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August 2012 This month's newsletter is the first in a multi-part series on using the ANOVA method for

an ANOVA Gage R&R study. This method simply uses analysis of variance to analyze the results of a gage R&R study instead of the classical average and range method. The two methods do not generate the same results, but they will (in most cases) be similar. This newsletter focuses on part of the ANOVA table and how it is developed for the Gage R &R study. In particular it focuses on the sum of squares and degrees of freedom. Many people do not understand how the calculations work and the information that is contained in the sum of squares and the degrees of freedom. In the next few issues, we will put together the rest of the ANOVA table and complete the Gage R&R calculations. In this issue:  Sources of Variation  Example Data  The ANOVA Table for Gage R&R  The ANOVA Results  Total Sum of Squares and Degrees of Freedom  Operator Sum of Squares and Degrees of Freedom  Parts Sum of Squares and Degrees of Freedom  Equipment (Within) Sum of Squares and Degrees of Freedom  Interaction Sum of Squares and Degrees of Freedom  Summary  Quick Links Any gage R&R study is a study of variation. This means you have to have variation in the results. On occasion, I get a phone call from a customer wondering why their Gage R&R study is not giving them any useful information. And, in looking at the results, I discover that each result is the same - for each part and for each operator. There is no variation. I am asked - Isn't it good that there is no variation in the results? No, not in a gage R&R study. It means that the measurement process cannot tell the difference between the samples. So remember, a gage R&R study is a study in variation - this means that there must be variation. If you are not familiar with how to conduct a Gage R&R study, please see our December 2007 newsletter. This newsletter also includes how to analyze the results using the average and range method. As usual, please feel free to leave comments at the end of the newsletter.

Sources of Variation

We took an indepth look at how the sum of squares and degrees of freedom were determined. Many people do not understand how the calculations work and the information that is contained in the sum of squares and the degrees of freedom. The Data We are using the data from our December 2007 newsletter on the average and range method for Gage R&R. you will not instead of the classical average and range method. Obviously. In the figure above. In this issue:  The Data  The ANOVA Table for Gage R&R  The ANOVA Table Results  Expected Mean Squares  The Variances of the Components  The % Gage R&R  Summary  Quick Links As always. What are the sources of variation in these three trials? It is the measurement equipment itself. This newsletter also explains how to set up a gage R&R study. we will break down the variance into four components: parts. In this issue we will complete the ANOVA table and show how to determine the % of total variance that is due to the measurement system (the % GRR). interaction between parts and operators and the repeatability error due to the measurement system (or gage) itself. operators. please feel free to leave a comment at the bottom newsletter. Operator 1 tested each 5 parts three times. With the ANOVA method. A partial picture of the Gage R&R design is shown below. In this example.Suppose you are monitoring a process by pulling samples of the product at some regular interval and measuring one critical quality characteristic (X). The operator is the same . there were three operators who tested five parts three times. The first part of this series focused on part of the ANOVA table. The two methods do not generate the same results. you can see that Operator 1 has tested Part 1 three times. but they will (in most cases) be similar.

The basic ANOVA table is shown in the table below for the following where k = number of operators. Operator 2 and 3 also test the same 5 parts three times each.5 2. An interaction can exist if the operator and parts are not independent. It is also called the equipment variation in Gage R&R studies or just with the “within” variation in ANOVA studies. you will use computer software to do the calculations. we will show how the calculations are done.11 1. and n= number of parts.32 4.44 3.87 4.08 3.34 3.32 4. The variation in those results includes the variation due to the parts as well as the equipment variation.2 3.2 1. The variation due to operators is called the reproducibility.78 3.53 4.42 4.and the part is the same.04 3.62 3.34 3. the operator variation and the interaction between operators and parts. Operator 1 also runs Parts 2 through 5 three times each.07 2.64 2.08 2. the part variation.89 1.8 2.04 1.67 3.01 2. Since this is a relatively simple Gage R&R.29 2.64 2.41 2. The variation in these three trials is a measure of the repeatability. The variation in all results includes the equipment variation.25 1.94 4.47 2.2 1.09 3.88 3. The software usually displays the results in an ANOVA table. r = number of replications.19 3. Operator A B C Part 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 3. .44 4. This helps understand the process better.27 3.17 3.54 Results 3.72 2.14 1.16 3.93 3.03 1. The data we are using are shown in the table below.85 2.55 The ANOVA Table for Gage R&R In most cases.

630 28.065 1.057 F 100. There are five sources of variability in this ANOVA approach: the operator.322 889. The fourth column is the mean square associated with the source of variation. This is the statistic that is calculated to determine if the source of variability is statistically significant.712 32. The second column is the degrees of freedom associated with the source of variation. The fifth column is the F value. the interaction between the operator and part.008 0.0000 0.815 7. Source Operator Part Operator by Part Equipment Total df 2 4 8 30 44 SS 1. We will use the mean square information to estimate the variance of each source of variation – this is the key to analyzing the Gage R&R results. the part. The calculations with these two columns were covered in the first part of this series. So.The first column is the source of variability. The results for the ANOVA table are shown below.227 0.0000 0.909 0. the mean square is the sum of squares divided by the degrees of freedom. It is based on the ratio of two variances (or mean squares in this case).142 p Value 0.317 MS 0. The ANOVA Table Results The data was analyzed using the SPC for Excel software. The third column is the sum of squares. the equipment and the total.9964 .458 0. The mean square is the estimate of the variance for that source of variability (not necessarily by itself) based on the amount of data we have (the degrees of freedom). Remember that a Gage R&R study is a study of variation.

There are other sources of variation present in all put one of these variances. This is . this would be wrong. This is the column we want to examine first.Note that there is an additional column in this output – the p values. the interaction is rolled into the equipment variation. MSOperators = 0. It is the repeatability portion of the Gage R&R study. The expected mean square for equipment is the repeatability variance. We will use σ 2 to denote a variance due to a single source. However. The expected mean square represents the variance that the mean square column is estimating.815. The next column we want to look at is the mean square column.25. for example.05. Expected Mean Squares As stated above. it means that the source of variation has a significant impact on the results. So. we will just present the expected mean squares. that the variance due to the operators is 0. In that case. We must use the Expected Mean Square to find out what other sources of variation are present.057 You might be tempted to assume. So. This is beyond the scope of this newsletter. If the p value is less than 0. the mean square column contains a variance that is related to the source of variation in the first column.227 MSOperators*Parts = 0. Now consider the interaction expected mean square which is given by: Note that the EMS for the interaction tern contains the repeatability variance as well as the variance of the interaction between the operators and parts. we have to use the expected mean square (EMS). As you can see in the table.9964. the “operator by part” source is not significant.008 MSEquipment = 0. Let’s start at the bottom with the equipment variation. Its p value is 0. This column is an estimate of the variance due to the source of variation. To find the variance of each source of variation. Many software packages contain an option to remove the interaction if the p value is above a certain value – most often 0. We will keep it in the calculations here – though it has little impact since its mean square is so small.815 MSParts = 7. This is really the within variation (also called error). There are algorithms that allow you to generate the expected mean squares. The repeatability variance is the mean square of the equipment from the ANOVA table.

If this happens. And last.what is estimated by the mean square of the interaction. % Gage R&R . Repeatability is already related directly to the mean square for equipment so we don’t need to do anything there. the variance is simply set to zero. Note that the value of the variance for the interaction between the operators and parts is actually negative. the interaction and operators. This is what is estimated by the mean square for parts. The Variances of the Components We can solve the above equations for each individual σ2. The parts expected mean square is shown below. the interaction and parts. Note that the EMS for parts contains the variances for repeatability. The other three can be solved as follows: We can now do the calculations to estimate each of the variances. This is what the mean square for operators is estimating. the expected mean square for the operators is given by: The EMS for operators contains the variances for repeatability.

Source GRR Equipment (Repeatability) Operators (Reproducibility) Interaction Parts Total % of Variance Total Variance 0.0000 0.8021 0. Note that this result is based on the total variance. This is done by dividing the variance for each source by the total variance.14% of the total variance. We will take a look at that next month as we compare the ANOVA method to the Average and Range method for analyzing a Gage R&R experiment.0538 0. One of the major problems people have with Gage R&R studies is selecting samples that do not truly reflect the range of production. For example.0571 0.00% Based on this analysis.1109 12. you can begin to look at how the results compare to specifications.org) provides the following definition: The measurement system variation for repeatability and reproducibility (or GRR) is defined as the following: GRR2=EV2 + AV2 where EV is the equipment variance and AV is the appraiser (or operator) variance. This may or may not be acceptable depending on the process and what your customer needs and wants.86% 100.aiag.9130 6. the % variation due to GRR is given by: The results for all the sources of variation are shown in the table below. . If you have to do that.The Measurement Systems Analysis manual published by AIAG (www.00% 87. You could also use a variance calculated directly from a month's worth of production in place of the total variance in the analysis. Thus: The total variance is the sum of the components: We can use the total variance to determine the % contribution of each source to the total variance.89% 0.25% 5.14% 0. the measurement system is responsibility for 12. It is very important that the parts you use in the Gage R&R study represent the range of values you will get from production.

we continued our exploration of the using ANOVA to analyze a Gage R&R experiment. presented the expected mean squares and how to use those to estimate the variances of the components. and showed how to determine the %GRR as a percent of the total variance. we will compare the ANOVA method to the Average and Range method for Gage R&R. We completed the ANOVA table. In the next newsletter. Quick Links .Summary In this newsletter.