic that is calculated to determine if the source of variability is statistically significant. In that case.712 32.227 0.008 0.815. The fifth column is the F value.9964 Note that there is an additional column in this output – the p values. As you can see in the table.25. the mean square column contains a variance that is related to the source of variation in the first column.815 7. the interaction is rolled into the equipment variation. MSOperators = 0.freedom.065 1. The next column we want to look at is the mean square column. The results for the ANOVA table are shown below.05. Its p value is 0. Many software packages contain an option to remove the interaction if the p value is above a certain value – most often 0.322 889. We must use the Expected Mean Square to find out what other sources of variation are present.317 MS 0. We will use σ 2 to denote a variance due to a single source. Source Operator Part Operator by Part Equipment Total df 2 4 8 30 44 SS 1.057 You might be tempted to assume. Expected Mean Squares As stated above. The ANOVA Table Results The data was analyzed using the SPC for Excel software. So. this would be wrong.0000 0. We will use the mean square information to estimate the variance of each source of variation – this is the key to analyzing the Gage R&R results.9964. it means that the source of variation has a significant impact on the results. It is based on the ratio of two variances (or mean squares in this case).227 MSOperators*Parts = 0.057 F 100.630 28.909 0. the “operator by part” source is not significant. We will keep it in the calculations here – though it has little impact since its mean square is so small.458 0. This column is an estimate of the variance due to the source of variation. If the p value is less than 0. However. that the variance due to the operators is 0.

we have to use the expected mean square (EMS). Repeatability is already related directly to the mean square for equipment so we don’t need to do anything there. There are algorithms that allow you to generate the expected mean squares. And last.variation. The Variances of the Components We can solve the above equations for each individual σ2. This is really the within variation (also called error). The parts expected mean square is shown below. Note that the EMS for parts contains the variances for repeatability. we will just present the expected mean squares. the expected mean square for the operators is given by: The EMS for operators contains the variances for repeatability. the interaction and operators. the interaction and parts. The repeatability variance is the mean square of the equipment from the ANOVA table. The expected mean square for equipment is the repeatability variance. This is beyond the scope of this newsletter. This is what is estimated by the mean square for parts. The expected mean square represents the variance that the mean square column is estimating. It is the repeatability portion of the Gage R&R study. . Now consider the interaction expected mean square which is given by: Note that the EMS for the interaction tern contains the repeatability variance as well as the variance of the interaction between the operators and parts. This is what the mean square for operators is estimating. Let’s start at the bottom with the equipment variation. This is what is estimated by the mean square of the interaction. The other three can be solved as follows: We can now do the calculations to estimate each of the variances. So.

Thus: The total variance is the sum of the components: We can use the total variance to determine the % contribution of each source to the total variance.Note that the value of the variance for the interaction between the operators and parts is actually negative.89% 0.14% 0.0000 0. % Gage R&R The Measurement Systems Analysis manual published by AIAG (www.00% 87. For example. the variance is simply set to zero. If this happens.8021 6.org) provides the following definition: The measurement system variation for repeatability and reproducibility (or GRR) is defined as the following: GRR2=EV2 + AV2 where EV is the equipment variance and AV is the appraiser (or operator) variance.86% .aiag. the % variation due to GRR is given by: The results for all the sources of variation are shown in the table below. Source GRR Equipment (Repeatability) Operators (Reproducibility) Interaction Parts % of Variance Total Variance 0.1109 12.0571 0.0538 0. This is done by dividing the variance for each source by the total variance.25% 5.

One of the major problems people have with Gage R&R studies is selecting samples that do not truly reflect the range of production. You could also use a variance calculated directly from a month's worth of production in place of the total variance in the analysis.9130 100. Summary In this newsletter. We will take a look at that next month as we compare the ANOVA method to the Average and Range method for analyzing a Gage R&R experiment.Total 0. we will compare the ANOVA method to the Average and Range method for Gage R&R.14% of the total variance. and showed how to determine the %GRR as a percent of the total variance. This may or may not be acceptable depending on the process and what your customer needs and wants.00% Based on this analysis. If you have to do that. Quick Links . In the next newsletter. the measurement system is responsibility for 12. you can begin to look at how the results compare to specifications. Note that this result is based on the total variance. It is very important that the parts you use in the Gage R&R study represent the range of values you will get from production. presented the expected mean squares and how to use those to estimate the variances of the components. we continued our exploration of the using ANOVA to analyze a Gage R&R experiment. We completed the ANOVA table.