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Studies of Science, Vol. 39, No. 2 (April 2009), pp. 289-308 Published by: Sage Publications, Ltd. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27793292 . Accessed: 16/01/2013 08:31
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and solution of a family of contemporary mathematical presentation problems I investigate how a socially centred around the so-called 'stable marriage problem'. in terms of problem restrictive choice of signs impacts mathematical both production formation ends and of solutions. I further note a reality, which up constructing into mathematical imported analysis language. Keywords marriage gender role stereotypes, language, mathematics, semiotics, stable how the choice of gendered language that the very structural framework duplicates in the first place. Igo on to point out some
This paper examines the interaction between Semiotic choices and the
semiotic linesof flightfromthis interlocking grip of mathematics and gendered
Mathematical Semiotic Choice
Intercourse Between Mathematics
is, to a large extent, a semiotic activity. production of mathematics of what a mathematician does is tomanipulate symbols and words. one is mathematics the domain of Nevertheless, knowledge that ismost a to of transcendence and ideal pure myth beyond the symbols in exposed The which it is engraved. purpose of this essay is to analyse how language may shape math ematical considerations. In order to make the analysis concrete and rele vant, we focus on a set of specific mathematical problems, related to the 'stable marriage problem', and on the role of gendered language in the The
research. shaping of itsmathematical The path followed by this text requires a close and attentive analysis of detail. I have tried to find a decent balance between methodological rigour and non-specialist accessibility. I hope that the objectives of this text are not lost in technical detail, and that at the same time these objectives are convincingly laid out for the professional practitioner. The study of gender role discourse in scientific texts is a relatively recent, but already established
Social SSS Studies
of Science 39/2 (April 2009) 289-308 and SAGE Publications (Los Angeles, London, www.sagepublications.com DOI: 10.1177/0306312708099443
DC) Washington ISSN 0306-3127
This content downloaded on Wed, 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
however. This tension between the restrictive effect of linguistic choices and the power of the sign to break with any supposed context merits scientific. having an initial restrictive effect. The claims I wish to highlight are thatwhat various formations of discourse open or foreclose is never clear and distinct. may proceed in unexpected ways towards positions that undermine the very commitments openly declared. it forces the ethical and the political on the scientific. First it demonstrates how gender role stereotypes are reproduced by the scientific text. The Stable Marriage Problem ily of problems and includes no institutional analyses (the sociological evi dence brought up is anecdotal). It is about the power of the sign over mathematical production. To is. My attempt here is to alert practitioners to the ethical and political rap results. It is restricted to a single fam between gender and mathematics furtherhope thatmy contribution may exceed the application of the already established feminist-discursive criti cal framework to yet another scientific domain.290 Keller Social Studies of Science 39/2 (1992). that the internal logic of a certain discursive realm. 1935). and about how the 'outside' ofmathematics ends up affecting its 'inside' to the point where this 'inside/outside' distinction is severely undermined. that there is no prede termined saturation of possibilities laid out by a given text or choice of sign. I should clarify that this text does not presume to study the relations in general. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . port that language may have with the production of mathematical to to underde alert the critical scholar's attention the here is My attempt termination of this ethical and political rapport. ethical and political attention. a tension that an extent. This essay is intended as a case study of how choice of signs may affectmathematical problem formation and solu tion. I and that a certain discourse may questions and results. I hope to expand the horizon more explicitly to a post-structural semiotic of existing critique by relating it fuse mathematical research programmes. foreclose or impose various mathematical biased symbolic fabric may weave its bias duced reality. as presented in a contemporary addressed by Hall's This content downloaded on Wed. This text does. and that a into a pro through mathematics ful study of the details and plurality of practised mathematical languages and modes of production (for example Shulman. 1996). But my aspirations don't end there. and then it inves tigates theways inwhich these stereotypes constrain scientific production. The reading of a text in this framework consists of a two-pronged argument. contribute an important case study to feminist critiques ofmathematics. This essay too will begin by applying this same framework. We will show how stereotypes are mathematically reproduced. Martin (1996) and Potter (2001). which often suggest 'big picture' narratives without a care Let's begin this discussion with two compact formal statements of the problem theorem (Hall. ties that a mathematician like to suggest that a certain restrictive choice of signs can limit and con framework. but more impor tantlywe will show how gender-biased language may restrict the possibili In this text I would has for doing mathematics. I believe.
mutu occurs This 'liaison dangereuse' ally prefer each other to their spouses. finite sets of n elements. a matching . each of whom knows several boys. a ismarried to B. Here ishow the problem appears in 112): if there what is a finite conditions can girlmarries a boy she knows? set of girls.) A matching is stable if this is the set of women al... under that each in such a way the boys all the girls marry And here is how the same problem appears on the next page: is a bipartite graph. when does there exist a complete G = G(V1... itwill all Wilson (1996: be explained soon enough). A is for the men. .. is A be and two F Al..Wagner: Mathematical Marriages 291 textbook (do not be put offby the unfamiliar technical terminology. In this formulation the points in the configuration become boys (elements of the set VI) and girls (ele The ments of the set V2). is referred to Weyl (1949). A is married to b. and to explore theirmutual impact. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . however. which includes a com ponent of personal preferences.An set of n monogamous that Suppose each woman an and for the women has an order of preference . but on a more recent version of the problem.. We will. that is. Our task in this paper is to outline the interrelations between mathe matical discourse and gender role stereotypes in the context of this prob lem. the men between marriages This content downloaded on Wed.... H the set of men is . a monogamous ment that includes all girls and thatmatches each girl to a boy she knows. Our initial presenta tion will be borrowed from one of themost important texts presenting the problem Let H (Knuth. which are sim ply configurations of points along with lines that connect some pairs of these points. The marriage problem is to find whether there exists a heterosexual marriage arrange complete matching. and the lines connecting boys and girls become rela tions of acquaintance.. (The opinions does situation of b and B not occur. not married other. Let us review this version inmore detail before we survey the use of gender role language in various textbooks and papers studying this problem over the last 30 years. which very often accompanies more abstract one. of preference matching to each if a man A and a woman unstable a.. introduced inGale and Shapley (1962). a prefers A to B. The former formulation.. . This question dates back to the 1930s (or even earlier. .A2. are irrelevant here. focus not on Hall's solution to the above question. and F 1997: 1). and the women.V2) if VI toV2 inG? matching from latter formulation is a technical question about graphs. when: each man order .an. according to the some authors). A prefers a to b..a2.
This content downloaded on Wed. academic/class/15251/discretemath/Lectures/dating. boy 1 and girl 2 do not form a rogue couple. It is not clear a priori whether any system of preferences admits a sta ble matching. The situation that Knuth terms 'unstable' is slides as the existence of a 'rogue couple5. Gale and Shapley (1962) proved that such a matching does indeed always exist. Indeed. It is.Therefore. they will not break their marriages in order to marry each other. available at <www.cmu.ppt> To complement the formal setting by a slightly more accessible one. actually in use in his contemporary computer science undergrad uate classes (Rudich. (although. girl 2 prefers her assigned husband (boy 2) over boy 1. Before commenting on their algorithm. while boy 1 actually does prefer girl 2 over his actual wife (girl 5). You can go on verifying that in the above example there is indeed no rogue couple. and according to the rules of the problem. and supplied a simple algorithm (mechanizable process) for producing a stable matching. 3) is a diagram representing five boys and five girls together with each person's ranking ofmembers of the opposite sex. boy 1 and girl 2) do not both prefer each other over their actual spouses. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .cs. A compact description of the process of generating a stable matching can be found in Bollob s (1998: 86). however. and an instance of a stable matching (here 'pairing'). historically the first to have appeared. we borrow some of Steven Rudich's PowerPoint presentation slides (Figs 1 and 2). presented in Rudich's next The slide (Fig. I believe.cmu. it is important to emphasize that this algorithm is not the only method for producing a stable matching. and the most widely reproduced in the literature not the simplest available). 2008). where it is referred to as 'simply the codification of the rules of old-fashioned etiquette: every boy proposes to his highest preference and every girl refuses all but her best proposal'.292 Social Studies of Science 39/2 Who FIGURES 1 and 2 with permission fromSteven RudichThe Mathematics of 1950s Dating: Reprinted Wins the Battle of the Sexes?'. 2003).edu/ (accessed 13 November.edu/afs/cs. You can verify that any girl and boy not married to each other (for example.
cmu. and that thismatching is indeed stable in the sense defined above (no rogue couples). available at <www.cmu.cmu. from Rudich (2003).cs. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .' A more graphic description of this process is shown in Figs 4 and 5. available at <www.cmu.edu/afs/cs. This content downloaded on Wed.edu/afs/cs. 3 Who Figures4 and 5 with permission fromSteven RudichThe Mathematics of 1950s Dating: Reprinted Wins the Battle of the Sexes?'. again.edu/ (accessed academic/class/15251/discretemath/Lectures/dating. and each girl continues refusing all but her highest preference among the boys who actually propose to her at any given time.cs. 2008). then every girl marries her only proposer she has not yet refused. possibly rejecting a 'This goes on until no boy whose proposal she had previously accepted. Figure.edu/ (accessed academic/class/15251/discretemath/Lectures/dating.ppt> 30 December. Gale and Shapley (1962) proved that this iterative process must con verge to a one-to-one matching.ppt> 30 December. changes [new proposals] occur. 2008).Wagner: Mathematical Marriages 293 Who with permission fromSteven RudichThe Mathematics of 1950s Dating: Reprinted Wins the Battle of the Sexes?'. Each rejected boy continues to propose to his next highest preferences.
who should respond only when approached. they propose.294 Mathematical of Gender Social Studies of Science 39/2 Reproduction Role Stereotypes As promised in the introduction. terminology. I believe that this 'gender-neutral' presentation demonstrates precisely the intricacy of gender role stereotypes. 1998: 67). One can also suggest that the twomale positions build on two complementing stereo This content downloaded on Wed. Rather.. since men find them selves both active and passive. Women Once types: the docile passive woman. 1989: 8). In the dozen-or-so textbooks. it is the encapsulation roles into two fixed and distinct positions that entrenches the text in a stereotype. for instance. The problems are sym . [Cixous & Cl ment 1986]). A typical statement in this context is 'We will adopt the traditional approach describing the men as "suitors" in a stereotypes to be reproduced. The first and most obvious common point is that throughout the liter ature it is the boys who propose. but which refuses to assign genders: 'We leave the reader to assign the sexes of VI and V2' (Asratian et al. I found substantial variety con cerning notation. Rudich's women 'on a pedestal' (as we shall see below. but analogous results may be obtained by reversing the roles of the sexes' (Gusfield & Irving. and focus on men or women (most texts in The only exception that I found to this rule (excluding texts which do not quote the matrimonial imagery at all) is a text which does use matri monial language. the first issue we shall study is the repro literature. it is a deliberately ironic choice). There is perhaps a problem in suggesting that this picture is stereotypic.the but the liter metric roles ofmen and women may be interchanged ature consistently opts to solicit themen to propose. However. To resist the stereotype it is not enough to allow its reversal. are exceptional in the way they put rithm). monographs and research papers that I surveyed for the purposes of this analysis. who employs passive-aggressive means of dom ination (these two positions are traced by Simone de Beauvoir  and by Catherine Cl ment. Another trend that binds the various presentations of the problem regards the active/passive division. Overall. But there are also many points that are common to all or almost all the texts which I surveyed. This can duction of gender role stereotypes in themathematical be found in abundance in the texts under review. What avoid is the latent hypothesis that there exists a clear and distinct set of "courtship" process. Gender role stereotypes do not disappear when of gender gender assignment disappears. One may respond that the picture is indeed stereotypic because it assigns men an initiatoryactive position. we should not I would like to be too naive in tracking down such reproduction. and themanipulating witch. fact focus more on what women do in the process of the matching algo slides. men are predominantly active are predominantiy re-active they reject or accept. which renders their subsequent re-inscription into a passive role less important. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the girls have reacted. men find themselves in a quantitatively second ary passive position rejected or engaged (this twofold hierarchy is con firmed by an exhaustive verb count in the various texts).
Gale-Shapley which assigns some woman a spouse less desirable to her than the spouse assigned her by the Gale-Shapley algorithm. Stereotyping discourses. this reconfirmation of the stereotype poses a further. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The question is. turalmatrix so as tomanipulate itsboundaries (or. Does we allow for ever-more-sophisticated articulations of the text as stereotypic. This does not mean for all and best that is ing that each man gets his first choice and every woman her last indeed. if hatches into the matrix). A woman. a matching needn't be stable nor even monogamous. immobility that they impose on a restricted set (Halperin. no stable matching exists. in presenting a variant of themarriage problem. and on the decentralized dis integrated into the mathematical tribution of intent in their reproduction. given a sys tem of preferences. which is interpreted as provisional or permanent consent. To paraphrase Foucault. Avoiding the stereo type. In fact. theGale-Shapley algorithm produces the stable match women worst for all men. according to the mathematical literature. intro duced into the problem the character of a girl who dates a large number of Roles Do Gender of Problems? Constrain the Formation and Solution The result of the Gale-Shapley algorithm is very strongly biased in favour a of the proposing side (which is euphemism for 'men'). not whether any particular forms of a stereotype are reproduced or not. or a silence. resisting a stereotype would then consist 'of the art of not being [stereotyped] in a cer tain way and at a certain price' (Foucault. needn't say 'yes'.went on to use the term in his own classes as well. At the end of the algorithm all the final silences and 'maybes' are automatically consum boys. A colleague ofmine told me about an instructor. therefore. Their replies are either a definite 'no'. a deferring 'maybe'. phobia according the 1995: It is 33). if stereotype? Rather than seeking a way out of thematrix. do we not elaborate thematrix of stereotypes into an a priori all-encompassing entity? we are more optimistic.Wagner: Mathematical Marriages 295 It is indeed never completely clear whether any specific portrayal has genuinely escaped a stereotype. of relative articulations that is stereotypic. A final anecdote will shed some light on the way that stereotypes are discourse. itnot perhaps become too easy to label practically any ister problem. It suffices that she does not explicitly refuse. on the other hand. What female pessimal This content downloaded on Wed. I believe. consists of allowing agents tomove across positions in a struc more sin However. in marriages. like homo building escape to 'contain no fixed propositional content' David Halperin. where some man is assigned a spouse whom he prefers to the one assigned by the algorithm. 1996: 384). having heard the story. The students in the classroom opted to refer to this girl as 'slut'. such ity and male optimalitymean is that no stable matching exists. who. mated A particularly disturbing feature in the various narrations of the algorithm is that in none of the surveyed texts do the women ever say 'yes' to themar riage proposals. or merely redeployed it differentlywithin a larger stereotypic framework. Another instructor.
decide 2007. Both facts are just as easy to observe. 1971). cite here among others the work of Cavaill Derrida's (1989) Origin of Geometry. which I would like to propose. 2006). Gender roles dis course. however. Less possible and also less urgent for human kind. however. however. the evidence that I propose for thinking the impact of gender role discourse on themathematical analysis of themarriage prob is noted in lem. I do not believe thatwe should describe the relation between languages we use and sciences we produce as causal. must be better articulated. My objection is that I framework that can properly assert causality or know of no methodological correlation between As we noted above. and perhaps even my own (Wagner. there are some theoretical texts which suggest such frameworks without succumbing to naive forms of idealism or structuralism. is to the precise determination of the ontology behind this interaction (actually. Should we conjecture that a link exists between these two forms of asymmetry? Below I will present some circumstantial evidence sug scientific claims and their language. In fact. and most importantly. It took. even if such a separation. the tions substantially affected mathematical relation between science and language. I see no scheme that can convincingly separate the two strata (sci methodological we could effect entific 'content' and underlying language). is then the value of the circumstantial evidence that I will bring What up? My goal is tomake room forways of thinking which allow for the pos sibility that language makes an impact on scientific (specifically. see also Webb. My disbelief. Finally. The fact that the Gale-Shapley algorithm ismale-optimal Gale and Shapley's original paper from 1962. which renders thinkable the impact of discursive con straints (such as gender role stereotypes) over the emerging forms of sci ence (such as biased solutions of themarriage problem). does not follow from a conviction that such claims are false. mathe is urgent is to make the ethical rather than matical) production.296 Social Studies of Science 39/2 in theoretical delibera gesting that gender role stereotypes reproduced results. Let's review. Should we interpret this temporal gap as reflecting a foreclosure on stating the question from the women's point of view? This content downloaded on Wed. 2008). 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Even more urgent is our willingness to endorse the political and ethical repercussions of such openness: that scientists must assume responsibility for their use of lan guage. I do not even believe that we should claim a correlation between key features of a scientific product and of the language inwhich it is inscribed. one can s (1970. First. What rational decision. an addi tional 9 years for the observation that the algorithm is female-pessimal to reach the literature (McVitie & Wilson. But before I do so. I doubt that we could come up with a corpus of texts thatwould supply proper control over the variables we wished to correlate. is asymmetrical. then. however. as isGale and Shapley's algorithm and its result. Second. the stable marriage problem is symmetrical (the sides can be exchanged without changing the problem). the implication of causality would assume a linear narrative that does not adequately account for the complex relations between language and scientific texts.
Conway's median observation. Nevertheless. the matching of the new entrant may have separated someone in the room from their spouse. Teo & Sethuraman. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1998). until everyone is matched. Such newly single persons are then matched as if they have just entered the room one by one. Then a new person enters the room. when it came into the theory (in 1990). The unit of analysis eventually corresponds to the symmetrical notion of possible pair rather than to men or women as in the roles. however. Should we explain this long delay by an adherence to gender role stereotypes? These instances of circumstantial evidence can be confronted with var ious critiques. step applying theGale-Shapley algo rithm in a way that allows all players to assume the proposing and reactive original algorithm (Gusfield & Irving. except that it conducts the proposal sessions individually.Wagner: Mathematical Marriages 297 The Gale-Shapley algorithm is indeed strongly biased in favour of the proposers. 1989. furtherdeveloped in Ma (1996) and inRomero-Medina in The basic these versions is (2005). The algorithm and its analysis are (inmy opinion) simpler than Gale and Shapley's algorithm: people enter a room one at a time. and so on. One could claim that more balanced algorithms emerged later in the theory simply because such algorithms are more difficult to produce (Luce encountered a similar critique. Obviously. quoted inKnuth [1997: 56]). I do not claim that such explanations are necessarily invalid. In algorithm. Now. My objective is to open up the possibility that gender role discourse could have had crucial impact on the development of the theory. one could offer alternative explanations to the theoretic developments that would have nothing to do with gender or lan guage. Should we interpret this deferral of publication as indicating a lack of interest in gener ating balanced algorithms? The first kind ofmore balanced algorithms startwith theGale-Shapley itby exchanging spouses in controlled ways. and manipulate the presentation of these algorithms the elements of analysis undergo vari ous transformations. quoted inKnuth [1997: 51]. Today. rather than in men/women blocks. I will therefore only comment specifically on one possible objection. Can the shift towards a symmetrical unit of analysis account for the emergence ofmore balanced algorithms? The second kind ofmore balanced algorithms emerges from Roth and they prefer the new entrant over their actual partner). Vande Vate. This goes on until no more couples in the room are broken. thisminor variation was quite a novelty .somuch so that it solved an open This problem raised by Knuth 14 years earlier. which Irigaray's  Fluid Mechanics claimed that the under-development of fluid mechanics had nothing to do This content downloaded on Wed. Each new entrant ismatched to their highest preference among all those in the room willing to accept the new entrant (either because they are single or because Vande Vate (1990). 1989. there are several algorithms for producing stable matchings that generate results of a more balanced kind. It is interesting to observe that the first steps in this direction were quoted by a subsequent author with no reference to a publication (Selkow. algorithm is practically identical to the Gale-Shapley algorithm.
The term good refers to a technically defined mathematical tion. an We could itself be effect of for know. is known to be is a technical substitute for the vague NP-hard (Kato. with a certain reservation. We a straight-forward present our approach lem. But Nash-Williams could have opted to call his technical condition bad. for purposes of a compact statement. the author substitutes with the simple adjective. One author goes so far as formulating the following theorem: 'A male-denumerable society is espousable if and only if it is good' (Nash-Williams. with men alternating. This content downloaded on Wed. that difficulty language. uncriticized. which. Turing machines do indeed I would like to note a paper the so-called m nage problem. 1993) (NP-hardness notion of not being practically computable). One may claim that once themeaning of the terms is known. that 'of all the ways inwhich sexism has held back the advance ofmathematics'. the sup posedly ideological statement ('it is good for all men tomarry') disappears. instance. to his or her partner. Here means men can that all be married the combinatorial espousable (given restrictions of the problem). In fact. the so-called sex-equal matching problem. 1978). or to phrase his theorem as a necessary and sufficient condition for a male denumerable society not to be espousable. dealing with another combinatorial problem. Gender: Beyond Formation Ideological Commitments and Problem authors claim. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .298 Social Studies of Science 39/2 with language and gender. For some is indeed true. this excess of However. which shouldn't monopolize notions indeed increasing doubts are cast on whether exhaust our horizons of computation.1 Before we move on with the argument. The ideological choices made in the formulation of this statement shouldn't be ignored. first. What is that we distinguishes of seating so that no solution do not n couples at one sits next to this prob the ladies seat 1985) jectmatter acknowledge the constraint imposed by stereotypes on mathe matical discovery. Even the notion of NP-hardness itself depends on a linguistic construct in machine. ideological commitments. at least as a peculiarity. if their of geometric problems may change degree difficulty presented in terms of calculus or classical geometry. but simply with the sheer complexity of the sub but not all of the more balanced algorithms this claim ject). (Bogart & Doyle The m nage problem asks for the number of ways a circular and women table. It seems that at least some mathematicians directly involved with such sub The mathematical presentation of results around the marriage problem is with replete explicit. the fact that all previ ous algorithms seated the ladies first 'may well be the most peculiar'. For our purposes the term denumerable can be condi ignored. The abstract reads: The the framework of a Turing of hardness of computation. one version of the problem of finding a balanced stable matching.
This notion is imposed on the discourse as an absolute ideal. 2003). the notion of stability . 156) 'at least one of the authors would feel very differ ently about the theory presented here if the weight of the empirical evi dence were different'. 1998: 67). pertinent objections. is not obviously relevant to the theory from the point of view of applications. because it is out side the scope of this essay. and 'from the practical and algorithmic standpoint [some specific] results are negative. 'is that it is manipulable by the women: some women can intentionally misrepresent their preferences to obtain a better stable partner' (Teo et al. an the for search of married inspired by idyllic society couples' (Asratian et al. but rather on other factors (and that before going into a critique of the very definition of 'success'. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the interpretation of empirical evidence allows ideological com mitments to gain the upper hand. explain the authors of a research paper. including some of those mentioned even write (p. Roth and Sotomayor (1990) survey some aspects of the relevance of stability. their analysis is lucid enough to raise Roth and Sotomayor. 1999: 430). To be fair..Wagner: Mathematical Marriages 299 produce desirable stable matchings using the Gale-Shapley algorithm' (Gusfield & Irving. change of mind and hesitation (preferences are contingent. I would only like to indicate that the quest for stable solutions is an overarching characteristic of contemporary game theory and economics. contemporary We will end this section with one more example of the way inwhich ideological commitments constrain the formation and solution of prob lems.. The most widely discussed applications of stable matching schemes are thematching of residents to hospitals and of students to schools. however. even if such couples do exist). change over time and may depend on what is learned over time of others' preferences). Typical quotes include: 'A pairing is doomed if it con tains a rogue couple' 'The idea of stable matching is (Rudich. contractual obligations and practical impediments But themain ideological commitment imposed on the entire theory of stable matching is. as a way of turning an Rather than describe preference listmanipulation This content downloaded on Wed. since they do not lead to acceptable ways to above. which evinced my suspicion that the success or fail ure of a matching scheme in contemporary applications may not depend heavily on stability. which affects the analysis of how a successful scheme is to be generated). Stability. 'One of the main difficulties with using the men-optimal stable matching mechanism'. of course. The actual relevance of stability has only been considered critically since the mid-1980s. Many questions related to the production of mobil .are foreclosed by ity which is often marked as a desirable social goal game-theoretic and economic frameworks. If we consider information gaps (people don't know each other's preferences). It was in fact the very evidence raised by many They (which may prevent 'rogue couples' from 'eloping'. But as is often the case in neo-liberal economic analysis. stabilitymay become irrelevant.preventing the occur rence of 'rogue couples'. I will not ponder here over the details of the debate. not married to each other but preferring each other over their assigned spouses. 1989: xv).
however. residents (formerly interns) have been assigned to American hospitals via a central ized application of a variant of the Gale-Shapley algorithm. does not prevent the same texts from considering the job-assignment formulation of the same problem as 'more serious'. Since 1951. inequality 'The largest. perhaps 'what we have here is an implanting of social imagery on representations . and 'We seriously: 'Societal habits thus favour men' an effect of complete shall give a result which perhaps demonstrates et the 1998: When of sexes' Rudich states that al. (Asratian 70). When one reads that 'The algo rithm is the codification of old fashioned etiquette' (Bollob s. I would like to include a brief comment on the relation between themathematical text. It had. so as to lay a firm basis for re-importing exactly that same imagery as natural (Martin. but never of dependent children or mid-life crises' (Roth & Sotomayor. Many texts consider the entire marriage terminology as 'frivolous' (Wilson. one reads a rather doubtful and revisionist social history. tain statements which indicate that the analysis and its results are taken (West.Nevertheless. One might suspect as an a that the notion of stability served posteriori justification for the an coincidence between unbalanced assignment scheme and a biased mathematical discourse. 1990: 1) and that 'This makes the (somewhat unrealistic) assumption that than to stay single' it is always better to be married (to an acquaintance) (Bollob s. One can read that 'We will sometimes speak about courtship. explanations of social phenomena' It would be extremely uncharitable to assume that any of the cited researchers genuinely believes that the stable marriage model is a perfectly the literature does con adequate description of social reality. Sense of Reality A False Before we go on to comment on some complementing aspects of the semi texts and gender otic potential of the interaction between mathematical role stereotypes. 1996: 113). 1998: 86). which is another title for the Gale-Shapley algorithm). both emerging from interrelated ideological com mitments. That this was the case was only observed by Roth in the mid-1980s. the literature condemns this opportunity as 'cheating'. 1998: 85). To quote Emily Martin quoting David Harvey. This. The gap between themodel and the supposed reality is not ignored in the literature.. however. even to run TMA' (TMA here is the Traditional Marriage Algorithm.. and a supposed underlying reality. The Gale-Shapley algorithm was introduced in 1962.300 unbalanced Social Studies of Science 39/2 algorithm into a more balanced one. 1996: 113). 1996: 177). namely as something which should be prevented. ideological commitments. he ignores themany practi though this version too abstracts and ideologizes a myriad of factors which drive mathematical analysis away from any social reality that itpurports to This content downloaded on Wed.. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in fact already been in use for 11 years by that time. most successful dating service in the world uses a computer cal details which undermine the relevance of themathematical presentation to the actual implementation he mentions.
Rephrasing problems and re setting different problems in each other's terms are important tasks for the mathematician (Knuth's book quoted above. theoreticians may go as far as claiming that every discourse which operates a binarism operates a gendered structure. A colleague ofmine reports a sem inar. but that they are actually spun from those very symbolic fabrics and practices. and that they consist of quilting together various symbolic and practical fabrics. Some radical problem. This desire to purify science from linguistically imposed bias relies on an assumption that behind the various ways of rep problems there is an objective and resenting scientific or mathematical that our presentation of a problem covers over originally present problem a 'real' problem. Our language is imbued with gender. whether we like it or not. author Accepting such a stance implicates the scientific and mathematical in a responsibility for the ideological commitments and opportunities in which scientific production is immersed. precisely. rather. My colleague reports that the speaker did give it a try. But the desire for a purified scientific language encounters a further. the various ways inwhich tend to be able to discard all such constraints and opportunities by claim is no essence to a ing that they are but frivolous surface effects. the "reality" of which abstraction' (Cohn. I also believe thatmost mathematicians it is re-presented. for instance. that mathematical problems are not simply covered by the symbolic fabrics and practices into which they are sewn. 1987: 22). There mathematical problem other than an essential dependence on the texts and practices through which the problem is articulated. Or. Should we banish this system of signs from that discourse? Should we segregate gender-talk from science in order to 'purify' science from the undue influence of ideological commitments? The first objection to such a stance is that the desired 'purity' is unat terminology.Wagner: Mathematical Marriages 301 'There is no reality behind the they speak is itself a world of seriously emulate. here is one more anecdote. I would rather promote a stance according to which the scientific or mathematical problem is. more tainable. more abstract presentation. To quote Carol Cohn. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . I believe thatmost practising mathematicians would not object to the claim that the contingent representation of a problem both constrains and enables its further development and analysis.but constantly found himself reverting to the use of matrimonial So suppose we finally accept that a certain system of signs may make a certain impact on a certain discourse. words. Scientists should no longer pre This content downloaded on Wed. One of the seminar attendants complained was or matrimonial and asked for a terminology disturbing distracting. focuses on the relations between the stable marriage problem and other important prob lems in the theory of algorithms). Semiotic Drift As final evidence to the power of gender role discourse over mathematical production.where a speaker presented a variant of themarriage problem with infi that the nitely many people.
however. reducing mathematical language to such effects is far from accurate. Many mathematicians would. can with produce' (Kristeva. This content downloaded on Wed. they only. An alternative view of mathematical language is presented by Derrida and Kristeva. with the profound renewal concept of science for which mathematics according (Derrida. context or rules of manipulation. In the words of Derrida.302 would Social Studies of Science 39/2 in agree that this is still the case even when doing mathematics . There is another objection to the purification of scientific language from gender role discourse. ple Harding. nation of meaning. One may conjecture that the reinforcing interference between gender role stereotypes and mathematical language is the result of both systems being extreme forms of hierarchic and binary languages. Cambridge must work inside it. 1988: 9). As mathematician asserted in a John Conway a not set is fine but all mathematicians lecture. have brought into ideology those reformations of the signifier. object to an erasure of themyth of ideal underlying math ematical problem. The sign is so mate rially constrained that it is impossible to force it to hold on to any determi But.a that invariably depends practice highly professional abstract symbolism on intricate impure mixtures of formal manipulations and metaphorical intuitions. gendered points of view (for exam 1993). as well as to the ethical burden that such erasure imposes upon the symbol-manipulating researcher. one should also recall that this is but one manifestation of the 'a sign carries with it a sign's radical potential. logico-mathematical work. This includes. The matrimonial imagery is a strongmnemonic device for researchers and students alike (which iswhy even researchers who can't be reproached for sexism often use it). Students tend to remember themarriage problem long after their course is over. while it is indeed true that there is a lot of hierarchy and binarism inmathematical structures. force that breaks with its context' (Derrida.. If anything. and cannot be reduced to the predominantly an ethico-ontological framework of an ontic rational choice. This further objection is that language-puri tanism stands in direct contrast to the voices of feminist critique of science.. which inheres in signs. together reflects this stance: 'The effective 1969: 287). theory language. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1981: 35). along with the deconstruction of mathematics itself and the has always been the model' to this view. contemporary feminist critique seems to encourage implicating science with as many points of view as possible in order to expand its 'objectivity'. is precisely that which constitutes its ecstatic force. is transformative. In her early work Kristeva sets the task of 'finding out how which texts . The debate is therefore one. In an interview Derrida progress ofmathematical notation thus goes of metaphysics. obviously. When one considers the sign's force of holding on to connotations and ideological commitments (which affects And this freedom. Mathematics. and never reaches a purely formal level. derived from post-structural semiotics. symbolic production regardless of whether the researcher is interested in that force). To all the objections above. I would like to add a further objection.
This content downloaded on Wed. 1997: 64). women and dogs (for example Knuth. The one exception is Rudich's (2003) PowerPoint presentation. Rather. it tries to clean itself up and revert to gender-neutral sexuality language. which describes this situation as 'bisexual dating'. Yet another instance for this form of puritan-conservatism is the construct the oretically referred to as 'chains' or 'rotations'. one variant of the marriage prob lem to another): 'Such a reduction might involve turning each person into two persons. imposes at least a moderate form of trans. it is called the 'roommates problem'. The literature never refers to this as the 'homosexual marriage the discourse sense. The interaction between mathematics and its signs cannot be reduced to a straightforward.Wagner: Mathematical Marriages 303 because undermine the ideological commitments of the discourses with which mathematical production interacts. For example. manipulate problem'. whose semoitic substances encourages it tomanipulate and undermine ideological commitments. 64). this interaction often is conser ideological and vative and mutually reinforcing. To substantiate this position I will take the reader through some exam transformations and their interaction with ples of semiotic-mathematical we As commitments. Since stability is stronglymarked as an essential tation ('a pairing is doomed if it contains a rogue seems to be negatively marked. rather than couples. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . one male and one female (splitting one's personality into its animus and anima)' (Gusfield & Irving. at that point the texts opt to revert to a technical gender-free language. mathematically metaphorical The same phenomenon is repeated when other combinations are sug gested. The splitting. The example above demonstrates how. This choice reit erates both normative family stereotypes and the position ofwomen in such sexuality. Conservative is strong enough to prevent the mathematical discourse setting from even when such possibilities make reflecting unorthodox possibilities. while foreclosing the horizon of polyamorous relationships. women and children.or bi-sexuality on the underlying notion of gender. however. 1997. The literature never describes this situation as 'swinging' or 'open relationships'. and even 'A unisex problem: stability of roommates' (Knuth. instead of a matching based on a gen der division. But non-orthodox sexuality does manage to occasionally impose itself on mathematical discourse. ormen. The role of this scenario in Rudich's presentation. is to demonstrate a case where a stable matching is unattainable. Rather. we may be given a set of people each ofwhom can be matched to any other. conservative and reac it is an instance of a symbolic practice. are to be matched. which mathematically makes perfect sense. The variations of the marriage problems include what we might call 'alternative families'. For instance when triples. shall see. or 'reduce'. 1989: 221). but it can also transform. when an opportunity to endorse progressive aspects of ideal in Rudich's couple'). families. as the following quote demonstrates (the con text is an attempt to relate. presen bisexual dating encounters tionary imposition. This term refers to a set of couples who exchange spouses according to a certain rule. the three roles inmost presentations are either men.
images. plays the role of thewoman' and 'The cell that each [man] occupies cor On responds to the number of his girlfriend' (Knuth. which may or may not reinforce gender role stereo links between the stable when Knuth (1997) demonstrates marriage problem and other algorithmic problems (related to path finding and hash tables). But this attempt to each college should be matched Most clean up themathematical discourse lem.. Then. on to cost to energy. following its own statistical (Dzierzawa & Omero. this quote demonstrates how a perfectly viable transformation might impose a psychological re-evaluation of mathematical ideological commitments. 1997: 35. but the reader may have to Mathematically make a psychological transformation to avoid unconsciously identifying with maximality' (Gusfield & Irving. In translating the man-woman matching problem to a student-school matching prob commodification of the matrimonial situation is reflected in another paper by such statements as 'The cost forman i to be married with woman j is x(i.. This content downloaded on Wed.inspired logic. j) and the cost forwoman j to be married with man i is y (j. to several students. Thus. variant. as men the transform paper goes physics. authors. whereas Immorlica & Mahdian (2005) make the opposite choice. Roth & Sotomayor (1990) regard the prob lem from an economic point of view. student-college problem. metaphorical types. It is to note text the that this presents marriage problem as a problem interesting but when the harem problem is introduced in about women marrying men an exercise. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Thus. writes Bollob turns to of where the formulation the and (1998).. 1996: 114).. however. Teo et al. But such interactions between different problems do not necessarily work out so elegantly oppressive. it is not clear which should play whose role. The image of the woman as a place that confines the man correlates nicely with the ideological link between women and domesticity. This some from reactionary gender imagery ends up generating progressive opportunities for cross-gendering. The effects of this semiotic line of flight cannot be confined or anticipated in advance. quote: 'The man optimal matching corresponds to the minimal P-set.304 Social Studies of Science 39/2 One of themost important variations of themarriage problem deals with a situation where each man may marry several women. . Some authors refer to this variant as the harem problem (for example Wilson. and introduce the term 'marriage mar ket'. 40). shun the use of marriage terminology for this s cIt is convenient to use politically correct terms'. I will include the following there is no problem with this. A person reading both papers is con fronted with the necessity to allow a simultaneous double role allocation for men and women (which is amuch more intricate endeavour to sustain than simply choosing between a given allocation of position and its inversion). i)' 2000: 322). (male) dominance Regardless ofwhat a P-set is. themen turn out to be the ones who marry many women. (1999) assign the women to the role of students. As a somewhat optimistic final statement. the gender imagery is confronted with other occasions. if this reader is interested in retaining the contents of both papers at once. and women become species of particles. 1989: 75). the transformations rely on statements such as 'The city .
The situation is akin to the one where Lacan states that 'One could. we believe that there is some (however small) interaction between mathematical language and social reality (if only because it is spoken by real. If. who wrote: theorem). write xRy. con straints and semiotic drift are confined tomathematical texts. atleast some We could claim that the above effects of ideological replication. in order to demonstrate how detached mathematical symbolism is from the limitations of his analytic situation. Jay Lemke. We see here that . and say x is a man. Perhaps encouraging signifiers to cut across discursive systems where they do not. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . written inTel-Aviv University's Cohn Institute for the History and of Science and Ideas under Professor Adi Ophir and Professor Anat Biletzki Philosophy on a textual analysis of G dePs proofs of his first incompleteness I would like to thank both of my advisors. 1997: 57) indicates how detached this scenario is from an actual reform of extra-mathematical discourse. is in fact the very theoretician whom we can quote as endorsing (at least in his earlier work) the possibility of therapy restricted to a confined textual or discursive 'reservation'. and the anonymous referee for some good advice concerning this paper. 1998: 35). Lacan. For earlier Lacan psychoan alytic therapy can be read as consisting of exhausting the potential of sym bolic transformations. Perhaps. at a pinch. does have some therapeutic potential for our contemporary social malaises. Perhaps thiswould lead us towards new semiotic possibilities for confronting the impossible impasses in our ways of speaking gender and/or science. where a sexual relationship cannot exist. whom we have just quoted as pointing out the irrelevance of mathematical manipulations. and therefore have nothing to do with social change. Perhaps we should encourage social and exact sci what socially functional people).Wagner: Mathematical Marriages 305 (Knuth.. 2006: 432). But how seriously should we take these fewmathematical lines of flight from imposing gender role stereotypes? There is something a little too easy about such transformations. Notes This paper is part of the author's PhD thesis. as well as Professor Sandra Harding. 'belong'.The fact that it is so easy for Knuth towrite 'It suf fices to exchange the role of themen and thewomen and apply the theorem' through an exploration of the symbolic realm. y is a woman.. .. thesis focuses I would like to quote one of the referees. then.man can find a solution to the impossible by exhaust ing all possible forms of the impossibilities that are encountered when the solution is put into the form of a signifying equation' (Lacan. because these languages are entists to carry their latent and explicit ideological commitments through mathematics' obscure transformations. and R is the sexual relationship' (Lacan.. Jay Lemke (the This content downloaded on Wed. We could then infer that we needn't bother at all with the languages that science uses. supposedly. however. entitled Post-structural Readings of a Logico mathematical Text.we should encourage mathematics to explore conceptions that are feminist or queer. then the semiotic drift imposed on gender role stereotypes by mathematical transformations should not be ignored. A patient (little Hans) to may be encouraged a 'all the of limited number of develop possible permutations signifiers.
Armen S. copping out. Derrida. I would be very interested to read where studies from these domains where both the bias is documented. I suggest. Jacques (1989) Edmund Husserl's Origin of Geometry: An Introduction (Lincoln. Simone de (1989) The Second Sex (London: Everyman's Library). use of firm its thesis with another example. whose generalizability would be more transparent. IL: University of Chicago (Chicago. to some branches of neo-liberal and its economics. Tristan M. The attitude the constraints we References Asratian. Taking responsibility. but there would always be in order to continue improve our science. Derrida. Shapley (1962) 'College Admissions American Mathematics Monthly 69: 9-15.).. & Peter G Doyle 'Non-sexist Solution of theM Bogart. Limited Inc (Evanston. I am not suggesting here that the Turing Machine framework constrains to the marriage problem because it is a sexist construct. (accessed Graph Theory (New York: Springer).. Physica A: Statistical Foucault. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . albeit not quotation in the hope of inciting.. Even if the Turing Machine as some researchers claim. which. Atomic Scientists 43(5): Jacques (1981) (1988) Positions Jacques Press). quite the project I am engaged in.. Michel and Theoretical Physics 287: 321-33. Carol (1987) Bulletin of the 17-24.J. IL: Northwestern University Press). Kenneth (1985) available at <http://mam. other constraints that must be questioned to keep questioning gender-wise or otherwise.. Bollob Cavaill s.. Jean (1970) and nage Problem'. there might that says: 'even if so why fuss about the constraints we put on always emerge unexpected problems. the Bomb'.S. This content downloaded on Wed. Beauvoir. Cl ment (1986) The Newly Born Woman University ofMinnesota Press). MN: The Cixous. & L. & Marie-Jos Dzierzawa. Enough dozens of scholars off in search of still further such instances. IL: Northwestern (eds). Denley & Roland H ggkvist (1998) Bipartite Graphs their Applications (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). (ed. this is not enough to guarantee that itwould yield non-sexist mathematical knowledge. theory relationship [These] intersections with game theory are prominent in terms of conflating social with for mal definitions of 'optimality' of various kinds. the risk that this 'small match' might not be 'enough'. and the Stability ofMarriage'. Press). Phenomenology and the University (Minneapolis. perhaps from neo-liberal economics' so to send this small some case game theory. Natural Sciences (Evanston. P. Perhaps match is enough to light such a fire. to Pat 'Nuclear Language and How We Learned Cohn. What isEnlightenment? (Berkeley. in James Schmidt (1996) 382-98. H l ne & Catherine Derrida. a non-heterosexist construct.306 The domains Social Studies of Science 39/2 where [the] issues [focused on in this paper] seem to arise are game . went on to con and values. 'What is Critique?'.J. Bela (1998) Modern s. CA: University of California Press): Gale.J. Trying to think outside the sexist box is only one step towards doing better mathematics. I join Lemke 1. Kisiel 'Logic and the Theory of Science'. means impose on signs and our science's prescriptive we try our best. I would much rather have seen a longer paper that. in J.pdf>. sexist approaches some non Sexist is. University of Nebraska ro (2000) Michael Om 'Statistics of Stable Marriages'. and the formal analyses suggest unorthodox critiques of neo-liberal assumptions . 30 December..Kockelmans & T. I include the above Acknowledging so as to encourage 'amore substantial kindling' of such project. signs?' is.edu/~doyle/docs/menage/menage.dartmouth. NE: Press). language is not the only possible road to sexist results. 2008). the relations between and normative results. I maintain. D.
Journal of theLondon Mathematical 'On Representatives Philip (1935) Society 10: 26-30. Burke (eds). York: Routledge): Mahdian Immorlica.St.J. 49-82. (2001) Press). a Romance 'The Egg and The Sperm: How Science Has Constructed (1996) Martin. Holland): Potter.). NY: Cornell University Press). MIT Hall. This Sex Which Is (Ithaca. Text. Keller. Ma. is "Strong Sandra (1993) 'Rethinking Standpoint Epistemology: What Harding. 58(3): 305-24. A. Bonnie (1996) Foundations Teo. Jacques Jacques J. Norton). we Changed our Axioms? A Feminist 'What if ofMathematics'. Configurations 4(3): 427-51. Roy (2008) on Science 16(2): 196-230. Porter & C. Burkard Strategic Issues and Applications'. Woeginger (eds). Japan Journal of Kato. Keller & H. and itsApplications'. 103-20. Secrets of Life. Bliss'. MA: Press). (1996) RI: American (1998) Encore. Honesty.cs. Stable Marriage Problem'. Matching'. of Operations Research 23(4): Tan Stable Marriage (1999) 'Gale-Shapley Jay Sethuraman & Wee-Peng Chung-Piaw. David M.edu/afs/cs. (1993) 'Complexity of the Sex-equal 10: 1-19. Vande Vate (1990) Econometrica 58: 1475-80.E. Nicole & Mohammad (2005) Proceedings of theSixteenth Annual ACM-SIAM York: Association (1985) Irigaray. (1997) Stable Marriage and itsRelation toOther Combinatorial Problems Knuth. John H. Longino Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles'. Halperin. Alvin E & John H. Alvin E & Marilda Game-theoretic Modeling A Study in (1990) Two-sided Matching: and Analysis (New York: Cambridge University Press). Advances in Bela Bollob in Graph Theory 165-79. for Computing Machinery): 'Fluid Mechanics'. inDenumerable (Amsterdam: IN: North Nash-Williams. in Linda Alcoff & Elizabeth Potter (eds). in C. Emily in E. (2007) S(Zp.G. IPCO 'Linear Programming Vate. Elizabeth University 'Another Criterion forMarriage C. Lacan. (1971) of the ACM 14(7): 486-92. 429-38. (eds). (2006) Ecrits. Donald (Providence.W. Feminist Epistemologies (New Objectivity"?'. Lacan. The First Complete Edition inEnglish (New York: W. Wagner.A. Feminism and Science (Oxford: Oxford University Press): D. of Subsets'. The Seminar ofJacques Lacan. & L.cmu. Cornu Problem Revisited: jols. Romero-Medina.edu/academic/class/15251/discretemath/ Inquiry into the Lectures/dating.F. (1978) s (ed. Operations Research Vande Wagner. (1989) Brings Marital Letters SOY 147-53. Irving (1989) The Stable Marriage Problem (Cambridge. Steven (2003) Sexes?'. Societies'. 'The Mathematics of 1950s Dating: Who Wins the Battle of the Rudich. (Paris: Editions du Seuil). Julia (1969) Semeiotike Society). R.E.B. and Ideology in Evolutionary Theory'. Norton). Zp): Post-structural Readings of a Logico-mathematical Tel-Aviv University. 'Post-structural Readings of a Logico-mathematical Text'.Wagner: Mathematical Marriages 307 Gusfield. 'On Randomized Matching Mechanisms'.W. inG. 30 December (accessed 2008). Symposium On Discrete Algorithms in (New 53-62.F. Roy dissertation. Keller.cmu. Theory and Decision Selection in Bilateral Matching Roth. Evelyn Fox (1992) 'Language 112-42. Mathematical Book XX (New York: W. Antonio Gender and Boyle's (2005) 'Equitable Law of Gases (Bloomington Indiana Markets'. (1995) Saint Foucault (Oxford: Oxford University Press). 'Random Paths to Stability inTwo-Sided Roth. A. Teo. PhD Perspectives This content downloaded on Wed. Communications McVitie. Kristeva. available at <www. Wilson 'The Stable Marriage Problem'. Luce Not One and Stability'. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Oliviera Sotomayor of Fractional Stable Matchings & Jay Sethuraman 'The Geometry (1998) Chung-Piaw Mathematics 874-91. 'Marriage. Dan & Robert W. Economic Theory 8: 377-81. Secrets ofDeath (New York: Routledge): E. '99 (Berlin: Springer Verlag): & GJ. Industrial Applied Mathematics in E.ppt> Shulman.
David West. 4th edition (Harlow. and a PhD inphilosophy (dissertation entitled Post-structural Readings of a Logico-mathematical Text) from Tel-Aviv University's Cohn Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Ideas. and recently began publishing in the areas of philosophy of mathematics and micro politics using post-structural approaches.B.308 Social Studies of Science 39/2 Webb. American Journal of Mathematics Wilson. Hermann (1949) 71: 178-205.il This content downloaded on Wed. D. a Priori in Foucault'. NJ: Prentice Hall). email: rwagner@mta. Robin J.)3 Logic ofDifference (Manchester: 100-17. inTel-Aviv University's faculty of humanities. Address: The Cohn Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Ideas.O. Since 1999 he's been teaching in the computer science department of the Academic College of Tel-Aviv-Jaffa and since 2008. (1996) Introduction toGraph Theory (Upper Saddle River. 16 Jan 2013 08:31:38 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Box 39040. 'Almost Periodic Invariant Vector Sets in aMetric Vector Space'. RoyWagner has a PhD inmathematics from Tel-Aviv University's school of mathematics. He has published several mathematical papers.ac. Tel-Aviv University. Essex: Longman). P. the Faculty of Humanities. (1996) Introduction toGraph Theory. Weyl. Tel-Aviv 69978. in Simon Duffy 'Cavaill s and the Historical (2006) Virtual Mathematics: The Clinamen Press): (ed.
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