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F211 Blood Vessels Questions - Answers

1. (a) award two marks if correct answer (7) is given incorrect answer (or no answer) but correct working = 1 mark 7;; max 1 if not to nearest whole number R answers in cm 2

calculation mark for showing division by 12 (b) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ref to tunica, intima interna, tunica media and tunica, externa ad!entitia; thic" wall, sto#s burstin$ withstands #ressure idea; (relati!el%) narrow lumen to maintain #ressure ; elastic tissue A&, allowin$ stretchin$ A&; elastic arteries near heart; elastic recoil; to e!en out sur$es of #ressure to maintain flow A&; A #ush idea colla$en #ro!ides (main) stren$th A& ; (smooth) endothelium (of tunica intima) to reduce friction A& ; A e#ithelium or lumen linin$ A& R e#idermis tunica media A&, has (smooth) muscle and elastic tissue; collagen is neutral to #re!ent burstin$ withstands #ressure A&; look for link to tunica media (smooth) muscle maintainin$ #ressure; A ref !asoconstriction 'blood shunts( R #um#in$ action AV); e*$* idea that circular cross section allows max blood !olume for minimum wall contact A&

8 9 10 11 12

13

+ max 1

QWC – clear, well organise !sing s"ecialis# #er$s; award QWC mark if three of the following are used tunica (,ualified once) lumen elastic elastin colla$en recoil smooth muscle endothelium !asoconstriction

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Bulmershe School

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#assin$ narrow small (diameter) fi$ure . R membrane thin cell wall A statement which gives one cell thick& treating thin cell wall as neutral in this case short #athwa% ease of access to tissue fluid A&. idea of contact with man% cells short diffusion distance ra#id diffusion reduced rate of flow . %1 %2 three named la%ers. smooth. diffusion. sto# dama$e to. ra#id eas%.. total surface area cross-sectional area . (most) cells #roteins cannot #ass.ualified 2 2 max (iii) 2 max 1 (b) (i) (ii) / max [11] 3.F211 Blood Vessels Questions . A sto#s burstin$ ref to. R more than one letter i*e* a 'list( feature and role must match! Correct features are stand alone marks! %ook at the given role to see if it informs the feature! thin wall sin$le cell la%er A&. between endothelial cells in wall A& . lac" of (much) elasticit% in these !essels thin walls A& . 2 Bulmershe School . allows more exchan$e slows flow for exchan$e close to all the cells in the bod%. (small) $a#s #res holes..uoted A&. (inner) surface endothelium. ora for nature of arter% wall ma$ one mark if only veins mentioned slows flow rate. A e#ithelium R refs to smooth muscle reduced friction smooth flow reduced turbulence reduced resistance A&. (tunica intima inner la%er A&) endothelium. A surface area of ca#illaries idea of dissi#ation of ener$% in elastic recoil . . R refs to #lasma A refs to. out. (a) (i) award two marks if correct answer (1 ) is given 1-. to allow (time for) exchan$e. ca#illaries arterioles A&.ualified.ualified ref to distance from heart e*$* further .Answers 2. friction resistance (to flow). ref to increasin$ !olume of e*$* ca#illaries. #ha$oc%tes A&. lar$e. R easier more efficient ideas unless . i$nore si$ns if answer incorrect give one mark for indication that 1 ! and "! read off gra#h if 1 obtained by wrong calculation = 1 (ii) . allows nutrients named nutrients fluid A&.

thin narrow A& . R lar$e amounts refs to collagen neutral (tunica externa) colla$en. to accommodate lar$e !olume of blood.Answers %3 %4 %5 (tunica intima inner la%er A&)) s. s#eed of flow water #otential ion content functional difference. contained in !essels. muscle and elastic tissue. R if muscle mentioned here !al!es. (tunica media middle la%er A&). #latelets. (tunica media middle la%er A&). (#lasma) #roteins a few white blood cells R none no #latelets alwa%s low #ressure some fats not in !essels A& AV). wide lumen walls distendin$ . e*$* blood red blood cells.ualified ref* to differences in dissol!ed $as le!els . #ressure hi$her !ariable. reduces friction . &12 !al!es to #re!ent bac"flow A&.ualified ref* to. &11 ref to thinness of wall to allow s"eletal muscle to s. more fats. max 4 S marks credit ' marks from labelled diagrams %6 %7 %8 &9 smooth . A lacteal Bulmershe School 3 . difference in. thinness stren$th . endothelium e#ithelium linin$ A&. (#lasma) #roteins. "!nc#!a#ion an gra$$ar. max 3 F marks QWC – legi'le #e(# wi#) acc!ra#e s"elling. lar$e wide. white blood cells. (a) (i) tissue fluid no red blood cells R 1b few no.uamous (e#ithelial) cells. of wall withstandin$ low #ressure. R if smoothness related to muscle &10 credit one reference to. . full ran$e more. &13 ref to. + max 1 [7] 4. 2 max 1 (ii) l%m#hatic l%m#h. &14 detail of this e*$* relationshi# between lar$e !olume and slow flow rate .uee0e !ein .F211 Blood Vessels Questions . such as exchan$e medium !* trans#ort medium. lumen. .

in lun$s #ulmonar% oedema. ref* to build u# of #roteins (from tissues).(s. at % A&. R tur$id R if im#lies cells swell oedema. AV). osmotic effect water #otential effect A&. + max 1 QWC – clear. #ressure low(er) at %. e*$* loss of blood !olume 2 max [13] Bulmershe School 4 . allow #roteins out of tissue fluid. red blood cells #roteins some &B. $reater than. es#ecial dan$er. A solute #otential due to #lasma #roteins. well organise !sing s"ecialis# #er$s (c) fluid A& collects. fluid water #lasma li. is lea"% has #ores A& . ref* to heart action causin$ (h%drostatic) #ressure . A solute #otential ca#illar% wall.Answers (b) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 #ressure hi$h at R A&. R semi lunar !al!e allow.uid. at * l%m#h !essel A&. R if su$$ests collection in cells (tissue) swells A&.F211 Blood Vessels Questions . lets. ref* to osmotic effect water #otential effect.uid. throu$h and dissol!ed substances named substance(s). cannot $et out because too lar$e. return of fluid A&. !al!es #ores. into l%m#h !essel out of tissue fluid. fluid water li.