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DELTA terminology

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abstract noun

noun that names an idea, quality, feeling or action that is not necessarily objectified, e.g. fear, justice, pleasure, hope, awe conversational turns that go together, such as "guess what?" "what?"; often q&as adverbial functioning as the internal structure of a sentence, e.g. as soon as sound produced by stopping the air and then releasing it with friction, e.g. ch in "chair", j in "joy" any various acoustically different forms of the same phoneme e.g. /p/ in pin and spin pronoun referring to a previously mentioned noun when articulators move towards each other but not close enough to cause audible friction, e.g. /r/, /l/, /y/, /w/ a process by which a sound becomes similar to an adjacent sound, e.g. "ten boys" sounds like "tem boys" (the /n/ sound changes to the bilabial /m/ to make it easier to transition to the also bilabial /b/) a method of second language learning that emphasises the teaching of speaking a listening over reading and writing, discourages the use of the mother tongue, uses dialogues and drills, contrastive analysis to perform a task without having to pay too much attention to it sequence of two+ words belonging to the same grammatical category, having some semantic relationship and joined by and/or, e.g. chalk and cheese (irreversible) a matter of listeners first decoding (or understanding) the smallest elements, e.g. words or sounds, building into sentences, paragraphs/prose, eventually looking at non-linguistics later pronoun referring to a noun mentioned later in the text the joining of a consonant sound at the end of a word with a vowel sound at the beginning of the next with no noticeable pause between the two sounds, e.g. "an apple" is pronounced /anapple/ a reading test where every nth word is removed and replaced by a space


coordinating conjunction coda (tail) cohesive devices

links two or more items of equal syntactic importance, e.g. and, but, so, for anything after the tonic syllable. holds the completion of the pitch movement elements that bind writing together as a whole; transitional words and phrases as well as repetition of key words and the use of reference words that 'point back' to ideas in the text, e.g. pronouns a test's validity in comparison to a widelyaccepted standard refers to the implied or suggested meanings associated with a word beyond its dictionary definition, positive/negative the degree to which a test actually assesses what it claims to assess the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the language skills and structures it's supposed to cover a form of 'oppositeness', where there is a reciprocal relationship, e.g. buy and sell / lend and borrow changing a word class without changing the form, e.g. "to google sthg" verb that joins subject and predicate, e.g. "he IS happy" sth incorrect that looks fine on the surface, eg. "I am here for 3 weeks" but they mean to say "I have been there for 3 weeks" rule is taught to the learner which they then must apply the way words are formed i.e. through affixation and compounding, e.g. adding 'able' means sthg is possible as in "reliable" noun/pronoun receiving the action of a verb, e.g. "Jack gave the FLOWERS to me" spoken or written language, including literary works; the four traditionally classified modes of ____________ are description, exposition, narration, and persuasion adverbial which stands apart from the sentence, e.g. attitude - not surprisingly omission of sounds or syllables in speech, often occurs in consonant clusters ("sanwich") words are omitted as they are already mentioned, e.g. "Where are you going?", "To town."



adjacency pairs adjunct affricate






allophone anaphoric reference approximant

concurrent validity connotation





construct validity content validity converses






conversion copula verb (linking) covert error






automaticity binomial


deduction derivational morphology direct object discourse





bottom-up processing



cataphoric reference catenation


disjunct elision ellipsis





cloze test

g.g. fricative 56. especially the pitch pattern of a sentence. f. e. global error head homonym 44. e. 51. 43. under guidance. but having a different meaning.. 59.g. carols. bat=animal. where the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue.g. person and number. 'they counted heads' words that differ in sound by just one phoneme. emphasis on authenticity error that causes confusion of the intended message or meaning from the first stressed syllable to the tonic syllable a word spelled exactly like another word. linker 40. van. but is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.g. /l/ thematically-related group of words. "Jack gave the flowers to ME" learner is given an task and expected to work out the rules independently the way words. lights are all connected with Christmas when a sound is introduced at word boundaries after words ending in a vowel sound.. mango is a ______ of fruit the speaker's intent/purpose: often there is more implied than what appears on the surface. open-ended. mistake morpheme 62.. closed. e. exophoric reference 54. play+s.g. are formed in order to convey different grammatical meanings. lateral 35. gap fill genre approach 42. 48. endophoric reference epenthesis refers to something within the 46. It is a suprasegmental feature of pronunciation 52. tree. e.g. 55. s.g. face validity finite clause fossilisation 38. e.g.g. e. paragraphs.g. after analysing an example. lorry. such as verbs. rules of syntax substituting the name of an attribute or feature for the name of the thing itself. grammatical terms (noun. fireplace. extent to which a test seems on its surface to be measuring what it purports to measure verb clause marked for tense. z. as in 'law and order'. bat=to hit. using one of which excludes the others in the set: e. "ship" and "sheep" sth said incorrectly despite S knowing the rule the smallest linguistic unit that has meaning or grammatical function.. anaphoric (referring back) or cataphoric (referring forwards) the insertion of a vowel or consonant into a word to make its pronunciation easier e.g. morphology multiple taxonomy/incompatibles 64. un+play+able (adding _________ changes the meaning) the area of grammar concerned with the formation of words sets of items.g. 53. 39.g. when X is a type of Y e. analyse or explain another language. 61.Monday. e. past tense 'ed' / comparatives with 'er' and 'est' / third person 's' the pattern or melody of pitch changes in connected speech. e. doesn't interfere with the intended meaning and is easily recognised where X is a part of Y. etc). sentences. where a /r/ sound is inserted between law and order adverb that connects clauses. 49. e. pronoun. bus. intonation .34. e.. 63. learner produces a text. liaison (intrusion) 37. metonymy 45. a promise or undercover critique to/for whom the action verb is done e. wheel is a ______ of a car language used to describe. 57.g. e.g. Tuesday. hyponym illocutionary force indirect object induction inflectional morphology 60.g. e.. often socio-politicalcultural. e. play. local error 41. lexical / semantic field 36. meronym metalanguage 58. minimal pairs 47. 50. play+er+s. helep references something outside of the text but which is nevertheless understood in context. or th in "thin" and "then" test where chosen words are removed and replaced by a space focus on reader-text relationship. dependent or independent the premature stabilisation of a learner's interlanguage believed to be resistent to correction sound produced by forcing air through a constricted passage. on the other hand error that only affects one element of the sentence.: THE government..

83. intonation. feel. 76. echoes PPP stress. foot the study of the appropriate use of language in different contexts any unstressed syllables before the first stressed syllable adjective that describes the subject and follows a linking verb. "I see MYSELF" 84. substitution 67. 72. phone phoneme 92. or is verbless.infinitive form. not in main clause when a feature becomes salient for the learners and as a result consciousness of that feature is raised the first stressed syllable in a tone unit the use of corresponding grammatical or syntactical forms used to create cohesion. 87. independent of and of longer duration than single segments a repeated error made because S is unaware of the rule movement of pitch: rise and fall sub-division of an utterance containing a tonic syllable the stressed/prominent syllable where the main pitch movement in an utterance takes place understanding beginning with the listener's background knowledge of the non-linguistic context. taste etc a procedure in which Ss create a text by planning. always subordinate. e. inc. participle 91. revising. pear pitch. a verb used primarily to describe a state or situation as opposed to an action or process. past participle.65. stative verb 66. duration. Women are bad drivers. know. e. volume and quality of speech pronoun preceeded by its antecedent within the same clause. product approach prosodic features reflexive pronoun 82. e. editing and then publishing or sharing it with others. nasal nominalisation a consonant produced when air escapes through the nose conversion of a word/phrase into a noun. "a running tap never stops" the smallest identifiable unit of speech represented by an IPA symbol the smallest sound unit recognisable as speech rather than as random noise. tempo. superordinate 68. fruit is the _________ of apple. intonation. "Which ice-cream?"." non-finite verb form used to modify a noun/noun phrase e. phonology plosive 75.g. 71. more general word. working down towards the individual sounds 85. love. cannot be replacted by another sound without a change in meaning the study of a language's sound system that distinguishes meaning from verbal noise consonant sound produced by closure of the oral passage and subsequent release with a burst of air (as 'p' and 'd' in "pit" or "dog") when a word has more than one meaning. Women are stubborn. 90. 80. 70.g. end result similar to the model. e. smell. onset parallelism 88. 79. orange. 74. good --> goodness. "the pink one" an 'umbrella' word which subsumes a range of more specific items. e. rhythm.g. non-finite clause noticing 86. suprasegmental 69.g. juncture. develop --> development contains a verb in -ing .g. 73. rhythm. systematic error tone tone unit (tone group) tonic syllable (nucleus) top-down processing 89. polysemy pragmatics pre-head predicate 77. developing composing controlled/semi-controlled exercises on a given model.g. stress.g. 78. drafting. process approach 81. think where a word is replaced by another. e. look.g. "Women are mean. e. .