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OPTIONS & ALTERNATIVES TO GROWING FOOD IN ALL FOUR SEASONS, EVEN IN THE c c c c c COLD…
EVE SPRINGWOOD MINSON NOFA-NJ and JUST ONE SEED
HOW’D WE GET HERE? You mean we don’t need California after all?
ELIOT COLEMAN thank you!
Eliot and Barbara Damrosch .
The “Maestro” Elliot Coleman has been busy… .
seed for late summer LATE SUMMER/EARLY FALL: start transplants for fall hoops FALL (by October): direct sow hoops for winter production that will last until Feb/March . FOUR GROWING Seasons even here in the NORTHEAST! WINTER: Plan field growing. zukes. heated GH production LATE SPRING: Transplanting from heated GH. eggplant. early tomatoes in hoops along with other warm season crops like cukes.THE FOUR-SEASONS GROWING MODEL Yes. active but slower growth in hoophouses and low tunnels. start early heated greenhouse production LATE WINTER/EARLYSPRING: New greens seeding in hoops. EARLY SUMMER: hoops for tomatoes and tenders.
THE ANNUAL GROWING SEASON STRUCTURES UNHEATED HOOPHOUSES – Tall and Mid-size • • • • For season extension for warm and cold seasons – can operate 365 days Seed starting for cold tolerant plants Drying herbs Curing root crops. garlic. onions HEATED GREENHOUSE: • • • • Seeding transplants for all seasons Starting microgreens Drying seeds. garlic Curing crops COLD FRAMES and Low Hoops: • Small-scale production • Holding flats during transition time and season • Overwintering roots. herbs. greens .
•PRODUCTION SCHEDULE AND LISTS: Revisit last year. edit •Catalog info: Lots of information there that you may not be aware of •Order seed. update. •Prepare for starting seedlings indoors…clean up greenhouse . updating your website. perennials. DESIGNING AND PREPARING… •DREAM IT UP! Long cold nights are great for planning field production based on rotation plan from last year.LATE FALL/EARLY WINTER: PLANNING. fruit plants. etc. supplies. harvesting everything you planted earlier this fall.
SEASON-EXTENSION TOOLS AND TERMS
COLD FRAME – a box, usually sunk into the ground a foot or so, with an angled, transparent lid that can be opened, closed or propped partly open to vent heat. The bottom can be open to soil , in-ground plants can be seeded or seedlings hardened off in pots.
CLOCHE – an old French market-gardener’s term for a bell-shaped glass jar placed over young plants in spring. Wall-o-waters and hot caps are the current incarnations. FLOATING ROW COVER – water and air permeable, these synthetic fabrics help hold in the heat when placed close to the ground. The transparent plastic version, placed right over the soil and held down with stakes or weights, can create a mini-microclimate for seed germination. Outdoors, the covers can help keep out insect pests. QUICK HOOPS, LOW HOOPS, LOW TUNNELS – slightly higher coverings, stretched across frames outdoor crops that still provide a single layer of climate extension. They can be added only to protect from spring and autumn frosts or employed year-round if vented. HOOP HOUSE, HIGH TUNNEL, COLD HOUSE, COOL HOUSE – unheated or minimally heated (to just above freezing) structures, tall enough to stand in, where crops are grown inground; can be movable for seasonal changes and cover crop rotations.
HEATED GREENHOUSE MOVEABLE HOOP
ELIOT COLEMAN PRODUCTION FIELDS
BASIC UNHEATED HOOP HOUSE OR HIGH TUNNEL STRUCTURAL DESIGN .
From MOTHER EARTH NEWS .
HOOPHOUSE PRODUCTION FOR FOUR SEASONS GARDENING .
WINTER.there is green life under the row cover! .
ELIOT COLEMAN’S OPERATION IN MAINE… .
Rebecca at JUST ONE SEED TRANSITION SEASON CHANGING OVER IN TINICUM. PA .
SMALLER STRUCTURES .
Acting as a mini-greenhouse. . the inexpensive structure allows you to grow vegetables year-round – metal or PVC.A QUICK HOOP IS a low tunnel that gives plants extra protection in cold weather.
HOOPS CAN BE HELD DOWN WITH PLASTIC ROCK BAGS. OR LANDSCAPE STAPLES WORK .
Various berries. ginger. basil for early harvest . and culinary herbs… .
OR BETTER YET. PARTIES…! .
HOOPHOUSE PRODUCTION .
no extra ventilation need with big openings and roll- up sides so cheap operation .GENERAL BENEFITS OF SOLAR-HEATED COVER IN A HOOPHOUSE: • Low Cost extended cold season of growth and pushing summer crops earlier with natural ventilation and no electric costs or infrastructure • Can be a quick PAYBACK time due to high value of crop and extra season or earlier high-value crops like tomatoes. strawberries. run the chickens through end of year. no building permits needed • No electric needed. throw a party. store a tractor. • Controlling precipitation • Intensive cropping environment • Lots of control • Can have higher yields and nicer-looking crops (no wind or hail. basil • Some insect protection and deer protection if sides are rolled down. etc) • Versatile: livestock cover. grow hot and cold season • Not hard to put up or take down and move.
• KEEP IT COOL! Temperatures can become VERY hot in high summer without shade cloth. Use both to your benefit. roll-up sides and proper ventilation. Temptation to keep cropping over and over without a fallow period and cover crop . • LET IS SNOW. This can be done before hoops go up. Not easy to use large equipment in unless they are very large – mostly walk-behind rototiller and handtools after first plowing and tilling. • FALLOW AND ROTATE LIKE YOUR FIELDS. • MAKE IT RAIN! Salt buildup will take place over time…make sure you have some extended overhead watering to leach out salts. Be creative with your solutions. let it snow…NOT!! Snow removal is a must! Especially in anything above 2-4 inches.THE CHALLENGES OF HOOPHOOUSES: • EQUIPMENT.
. • Good sunlight a must! Away from trees and shade. Keep maintained with mower. etc. (I always strengthen with rebar and ropes) • Think of drainage on sides if mucky and fill with vegetation but not weeds. • Generally easy to get to…usually mixed into a complex of greenhouses and hoophouses easy to access with a tractor for transplanting. harvesting.SITING: • LEVEL site with soils that have good drainage. Watch out for weedwhackers – can slice a hoop fast!!! • Think of permanent raised beds to enhance warming up of soils • Water must be easy to access. • Line up with prevailing winds so wind goes through and not dead on so it will topple the HH.
SHADE CLOTH: Reduces Temps .
ROW COVER WEIGHTS ARE LIGHT TO WINTER HEAVY DUTY .
.ROLL-UP SIDES!! The best ventilation possible…but remember when nights get cool.
DIFFERENT END WALL DESIGNS: the more light and ventilation the better! .
VENTILATION: Through roll up sides. and open doors…. end walls. .
PLANNING THE SEASON… .
April to October (remember to rotate and cover crop!) MICRO-GREENS: Seasonal. March to October FIELD: Transplants. seasonal change-out.SEEDING SCHEDULES HOOPHOUSE: Direct Seed. rotation. Jan to Sept FIELD: Direct Seed. fallow – cover crop GREENHOUSE: Flats to transplant into larger pots. direct sow .
Head lettuce can be started in the greenhouse. turnips Kale. scallions. garlic for early scapes. French Breakfast and Daikon Broccoli grows beautifully in HH but often isn’t worth the space. but try Brocooli Raab or Sprouting Broccoli • TRANSPLANTS: Leeks. water cress. bok choy. Chinese celery Beets. shelling and snow peas Cilantro. Napa. chard. collards Radishes. parsley. carrots. cress. tatsoi.LATE AUGUST THROUGH OCTOBER DIRECT SOW FRESH for HARVEST ALL WINTER: • • • • • • • • • • Arugula Cut and come again lettuce and mesclun mix Spinach Asian greens: mizuna. mustards. or coldframes or the hoop in trays or soil blocks for transplanting into the HH later . etc. Peas: snap.
these will last until November and be followed by transplants of select greens for the winter MID APRIL: Basil. mineral blend and chicken manure and then prep HH for Spring Warm Season Early Plantings Start HEAD LETTUCE TRANSPLANTS IN GREENHOUSE FOR transplanting outside in late March/early April or HH in late Feb. eggplants . cucumbers. zukes . peppers. get going! KEEP HARVESTING from fall: carrots.WINTER IN HOOPS: Light changes. beets. APRIL PLANTINGS: early tomatoes. turnips. greens. alliums through mid Spring. things warm up. replenish nutrients with compost.
broccoli raab. Mustard Greens. chard. short season cabbage (place under row cover to keep alive during earlyfrosts) THEN. broccoli. turnips.TREAT FALL LIKE SPRING: short days. beets. lettuce. scallions. kale. longer nights. cilantro. beans. beets. dill. Tatsoi. arugula. leeks. cool evenings and then eventually cool days -Varieties: Spinach. peas. broccoli.END OF TYPICAL GROWING SEASON… LATE SUMMER: Plant last round of zukes. Asian greens: Napa cabbage. Bok Choy. parsley. short season cabbage .
Stupice. Early Wonder. Siberian Red. Oregon Spring. Earliana. Early Girl. Northern Lights. Moskvich. Siberian.ADDITIONAL CROPS: • Cilantro: best in cool temps • Sweet Peas : Snaps and Podded. Snow Peas • Cold Tolerant – not FROST-tolerant EARLY Tomatoes: Sweet 100s. • EARLY Eggplant: Orient express .
Ermosa. Winterbor Aruba.Hoophouse Cultivar and Scheduling Examples From the Michigan State University Student Organic Farm Crop Cultivar* Direct Seed (DS) or Transplant (TP) Seed Date** Calender Week Scheduled Transplant Date** Week of the Year SPRING Asian Greens*** Baby Salad**** Beets Carrots Chard Cilantro Collards Cucumber Eggplant Kale Various Various-Fast and Slow Golden. Various Ace. Toscano. Nadia Red Russian. Napoli Bright Lights Santo Flash Diva Orient Express. Carmen TP DS DS DS TP DS TP TP TP TP 14-Jan 1-Feb 1-Feb 1-Feb 14-Jan 1-Feb 14-Jan 27-Mar 1-Mar 14-Jan 3 5 5 5 2 5 2 12 9 2 11-Feb 11-Feb 11-Feb 1-May 1-May 11-Feb 7 6 6 17 17 6 Lettuces TP 14-Jan 2 11-Feb 6 Pepper TP 21-Feb 7 15-Apr 15 . Ace Sugarsnax.
by Lynn Byczinski 2. The Northlands Winter Greenhouse Manual. Produced by Regional Farm and Food Project and Cornell University http://www.uvm. The Winter Harvest Manual.• HIGH TUNNEL MANUAL . by Carol Ford & Chuck Waibel . The Hoophouse Handbook. by Eliot Coleman 3. Walking to Spring. by Paul & Alison Weidiger 4.pdf • RUTGERS UNIVERSITY • CORNELL UNIVERSITY • PENN STATE Books: 1.edu/sustainableagriculture/Documents/HighTunnels.
Bare Ground and Earth Boxes High Tunnel Tomato Variety Trial .00 (includes tax). Strawberries. Presentations Green Production in High Tunnels [pdf] High Tunnel Cut Flowers [pdf] High Tunnel Construction [pdf] High Tunnel Technology [pdf] Crop Specific Articles Production System for Horticultural Crops Grown in the Penn State High Tunnel [ pdf] High Tunnel Production of Cucumber on Raised Beds High Tunnel Garlic Variety Study High Tunnel Production of Lettuce using Paper Mulch.PENN STATE Publications High Tunnel Manual "Production of Vegetables. and Cut Flowers Using Plasticulture NRAES-133" "Implementation of a BioControl Program for Insect Control in High Tunnels" Cost is $10.
THANKS FOR COMING! HAVE A GREAT SEASON IN YOUR HOOPHOUSE!! .
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