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On Interference Alignment and the Noisy-Interference Sum-Capacity for a class of Interference Channels

Viveck R. Cadambe and Syed A. Jafar, University of California, Irvine

What is this talk about?

Interference Alignment - Summary of ideas, results. New Noisy-interference capacity result - Discrete memoryless many-to-one interference channel
- and a connection to interference alignment.

The Gaussian K user Interference Channel

The Gaussian K user Interference Channel

The Gaussian K user Interference Channel

The Gaussian K user Interference Channel

Interference Alignment

Interference Alignment via phase - Toy example


[Cadambe-Jafar 08]

Interference Alignment via phase - Toy example


[Cadambe-Jafar 08]

Transmitters send real signals. Interference aligns along imaginary dimensions. Alignment : Interfering signals overlap, Desired signals are distinguishable

Interference Alignment via phase - Toy example


[Cadambe-Jafar 08]

Transmitters send real signals. Interference aligns along imaginary dimensions. Alignment : Interfering signals overlap, Desired signals are distinguishable - Each user gets half the cake at high SNR - Asymmetric complex signaling enables alignment

Parallel Interference Channels - Toy example 2

Parallel Interference Channels - Toy example 2

Parallel Interference Channels - Toy example 2

- Each user gets half the cake at high SNR - Joint coding across carriers enables alignment

Parallel Interference Channels - Toy example 2

- Each user gets half the cake at high SNR - Joint coding across carriers enables alignment

K user Interference Channel


[Cadambe-Jafar 08]

Frequency-selective or Time-varying

[Cadambe Jafar 08]

Each user gets half the cake - Use super symbols (symbol extensions - non i.i.d coding) - Linear Beamforming/Zero-forcing - Joint coding across carriers/channel-states

K user Interference Channel - constant channel gains

K user Interference Channel - constant channel gains

Linear asymmetric complex signaling, symbol extensions


[Cadambe-Jafar-Wang 09]

Structured (Lattice) coding


[Etkin-Ordentlich 09, Motahari-Khandani 09]

Each user gets half the cake because of interference alignment

In the Gaussian K user interference channel each user gets half the cake at high SNR. - using interference alignment
- Capacity approximation for networks with relays, feedback, cooperation [Cadambe-Jafar 09] - Distributed alignment algorithms [Cadambe-Jafar 08]

Interference Alignment is enabled by

- Asymmetric Complex Signaling [Cadambe-Jafar-Wang 09] - Symbol Extensions (not i.i.d) [Jafar-Shamai 08, WeingartenKramer-Shamai 08, Cadambe-Jafar 09]

- Joint coding across carriers [Jafar-Shamai 08, Cadambe-Jafar 08] - Structured (Lattice) codes [Bresler-Parekh-Tse 08]

In the Gaussian K user interference channel each user gets half the cake at high SNR. - using interference alignment
- Capacity approximation for networks with relays, feedback, cooperation [Cadambe-Jafar 09] - Distributed alignment algorithms [Cadambe-Jafar 08]

What if the interference is weak? Interference Alignment is enabled by

- Asymmetric Complex Signaling [Cadambe-Jafar-Wang 09] - Symbol Extensions (not i.i.d) [Jafar-Shamai 08, WeingartenKramer-Shamai 08, Cadambe-Jafar 09]

- Joint coding across carriers [Jafar-Shamai 08, Cadambe-Jafar 08] - Structured (Lattice) codes [Bresler-Parekh-Tse 08]

Noisy Interference Regimes (NIR) v/s alignment


For the K user Gaussian interference channels, with weak interference, sum-capacity is achieved by Encoding : Random (i.i.d) circ. symmetric Gaussian coding Decoding : Treat Interference as noise
[Annapureddy-Veeravalli 08], [Shang-Kramer-Chen 08], [Motahari-Khandani 08]

Interference Alignment is enabled by

- Asymmetric Complex Signaling [Cadambe-Jafar-Wang 09] - Symbol Extensions (not i.i.d) [Jafar-Shamai 08, WeingartenKramer-Shamai 08, Cadambe-Jafar 09]

- Joint coding across carriers [Jafar-Shamai 08, Cadambe-Jafar 08] - Structured (Lattice) codes [Bresler-Parekh-Tse 08]

Noisy Interference Regimes (NIR) v/s alignment


For the K user Gaussian interference channels, with weak interference, sum-capacity is achieved by Encoding : Random (i.i.d) circ. symmetric Gaussian coding Decoding : Treat Interference as noise
[Annapureddy-Veeravalli 08], [Shang-Kramer-Chen 08], [Motahari-Khandani 08]

Main Contributions of this talk - Extend noisy interference regime to discrete memoryless interference channels. - Why is explicit alignment not required in the Noisy Interference Regime (NIR)?

Discrete memoryless many-to-one interference channel

Discrete memoryless many-to-one interference channel

Gaussian many-to-one interference channel


NIR For Gaussian channel [Annapureddy et.al.], [Shang et.al.], [Motahari et.al]

Discrete memoryless many-to-one interference channel

Gaussian many-to-one interference channel


NIR For Gaussian channel [Annapureddy et.al.], [Shang et.al.], [Motahari et.al]

Discrete memoryless many-to-one interference channel

Gaussian many-to-one interference channel


NIR For Gaussian channel [Annapureddy et.al.], [Shang et.al.], [Motahari et.al]

[Cadambe-Jafar 10]

New Insights on Noisy Interference Regimes (NIRs)


Previously, NIR known for - Classical Gaussian (many-to-one) interference channels. ! Real/Complex inputs ! Average power constraints

New Insights on Noisy Interference Regimes (NIRs)


Previously, NIR known for - Classical Gaussian (many-to-one) interference channels. ! Real/Complex inputs ! Average power constraints This result : NIR valid for many-to-one interference channels with - Finite constellations (PSK/QAM) - Peak Power constraints - Extends to cases where there is no CSI (fading)
- Collision based interference models (Not Gaussian) - Deterministic models a la [El Gamal-Costa 82] [Cadambe-Jafar Allerton 09] Why is explicit alignment not required?

Alignment in the deterministic channel


Receiver 1

Alignment in the deterministic channel


Receiver 1

Example g additive, Linear/Lattice Codes


[Bresler Parekh Tse 08]

Alignment

No Alignment

Alignment with random codes?


Receiver 1

Alignment with random codes?


Receiver 1

No alignment

Alignment with random codes?


Receiver 1

No alignment

Alignment !

Alignment with random codes?


Receiver 1

No alignment

Alignment !

[Wu, Xie 09]

Conclusions
Single-letter capacity for a class of discrete memoryless interference networks. Connections between alignment and NIR. Interference alignment in discrete memoryless (deterministic) setting. Open Questions : - Single letter capacity, does it exist in general? [Philosoph-Zamir 08] - Understanding structured codes in discrete memoryless setting.