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Example 4.4-3 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------A distillation column receives a feed that is 40 mole % n-pentane and 60 mole % n-hexane. Feed flow rate is 2,500 lbmol/hr and feed temperature is 30oC. The column is at 1 atm. A distillate that is 97 mole % n-pentane is desired. A total condenser is used. Reflux is a saturated liquid. The external reflux ratio is L0/D = 3. Bottoms from the partial reboiler is 98 mole % n-hexane. Find D, B, QR, QC, and the number of equilibrium stages. Data: Vapor pressure, Psat, data: ln Psat = A − B/(T + C), where Psat is in kPa and T is in K. Compound A n-pentane (1) 13.9778 n-hexane (2) 14.0568 B 2554.6 2825.42 C − 36.2529 − 42.7089

Heat of evaporation for n-pentane, λC5 = 11,369 Btu/lbmol, CpL,C5 = 39.7 Btu/lbmol⋅oF Heat of evaporation for n-hexane, λC6 = 13,572 Btu/lbmol, CpL,C6 = 51.7 Btu/lbmol⋅oF Solution -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(a) Distillate and bottoms flow rates Overall material balance over the entire tower gives D + B = 2,500 Material balance for n-pentane over the entire tower gives 0.97D + 0.02B = (0.4)(2,500) = 1,000 ⇒ 0.97(2,500 − B) + 0.02B = 1,000 Solving for B and D from the above equations we have B = 1,500 lbmoles/hr and D = 1000 lbmoles/hr. (b) Heating and cooling loads QC = V1(H1 − hD) ≈ V1∆Hevap = V1(0.97λC5 + 0.03λC6) V1 = L0 + D = (L0/D + 1)D = 4D = (4)(1000) = 4000 lbmoles/hr QC = (4,000)(0.97×11,369 + 0.03×13,572) = 4.574×107 Btu/hr The temperatures of the reflux stream and the reboiler must be known to solve for the heat load of the reboiler. Since the distillate is almost pure pentane and the bottoms product is almost pure hexane, the boiling temperatures of pure pentane and hexane at 1 atm are used for the temperatures of the reflux stream and the reboiler, respectively. Hence TD ≈ 309 K and TB ≈ 342 K 4-33

70000 .78711. T(K) = 311.53 x = 0.91 x = 0.61214.15000 .12705.07 x = 0. y = 0. y = 0.75000 .22 x = 1.98374.50000 .60000 . T(K) = 334.00000.55000 . The data were generated with the Matlab codes listed in Table 4.38 x = 0.97 x = 0.40000 . T(K) = 330. T(K) = 309. y = 0.90000 . T(K) = 332. y = 0.92601. y = 0.40 x = 0. T(K) = 314. y = 0.4-5 assuming ideal solution. T(K) = 339. y = 0.38 x = 0. y = 0. y = 0.00000 .14 x = 0.25000 .94692.20 4-34 .28 x = 0.70911. xD = 0. T(K) = 326.00000.20000 .80000 . y = 0.56 x = 0. T(K) = 310.48975. T(K) = 324. y = 0.45000 .64 x = 0.55462.41626.v1 QC D.30000 .05000 .4-4 Equilibrium data for n-pentane and n-hexane system at 1 atm. T(K) = 342.4-4.28 x = 0.87816.35000 .02 Figure E-1. T(K) = 318.66335.39 x = 0. y = 0. xB = 0. T(K) = 328. y = 0. T(K) = 317. y = 0.10000 . y = 1.58 x = 0. x = mole fraction of n-pentane in the liquid y = mole fraction of n-pentane in the vapor x = 0.500 lbmol/hr T = 30o C F.75016.97 L0 L/D =3 0 F = 2. The equilibrium data for n-pentane and n-hexane at 1 atm are listed in Table 2. y = 0. Distillation column with total condenser and partial reboiler. T(K) = 320. T(K) = 313.82048. y = 0. y = 0. Table 4. xF P = 1 atm feed plate QR B.65000 . T(K) = 323.32 x = 0.33263. y = 0.95000 .53 x = 0.72 x = 0.79 x = 0.00000 .06 x = 0. T(K) = 321.96610. T(K) = 336. y = 0.90317. T(K) = 312. y = 0.85070. T(K) = 315.85000 .23699.

xi=x(i). we have yn+1 = xnL/V + xDD/V From the total balance V = L + D ⇒ D/V = 1 − L/V.7)(342 − 303)(1.5f.yi.4-5 Matlab codes for n-pentane and n-hexane system ------% A=[13.79 K. hD = CpL. fp=(f1-f)/dT.B =[2554.2f\n'.C6(TB − TF) = (51.42].0568].01. dT=.Tb=B.574×107 + (1.7)(309 − 303)(1.3) + 4.1613×107 Btu/hr (c) Number of equilibrium stages Making a balance over the top part of the tower on n-pentane gives the operating line yn+1Vn+1 = xnLn + xDD Since CMO is assumed. the feed enters the column at 30oC (or 303. Making an energy balance over the column. y = %8. % Solve for the bubble point temperature using Newton's method for n=1:20.05:1. then hF = 0.8) = 5.000)(428.eT=f/fp.break.T) end ------------------------------------------------------------Since the boiling point of a 40 mole % n-pentane is 324.7089].9778 14.629.6 2825. In terms of the reflux ratio R = L/D 4-35 .3 Btu/lbmol QR = DhD + QC + BhB = (1./(A-pl)-C. if abs(eT)<0.5f .8) = 428. f=xi*exp(A(1)-B(1)/(T+C(1)))+(1-xi)*exp(A(2)-B(2)/(T+C(2)))-P.C5(TD − TF) = (39.500)( 3.C=[-36.001. % Assume a temperature for the buble point calculation T=xi*Tb(1)+(1-xi)*Tb(2).2529 -42. end end % Solve for the mole fraction in the vapor phase using equilibrium relation for ideal system yi=xi*exp(A(1)-B(1)/(T+C(1)))/P.-------Table 4. Vn+1 = V = constant and Ln = L = constant. x=0:0. for i=1:21.xi.8 Btu/lbmol hB = CpL. T(K) = %8. T1=T+dT.8) = 3. fprintf('x = %8. we obtain FhF + QR = DhD + QC + BhB Let the reference state be liquid at 30oC.629.T=T-eT.15 K) is a subcooled liquid.f1=xi*exp(A(1)-B(1)/(T1+C(1)))+(1-xi)*exp(A(2)-B(2)/(T1+C(2)))-P.

4)(39.7) + (0.55088 The stripping operating line is yN = L B xN-1 − xB V V 4-36 .5x − 5 1.97) = 0.2425 ⇒ x = 0.08 − 1 At the intersection of the q-line and the enriching operating line y = yn+1 or 13.08 0.4CpL.79 − 303.691 Btu/lbmol CpL = 0.4λC5 + 0.4-21) derived in earlier section is y= q x 1.C6 = (0.2425 3 +1 3 +1 The q-line is determined next.6CpL. 691 The q-line (4.L L L/D R = = = V L+D L / D +1 R +1 D D 1 1 = = = V L+D L / D +1 R +1 The operating line becomes yn+1 = R 1 xn + xD R +1 R +1 Since R = 3 and xD = (0.08 − 1 q −1 q − 1 1.9 Btu/lbmol⋅oF q=1+ (46.75x + 0. Since feed is subcooled liquid we have q= In this equation C pL (Tboil − TF ) HV − H F H − hL + hL − H F = V =1+ HV − hL HV − hL HV − hL HV − hL = latent heat = 0.6)( 13.9)(324.75 xn + 0.08 12.5x − 5 = 0.4 x− F = x− = 13.C5 + 0.41118.4)(11.572) HV − hL = 12.15) = 1.97) we have yn+1 = 3 1 xn + (0.369) + (0. y = 0.7) = 46.6λC6 = (0.6)(51.

y = xB) and (x = xq = 0.55088). will determine the number of equilibrium stages 1) Draw a vertical line to meet the equilibrium curve.02. 4) Repeat step1-2 with the stripping operating line replaced by the rectifying operating line until the mole fraction of n-pentane in the liquid flow entering the equilibrium stage exceeds xB. Figure E-2 Graphical method to determine the number of equilibrium stages. point (x = xB = 0. This determines the mole fraction of n-pentane in the vapor flow leaving the equilibrium stage. yN = L−B V xB = xB = xB V V The stripping operating line can be plotted by connecting two points (x = xB. y = yq = 0. The number of equilibrium stages is number of times the vertical line intersect the equilibrium curve. Starting from the bottoms. This determines the mole fraction of n-pentane in the liquid flow entering the equilibrium stage. 3) Repeat step 1-2 until the mole fraction of n-pentane in the vapor flow exceeds yq (the vapor mole fraction of n-pentane at the intersection of the q-line and the operating lines. the following graphical procedure. there are 10 equilibrium stages consisting of 1 partial reboiler and 9 equilibrium trays. This graphical method is known as the McCabe-Thiele method to determine the number of equilibrium stages. The horizontal line now will meet the rectifying operating line .At xN-1 = xB. 2) Draw a horizontal line to meet the (stripping) operating line. illustrated in Figure E-2.41118. 4-37 . y = xB). From Figure E-2.

We could choose to continue with the stripping operating line. xd=.02.4-6 Matlab codes for number of equilibrium stages ------% Example 4. y = xB) and (x = xq = 0.Tb=B.yq= 0. Starting from the bottoms. The process is repeated until the mole fraction of n-pentane in the liquid flow entering the equilibrium stage exceeds xB. The specification of optimum feed plate requires that the stripping operating line is used for the materials balance as soon as the vapor mole fraction of n-pentane exceeding yq.4. 4-38 .xf=0.2529 -42. xq=0.4-3 % A=[13. xq − xB x − xB = y − xB yq − y B Let c1 = xq − xB yq − y B then x = xB + c1(y − xB) and When the bubble point calculation using the liquid mole fraction from the stripping operating line produces the vapor mole fraction of n-pentane exceeding yq.yint=xd/(R+1).9778 14. x=0:0. A condition further away from equilibrium indicates a higher driving force for mass transfer and hence requires less equilibrium stages. A linear interpolation is used between two points (x = xB.01. y = yq = 0.41118. point (x = xB = 0.6 2825.pl=log(P). then the stripping operating line is used to calculate liquid the mole fraction of pentane entering the equilibrium stage.05:1.C=[-36. However this action will require a higher number of equilibrium stages to reach the same separation since the distance from the equilibrium curve is closer to the stripping than to the rectifying operating line.dT=. P=101. c1=(xq-xb)/(yq-xb).97.slop=R/(R+1). the liquid mole fraction of pentane entering an equilibrium stage is determined from the rectifying operating line.02 is performed to determine the vapor mole fraction of n-pentane leaving the first equilibrium stage (the partial reboiler).55088. xi=x(i).R=3. -------Table 4.41118. y = xB).7089]. yn+1 = R 1 xn + xD R +1 R +1 y − yint R 1 and yint = xD then x = R +1 R +1 slope Let slope = The vapor mole fraction of n-pentane is then determined from the bubble point calculation.42].0568].Table 4./(A-pl)-C.02. for i=1:21.325.B =[2554.4-6 lists the Matlab codes for the number of equilibrium stages. a bubble point calculation with x = 0.y=x.55088).xb=.

if abs(eT)<0. fp=(f1-f)/dT.% Assume a temperature for the bubble point calculation T=xi*Tb(1)+(1-xi)*Tb(2).break.[0 1].[xq xd]. % Draw a vertical line from the operating line to meet the equilibrium curve % line([xi xi].[xb xq].break.y. % Solve for the bubble point temperature using Newton's method for n=1:20.[xf yq]) xi=xb. for i=1:20.[yo yi]) if yi<yq % Solve for the mole fraction in the liquid flow entering an equilibrium stage % using the stripping operating line xn=xb+c1*(yi-xb).yo=xb. T1=T+dT.001.T=T-eT. end end % Solve for the mole fraction in the vapor phase using equilibrium relation for ideal system yi=xi*exp(A(1)-B(1)/(T+C(1)))/P. fp=(f1-f)/dT. end end % Solve for the mole fraction in the vapor flow leaving an equilibrium stage % using equilibrium relation for ideal system % yi=xi*exp(A(1)-B(1)/(T+C(1)))/P.f1=xi*exp(A(1)-B(1)/(T1+C(1)))+(1-xi)*exp(A(2)-B(2)/(T1+C(2)))-P. % Draw a horizontal line from the equilibrium curve to meet the operating line 4-39 .[xb yq]) axis([0 1 0 1]).T=T-eT.ylabel('y') hold on % Plot the q line line([xf xq]. end yo=yi.001.[0 1]. if abs(eT)<0.eT=f/fp.xlabel('x').[yq xd].f1=xi*exp(A(1)-B(1)/(T1+C(1)))+(1-xi)*exp(A(2)-B(2)/(T1+C(2)))-P. % Solve for the bubble point temperature using Newton's method for n=1:20. y(i)=yi. the rectifying and the stripping operating lines % plot(x. else % Solve for the mole fraction in the liquid flow entering an equilibrium stage % using the rectifying operating line xn=(yi-yint)/slope.eT=f/fp. end % Plot the equilibrium curve. T1=T+dT. T=xi*Tb(1)+(1-xi)*Tb(2). f=xi*exp(A(1)-B(1)/(T+C(1)))+(1-xi)*exp(A(2)-B(2)/(T+C(2)))-P. f=xi*exp(A(1)-B(1)/(T+C(1)))+(1-xi)*exp(A(2)-B(2)/(T+C(2)))-P.

end end fprintf('Number of equilibrium stages = %g\n'. The PengRobinson equation of state is used by “bdist4” for equilibrium calculation.[yi yi]) xi=xn.i) >> e2d4d3 Number of equilibrium stages = 10 ------------------------------------------------------------The number of equilibrium stages can also be determined from the program “bdist4”. 4-40 . The equilibrium data for n-pentane and n-hexane system must first be generated.% line([xi xn].break. This program also calculates the minimum reflux ratio and the minimum number of equilibrium stages which will be discussed in the next section. if xi>xd.

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