Sources of EMR

Sizes of EMR

The Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum
GAMMA RAYS
4.61 EHz 61.4 pm 21.4 keV 5.48 EHz 51.6 pm 25.5 keV 6.52 EHz 43.4 pm 30.3 keV ∞Hz 1 m ∞ ∞eV 7.76 EHz 36.5 pm 36.0 keV 9.22 EHz

Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR)
• EMR is emitted in discrete units called photons but has properties of waves as seen by the images below. EMR can be created by the oscillation or acceleration of electrical charge or magnetic field. EMR travels through space at the speed of light (2.997 924 58 ×10 8 m/s). EMR consists of an oscillating electrical and magnetic field which are at right angles to eachother and spaced at a particular wavelength. There is some controversy about the phase relationship between the electrical and magnetic fields of EMR, one of the theoretical representations is shown here:
+E

How to read this chart
• This chart is organized in octaves (frequency doubling/halving) starting at 1Hz and going higher (2,4,8, etc) and lower (1/2, 1/4, etc). The octave is a natural way to represent frequency. • Frequency increases on the vertical scale in the upward direction. • The horizontal bars wrap around from far right to far left as the frequency increases upwards. • There is no limit to either end of this chart, however, due to limited space, only the “known” items have been shown here. A frequency of 0Hz is the lowest possible frequency but the method of depicting octaves used here does not allow for ever reaching 0Hz, only approaching it. Also, by the definition of frequency (Cycles per second), there is no such thing as negative frequency. • Values on the chart have been labelled with the following colours: Frequency measured in Hertz, Wavelength measured in meters, Energy measured in electronVolts.
B +

Radioactive elements

Gamma Ray 3.26 EHz 86.8 pm 15.1 keV 3.88 EHz

2.31 EHz

123 pm

10.7 keV

2.74 EHz

0.1nm 12.7 keV 103 pm

73.0 pm

18.0 keV

4.61 EHz

Water Molecule 0.3nm

1.15 EHz

245 pm

5.35 keV

1.37 EHz

206 pm

6.36 keV

1.63 EHz Hard XRay

174 pm

7.57 keV

1.94 EHz

146 pm

9.00 keV

2.31 EHz

576 PHz

491 pm 1nm 982 pm

2.68 keV

686 PHz

413 pm

3.18 keV

815 PHz

347 pm

3.78 keV

969 PHz

292 pm

4.50 keV

1.15 EHz

-B

Xray machines

X-RAYS

288 PHz

1.34 keV

343 PHz

826 pm

1.59 keV

408 PHz

694 pm

1.89 keV

485 PHz

584 pm

2.25 keV

576 PHz

So urc e

So urc e Sp ace

144 PHz

1.96 nm

669 eV

171 PHz

1.65 nm

796 eV

204 PHz Soft XRay

1.39 nm

946 eV

242 PHz

1.17 nm

1.13 keV

288 PHz

-E

Sp ace

Ionizing radiation : Harmful to living tissue.

72.1 PHz

3.93 nm

335 eV

85.7 PHz

3.30 nm

398 eV

102 PHz

2.78 nm

473 eV

121 PHz

2.33 nm

563 eV

144 PHz

Ultraviolet Light
• Ultraviolet light is beyond the range of human vision. • Physicists have divided ultraviolet light ranges into Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV), Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV), Far Ultraviolet (FUV), Medium Ultraviolet (MUV), and Near Ultraviolet (NUV). • UV-A, UV-B and UV-C were introduced in the 1930’s by the Commission Interna´ tionale de l’Eclairage (CIE, International Commission on Illumination) for photobiological spectral bands. • Short-term UV-A exposure causes sun-tanning which helps to protect against sunburn. Exposure to UV-B is beneficial to humans by helping the skin produce vitamin D. Excessive UV exposure causes skin damage. UV-C is harmful to humans but is used as a germicide. • The CIE originally divided UVA and UVB at 315nm, later some photo-dermatologists divided it at 320nm. • UVA is subdivided into UVA1 and UVA2 for DNA altering effects at 340nm. • The sun produces a wide range of frequencies including all the ultraviolet light, however, UVB is partially filtered by the ozone layer and UVC is totally filtered out by the earth’s atmosphere. • A bumblebee can see light in the UVA range which helps them identify certain flowers.

E = Electric Field Strength B = Magnetic Field Strength Wave Nature

Particle Nature

10nm

36.0 PHz

7.85 nm

167 eV

42.8 PHz

6.60 nm

199 eV

51.0 PHz

5.55 nm

237 eV

60.6 PHz 10nm 30.3 PHz

4.67 nm

281 eV

72.1 PHz

• The particle nature of EMR is exhibited when a solar cell emits individual electrons when struck with very dim light. • The wave nature of EMR is demonstrated by the famous double slit experiment that shows cancelling and addition of waves. • Much of the EMR properties are based on theories since we can only see the effects of EMR and not the actual photon or wave itself. • Albert Einstein theorized that the speed of light is the fastest that anything can travel. So far he has not been proven wrong. • EMR can have its wavelength changed if the source is receding or approaching as in the red-shift example of distant galaxies and stars that are moving away from us at very high speeds. The emitted spectral light from these receding bodies appears more red than it would be if the object was not moving away from us. • We only have full electronic control over frequencies in the microwave range and lower. Higher frequencies must be created by waiting for the energy to be released from elements as photons. We can either pump energy into the elements (ex. heating a rock with visible EMR and letting it release infrared EMR) or let it naturally escape (ex. uranium decay). • We can only see the visible spectrum. All other bands of the spectrum . are depicted as hatched colours

18.0 PHz

15.7 nm

83.6 eV

21.4 PHz

13.2 nm

99.4 eV

25.5 PHz

11.1 nm

118 eV

9.34 nm

141 eV

36.0 PHz

ULTRAVIOLET

EUV VUV

9.01 PHz

31.4 nm

41.8 eV

10.7 PHz

26.4 nm

49.7 eV

12.7 PHz

22.2 nm

59.1 eV

15.1 PHz

18.7 nm

70.3 eV

18.0 PHz

100nm

4.50 PHz

62.8 nm

20.9 eV

5.36 PHz

52.8 nm

t) EUV (Extreme Ultraviole 44.4 nm 6.37 PHz 24.9 eV 100nm 12.4 eV 88.9 nm

29.6 eV

7.57 PHz

37.4 nm

35.2 eV

9.01 PHz

200nm

FUV MUV NUV

2.25 PHz

126 nm

10.5 eV UV-C

2.68 PHz

106 nm

3.18 PHz

14.8 eV

3.79 PHz

74.7 nm

17.6 eV

4.50 PHz

Virus 17300nm

300

1.13 PHz

251 nm

5.23 eV

1.34 PHz B

211 nm

6.22 eV 400nm 3.11 eV

VISIBLE
Incandescent light bulb Bacteria 3µm800nm

563 THz

503 nm

VISIBLE SPECTRUM 669 THz 2.61 eV 335 THz

423 nm Datacom I 845 nm H

1.89 PHz 7.39 eV 178 nm 1.59 PHz 315nm 320 340nm UV-A UV-A2 UV-A1 947 THz eV 0 3.7 355 nm 796 THz R 398 THz 711 nm 1.85 eV Telecom 924 meV 473 THz J 237 THz

149 nm UV-B 299 nm

8.79 eV 280nm 4.39 eV

2.25 PHz

1.13 PHz V 563 THz

400

VISIBLE SPECTRUM 2.20 eV 598 nm

Emission and Absorption
• As EMR passes through elements, certain wavelength bands get absorbed and some new ones get emitted. This absorption and emission produces characteristic spectral lines for each element which are useful in determining the makeup of distant stars. These lines are used to prove the red-shift amount of distant stars. • When a photon hits an atom it may be absorbed if the energy is just right. The energy level of the electron is raised – essentially holding the radiation. A new photon of specific wavelength is created when the energy is released. The jump in energy is a discrete step and many possible levels of energy exist in an atom. • Johann Balmer created this formula defining the photon emission wavelength (λ); where m is the initial electron energy level and n is the final electron energy level: m2 λ = 364.56nm 2 m − n2 • Much of the interstellar matter is made of the simplest atom hydrogen. The hydrogen visible-spectrum emission and absorption lines are shown below: Emission line Hη Hα Balmer series name Hβ Hγ Hδ H Hθ Hζ

281 THz K 141 THz

1.01 µm

1.31 eV

1.55 eV

EDFA EDFA 777 meV

2.01 µm

653 meV

167 THz

1.69 µm

Near Infrared 1.42 µm 199 THz 3µm

1.20 µm

1.10 eV

281 THz

Syst` eme International d’unit´ e prefixes (SI unit prefixes) Symbol Name Exp. Multiplier Y Z E P T G M k m µ n p f a z y Symbol c h h ¯ f λ E yotta zetta exa peta tera giga mega kilo milli micro nano pico femto atto zepto yocto 1024 1021 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103 100 10−3 10−6 10−9 10−12 10−15 10−18 10−21 10−24 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 1,000,000,000,000,000 1,000,000,000,000 1,000,000,000 1,000,000 1,000 1 0.001 0.000 001 0.000 000 001 0.000 000 000 001 0.000 000 000 000 001 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 001 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001 Value

70.4 THz

4.02 µm

327 meV

83.7 THz

3.38 µm

388 meV

99.5 THz Thermal Infrared

2.84 µm

462 meV

118 THz

2.39 µm

549 meV

141 THz

Single Cell 10µm People

INFRARED

35.2 THz

8.04 µm

163 meV

41.8 THz

6.76 µm

194 meV

49.8 THz

5.69 µm

231 meV

59.2 THz

4.78 µm

275 meV

70.4 THz

17.6 THz

16.1 µm

81.7 meV 30µm

20.9 THz

13.5 µm

97.1 meV

24.9 THz

11.4 µm

115 meV

29.6 THz

9.56 µm

137 meV

35.2 THz

8.80 THz

32.2 µm

40.8 meV

10.5 THz

27.1 µm

48.6 meV

12.4 THz Far Infrared

22.7 µm

57.7 meV

14.8 THz

19.1 µm

68.7 meV

17.6 THz

Absorption line

3THz

4.40 THz

64.3 µm

Power

20.4 meV

5.23 THz

54.1 µm

24.3 meV

6.22 THz

45.5 µm

28.9 meV

7.40 THz

38.3 µm

34.3 meV

8.80 THz

Microwave µmm-band

2.20 THz

129 µm

10.2 meV

2.62 THz

108 µm

100µm 3THz 3.11 THz V me 12.1

91.0 µm

14.4 meV

3.70 THz

76.5 µm

17.2 meV

4.40 THz

1.10 THz

257 µm

5.10 meV

1.31 THz

216 µm

6.07 meV

1.55 THz

182 µm

7.22 meV

1.85 THz

153 µm

8.58 meV

2.20 THz

White Hot Red Hot Hot CMB Frequency

• Max Planck determined the relationship between the temperature of an object and its radiation profile; where Rλ is the radiation power, λ is the wavelength, T is the temperature: 37418 Rλ = 14388 − 1 λT λ5

Measurements on this chart Name Speed of Light Planck’s Constant Planck’s Constant (freq) Frequency (cycles / second) Wavelength (meters) Energy (Joules)

550 GHz

515 µm

2.55 meV

654 GHz

433 µm

3.03 meV

777 GHz

364 µm

3.61 meV

925 GHz

306 µm

4.29 meV

1.10 THz

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
550 GHz

2.997 924 58 ×108 m/s 6.626 1 ×10−34 J · s 1.054 592 ×10−34 J · s Hz m J

300GHz

EHF Extremely High Frequency

Microwave mm-band

137 GHz

2.06 mm

638 µeV

163 GHz

1.73 mm

759 µeV

194 GHz

1.46 mm

902 µeV

T=2.725K

275 GHz

1.03 mm

1.28 meV

327 GHz

389 GHz 1.52 meV 866 µm z GH 183 n tio Water absorp

728 µm

1.80 meV

462 GHz

612 µm

2.15 meV

CMB

600 GHz

• CMB radiation is the leftover heat from the hot early universe, which last scattered about 400,000 years after the Big Bang. • CMB permeates the entire universe at a temperature of 2.725 ± 0.001K. • CMB was predicted in the 1940’s by Ralph Alpher, George Gamow and Robert Herman. • Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson accidentally discovered CMB while working for Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1965.

231 GHz

1.07 meV 1.22 mm n 118.75GHz tio orp O2 abs

275 GHz

Conversions E = h·f λ = c f 1˚ A = 0.1nm 1nm = 10˚ A 1Joule = 6.24 ×1018 eV

Intensity

MICROWAVE

SHF Super High Frequency

Honey Bee 1.2cm Radar

UHF Ultra High Frequency

Microwave oven Football 308mm Cell phone

People 1.8m

HF High Frequency

House 12m

RADIO WAVES

MF Medium Frequency

Football Field 100m

Radio tower

Induction Heating

Subsonic - Infrasound

Earth 12,756 km

ULF Ultra Low Frequency

Power Lines (50,60Hz)

Human Brain

One Cycle Per Second

Sources of EMR

Sizes of EMR

190 µeV 6.93 mm urtz Above) 40.9 GHz Microwave Ka-band (K eV µ 160 25GHz mm 4 27. Hz 8.2 22G n tio orp abs ter 34.4 GHz 34.4 GHz Wa 134 µeV 9.79 mm GHz 9 z) 28. urt (K and eV µ K-b ve 113 Microwa 11.6 mm 18GHz 24.3 GHz 94.8 µeV 13.9 mm urtz Under) z GH 4 20. Microwave Ku-band (K 79.8 µeV 16.5 mm Hz 5G 17.2 GHz 17.2 GHz 12. 67.1 µeV rks the spot) 19.6 mm z SI-time standard 14.4 GHz Microwave X-band (X ma eV µ 4 Cs-133 9,192,631,770H 56. 23.3 mm 12.1 GHz 47.4 µeV 8GHz 27.7 mm z GH 2 10. 39.9 µeV romise) 32.9 mm mp (Co and C-b ve 8.59 GHz 8.59 GHz wa Micro 33.5 µeV 39.2 mm 2 GHz 7.2 eV N µ 2 LA 28. ss Wirele 46.6 mm 4GHz 6.07 GHz 22 24 23.7 µeV 12 14 16 18 20 55.4 mm 02 04 06 08 10 z GH 1 5.1 21 23 eV µ 9 11 13 15 17 19 19. 09 07 05 mm ) 03 9 ort 01 65. ITFS 4.29 GHz 4.29 GHz Microwave S-band (Sh 16.8 µeV LAN 78.3 mm Water absorption W- Microwave Oven 3.61 GHz eV µ 1 14. 93.2 mm Cordless phone 3.04 GHz 2.45GHz 11.9 µeV 2.4GHz 111 mm 2GHz z GH 5 3G 2.5 3G 9.97 µeV CP GPS 132 mm CP 2.15 GHz 2.15 GHz 3G eV µ 8 8.3 L1 157 mm 1.81 GHz H GPS Microwave L-band (Long) GPS 7.05 µeV 186 mm L2 1GHz z GH 2 1.5 L5 eV µ 3 83 5.9 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 222 mm z 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 GH 68 8 67 1.2 66 65 64 63 62 4.98 µeV 56 57 58 59 60 61 264 mm 50 51 52 53 54 55 1.07 GHz 1.07 GHz 44 45 46 47 48 49 4.19 µeV 38 39 40 41 42 43 313 mm Phone 33 34 35 36 37 32 Cell 31 30 MHz 29 94 903 CP 90 91 92 93 25 26 27 28 89 eV 24 µ 88 2 23 87 3.5 22 86 373 mm 81 82 83 84 85 17 18 19 20 21 15 16 14 76 77 78 79 80 759 MHz 74 75 76 3/ ous) m µeV evi 6 Ha (Pr 2.9 m and 69 70 71 72 73 4 P-b mm 68 ve 67 443 wa 66 cro 65 Mi 64 63 Gov 62 638 MHz 61 60 59 58 2.49 µeV 57 56 55 54 527 mm 53 52 51 50 537 MHz 537 MHz 49 48 Military 47 2.10 µeV 46 45 44 627 mm 43 42 41 MHz 40 451 39 38 eV µ 6 37 1.7 36 35 745 mm 34 33 Military 32 380 MHz 31 30 1 1/4m 29 1.48 µeV 0.3GHz 28 13 27 886 mm 12 26 z 25 11 MH 319 24 10 23 9 eV µ 5 13 1.2 8 12 m 5 7 1.0 11 10 268 MHz 268 MHz 09 Marine Mobile 08 1.05 µeV 07 22 1.25 m 2m 21 MHz 226 20 W 19 neV 881 18 1.49 m 17 W 16 190 MHz 741 neV Aeronautical 1.77 m dio Ra z FM MH 160 15 107.9 .1 104 neV 14 623 .1 100 m 1 99 2.1 96.1 98 92.1 134 MHz 134 MHz 7 97 87. neV 524 m 96 2.51 6 MHz 95 113 5 neV 441 06 2.98 m 4 05 94.9 MHz Remote Ctrl 370 neV 3 4 3.55 m z MH 8 2 79. 3 6m Ham Radio 312 neV 4.22 m 2 67.1 MHz 67.1 MHz neV 262 T-14 m 5.01 56.4 MHz T-13 neV 220 5.96 m T-12 47.5 MHz 185 neV 7.09 m CB T-11 10m Ham z MH 9 39. 11m 156 neV 8.43 m 33.6 MHz e 33.6 MHz Marin T-10 131 neV 15m 13m 10.0 m Aero 2 MHz 28. neV 110 16m 11.9 m T-9 Marine 23.7 MHz 19m 92.6 neV 20m 14.2 m z MH 0 22m 20. 77.9 neV Marine 25m 16.9 m Aero T-8 16.8 MHz 16.8 MHz 65.5 neV 20.1 m International Intnl. and relays 14.1 MHz Aero neV Marine 1 55. 23.9 m T-7 11.9 MHz 46.3 neV 28.4 m 40m Ham z MH 8 9.9 Aero 38.9 neV Marine 33.7 m 49m 8.39 MHz 8.39 MHz 32.7 neV 40.1 m Aero 7.05 MHz 60m neV 5 27. 47.7 m Tropics 5.93 MHz 23.2 neV Marine 56.7 m Marine z MH 9 4.9 80m Ham Radio 19.5 neV 67.5 m 90m Aero 4.19 MHz 4.19 MHz 16.4 neV 80.2 m z Aeronautical MH 3 3.5 neV 8 e 13. Marin 95.4 m 120m Tropics SOS 2.97 MHz 11.6 neV Marine 113 m z MH 9 2.4 Marine 160 Meters Ham Radio 9.74 neV 135 m 1600 ns 2.10 MHz aco 2.10 MHz 0 Be 150 neV 9 and 8.1 X-B 0 140 160 m 0 MHz 6 130 1.7 neV 8 0 6.8 120 191 m 1100 1.48 MHz 5.79 neV 1000 227 m z MH 5 1.2 900 4.87 neV AM Radio 270 m 800 1.05 MHz 1.05 MHz 4.09 neV 700 321 m 882 kHz neV 4 3.4 600 382 m 540 741 kHz SOS W 2.89 neV 454 m z kH 623 Beacons neV 3 2.4 m e 540 Morse cod 524 kHz 524 kHz neV 5 2.0 642 m kHz 441 ns aco Be l neV ona EU&Asia AM 2 ati 1.7 Navig 763 m Marine Radio 371 kHz 1.45 neV 908 m Marine Radio z kH rope and Asia AM 312 Eu 1.22 neV ns 1.08 km aco Be l ona ati 262 kHz 262 kHz vig Na 1.02 neV 1.28 km kHz 220 peV rk 860 two y Ne 1.53 km Ground Wave Emergenc 185 kHz Maritime Mobile 724 peV Maritime Mobile 1.82 km z kH 156 608 peV Radiolocation 2.16 km 131 kHz 131 kHz 512 peV 7 km 2.5 LORAN-C navigation z kH 110 peV 430 3.05 km 92.7 kHz 362 peV 3.63 km Maritime Mobile z kH 9 77. Maritime Mobile 304 peV 4.32 km 65.5 kHz 65.5 kHz peV 256 5.13 km kHz 1 55. Hz peV 75k 215 40. 6.11 km 46.3 kHz 181 peV 7.26 km 30.0kHz z kH 0 Maritime Mobile 39. 152 peV 8.64 km Hz 32.8 kHz 24k 32.8 kHz z 128 peV 10.3 km 21.4kHz 22.3kH 6 kHz 27. bile Mo me riti peV Ma z 108 12.2 km 17.8kHz 18.6kH 23.2 kHz 90.4 peV 14.5 km z 14.7kHz kH 5 Maritime Mobile 19. 13.6kHz 15.5kHz 76.1 peV 17.3 km Maritime Mobile 16.4 kHz 16.4 kHz 64.0 peV km 5 20. z kH n 8 13. Radionavigatio peV 8 53. 24.4 km 11.6 kHz 45.2 peV 29.0 km z kH 4 9.7 38.0 peV 34.5 km 8.19 kHz 8.19 kHz 32.0 peV 41.1 km 6.89 kHz peV 9 26. 48.8 km 5.79 kHz 22.6 peV 58.1 km z kH 7 4.8 19.0 peV 69.1 km 4.10 kHz 4.10 kHz 16.0 peV 82.2 km 3.44 kHz peV 4 13. 97.7 km 2.90 kHz 11.3 peV 116 km z kH 4 2.4 9.51 peV 138 km 2.05 kHz 2.05 kHz 7.99 peV 164 km 1.72 kHz peV 2 6.7 195 km 1.45 kHz 5.65 peV 232 km z kH 2 1.2 4.75 peV 276 km 1.02 kHz 1.02 kHz 4.00 peV 329 km 861 Hz peV 6 3.3 391 km C 724 Hz 2.83 peV 465 km Hz 609 400Hz 2.38 peV 553 km 512 Hz 512 Hz Airplane Power 2.00 peV 657 km 431 Hz peV 8 1.6 782 km 362 Hz 1.41 peV 929 km Hz 304 1.19 peV 1.11 Mm 180Hz 256 Hz 256 Hz 999 feV 1.31 Mm 3rd harmonic 150Hz 215 Hz feV 840 1.56 Mm 3rd harmonic 120Hz Lights 181 Hz 707 feV 1.86 Mm hts Lig Hz Hz 152 100 p= 594 feV 2.21 Mm 128 Hz 128 Hz p= 500 feV 2.63 Mm 108 Hz feV 420 76Hz 3.13 Mm 90.5 Hz 60Hz Power 353 feV 3.72 Mm r Hz we 1 Po z 76. 50H v= 297 feV 4.42 Mm 64.0 Hz 64.0 Hz v= 250 feV 5.26 Mm S 8 Hz 53. ) feV ves wa 210 in S 6.25 Mm γ (Gamma bra 45.3 Hz 177 feV S 30Hz 7.44 Mm Hz 1 38. 149 feV ) 8.84 Mm ves wa in S bra ta 32.0 Hz Be 32.0 Hz β (High 125 feV 10.5 Mm 9 Hz 26. feV 105 S ) 18Hz 12.5 Mm 22.6 Hz β (Mid Beta brain waves 88.3 feV 15Hz 14.9 Mm Hz 0 19. ) 74.3 feV S β (Low Beta brain waves 17.7 Mm 12Hz 16.0 Hz 16.0 Hz 62.5 feV 21.0 Mm 13.5 Hz α (Alpha brain waves) feV 5 52. 25.0 Mm 11.3 Hz 8Hz 8Hz 44.2 feV 29.7 Mm S Hz 1 9.5 feV 1 37. Mm 35.4 8.00 Hz 8.00 Hz θ (Theta brain waves) 31.2 feV 42.1 Mm 6.73 Hz feV 3 26. 50.0 Mm 5.66 Hz 22.1 feV 59.5 Mm Hz 6 4.7 18.6 feV 70.7 Mm 3Hz 4.00 Hz 4.00 Hz 15.6 feV 84.1 Mm 3.36 Hz feV 1 13. 100 Mm 2.83 Hz 11.0 feV 119 Mm Hz 8 2.3 9.28 feV 141 Mm 2.00 Hz 2.00 Hz 7.81 feV 168 Mm 1.68 Hz feV 6 6.5 200 Mm 1.41 Hz 5.52 feV 238 Mm Hz 9 1.1 4.64 feV 283 Mm 1.00 Hz 1.00 Hz δ (Delta brain waves) 3.90 feV 337 Mm 841 mHz feV 8 3.2 400 Mm 707 mHz 2.76 feV 476 Mm z mH 595 2.32 feV 566 Mm 500 mHz 500 mHz 1.95 feV 673 Mm 420 mHz feV 4 1.6 800 Mm 354 mHz 1.38 feV 952 Mm z mH 297 1.16 feV 1.13 Gm 250 mHz 250 mHz 976 aeV 1.35 Gm 210 mHz aeV 821 1.60 Gm 177 mHz 690 aeV 1.90 Gm z mH 149 580 aeV 0.1Hz 2.26 Gm 125 mHz 125 mHz 488 aeV 2.69 Gm 105 mHz aeV 410 3.20 Gm 88.4 mHz 345 aeV 3.81 Gm z mH 3 74. 290 aeV 4.53 Gm 62.5 mHz 62.5 mHz 244 aeV 5.38 Gm 52.6 mHz aeV 205 6.40 Gm 44.2 mHz 173 aeV 7.61 Gm z mH 2 37. 145 aeV 9.05 Gm 1 31.2 mHz 31.2 mHz Hz 122 aeV 10.8 Gm ∞ 26.3 mHz aeV ∞m 103 12.8 Gm 1 22.1 mHz 86.3 aeV eV Energy 15.2 Gm ∞ velength Wa ncy Freque
109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108

36GHz

Microwave Q-band

226 µeV

57.8 GHz

400 MJy/sr

0 MJy/sr

68.7 GHz

4.12 mm

319 µeV

Microwave W-band 3.46 mm 81.7 GHz

100GHz 379 µeV 46GHz 97.2 GHz 2.91 mm 451 µeV 56GHz

116 GHz

137 GHz 536 µeV 2.45 mm O2 absorption 60GHz 4.90 mm 268 µeV 68.7 GHz

Gamma Rays
• Gamma radiation is the highest energy radiation (up to ≈ 10 20 eV) that has been measured. At this energy, the radiation could be from gamma-rays, protons, electrons, or something else. • Alpha, beta, and delta radiation are not electromagnetic but are actually parts of the atom being released from a radioactive atom. In some cases this can cause gamma radiation. These are not to be confused with brain waves of similar names.

Microwave V-band 5.82 mm 48.6 GHz

65 GHz

• The intensity is measured in Mega Jansky (Jy ) per steradian. 1Jy = 10−26 W/m2 /Hz Close examination of slight CMB intensity variations in different parts of the sky help cosmologists study the formation of galaxies. WMAP photo by NASA

30GHz

Television
• Television is transmitted in the VHF and UHF ranges (30MHz - 3GHz). • TV channels transmitted over the air are shown as TV . • TV channels transmitted through cable (CATV) are shown as TV . CATV channels starting with “T-” are channels fed back to the cable TV station (like news feeds). • Air and cable TV stations are broadcast with the separate video, colour, and audio frequency carriers grouped together in a channel band as follows: 6MHz 4.5MHz 1.25MHz 3.58MHz Video Colour Audio • Satellite channels broadcast in the C-Band are depicted as TV . These stations are broadcast in alternating polarities (Ex. Ch 1 is vertical and 2 is horizontal and vice versa on neighbouring satellites). • The 15.7 kHz horizontal sweep signal produced by a TV can be heard by some young people. This common contaminant signal to VLF spectra listening is depicted as .

Visible Spectrum
• The range of EMR visible to humans is also called “Light”. The visible spectrum also closely resembles the range of EMR that filters through our atmosphere from the sun. • Other creatures see different ranges of visible light, for example bumble-bees can see ultraviolet light and dogs have a different response to colours than do humans. • The sky is blue because our atmosphere scatters light and the shorter wavelength blue gets scattered the most. It appears that the entire sky is illuminated by a blue light but in fact that light is scattered from the sun. The longer wavelengths like red and orange move straight through the atmosphere which makes the sun look like a bright white ball containing all the colours of the visible spectrum. • Interestingly, the visible spectrum covers approximately one octave. • Astronomers use filters to capture specific wavelengths and reject unwanted wavelengths, the major astronomical (visual) filter bands are depicted as X

300MHz

3GHz

VHF Very High Frequency

Radio Bands
• The radio spectrum (ELF to EHF) is populated by many more items than can be shown on this chart, only a small sampling of bands used around the world have been shown. • Communication using EMR is done using either: – Amplitude Modulation (AM) OR – Frequency Modulation (FM) • Each country has its own rules and regulations for allotting bands in this region. For more information, look up the radio communications authority in your area (Ex. FCC in the US, DOC in Canada). • Not all references agree on the ULF band range, the HAARP range is used here. • RAdio Detecting And Ranging (RADAR) uses EMR in the microwave range to detect the distance and speed of objects. • Citizens Band Radio (CB) contains 40 stations between 26.965-27.405MHz. • Schumann resonance is produced in the cavity between the Earth and the ionosphere. The resonant peaks are depicted as S • Hydrogen gas emits radio band EMR at 21cm H • Some individual frequencies are represented as icons: xxHz Submarine communications Time and frequency standards xxm Ham radio and international meter bands Miscellaneous short wave radio W Weather stations CP Cellular and PCS Phones (including; FDMA, TDMA, CDMA ranges)

Infrared Radiation
• Infrared radiation (IR) is sensed by humans as heat and is below the range of human vision. Humans (and anything at room temperature) are emitters of IR. • IR remote control signals are invisible to the human eye but can be detected by most camcorders. • Night vision scopes/goggles use a special camera that senses IR and converts the image to visible light. Some IR cameras employ an IR lamp to help illuminate the view. • IR LASERs are used for burning objects. • A demonstration of IR is to hold a metal bowl in front of your face. The IR emitted by your body will be reflected back using the parabolic shape of the bowl and you will feel the heat. • Fiber-optic based infrared communication signals are sometimes amplified with Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers EDFA

30MHz

3MHz

Short Wave radio

LASER
• LASER is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. • A LASER is a device that produces monochromatic EMR of high intensity. • With proper equipment, any EMR can be made to operate like a LASER. For example, microwaves are used to create a MASER.

300kHz

Polarization
• As a photon (light particle) travels through space, its axis of electrical and magnetic fluctuations does not rotate. Therefore, each photon has a fixed linear polarity of somewhere between 0◦ to 360◦ . Light can also be circularly and elliptically polarized. • Some crystals can cause the photon to rotate its polarization. • Receivers that expect polarized photons will not accept photons that are in other polarities. (ex. satellite dish receivers have horizontal and vertical polarity positions). • A polarized filter (like PolaroidTM sunglasses) can be used to demonstrate polarized light. One filter will only let photons that have one polarity through. Two overlapping filters at right angles will almost totally block the light that exits, however, a third filter inserted between the first two at a 45◦ angle will rotate the polarized light and allow some light to come out the end of all three filters. • Light that reflects off an electrical insulator becomes polarized. Conductive reflectors do not polarize light. • Perhaps the most reliably polarized light is a rainbow. • Moonlight is also slightly polarized. You can test this by viewing the moonlight through a PolaroidTM sunglass lens, then rotate that lens, the moonlight will dim and brighten slightly.

LF Low Frequency

Long Wave radio

Sound
Ultrasonic • Although sound, ocean waves, and heartbeats are not electromagnetic, they are included on this chart as a frequency reference. Other properties of electromagnetic waves are different from sound waves. • Sound waves are caused by an oscillating compression of molecules. Sound cannot travel in a vacuum such as outer space. • The speed of sound in air is 1240kph (770mph). • Humans can only hear sound between ≈20Hz to ≈20kHz. • Infrasound (below 20Hz) can be sensed by internal organs and touch. Frequencies in the 0.2Hz range are often the cause of motion sickness. • Bats can hear sound up to ≈50kHz. • The 88 piano keys of the Equal Temperament scale are accurately located on the frequency chart. • Over the ages people have striven to divide the continuous audio frequency spectrum into individual musical notes that have harmonious relationships. Microtonal musicians study various scales. One recent count lists 4700 different musical scales. • Middle C is depicted on the chart as C
Sp

30kHz 3kHz VLF Very Low Frequency

Human Audible range

ELF Extremely Low Frequency

Refraction
• Refraction of EMR is dependent on wavelength as can be seen by the prism example below. This image depicts air being compressed as sound waves in a tube from a speaker and then travelling through the tube towards the ear.

eak er

r Ea

By using a glass prism, white light can be spread by refraction into a spectrum of its composite colours. All wavelengths of EMR can be refracted by using the proper materials. Convex lenses make objects appear closer and are used to correct far-sitedness.

Gravity Waves
• Gravity is the mysterious force that holds large objects together and binds our planets, stars and galaxies together. Many people have unsuccessfully theorized about the details of gravity and its relationship to other forces. There have been no links between gravity waves and electromagnetic radiation. • Gravity is theorized to warp space and time. In fact, gravity is responsible for bending light as observed by the gravity-lens example of distant galaxies. • “Gravity waves” would appear as ripples in space-time formed by large objects moving through space that might possibly be detected in the future by very sensitive instruments. • The speed that gravity propagates through space has been theorized to be the same as the speed of light. Heartbeats

Focal point Source

30Hz

Source

Concave lenses make objects appear farther away and are used to correct near-sitedness.

3Hz

Photo by STScI

Heavy objects like dense galaxies and large planets cause light to bend due to gravitational lensing.

Brain Waves
• By connecting electrodes from the human head to an electroencephalograph (EEG), it is possible to measure very small cyclic electrical signals. • There has been much study on this topic, but like all effects on humans, the science is not as exact as the science of materials. • Generally, lower brain wave frequencies relate to sleep, and the higher frequencies relate to alertness. • Devices have been made for measuring and stimulating brain waves to achieve a desired state. Ocean Waves

Reflection
• Reflection of EMR is dependent on wavelength as demonstrated when visible light and radio waves bounce off objects that X-Rays would pass through. Microwaves, which have a large wavelength compared to visible light, will bounce off metal mesh in a microwave oven whereas visible light will pass through. EMR of any wavelength can be reflected, however, the reflectivity of a material depends on many factors including the wavelength of the incident beam. The angle of incidence (θi ) and angle of reflection (θr ) are the same.

Source

θi

θr

Reflector c unihedron.com 2004-10-24

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