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Actual problems of oceanography in Portugal

RECENT MARINE SEDIMENTS OF THE PORTUGUESE CONTINENTAL SHELF JOSÉ HIPÓLITO MONTEIRO JOÃO ALVEIRINHO DIAS Luís CARVALHO GASPAR ANTÓNIO MANUEL POSSOLO Divisão de Geologia Marinha dos Serviços Geológicos de Portugal Rua Academia das Ciências .. 1977).° 1200 LISBOA INTROOUCTION A detailed sam pie program was initiated by the Direcção-Geral de Geologia e Minas as part of a project of reconnaissance and inventory of the mineral resources of the continental shelf. For this pape r we have integrated textural . 19-2. Grain size analysis have been made of ali samples . This must be seen simply as an exercise in data reduction. . 1) and 2000 Km of batimetric and shallow seism ic lines were registered (Monteiro et aI.) .) from silts and clays « 63 p. in order to look at the data structure and the broad patterns of the sediment distribution . After treatment with hydrogen peroxide to remove the organic matter and carefull washing with destilled water the samples were wet sieved to separate sands (> 63 p. About 500 sediment sam pies were collected (Fig. and analysed by current methods in use at the Marine Geology Laboratory of the Geological Survey.. with a large Van Veen Grab sampler and in few cases with a Shipek sediment sampler. AC 76/1 and AC 77/2. FIELO ANO LABORATORY METHODS Sam pies of the superficial bottom sed iments were collected during the cruises AC 75/1. chemical and coarse fraction analysis of 339 sam pies and submited them to a clustering technique in order to derive clusters of «close» samples and try to interpret the sediment distribution on the shelf based on the characteristics of the clusters .

. Samples PE and TR were not used in the study... .. From area A there is a previous study of the sediments ma de by the Instituto Hidrográfico . . l. !.. ~~ \ ~ .: 40' . Oim8.D Figure 1 Map of bottom sediment samples. .90 42' o o o .. ... J PE lI 38' 50 Km 37' 7' o••. . '" .

and for the % of very coarse sand (. Cluster 4 It is very similar to cluster 3 being also silty sands but the sands are very fine and better sorted. except sometimes in the gravei fraction .Means Algorithm was applied to 25 variables and 339 sample points and 6 cl l!Isters were generated. Carbonate content is very low. K)] is not reduced by movement to the neighbourhood . The discordance between the data and a given partition P (M . maximum and minimum value for each variable are reported for each cluster in table 1. composed mainly of terrigenous material. being the sands mainly fine and not well sorted . J . Samples in this cluster attain the highest value for % of gravei. and both benthonic and planktonic foraminifera are the principal components of the biogenic sand fraction. High standard deviation of the values for the biogenic components and for carbonate (1. A.is high. The objective of the technique is to make a partition of the samples so that sam pies within clusters are close in some sense . being each fraction examined at the binocular microscope . It is necessary instead to use the technique of local optlmization. for the minimum of e.Means Algorithm (Hartigan. and the sediments are rich in organic matter. Values of variables were transformed by log. The composition was determined by point coúnting of 100 grains of each fraction. Total carbon determinations were made using a LECO Carbon Determinator and the organic carbon was determined by difference between the total carbon and the carbonate carbon o Nitrogen was determined by the micro-Kjeldahl technique .0) and the means. CLUSTERING TECHNIQUE We used the K . Cluster 3 This cluster corresponds to si lty sands .1 to 0(3).91 A standard pipette analysis was made of the fine fraction to determine the clay and silt contens. The composition of the sand fraction is dominated by the moluscs and benthonic foraminifera . K)) . The search stops when e [P(M. The sand and gravei fractions were then sieved at 1 0 intervals. and sam pies in different clusters are distant. K) of M samples into K clusters is measured by an errar e [P(M. being also high the quartz component. Determinations of organic carbon and nitrogen were made on a selected amount of samples . The present partition is then locally optimal in that it is the best partition in its neighbourhood . Cluster 2 This cluster represents mainly fine sand (2 to 3~) and have the highest values for mica and terrigenous material in the sand fraction. 1975). . Carbonate content is intermediate (30 %). CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH CLUSTER Cluster 1 This cluster represents a very coarse facies . Carbonate content is intermediate (30 %) .8 for total carbonate) is perhaps due to an enrichment of biogenic material in samples from the offshore side of the cluster. biogenic material in the sand fraction is practically inexistent and quartz and other terrigenous minerais dominate the sand fraction . standard deviation . o (x + 1. This cluster is rich in organ ic matter reaching the nitrogen its highest value . The K . Glauconite . Carbonate content of the total sample and of the sand and mud fraction « 2 mm) was determined using a gasometric method (Hulseman) . The very large number of possible partitions makes it impractical to search thraugh ali .

0 17.0 36 .1 12.3 0.0 6.0 51 .2 0.4 27 .0 2.0 0.6 44 1.3 08 2.0 22 .4 30 .0 0.0 11 .6 3.7 O 3.7 1.3 1.6 63 Ouartz in sand Terrig .4 11 .7 O O 2.1 32.0 O O O O O 10.0 O 9.4 2.0 22 3 66 70 65 28 11 99 73 27 8 4 40 12 20 46 7 25 73 74 7 6 70 2.3 0.6 0.4 00 0 .2 0 .0 35 .7 1.0 O 4 .9 35. in sand Bent. biog .8 60 .5 0.2 25 .0 42 .0 2.7 71.3 0.8 0.2 0.5 0.0 24. Foram .0 58 .7 90 1.0 O O 4.3 1.9 1 ~9 0 .5 30 .3 30.2 17.1 2. 1 1.3 4.8 1.5 1.4 1.8 0.0 28 .0 O 1.0 43 .8 6.5 0.5 0 .2 0 .4 1.2 0.0 99 .0 80 .0 O O O O 1.0 80 .0 76 .0 O O O 4.1 0 .7 1 11 4 O O O 58 .0 13 .2 0.5 16.0 67.9 0.2 31 .0 8.0 O O O 99 .8 O O 1.9 0.2 2.1 1.5 1.3 3.2 0.0 80 .0 49 .1 0.0 87.0 0 .0 29 .0 1.0 2.0 1.2 63.0 29 .5 9 .1 2.8 2.5 0.8 32 .0 O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 1.4 1.0 11.7 1.5 0.0 16.4 0 .9 7.5 2.0 6. in sand Moluscs in sand Equinoderm .2 0.6 0.9 0.0 8 .6 13.0 66 .5 0.0 0.6 60.4 0.0 1.0 8.6 1.0 13.7 2 .0 12.0 3.0 70 .9 4.0 2.0 O O 1.6 0.5 1.1 60 .3 0.1 2.9 0.5 1.6 3.7 14.0 50.2 4.5 0 .8 1.3 51.7 0.2 0 .0 46 .4 4 .3 O O 1.1 27. 1 to 20 Fr.7 1.0 340 8.0 0 .8 O O 1.0 99 .3 1.0 6.0 1.6 1.0 74 . in sand C a CÜ:J in total sample Nitrogen Organie earbon 44 .0 1.0 6.3 0.0 27 .0 O 67. 1 32 .8 0 .0 130 81 .8 1.0 91.0 35 .3 0.1 1. in sand Aggregates in sand Miea in sand Glaueonite in sand PlaneI.1 1.0 16.2 8.4 0.0 3. in sand Other biog .0 O O 8.9 39.4 0.4 0.1 20 .5 1.1 0 .5 0.0 O O O 1.9 1.3 0.0 27 .0 0.1 0.0 2 .5 0.3 1.1 2.0 99.3 21 .0 99 .0 8.9 1.0 5.9 1.7 2.0 86 .4 4 .3 0.9 8.2 1.0 87 .8 O 7 Xm XM % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Gravei Sand Silt Clay Sand Fr.8 0.7 0.2 0 .8 1.8 0.0 47 .0 76.6 0.6 0.0 13.0 4.7 12 1.8 0.8 1. O to 1 0 Sand Sand Sand Biog .0 11.8 0.8 1.2 7.0 8 .7 0.0 41 .1 2 1.0 2.1 1.9 0.3 0.9 0.8 1.3 1.0 12.0 85 .0 0.5 0 .8 0.8 4 .0 1.2 0.7 62 0.3 0.2 0 .3 0 .9 38 .0 O O O O 6 3 1 O 5 O O O O O O 17. 1 52 O 65 .0 0.3 14 7.2 0.5 2.6 1.7 10 .9 0.4 4 .3 5.0 0.9 1.0 O O 8 O O 7 Ca CÜ:J in the sand Iraetion CAB 2 4 .3 52.2 28 Number 01 samples L--- .3 O 59 99 8 3 94 60 58 17 8 99 22 8 11 1 4 10 24 96 11 89 46 94 O O 90 4 .0 19.4 4 .9 1.0 2.4 0.7 15.5 14.7 1.0 2.6 1.0 43.7 4.0 1.7 1.1 34.0 6 .0 90 .2 O 6.0 10 . Sand Fr.4 1.5 1.6 24.8 5.1 0.6 1.0 34 .0 .6 0.3 30 .5 2 .5 14 0 .6 3.2 1.1 0.1 0 .0 23 .2 18.2 0 .-1 -00 .7 7.0 77 . Foram .0 61 .4 1.1 0.0 <O l'oJ O O O O O O 3 O O O O O O 7 O 1 O O O O O O O 29 .6 2 .5 0.0 10.3 25 .6 1.0 20 O O O 5.2 1.0 11 . 3 to 40 gravei 25 .7 0 .0 28.0 2.0 21 .2 0 .0 3.8 1.0 59 .7 1.0 O O 1 O O 1 O 1.8 2.2 16.6 0.8 2 .5 2.0 2.0 21 .5 0.0 62.1 0.0 0 .4 0.0 94.2 0.0 22.0 63 .3 78. Fr.2 12.9 72.0 80 .5 0.0 60 .0 37 .0 7.6 9 .0 45 .0 04 0.1 37 .0 45.3 1.1 3.0 91.4 0.1 1. 2 to 30 Fr.0 96 .2 1.3 2.3 0.0 3 .8 0.Table 1 Clusters Generated by the K-Means Algorithm CLUSTER 1 VARtABLES CLUSTER 2 Cl US TER 3 CLUSTER 4 ClUSTEA 5 ClUSTE R 6 GRVE SANO SILT CLAY SNO 1 SNO 2 SNO 3 SNO 4 SNO 5 BGRV SOTZ STER SAGR SMCA SGLA SFRP SFRB SMOL SEOU SBIO SNIO CAB 1 NTRO CORG X 7 Xm XM X 7 Xm XM X 7 Xm XM X 7 Xm XM X 7 Xm XM X 16.4 86 .0 0.0 99.5 4 .0 0.0 1.0 3.0 4 .7 39.9 6.8 1.0 30 .1 69 .6 0.8 1.4 0.5 4 .6 0.2 0 .4 1.7 2.0 45 .6 2 .0 O 1. in sand n/ident.0 44 .9 5. 06 65 .6 0.

position of the major wind system .93 Cluster 5 This cluster is again a sand with significant amounts of graveI. the width and gradient of the shelf and also the location of submarine canyons . The eftects of ali these factors have been modified through time. are some of the tectonic factors. The main reasons for this first arder pattern are the differences of exposure to the marine reworking. and tt18 gravei mainly of biogenic origin o By this characteristics it seems that cluster 5 is a mixture of different sediment facies. by changes in sea levei and climate. introducing a "historic» factor to the sedimentation pattern . ln most shelves sand-size sediments were deposited near low sea-Ievel stands and have been little modified since then . Both correspond to facies of coarse sand and gravei and indicate that this part of the shelf is rather energetic. DISCUSSION OF THE CLUSTER MAP The principal factors controlling the composition and distribution of sediments on the shelf are the relative rates of sediment supply . The relief of source rocks and its geology. and upwelling . important channels that carry sediments from the shelf to abyssal depths. 2. being the biogenic component mainly of molusc shells . North of Nazaré canyon because of the greater relief. as is the case . Cluster 6 It corresponds to well sorted coarse sand with high amount of gravei. The relief and humidity of the hinterland are different North and South of the Nazaré canyon . Looking to the distribution of the six sediment type clusters (facies) Fig . The direction of the coast is more or less N-S for the western coast and W-E for the Southern Algarve coast. and the intensity of wave action . These main trends caused by the tectonic conditions (direction of Atlantic opening) imply that the west continental shelf is more exposed to marine actions (mainly the NW swell) coming from the North Atlantic. .'climatic» factors that tend to give a zonation connected with humidity of the hinterland (hence runoff and drainage) . The deficiency of terrigenous supply due to the lack of river drainage will justify the occurrence of cluster 6 which has the highest carbonate content of the six defined clusters . greater rainfall and the correspondingly greater river flow we would expect terrigenous sedimentation to be higher in North compared with the South. we will consider the first order effects to be the following : a) It is very clear that clusters 1 and 6 corresponding to coarser facies are present mostly in the western shelf. Tectonic factors have contrai both on the rate of sediment sypply and of marine reworking. but being both the gravei and sand mainly of biogenic origino Carbonate content are the highest reaching 90 % . of marine reworking and transportation . It is a terrigenous medium and coarse sand . The morphology explains this high energy because the area is a submarine elevation were the wave energy will concentrate . without going into a more detailed vue that take care of the quaternary sea-Ievel changes. c) Between the Nazaré canyon and Lisbon clusters 5 and 6 dominate. The South coast is facing the Gulf of Cadiz and is of lower energy due to the smaler fetch for wave generation . The Tejo and Sado canyons being off major rivers which drain a vast hinterland carry most of the sands to the Tejo abyssal plain (Duplaix et . and that finer facies occur in the South. b) The inner shell N of Nazaré canyon is covered mostly by clusters 1 and 2 wich correspond to terrigenous facies . and of sea-Ievel change ..lhat control the actual pattern of the sediments on the shelf. badly sorted . bottom currents. Relative rates of sediment supply are controled by . we can try to sort out the principal factors .

CJ CZJ .. 3 ~ 4 5 • 6 ...--'---'--'----" SE:RVICOS GEOLÓGICOS DE PORTUGAL DESENHOU H Antonio I ESCALA 1/2500 000 I GM I Figure 2 Map of sediment clusters and rainfall anual/averages .. .. lEI 50km /81 ~ L..94 RAINFALL (anual averages 1954/1967) :> 2000 mm illIIIIIIIl 1500-2000 mm [III] 1000-1500 mm ITJJ IT] [[]] 700-1000 mm <700 mm CLUSTERS 2 ....

ln the case of the actual Tejo and Sado rivers the large estuaries of today are also traps of sands and graveis inhibiting the supply of this sediments to the shelf. The identation of the facies 4. 1965) . The almost complete absence of clay may also result from a current and wave regime sutticiently strong to prevent the settling of the terrigenous fine fraction. 5 and 6 are perhaps of relict origino e) The mid shelf mud belt common in most shelves is in the portuguese shelf mainly formed by silty sands. 1979) and is probably low (Biscaye 1965). should be tested by direct measurement. the run for six clusters lasted 3 hours) perhaps a finer facies will be separated from facies 3 and 4. from the silty-sands. Cluster 3 representes less well sorted sediments than facies 4 suggesting that there is a ~ ariation of wave and ar current power. Siedler e Siebold (1974) used data of moored current meters and calculated the surface-wave induced components of bottom currents ott Sines and demonstrated that such oscillatory currents especially from swell will be able to set up sediment motion during certain periods .95 aI. from the current and geological data a transport towards the upper slope. represented by clusters 3 and 4. richer in fines. ln effect it seems that this occurrences correlate well with upwelling areas mentioned by (Fiuza. CONCLUSIONS a) The reduction of the 25 variables measured in 339 samples of continental shelf of Portugal to 6 clusters by using the K-means algorithm appears to result into significant types of facies at least in the west coast of Portugal. 2. ln this area the facies 3 and 4 are richer in silt and clay being sandy silts and clayey-silts but the clustering algorithm were not able to descrim inate them. and wave and current power. Setúbal to Sines and South of Rio Mira correspond to the coarse litoral sands in equilibrium with the present wave conditions in areas of relatively low terrigenous supply. South of the Sado river silty sands of cluster 3 occur closer to the shore than in the Northern shelf because of the narrow litoral belt of sands. South of Sines and at the SW corner of the shelf is perhaps related to the upwelling regime . h) The Algarve shelf is -of lower energy than the western shelf. 1980). able to be expressed at the shelf bottom. g) The occurence of clusters 6 corresponding to a facies rich in biogenic sediments between Nazaré canyon and Lisbon. We think that if we tried one more cluster (at cost of computer time. d) Narrow belts of clusters 1 and 2 off Lisbon. They suggested. f) ln the outher shelf North of Nazaré canyon it appears that clusters 3 and 4 both silty sands are distributed as parallel bands along the shelf edge. Small patches of facies 1. The supply of mud to the portuguese shelf could be controled by floods (Vale. ln the South coast the partition was not able to reveal a belt of finer sediments. South of Portimão is perhaps due to the bathimetric contours oH Portimão. badly sorted sands (cluster 5) near the coast and cluster 3 and 4 in the outer shelf. This is one of ttie objectives of a project submitted to the JNICT to develop a stratigraphic model of the shelf looking specially for the processes and mechanisms responsable for the building of each part of the model. also the occurrence of the highest glauconite values are observed on these facies indicating either slow deposition favourable to glauconite formation ar a relict origin for the sediments . being covered by facies of medium and fine. b) Our speculations regarding the importance of modern sedimentary processes particularly of the patterns of fine sediment dispersai in relation to varying river discharge. .

Vol. VALE . A . Deep Sea Res .The Portuguese coastal upwelling system. 1979 . : NESTEROFF . 1974 .Currents related to sediment transport at the Ibero-Morrocan continental shell. 1977 metropolitana . Avaliação dos recursos minerais da margem continental MONTEIRO. S. A-14 p. Carlos . W . C . DUPLAIX . J. C . G . 1-11 . B.Mineralogie comparée des sediments du Tage (portugal) et de quelques sables prolondes de la plaine abyssale correspondante .. pp . C. . D. 1-12 .Mineralogy and sedimentation 01 recent deep sea clays in the Atlantic and adjacent seas and oceans . J. 1980 . Annando F... 211-217 . 12.Ergbn . 1975 Clustering algotithms. HARTIGAN'. GASPAR .96 REFERENCES BISCAYE . John Willey & Sons." Input » de matérias em suspensão do Estuário do Tejo durante as cheias de Fevereiro de 1979 (manuscrito) . & SEIBOLD . E . Seminar on " Present Problems 01 Oceanography in Portugal » (in press) . E . 4 pp . G . 76 . J . Am ..: DIAS . 351 pp. Geol. Boletim de Minas .: HEEZEN . L. P. 1965 . . BulI. FIUZA . A. 13. 1965 . SIEDLER . 803-832. Meteor Forch .