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Aerospace Industry

Multi-Scale Modeling of Composite Materials & Structures
Dr. Jan Seyfarth
Product Manager Digimat April 2013
Copyright© e-Xstream engineering, 2013
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Aerospace Industry
A Very Short Introduction...

Digimat
e-Xstream & Simulation Strategy
Software

Materials
Technology & Applications

From Materials to Structure
Current Status and Ongoing Developments

Structures
Technology & Applications

Summary

Aerospace Industry
Multi-Scale Modeling of Composite Materials & Structures

Digimat

e-Xstream engineering
Simulation Strategy
Nonlinear Multi-Scale Simulation Platform


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Aerospace Industry
Multi-Scale Modeling of Composite Materials & Structures
Copyright© e-Xstream engineering, 2013
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Who are we...? A MSC Software Company!

Team of ~30 persons
- PhDs (~65%)
- MS & BS Engineering (~ 25%)
- Marketing, Finance & Admin (~10%)

+ TBH in 2013

Material experts
- Micromechanics

It`s all about...


COMPOSITES
A
m
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t
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r
d
a
m
,

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
1
2

e-Xstream engineering
Digimat
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What are we concerned about?

Inter-dependencies in the Design of a Composite Part



e-Xstream engineering
Digimat
Structural design
influences processing
Manufacturing sets
local microstructure
Local microstructure
sets material
properties

What do we do...? Multi-Scale!

MICRO

- Material

MACRO

- Dumbbell


- Part





- System
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Micro-
structure Material model
Part
performance
Characterization
Process
System level
Simulation Strategy
Digimat
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Material Related Design Challenges

Manage Material Data
- Generate Data (Cost & Time of Test)
- Manage, Trace, Protect (IP)
- Comply (Regulation)

Model (composite) Materials, Part & Systems
- Nonlinearity: Progressive damage & failure
- Anisotropy
- Heterogeneity
- Process dependency

Use
- The optimal mix of material
- The Material(s) as a design parameter to innovate
- The optimal manufacturing process

Simulation Strategy
Digimat

Nonlinear Multiscale Modeling Platform
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Nonlinear Multi-Scale Simulation Platform
Digimat
- Performance
- Stiffness
- Failure
- Fatigue

- Technology
- Linear/Nonlinear
- Mean Field/FEA
- Micro/Hybrid




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Nonlinear Multiscale Modeling Platform

Holistic modeling

- Materials
- Chopped Fibers: Short/Long
- Continuous Fibers
- Fillers

- Physics
- (Thermo-) Mechanical
- Thermal Conductivity
- Electric Conductivity

- Manufacturing
- Injection
- Compression
- Draping
- Fiber placement
- MuCell
®




Nonlinear Multi-Scale Simulation Platform
Digimat

Nonlinear Multiscale Modeling Platform

MICRO

- Virtual Material


MACRO

- Data management
- Reverse Engineering


- FEA Interfaces
- Mapping





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Material Engineering
Structural Engineering
Nonlinear Multi-Scale Simulation Platform
Digimat

Interfaces to MSC Nastran

SOL 101 - linear
- Weak coupling [Nastran material card used]
- Including SOL 103 for vibration
- Including SOL 105 for buckling

SOL 400 - nonlinear
- Implicit
- Strong coupling [Digimat user subroutine]

SOL 700 - nonlinear
- Explicit
- Strong coupling [Digimat user subroutine]



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Available in 4.4.1
Specification phase
Under development
Nonlinear Multi-Scale Simulation Platform
Digimat

Materials

Composites
Materials Engineering
Applications


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Aerospace Industry
Multi-Scale Modeling of Composite Materials & Structures
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A Vast Mix of Different Materials

Metal (Alloys)
- Aluminium / Magnesium
- Molybdenum / Titanium / Tungsten

Reinforced Plastics
- Thermoplastics + Carbon fibers
- Epoxy + Glass / Carbon / Aramid fibers

Ceramics
- Titanium + SiC fibers

Composites
Materials
Complex structures Pores
Stacking Weaving
Structure / Orientation
Random
Material's
Performance (Stiffness, failure, fatigue, ...)
Anisotropy

Digimat-FE

Fast & Efficient Prediction of Composite Material Properties

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Materials Engineering
Materials

UD Composites

Defects & influence of processing

- ISEMP
- Integrative Simulation and Engineering of Materials and Processes
» Aims at the simulation of material details and not only the
macroscopic overall properties
» Aims at considering manufacturing process by the simulation
» Uses commercially available software tools

CHALLENGE
- Processing of CFRP results in residual stresses in the material
- Residual stresses lead to micro-damage & failure of CFRP
- Goal is to simulate residual stresses of a carbon fiber composite
material at the micro scale with realistic topology

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Applications
Materials

UD Composites

Defects & influence of processing

- E.g. already generated in the material during processing
- Source for the failure of the composite.

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Segmentation
Matrix enrichment
Pores
Delamination
Applications
Materials

UD Composites

RVE Generation
- Periodic boundary conditions
- Enhanced flexibility
- 45° orientation
» And other...

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Applications
Materials

UD Composites

RVE Generation

- Fibers
- Stochastic
- Intersection with
» Matrix
» Voids

- Voids
- Stochastic
- Complex shapes
- Clustering, control over
» Position
» Shape
» Orientation

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[ 0° / 90° ]
fibers intersecting voids
complex
shapes
Applications
Materials

UD Composites

Curing effects

- Replacement experiment:
- Shrinkage due to temperature decrease
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Applications
Materials

UD Composites

Curing effects

- Delamination due to change in orientation
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Applications
Materials

UD Composites

Curing effects

- Crack propagation due to stochastic distribution of fibers

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Applications
Materials

Strategic Simulation Tool

Digimat

- Recommended tool for investigations
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Applications
Materials

Sandwich Panels

Micross - Stand-Alone Digimat Module
- Input Data @ micro and/or macro scale
- Fast Solution in less than 10 minutes
- Loading
- 3-Point & 4-Point Bending
- In-Plane Shear


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Applications
Materials

Micross

Stand-alone module
- Definition of honeycomb core
- Definition of skin plies


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Applications
Materials

Micross

Stand-alone module
- Visualization of results
- Failure indicators
- Skins: max. stress, Tsai-Wu, Tsai-Hill, Azzi-Tsai-Hill
- Core: shear, compression




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Applications
Materials

From Materials to Structure

Critical Development Phase
Materials Engineering
Current Status
Ongoing Developments


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Aerospace Industry
Multi-Scale Modeling of Composite Materials & Structures

Digimat-MF

Fast & Efficient Prediction of Composite Material Properties

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Copyright© e-Xstream engineering, 2013
Output


Homogenization


DIGIMAT material model
sensitive to composite
microstructure
State-of-the-art
homogenization
methods
Per-phase material
properties +
microstructure
information
Input


a
r

w [%]
matrix
filler




Materials Engineering
From Materials to Structure

Digimat-MX

Material eXchange & Reverse Engineering
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Reverse
Engineering


Input


Output

Calibrated DIGIMAT
Material Model, stored in
database and ready to be
shared and used
Calibration of
DIGIMAT models
based on
experimental data
Experimental data,
DIGIMAT material
models stored in
database
Materials Engineering
From Materials to Structure

Multi-Scale Approach

Top Down |
Reverse Engineering
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Critical Development Phase
From Materials to Structure
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Multi-Scale Approach

Bottom Up |
Prediction of performance
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Critical Development Phase
From Materials to Structure
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Material Models - Standart

(Thermo-) Elastic
(Thermo-) Elastoplastic
(Thermo-) Viscoelastic
(Thermo-) Elasto-Viscoplastic
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f(T)
TEMPERATURE
f( )
STRAIN RATES
High strain rates
Creep
f(OT)
ANISOTROPY
Current Status
From Materials to Structure
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Material Models - Advanced

(Thermal) Creep

- Viscoelasticity
- Elasto-Viscoplasticity
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time

aligned
VE Matrix Composite
TVE Matrix Composite
G
0
, K
0
and CTE Constant
TVE Matrix Composite
G
0
=G
0
(0), K
0
= K
0
(0) and CTE Constant
Current Status
From Materials to Structure
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Stiffness

Eshelby approach for UD & woven composites

- Mean field homogenization
- Glass fibers isotropic
- Carbon fibers transversely isotropic
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Current Status
From Materials to Structure
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Stiffness

UD Composites - RVE definition

- Layered microstructure

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Current Status
From Materials to Structure
Stiffness
Failure
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Stiffness

Woven Composites - Basic model

- Superposition of fibers

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Current Status
From Materials to Structure
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Stiffness

Woven Composites - Advanced model

- Realistic woven structure

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yarn definition
woven modeler
Current Status
From Materials to Structure
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Stiffness

Woven Composites - Advanced model

- Realistic woven structure

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visualization &
property
computation
Current Status
From Materials to Structure
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Stiffness

Virtual testing

- Stress & strain
- Tension & compression
- Creep & relaxation

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uniaxial
shear
biaxial
Current Status
From Materials to Structure

Stiffness

Input / Definition

- Epoxy matrix
- Density
- Isotropic elastic
» Young´s modulus
» Poisson ratio

- Carbon fibers
- Density
- Transversely isotropic elastic
» In-plane Young´s modulus
» Axial Young´s modulus
» In-plane Poisson ratio
» Transverse Poisson ratio
» Transverse shear modulus
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Current Status
From Materials to Structure
ksi
t/mm
3
ksi
t/mm
3

Stiffness

Input / Definition

- Ply
- Microstructure
» Continuous fiber
» Volume fraction of fibers: 61%

- Laminate
- Stacking sequence
» 3 different laminates
- Computation of
» Laminate
» Stress response
» Engineering properties
» Ply
» Engineering properties
» Per-phase
» Stress response

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Current Status
From Materials to Structure
10/30/60
Laminate 1
60/30/10
Laminate 2
10/40/50
Laminate 3

Stiffness

Output

- Laminate
- Stress response

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Current Status
From Materials to Structure
11

Stiffness

Output

- Laminate
- Stiffness matrix
» In coordinate system of the RVE
» Tensile direction: 11
» Orthotropic

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Current Status
From Materials to Structure
Laminate 1
10/30/60
Laminate 2
60/30/10
Laminate 3
10/40/50
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Stiffness

Output

- Ply level
- Engineering constants
» In coordinate system of the ply
» Tensile direction: x
» Unique for all three laminates

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Current Status
From Materials to Structure
Lamlna Angle 0¨ 43¨ 90¨
?oung
Modulus (ksl)
Axlal (along x-axls) 23.044 2.139 1.318
1ransverse (along y-axls) 1.318 2.139 23.044

Stiffness

Output

- Matrix level
- Microscopic properties
» Stress 11 vs. Strain 11 [ksi]
- Per ply information
» Different stresses ( ) & strains are reached
» Dependent on the ply and sensitive to changes in the laminate design
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Current Status
From Materials to Structure
imposed strain imposed strain imposed strain
0° 45° 90°
matrix strain matrix strain matrix strain
11

Stiffness

Output

- Fiber level
- Microscopic properties
» Stress 11 vs. Strain 11 [ksi]
- Per ply information
» Dependent on the ply and sensitive to changes in the laminate design
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Current Status
From Materials to Structure
imposed strain imposed strain imposed strain
fiber strain fiber strain fiber strain
11
0° 45° 90°

Stiffness

Coupled Analysis
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Current Status
From Materials to Structure

Stiffness

Coupled Analysis - Global Response

- Laminate level
- Force / displacement curve
» Digimat-MF Fraction of a second to solve micromechanics
» Nastran Minutes for FEA analysis

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Current Status
From Materials to Structure

Stiffness

Coupled Analysis - Local Response

- Ply level
- Macroscopic properties in each ply
» Max. Princ. Stress [ksi]
» Influence of the hole on local behavior

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Current Status
From Materials to Structure
Laminate 1
10/30/60
Laminate 2
60/30/10
Laminate 3
10/40/50

Failure

Matrix strain per ply
- Differs from macroscopic strain
- Input for unique strain based failure criteria

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Current Status
From Materials to Structure

45°
90°
-45°
O
r
i
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n

i
n

p
l
y

No matrix failure in 0° ply
Average matrix strain in other plies
for failure of the composite
Matrix
Macroscopic
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Failure

Per ply definition

- Derived from microstructure
- Stress in fibers / strain in matrix


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Current Status
From Materials to Structure

Progressive Failure Analysis

Explicit solver

- Element deletion triggered by
- Stress in fibers / strain in matrix

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Fiber failure
Current Status
From Materials to Structure

Progressive Failure Analysis

Validation of stiffness & failure

- Predictive modeling
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RE on ply level of plain
specimen
Prediction of performance
of open whole specimen
Current Status
From Materials to Structure

Progressive Failure Analysis

The idea

- Feed the indicator, control stiffness & failure...
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Ongoing Developments
From Materials to Structure
Indicator


Matrix
Strain
Transverse tensile

Fibers
Stress
Tension
Compression
Matrix
stresses & strains
Fibers
stresses & strains
Composite
stresses & strains
Pre-Failure

Stiffness Reduction
Damage controled by
failure indicator

Failure

Element Deletion
Final composite
failure controled by
critical damage

Progressive Failure Analysis

Preliminary results 2013/02 release
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Ongoing Developments
From Materials to Structure
Partial
failure
No
failure
Complete
failure

Progressive Failure Analysis

Preliminary results 2013/02 release

- Stiffness degradation
- Failure
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Ongoing Developments
From Materials to Structure
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Deformation: d11 & d22 Element deletion: progressive & classical

Structures

Structural Engineering
Applications


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Aerospace Industry
Multi-Scale Modeling of Composite Materials & Structures

Short Fiber Reinforcement
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Structural Engineering
Structures
fibers
failure
ANISO
Measurements
/ curves
Process Simulation
Orientation data on processing mesh
FEA
Structural analysis
Structural mesh
Mapping
Anisotropic (non)linear
Material Model
ISO

Short Fiber Reinforcement

Fittings





Turbine parts

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Structural Engineering
Structures

UD & Woven


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Measurements
/ curves
FEA
Structural analysis
Anisotropic (non)linear
Material Model
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UD
Woven
Draping
Warp/weft angles
Structural Engineering
Structures

Summary


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Aerospace Industry
Multi-Scale Modeling of Composite Materials & Structures
Copyright© e-Xstream engineering, 2013
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Summary

Materials

- In-depth study of a broad range of materials & performances
- SFRP, UD & woven composites, hard metals, ceramics, nano composites
- Complex RVEs - micro stresses & strains
- (Thermo-)Mechanical, thermal & electrical conductivity

From Materials to Structure

- Material property evaluation
- Screening / Selection / Specification / Allowables

Structures
- Influence of processing on final performance
- Injection molding
- Draping
- Fiber placement
- ...


Aerospace Industry
Multi-Scale Modeling of Composite Materials & Structures

Digimat 4.4.1 -New Release



Soon available on e-Xstream
FTP!

(see separate email announcement)



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Licensing
sales.admin@e-Xstream.com

Support
support@e-Xstream.com
Training
bernard.alsteens@e-Xstream.com

Software
jan.seyfarth@e-Xstream.com
Aerospace Industry
Multi-Scale Modeling of Composite Materials & Structures

Thanks a lot for your attention!




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Aerospace Industry
Multi-Scale Modeling of Composite Materials & Structures