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FORMULATING RESEARCH

PROBLEM

Topic 2
NPP 105
CAF Reballos
Formulating Research Problem
 Review of Related Literature
 Conceptual & Theoretical Literature
 Synthesis
 Developing Conceptual Model
 Theoretical & Conceptual Framework
 Research Problems
 Statement of the Problem
 Hypothesis
Literature Review
 Consists of a collection of pertinent
readings, published or unpublished, in
local or foreign settings
 Provide discussions of facts,
principles, trends and practices to
which the present study is related
RRL: Purpose
 Provide an idea on how extensive
studies have been done in specific
areas
 Give the investigator new or
additional knowledge on the topic
that s/he intends to pursue or to fill in
gaps in the knowledge
RRL: Purpose
 Help improve the methods and
instruments for the purposed studies,
learning from the best practices
 Provide a general background for the
research
 Justify replication of previous studies
 Avoid duplication
RRL: Purpose
 Confirm, support, or even challenge
the findings of other studies
 Help build the theoretical or
conceptual framework of the
proposed study, and
 Locate possible sources of other
relevant materials by looking at the
list of references of previous studies
RRL: Types
Conceptual Review
 Non-research reference materials
written by authorities on the subject
which embody experiences,
viewpoints and interpretations of the
subject of the research study
 Sources: encyclopedia, books,
commentaries, publications
Conceptual Literature
“Motivation and Reward System in
Relation to the Clinical Attitude and
Behavior of Nurses”
 Merit System
 Motivation: Intrinsic and Extrinsic
 Ranking and Promotion
 Salaries and Privileges
 Recognition and Rewards
RRL: Types
Research Literature
 Consists of studies and researches or
theses and dissertations, published or
unpublished, which have a bearing on
the current research
RRL: Types
Research Literature
 Only research literature which are
related in purpose, method, or
findings to the current study should
be included in the review. The
discussion should be in the form of a
brief critical analysis of the purposes,
method of the study, principal
findings, and conclusions.
Research Literature
“Motivation and Reward System in
Relation to the Clinical Attitude and
Behavior of Nurses”
 Humanistic Factors
 Recognition/Reward for Efficient
Performance
 Attitudes and Behavior of Nurses in
Hospitals
RRL: Sources
 Primary Source
- Information and data for the review
are taken directly from the original
research or author of the ref. mat.
 Nursing Literature
 Theories
 Ideas from other Sources
 Empirical Studies
RRL: Sources
 Secondary Source
- Materials for the review are taken
from a researcher/author who cited
the original author in his work
 Replications
 Thesis review
 Review of Related Research
 Thesis Critique
RRL: Preparation
 Visit the Library and Gather Pertinent
Materials for Review
 Facts, statistics, findings or previous
researchers
 Theories, principles and concepts
 Methods, techniques & procedures
 Opinions, belief or points of view
 Perceptions, clinical impressions &
interpretations of needs & problems
RRL: Preparation
 Organizing the Review
 Consolidating ideas from various
sources coherently in order to
develop a meaningful RRL
RRL: Preparation
 Note-taking and Documentation
 Summarizing
 Quoting
 Paraphrasing
 Acknowledging sources of data
 Presenting the Contents of the
Review
 Take note of the Fallacies in RRL
Example (In-text Citations)
The beneficial effects of enteral
feeding for stimulating the growth and
motility of the gastrointestinal tract and
reducing infections and metabolic
complications have been reported (Kirby
et al., 1995).
Example (In-text Citations)
Kirby et al. (1995) reported the
beneficial effects of enteral feeding for
stimulating the growth and motility of
the gastrointestinal tract and for
reducing infections and metabolic
complications.
Example (In-text Citations)
According to Kirby et al. (1995),
the beneficial effects of enteral
feeding is for stimulating the growth
and motility of the gastrointestinal tract
and for reducing infections and
metabolic complications.
Example (In-text Citations)
The beneficial effects of enteral
feeding (Kirby et al., 1995) is for
stimulating the growth and motility of
the gastrointestinal tract and reducing
infections and metabolic complications
have been reported.
Example (In-text Citations)
The beneficial effects of enteral
feeding, as reported by Kirby et al.
(1995), is stimulating the growth and
motility of the gastrointestinal tract and
reducing infections and metabolic
complications.
Example (In-text Citations)
The beneficial effects of enteral
feeding have been reported by Kirby et
al. (1995). It stimulates the growth and
motility of the gastrointestinal tract and
reduced the infections and metabolic
complications.
Example (In-text Citations)
Personal Communication:
The beneficial effects of enteral
feeding is to stimulates the growth and
motility of the gastrointestinal tract and
reduces infections and metabolic
Complications (Kirby et al., personnal
communication, 2009)
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info.com http://www.info.com/
INfoGrid http://www.infogrid.com/
IZito http;//www.izito.com/
Example (Reference Citations)
 Books and Monographs (Single author)

Surname, Initials (Year). Title. Publisher, Edition, Year


Published
Marieb, E. (2006). Essentials of Anatomy and
Physiology. C&E Publishing, 2008
 Books and Monographs (2 or more authors)

Surname, Initials, Surname, Initials (Year). Title. Publisher,


Edition, Year Published
Manlapaz, E.Z. & Francisco, M.E. (2005). The New Anvil
Guide to Research: Paper Writing. Anvil Publishing,
2008
Example (Reference Citations)
 Journal (Single/Multiple Author/s)

Surname, Initials (Year). Title of Article. Title of Journal,


Volume No.(Series No.): Page Number/s
Reballos, C.A.F., Bendo, J.P., & Gloriani, L.E. (2007).
Toxicity and Subacute Toxicity of Virgin Coconut
Oil Among Albino Rats (Rattus sp). Journal of
Philippine Science, 154(3): 34 – 41
Example (Reference Citations)
 Masteral’s Thesis/Dissertations

Surname, Initials (Year). Title of Thesis/Dissertation.


Unpublsihed undergraduate/masterate thesis/doctoral
dissertation. University Name/College Name.
Reballos, C.A.F. (2009). Interactions of Monosodium
Glutamate and Vitamins A and C in the
Bioavailability of Iron Among Iron-Deficient
Anemic Albino Rats. Unpublished masterate thesis. De
La Salle University-Dasmariñas.
Example (Reference Citations)
 Dictionary

Title of Dictionary (Edition).(Year). Place of Publishing:


Publisher.
Shorter Oxford English dictionary (5th ed.).(2002). New
York: Oxford University Press.
 Newspapers/Magazines/Periodical

Surname, Initials (Date). Title of Article. Name of


Magazine/Periodical, Volume, Page Numbers
Thomas, E. & Hosenball, M. (2004, May 31). Bush's Mr.
Wrong: The Rise and Fall of Chalabi. Newsweek,
143, 22–32.
Example (Reference Citations)
 Classroom Lecture

Darling, C.W. (2004, April). Images at Work in the


Poetry of William Carlos Williams. Outline presented
in a classroom lecture at Capital Community College,
Hartford, CT.
 Electronic and Online Sources

UNICEF/UNU/WHO (2001). Iron deficiency anemia:


assessment, prevention, and control.
WHO/NHD/01.3 Geneva, Switzerland.
http://www.who.int
Example (Reference Citations)
 Book without Author/Editor

Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary (1961). Springfield,


MA: G. & C. Merriam.

PAHO/CDC/MOD/UNICEF/INTA (2003) Flour fortification


with iron, folic acid and vitamin B12. Regional
Meeting Report. Santiago, Chile.

FNRI (2002) Recommended energy and nutrient


intakes (RENI) Philippines, 2002 Ed. RENI Committee,
Task Forces and FNRI-DOST Secretariat

Australian Glutamate Information Service (2007) MSG.


www.msg.org.au