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Father Saturnino Urios University
Butuan City, Philippines
THEO 204 - Christian Morality LECTURE NOTES
Compiled by Arniel M. Iway, Ph.D. 2011-2012
2 Theology 204 - Christian Morality
Unit I. 1. Introduction 1.1. Christian Morality: Recap of the three (3) theology courses 1.2. What is morality? 1.3. What is Christian Morality? 2. Personhood 2.1. Biblical and Ecclesiological Perspective 2.2. The Human Being as Moral Agent 2.2.1. Human Acts 184.108.40.206. Self-awareness 220.127.116.11. Freedom / Responsibility/Theology of Fundamental Option 18.104.22.168. Conscience Unit II 2.2.2. Human Person as Decision Maker 22.214.171.124. Determinants of Human Acts 126.96.36.199.. Process / Steps in Decision Making 3. Becoming a Christian Moral Agent 3.1. Natural Law 3.2. Natural Moral Law 3.3. Christian Commandments 3.4. Sin and Conversion 3.5. Christian Virtues Unit III 4. Christian Witness to Faith in Specific Issues 4.1. Bioethics 4.2. Sexual Ethics: Premarital and Extramarital Unit IV 5. Building a Just Society 5.1. Politics 5.2. Environmental Ethics 5.3. Business Ethics 5.4. Ethics in Technology
3 1st meeting
Objectives: At the end of the period the students are able to: 1. be aware of the content of the course; 2. get to know each other and feel at ease with each other; 3. Introduce the basic rules and expectations Activities: 1. self Introduction by the teacher 2. Self Introduction a. Name b. age c. Course – major 3. Introduction of the Outline of the course 4. Expectation on rules a. outside the classroom i. manners and attitudes within the campus 1. ID all the time 2. proper dress code (uniform) 3. manner of speaking – no loud voices 4. PDA 5. use of the trash bins (segregation) 6. use of the canteen 7. courtesy for the faculty and staff - guest a. greet people in the offices/faculty b. ask in courteous voice and posture b. within the classroom i. absences – additional 10 points for each scores in quizzes 1. excuse letter every absences- AWOL 2. only 7 absences - dropped 3. 3 consecutive absences – dropped 4. absences – referral to the guidance office and the dean ii. optional reflection notebook – rewards on the final grade iii. coming in late – greet people silently iv. courtesy in the classrooms – noise, talking, respect v. proper cell phone use in the classrooms vi. materials for photocopy (in the table to be returned after) 5. Project: A video about any of the topic using personal collection of photos a. To be submitted before the semi-finals b. At least 3 minutes in length c. With music as a background (Christian or something related) d. Must use limited words (Phrases) to expressed ideas e. No Vulgar words f. 10 finalist will be chosen for each class g. final 3 will be included in the contest against other classes and owners will be exempted from the final examination
et à l'heure de notre mort.15 6 When you pray. que ta volonté sit soit faite sur la terre comme au ciel. Mère de Dieu. 10 your kingdom come and your will be done.Matthew 5.32 Notre Père qui es aux cieux.Jésus.Matthew 21. Gospel Reading: Mt 6: 6 . mais délivre-nous du mal. then your Father will not forgive you either. just as John taught his disciples. est béni le fruit de vos entrailles. and pray for those who persecute you.Luke 11. teach us to pray.Luke 18. Gloire au Pére. Marie. Recite the Lord’s Prayer. Pardonne-nous nos offenses comme nous pardonnons aussi à ceux qui nous ont offensés.Matthew 14. 14 If you forgive others their wrongs. your Father in heaven will also forgive yours. maintenant.22 "but I have prayed for you that your faith may not fail.1 "And going away he prayed saying the same words. 2. le Seigneur soit avec vous."" .28 "But this I tell you: Love your enemies." . and your Father who sees what is kept secret will reward you. maintenant et toujours pour les siècles des siècles . for they hold that the more they say. que ton Nom soit sanctifié. Share their insights on their faith and prayer. one of his disciples said to him.13 "One day Jesus was praying in a certain place and when he had finished.1 "Whatever you ask for in prayer full of faith.Luke 22. 8 Do not be like them. you will receive. Your Father knows what you need. 15 If you do not forgive others." . as the pagans do. holy be your name. "It is written: My house shall be called a house of prayer. Question: what values is expressed in this reading? "As for Jesus.16 "Bless those who curse you and pray for those who treat you badly. close the door and pray to your Father who is with you in secret. priez pour nous pécheurs. he was there alone. que ton règne vienne. 11 Give us today the kind of bread we need. 9 This. At nightfall. Comme Il état au commencement. 13 Do not bring us to the test but deliver us from the evil one. go into your room.23 And he said to them. the more chance they have of being heard."" .Mark 14. he would often withdraw to solitary places and pray. Je vous salue. "Lord. Donne-nous aujourd'hui notre pain quotidien. 12 Forgive us our debts just as we have forgiven those who are in debt to us. Et ne nous soumets pas à la tentation. 7 When you pray.Luke 6." .Matthew 21. Sainte Marie. And when you have recovered you shall strengthen your brothers. 3. even before you ask him. is how you should pray: Our Father in heaven. pleine de grâces." ." .Luke 5.39 "Jesus told them a parable to show them that they should pray continually and not lose heart."" . then. do not use a lot of words. Hail Mary and Gloria." . vous êtes bénie entre toutes les femmes. on earth as in heaven. he went up the mountain by himself to pray."" .4 2nd meeting – Prayer Objectives: At the end of the period the students are able to: 1.44 "And having sent the people away. au Fils et au Saint-Esprit. But you have turned it into a den of thieves. Be aware of the value of prayer.
“Christian Morality: Jesus’ Teaching on the Law. Ethics: New Bible Dictionary. 6. Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press. It answers to the question 'how ought we to live' at the individual level 10. pp. Lifestyle choices. Technically. 102–103. Mores. Elsevier Health Sciences. It follows a is a system of morality called Moral code also called laws most often sanction by religion or a belief system a. morality refers to the actual content of right and wrong. The Golden Rule b.) 1. Jon. Morality and Christian Morality Compiled by Arniel M. Concerned with what is right or wrong and the distinction between them 2. They believe that the divine has instructed them with a way to live and that following these rules will lead to good social structure. the substance of right and wrong'. Minnesota. Many religions provide moral guidelines for their followers._Foullah Moral (adj. character. 1982 Jakoblich.H. USA Johnstone. from which morality is derived. 'most people use the term morality and ethics interchangeably 3. 7. In Latin it is “MORES” meaning “tradition or costume”. are often discussed in terms of "morality. Ph. 2." Individuals sometimes feel that making an appropriate lifestyle choice invokes a true morality 12. principle of conduct Morality 1. and closer communion with the divine. Can also be seen as the collection of beliefs as to what constitutes a good life 11. Surveys suggesting a positive connection between faith and altruism 13. Christian Morality. proper behavior" 8. Megan-Jane. which represent an individual's conception of the good life.G. Iway. It is a sense of behavioral conduct that differentiates intentions. It is allied to Ethics (also known as moral philosophy) which is the branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality. and actions between those that are good (or right) and bad (or wrong) 9. The Five Precepts and the Noble Eightfold Path of Buddhism . from the Latin moralis "manner. Bioethics: A Nursing Perspective. Nelson.5 Moral. meant social rules or etiquette or inhibitions from the society. Field.” Themelios 32. Morality is the end result of ethical deliberations.D. 5. 2008 P. THEO 204 Sources: D. decisions.1 (October 2006) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy “The Definition of Morality” http://EzineArticles. 4.com/?expert=Leopold_A. in short moral character.
Characterized by "definitive" statements such as "That act is immoral" rather than descriptive ones such as "Many believe that act is immoral. codes of conduct or social mores that distinguish between right and wrong in the human society 2. Basis of Catholic Moral Teachings 1. Our moral life is based on trying to live and treat others as Jesus did. recognize your dignity and. We must live accordingly. The Ten Indian commandments. That life involves far more than simply following a set of rules. ." (John 10:10) Faith & baptism give us new life in Christ. Leo the Greats' beautiful words: Christian. as God become human "God among us. now that you share in God's own nature. Classified as such because they are thought to cause benefit or harm Normative sense 1. Referring to what is considered right or wrong by people 3. do not return to your former base condition by sinning.6 c. "You shall be holy because I am holy" (1 Pt 1:15–16). regardless of what specific individuals think 2. The conduct of the ideal "moral" person in a certain situation 3. Never forget that you have been rescued from the power of darkness and brought into the light of the Kingdom of God. a. We believe Jesus. Christianity. and Islam e. It is essential to know these principles: they are the how-to manual for living fully our new life. The Catholic Catechism starts its section on Catholic morality with St. The ancient Egyptian code of Ma'at d." has most truly shown us how to live. Remember who is your head and of whose body you are a member. We believe we are created in God's image 2. Catholic morality is about life: "I came that they may have life. Morality refers directly to what is right and wrong. Refers to personal or cultural values. Morality is a call to recognize our dignity as men and women who have received a free gift of new life in Christ." Christian Morality It is living in a way worthy of our dignity as human beings and God’s adopted children. since it is written. He who called you is holy. We are basically good 3. and have it abundantly. The Yamas and Niyama of the Hindu scriptures f. and so you too should be holy in all your conduct. 2 principal meanings of Morality: Descriptive sense 1. for obtaining that abundant life Christ has promised us. Jesus taught us better how to live. The ten commandments of Judaism.
e." Types of Catholic Moral Teachings Social level: Social teachings "social justice. sinners as well as the righteous. The Beatitudes are a self-portrait of Christ Christian standards: higher still (Matthew 5:21–48) Speaking to his disciples in the Sermon on the Mount. your whole mind. "Love the Lord. Have to do with the social order 2. One called to constant conversion: a process by which our whole life is shaped by the gospel message. "Love your neighbor as yourself. 4. b. Making God the center and source of our being 4. d. The way of living which transforms us are at the core of the teaching are the two commandments (Mt 22:37-40): . the poor as well as the rich. and with all your strength" . c. enemies as well as friends.” 22But I say to you that everyone who is angry with his brother shall be subject to judgment … . Jesus went on to explain further how their righteousness must surpass that of the scribes and Pharisees (20): 21‘You have heard that it was said to those of old. with your whole heart. Based on the dignity of human beings created by God and on a focus on the common good of all a. a constant process of conversion. Jesus demanded faith of his followers and ongoing conversion (repentance) c. the outcasts as well as the respectable. They are a radical call to live according to a new set of standards. shelter and clothing Individual Christian Morality 1. especially in an excess of our desires. 3. 6.7 b. The kind of person a Christian is called to become 2.the first principles of Catholic morality 2. Allowing God to continue to work through us to redeem and heal others and the whole world. Allowing oneself to be transformed by that redemptive. and whoever murders shall be subject to judgment.the law of love 1. b. The rights of all people to a just wage Freedom from oppression Fair treatment Freedom from discrimination Adequate food. your whole soul. healing presence of God 5. “You shall not murder. The Beatitudes (Matthew 5-7) not just a set of nice ideals: "The Beatitudes are at the heart of Jesus' preaching" a. We recognize our own tendencies toward evil. your God." 1. The Bible is the primary source for information on the life of Jesus.
” 44But I say to you. How to Argue About Abortion. yes”.” 39But I say to you. Here Jesus takes a series of laws from the OT (‘You have heard that it was said to those of old’) and raises their standard (‘But I say to you’). “No. 1978.aspx http://www. “Whoever divorces his wife. except on account of fornication. The New Scholasticism Vol.com/Personhood. “You shall love your neighbour and hate your enemy. New York. makes her commit adultery … 33Again you have heard that it was said to those of old. “An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. Lee. 20:13) to anger (21–26)10 • He extends the law against adultery (Exod.” 28But I say to you that everyone who looks at a woman intending to lust after [her] has already committed adultery with her in his heart … 31It was also said.lifemeaning.personhoodusa. “You shall not commit adultery. Iway. Ph. Thus: • He extends the law against murder (Exod. do not resist evil … 43You have heard that it was said. no”… 38You have heard that it was said. Catholic Encyclopedia http://en. 24:1) stricter (31−32)11 • He takes the law designed to prevent lying (Num.org). The conception view of personhood: A review.” 32But I say to you that everyone who divorces his wife. John.8 27You have heard that it was said. 24:19−20) further (38−42) • He extends the command to love one's neighbour (Lev.com/node/1 . 30:2) further (33−37) • He takes the law designed to restrain retaliation (Lev. do not swear at all … 37But let your word be “Yes. let him give her a certificate of divorce.com/personhood.org/wiki/Person http://nochimera. Integrative Biology.html http://www. 1974 Sullivan. Dennis M.” 34But I say to you. Personhood and the Conception Event.wikipedia. Jean (email@example.com. 2003. love your enemies’. University of California at Berkeley. and have it abundantly" (John 10:10) Personhood Compiled by Arniel M. THEO 204 Sources Joyce. 20:14) to lust (27–30) • He makes the law restricting divorce (Deut.D. 1. March 2002 Noonan.tech. Robert E. “You shall not swear falsely. 19:18) to enemies (43−48)12 Summary: The law of love is primary The "law and the prophets" are summarized by the command to love God and neighbor The basic moral precepts of Catholic morality are a minimum level below which we must not go This is about life — "I came that they may have life. but pay to the Lord your oaths. LII.
desire. Has an order of relationship that exists among. * mutual dealings with each other.2. 3. (PT8) 1. has power of self determination and self direction. It refers to the presence of a particular set of characteristics that grant that individual certain rights such as the right to life.1. whether he or she ever attains the functional capacity or not.2. Conscious beings 2.) 3. whether this natural capacity is ever developed or not--i. 1. liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Embodied spirits 3. to be a person is to be protected by a series of God given and . Christ Jesus * The temple of the Holy Spirit Personhood 1. . * citizens and public authorities. * individual men and the states. .Is an individual with a natural capacity for these activities and relationships. The essential meaning and constituent properties of what it is to be a person. able to make decisions. Today. In other words. _ Capable of self knowledge. and relate to self and others in a self-reflective way . GS 12) 1.possession and of freely giving himself and entering into communion with other persons. or any entity having rights and duties.from the Latin persona meaning "mask” any individual self-conscious or rational being. (CFC 357) .1. * states and other states.1.3. of self. 2..Independent. whether this natural capacity is ever developed or not (Joyce. * community of peoples. Not a solitary being but a communion of partnership with others. love. The term refers to the state or condition of being an individual person. possesses self awareness through knowing and free willing (basis for moral life. aware of themselves and its outgoing acts 2. (Genesis 1:27. A person is an individual with a natural capacity for these activities and relationships. in statutory and corporate law legal entities are considered legal persons 4. Open and relational by nature 1.possesses freedom.e. This stresses the unity between the body and soul * God created it * God will raise it on the last day * Dignified by the Son. 1978) 2. set goals and move on this direction.9 PERSON: .A whole individual being that has the natural potential to know.
this appears twenty-six times in the Old Testament. Judeo-Christian belief. Every living individual being with the natural potential.and thus all humans . In ancient Egyptian beliefs. and God said to them. as a whole. 5. "Be fruitful and multiply. the first man .Adam . In Genesis. It begins with Conception or fertilization." 2. male and female He created them. for knowing. in the image of God He created him. God blessed them. 1. and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth. "Likeness" comes from the Hebrew root demuth. Genesis 1:26-27 1. and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth. In Hindu philosophy there is a complete five-soul system 3. desiring. The word translated "image" is the Hebrew tselem. 1:31) Then God said. 2. and fill the earth. often in conjunction with theophanies. the point at which a person begins to exist physically 6. The moment that fertilization process is fundamentally complete single-celled zygote comes into existence 7. or appearances of God . and relating to others in a self-reflective way is a person (Jeremiah) Humanity and Spiritual Doctrine In a number of religions. The all-powerful God Who created the universe values man highly 3. working within the corporeal and spiritual person during and after life. It is a song of praise to God Who has given great worth and authority to man 4. The Qur'an dictates that the human being is inseparably body and soul 4. He declared it "very good" (Gen.10 constitutionally protected rights. there is clearly a physical nature but also a spiritual nature to human beings. willing." The Biblical Basis of Personhood Psalm 8 1. The zygote is truly a person though less developed 8. Begins and ends as a hymn of praise to the Creator God 2.by breathing into his nostrils the "breath of life. This value comes not through man's effort. five of which refer to man as created in God's image 3. it appears sixteen times in the Old Testament. according to Our likeness. "Let Us make man in Our image. and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over every living thing that moves on the earth. God bestows the soul of the first man . ba (consciousness). a person is composed of at least four factions." God created man in His own image. and ab (heart and deep nature). but with the creation of man on the sixth day. the ka (vital force). akh (psyche).is formed by God the Creator "from the dust of the ground" (NIV translation). and subdue it. but is a gift from the Lord of creation. God's creative work on each day is declared good.
1:26: "Let Us make man in Our image. "image. This has been interpreted most often as the capacity for rational thought 6. That God could become flesh is the greatest of all mysteries. and will. 3:9-10. James 3:9." Additional insight comes from Gen. In the Jewish tradition. This makes man distinct from animals. but that some aspect of the image of God remains (Hoekema. "likeness. and Col. The goal of our redemption in Christ is to make us more and more like God. and dwelt among us. Romans 8:29 and 2 Corinthians 3:18 1. the Incarnation confirms the doctrine of the image of God Even while still in the womb 1. 5:3 where Adam's son Seth is "in his own likeness." referring to man's holiness and relation to God 7." is mans relation to reason and volition b." 4. Among the early Church Fathers. Augustine taught that God's image relates to memory. that separate men from animals 12. only the likeness of God as in Ezek. for the Bible declares that only man is made in God's image 5.11 a." 2. all of which refer to the image after the fall. 5:1: "In the day when God created man. who equated the image with man's original righteousness. He made him in the likeness of God. intellect. 9:6. Calvin took the broader view that the fall of man has corrupted God's image to a greater or lesser degree. Two key uses of demuth to describe man's resemblance of God are in Gen. More recently. Scriptural support for this comes from Gen. such as self-awareness and emotion. Luther. 28 or Dan. 1986). vv 13-16: God values persons yet in the womb . a Christian is conformed to the image of Christ as he or she matures spiritually 2. John Calvin wrote that the human soul is the image of God 11. 1:26. capacities that he implied were analogous to the triune persons of God 8. Psalm 139. Thomas Aquinas rooted the image of God in man's intellectual capacities 9. John 1:14 reveals the ultimate validation that God confers great worth on man through His image: "And the Word became flesh. Ezekiel and Daniel never claimed to have seen God. 10:16 b. according to Our likeness" and Gen. the term "image" denotes a resemblance. Irenaeus made a distinction between image and likeness a. or more and more like Christ who is the perfect image of God John 1. some theologians have emphasized unique aspects of personality. Theologian Anthony Hoekema reasonably feels this was overly influenced by the writings of Plato and Aristotle 10. yet clearly of lesser degree than God Himself. taught that fallen man had lost God's image and that the goal of salvation is to restore it in Christ 13.
Job 10:10-11: "Did You not . and His eyes saw him. When I was made in secret. David's sense of awe and wonder in Psalm 139 relates to a personal. Psalm 119:73. And my soul knows it very well. when the sound of your greeting reached my ears.12 For You formed my inward parts. the baby leaped in her womb." 6. . The word "formed" comes from the Hebrew word 'asa. And skillfully wrought in the depths of the earth. a. functional views emphasize man's stewardship role over the created realm 3. And she cried out with a loud voice and said. where Elizabeth. This is a different term than the word bara' (as in Genesis 1:1). . You wove me in my mother's womb. which means to fashion or to build 4. And in Your book were all written The days that were ordained for me. before he was completely formed. meets Mary. ." 8. When as yet there was not one of them. In the broader context. Thus. then. Structural views. Jeremiah (1:5) also describes God's personal involvement with him as an unborn child "Before I formed you in the womb I knew you. 3. which implies an original creation 5. Though made in secret. Luke 1:41-44: teaches the personhood of the unborn. and defines man as a morally significant entity (person) 2. and knit me together with bones and sinews?" 7. God also knew David's history. the pregnant mother of Jesus When Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting. God as divine Person has given great value to the person of man. God knew him. clothe me with skin and flesh. And before you were born I consecrated you. Relational views stress the social character of man c. It is the image of God that separates humanity from the animal world. and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit." Summary 1. the baby leaped in my womb for joy. emotion. "Blessed are you among women. and blessed is the fruit of your womb! And how has it happened to me that the mother of my Lord would come to me? For behold. five months pregnant with John (who would become the Baptist). and the length of his days. My frame was not hidden from You. for I am fearfully and wonderfully made. Your eyes have seen my unformed substance. this same sense of a personal fashioning and weaving of an individual is also seen: "Your hands made me and fashioned me. I have appointed you a prophet to the nations. though not referring specifically to the womb. The image of God relates to some way that man resembles his Creator. hidden process. such traits as intellect. Wonderful are Your works. I will give thanks to You. 2. and conscience or morality b. volition or will. intimate.
and that he is made in God's image 5. This is possible because only the person has intelligence and a will 4. THEO 204 Sources Agapay. Human Acts The actions performed by man. Human acts reveal the thoughts and inclinations of the person doing them. not within the control of the will. knowingly. 26 Oct. Roa. National Bookstore McManaman. whether they occur behind closed doors or not. a person’s moral choices. These actions are the result of conscious knowledge and are subject to the control of the will. John. they are instinctive and involuntary. respiration. (1991) Ethics and the Filipino. A person who has the inclination to do good is said to be VIRTUOUS. Persons are the only moral agent in the physical universe 2. Ramon B. love and jealousy. . Floriano C. persons are the only ones that can choose freely between competing alternatives 3. They are manifested as one’s character or moral conduct. and on the contrary the one who is on the habit of doing wrong VICIOUS. 2007 Miranda. "Human Acts. 2010 <http://www. personality is ascribed to the unborn child. They are also called deliberate or intentional actions or voluntary actions." The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Moral evil originates not on the level of the “system” or the environment. Douglas P.htm>. 2007 Man as Moral Agent 1. but on the level of the will 5. Philippines. Acts of man The actions which happen in man. Ph. determine his moral identity. Gregorio. 6.D. Reclaiming the Person as Moral Agent. 2000 Ming.org/cathen/01115a. whom God forms in the womb by an intimate and personal process Human being as Moral Agent – Human acts Compiled by Arniel M. Vol. both the Old and the New Testament. The Bible affirms that man has great value to the Creator-God. Iway. and the moral identities of persons living in society determine the overall character of a nation.newadvent. fear. 1907. Manila. freely and voluntarily. Business Ethics 3rd ed. 1.13 4. Business Ethics. Such actions are the biological and physiological movements in man such as metabolism.
This willfulness is the resolved to perform an act here and now or in some future time. Those performed by the will and are not bodily externalized. It involves the notion of guilt or innocence. 1. Election. Commanded acts. Fruition. Study lessons. etc. The tendency of the will towards something attainable but without necessarily committing oneself to attain it. The enjoyment of the will derived from the attainment of the thing s/he had desired earlier. etc. E. A person doing an act willfully regardless of whether s/he likes to do it or not. actions are either praiseworthy or blameworthy. Consciousness “Knowledge”. whether realized or not b. dancing. The lack of any of these attributes renders an act defective and less voluntary. consequences Awareness of what s/he is doing and its 2. External actions such as walking. eating. b. go on a diet. There is full knowledge and full intention to do the act Imperfect Voluntariness. Freedom. Kinds of Human acts A. B. recalling something. When a person is forced by circumstances beyond his/her control to perform an act Simple voluntariness. Voluntariness. Such as: a. The tendency of the will towards something. c. . 3. d. Elicited acts. from Voluntas or will Perfect voluntariness. Internal actions such as conscious reasoning.g. etc. The selection of the will of those means effective enough to carry the intention e. Intentions.14 Essential attributes of Human acts. The acts are those done either by man’s mental or bodily powers under the command of the will a. controlling aroused emotions. There is action without full knowledge or full intention Conditional voluntariness. Wish. The person decides willfully to perform the act. Thus. Use. Imputability of Human acts It means that the person performing the act is liable for such act. Consent. The person doing it acts freely using his/her own volition and powers. The command of the will to make use of those means elected to carry out the intention f. The acceptance of the will of those needed to carry out the intention.
These include parents.edu/~scott. Dictates of reason refers to the shared consciousness of prudent people about the propriety of a certain action or manner of behavior. role models. 2007 www.htm www. Certain people will strongly influence you and contribute to your self-concept. bad or indifferent.html?q=printme www. teammates. Four Human Endowments to Distinguish Reality from Illusion. bullies.htm Introduction “Know thyself. THEO 204 Sources Covey.15 Morality is the quality of human acts by which they are constituted as good. The Dictates of reason is the norm of morality which is the standard by which actions are judged as to their merits of demerits. peers. tormentors.com www.D.Rene Descartes We are the same person to the extent that we are conscious of our past and future thoughts and actions in the same way as we are conscious of our present thoughts and actions .com/self. coaches. Events that happen to you. Ph. We see it as we are.williams/LeaderLetter/selfawareness. Human acts may either be in conformity or not with the dictates of reason. therefore I am' (Cogito ergo sum) .” ~ Confucius (551 – 479 BC) “One can have no smaller or greater mastery than mastery of oneself. Good is described as MORAL.” ~ Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) “We don't see the world as it is. Human being as Moral Agent – Self awareness Compiled by Arniel M. the choices you make. competitors. and the influential people you meet throughout your life all contribute to what you learn and believe about the world a. 3. siblings. Permissible Bad as IMMORAL.” ~ Anaïs Nin 'I think. and your nemesis . Not permissible Indifferent as AMORAL.dreammanifesto.emotionalcompetency.John Locke's Our evolving and developing self 1.wright. but by his habitual acts. Stephen R. 2. heroes. 1.” ~ Eleanor Roosevelt “Real knowledge is to know the extent of one's ignorance. teachers.com/four-human-endowments-to-distinguish-reality-fromillusion. Iway.” ~ Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 – 1519) “The strength of a man's virtue should not be measured by his special exertions.” ~ Socrates (470–399 BC) “Somehow we learn who we really are and then live with that decision.PathwayToHappiness.
This strange loop allows us to: a. Your competence in each of these activities was assessed by yourself and no-doubt by others 7. think about our selves as separate from others e. Self-awareness is the awareness that one exists as an individual being . or you may be greatly influenced by peer pressure. perhaps you were not 6.16 b. the choices you make are your own responsibility 8. These factors. As you grow older you may have participated in sports. based on your own well-considered beliefs. to plan for the future c. Your attitude toward the world begins to take shape as that attitude influence how you behave in the world 5. the connection between an incident and a result 4. Some choices will strengthen your authentic self. but also help us to distinguish between reality and illusion. conscience. Although events happen to you. become aware of our self b. and unique ability to think about our own thoughts 3. or music. loath some. and others will contribute to your fictional self 11. As human beings. project our experiences into the minds of others g. You learn from them all and they all contribute to who you are today 2. we have four unique endowments: self-awareness. 2. We have a remarkable. Perhaps you were talented. or the desire to please others 9. and to align our lives with the extrinsic realities that govern quality of life. and the meaning you assign to them. to transform the clock into a compass. You may make these choices confidently and autonomously. This self-spiral continues to change you as you change the world. imagine the thoughts of others f. reflect and ruminate about the past d. Critical choice points will reveal your own self and continue to shape your life and yourself 10. You begin to understand the consequences of actions. Self-awareness provides us the unique ability to control ourselves intentionally by imagining ourselves in the future and talk to ourselves about options for our future 5. Self-awareness 1. merge and blend with your human nature and personality to create your ever evolving self 3. parents. You admire some. and you simply tolerate or ignore others. independent will. or dancing. and creative imagination that not only separate us from the animal world. and judge our own actions 4.
Habits . personality and behavior determine where you go in life 5. behavior. and help us avoid situations in which we will experience too much stress b. and physical characteristics that make up the individual a. you will have difficulty making changes in the direction of your life . Values – the principle or quality that arouse 3. Having self awareness allows you to see where your thoughts and emotions are taking you 6. As you develop self awareness you are able to make changes in the thoughts and interpretations you make in your mind 2. Changing the interpretations in your mind allows you to change your emotions 3. 5. awareness of your personality helps you analyze our decisions 2. attitudes. and emotions 8. conflict and stress.the behaviors that we repeat routinely and often automatically 4. understanding of our personalities can help us find situations in which we will thrive. It also allows you to see the controls of your emotions. Emotion – a strong or deep feeling Why Develop Self Awareness? 1. Until you are aware in the moment of the controls to your thoughts. Only with self awareness can we see where our steps are taking us. your attitude and your responses to them in the moment 9. 10. reactions. Self Awareness allows you to understand other people. Self Awareness is having a clear perception of your personality. Needs cause motivation b. they can cause frustration. including strengths. a. Self awareness is the first step in creating what you want and mastering Where you focus your attention.17 6. when needs aren't satisfied. self-awareness can be an understanding of one's own knowledge. and personality so you can make changes you want 7. Self awareness is one of the attributes of Emotional Intelligence and an important factor in achieving success 4. Self-awareness gives one the option or choice to choose thoughts being thought rather than simply thinking the thoughts that are stimulated 7. thoughts. beliefs. emotional. and behavior. Self awareness is a form of intelligence. your emotions. how they perceive you. Without self-awareness the self perceives and accepts the thoughts that are occurring to be who the self is 11. Need – the condition that necessitates supply or relief. intellectual. words. motivation. weaknesses. emotions. and opinions (Alfred Binet's) Key Areas for Self-Awareness 1. Personality – the total of the psychological.
Conflicting Images 1. We judge others based on behavior and we judge ourselves based on intent 6. Remedies 1. Bias 1. we ruminate about the past we recall 3. We each tend to believe that our point of view is the correct one 2. We claim more than our share of credit when things go well and we avoid blame when thing go bad 3. We imagine ourselves as similar to people in some groups and different from others 2. humility over arrogance b. thought. and act on the strength of our own decisions. We all share human nature. Self-Control. 2. We worry about the future we imagine 2. to be aware and monitor what we are doing. We can choose: a. We judge people we identify with more leniently and favorably than we judge people we don't like 4. establish and pursue goals for the future. We can choose to act consistently with our values rather than submit once again to an impulse 4. and we worry about what others did.18 Factors that cause self-awareness to disappear 1. The often misunderstood fact is that you are probably less similar to the members of your group than you assume and you are more similar to members of rival groups that you assume. gain control of our immature impulses 2. We invariably overestimate our positive qualities. We invariably demonstrate favoritism toward people in the in-group 3. nearly everyone considers themselves above average in characteristics important to their self-image 2. created by our awareness. cooperation over competition d. between our ego and our values 3. inclusion over exclusion . stillness over aggression and destruction c. We offer advice to others more easily than we accept advice from others 5. or might do 3. Worry 1. control our impulses and delay gratification to pursue our long-term goals. Detaching our Ego 1. We can stare back our own thoughts and jump into the space.
“hubris”. Be skeptical of what your self is telling you. THEO 204 Sources Sabalaskey. and authentic over bogus. generosity over greed g. Shape your self-symbol. Self-Appraisals 1. “narcissism”.19 e. The ability to choose one's own destiny 3. or a “sense of superiority”. High self-esteem is a favorable self assessment 3. 4. Ph. “arrogance”. Seek out alternative viewpoints. candor over deceit i. peer over power h. Human being as Moral Agent – Freedom and Responsibility Compiled by Arniel M. Appropriate high self-esteem is (authentic) “pride”. j. and control your self. but excessive or unjustified high self-esteem is called: “egotism”. 2000 Catechism of the Catholic Church (Part 3. Deliberately quiet your self when it is not being helpful.va/archive/catechism/p3s1c1a3. Let go of your ego defense mechanisms. the ideological concept of having the right and ability to do as one chooses Galatians 5:1 "For freedom Christ has set us free" . or unfavorable 2. Iway. Liberty. Section 1. 3. Low self-esteem is “shame”. Focus on what is real. When you hear your self talking. neutral.D. Enjoy the resulting calm and contentment 5. Learn to tame it 3. stature over status dignity over disrespect k. Article 3) www. An unfavorable self assessment is low-self-esteem 4. recognize it is only one voice among the crowd 4. “conceitedness”. can be favorable.vatican. Free will 2. Our self is an essential but often pesky companion 2. Transcending Your Self 1. Bruce. needs over wants f.htm Freedom 1. That one's actions are not pre-determined 4. The Role and Freedom of Conscience. Chapter 1.
It is the basis of praise or blame." Rom 6:17. inordinate attachments. God created man a rational being 2. 9. e. has the natural right to be recognized as a free and responsible being 20. to act or not to act. God willed that man should be 'left in the hand of his own counsel. Like God. especially in moral and religious matters.' so that he might of his own accord seek his Creator and freely attain his full and blessed perfection by cleaving to him. An action can be indirectly voluntary when it results from negligence regarding something one should have known or done: for example. Freedom characterizes properly human acts.20 MAN'S FREEDOM (CCC 1730 . Human freedom is a force for growth and maturity in truth and goodness. A bad effect is not imputable if it was not willed either as an end or as a means of an action. 14. Freedom makes man responsible for his acts to the extent that they are voluntary 13. Every human person. our beatitude. This right must be recognized and protected by civil authority within the limits of the common good and public order . 17. it attains its perfection when directed toward God. merit or reproach. a mother's exhaustion from tending her sick child. By free will one shapes one's own life 7. duress. created in the image of God. as in the case of manslaughter caused by a drunken driver 19. 8. for instance. the freer one becomes 10. fear. a death a person incurs in aiding someone in danger 18. The more one does what is good. habit. The choice to disobey and do evil is an abuse of freedom and leads to "the slavery of sin. rooted in reason and will. Freedom is the power. For a bad effect to be imputable it must be foreseeable and the agent must have the possibility of avoiding it.g. 16." 5. an accident arising from ignorance of traffic laws. is an inalienable requirement of the dignity of the human person 21. God confers on him the dignity of a person who can initiate and control his own actions 4. There is no true freedom except in the service of what is good and just 11. An effect can be tolerated without being willed by its agent. Imputability or responsibility for an action can be diminished or even nullified by ignorance. Every act directly willed is imputable to its author: Gen 3:13 15.1738) 1.. 12. inadvertence. and so to perform deliberate actions on one's own responsibility 6. he is created with free will and is master over his acts 3. and other psychological or social factors. The right to the exercise of freedom.
Freedom is exercised in relationships between human beings 23. On the contrary. From its outset. and rebellion against divine truth Liberation and salvation 1. man freely sinned 2. the more docile we are to the promptings of grace. as the Apostle teaches. By his glorious Cross Christ has won salvation for all men 2. as Christian experience attests especially in prayer. "Where the Spirit of the Lord is. he deceived himself and became a slave to sin 3. political. Deviation from the moral law . All owe to each other this duty of respect HUMAN FREEDOM IN THE ECONOMY OF SALVATION (1739 – 1742) Freedom and sin 1. man failed. Disregard or violation of the economic. Already we glory in the "liberty of the children of God. Maintenance of this false: man is an individual who is fully self-sufficient and whose finality is the satisfaction of his own interests in the enjoyment of earthly goods 3. By refusing God's plan of love. The exercise of freedom does not imply a right to say or do everything 2. disruption of neighborly fellowship. The Holy Spirit has been given to us and." Rom 8:21 Freedom and grace 1. "For freedom Christ has set us free.is a violation of ones own freedom which could result to imprisonment within oneself. This first alienation engendered a multitude of others. social. Blindness and injustice to situations injure the moral life 5." John 8:32 4." Gal 5:1 3. Weakness in the temptation to sin against charity 6. and cultural conditions that are needed for a just exercise of freedom 4." 2 Cor 17 5. He redeemed them from the sin that held them in bondage. human history attests the wretchedness and oppression born of the human heart in consequence of the abuse of freedom Threats to freedom 1.21 22. Man's freedom is limited and fallible. there is freedom. The grace of Christ is not in the slightest way a rival of our freedom when this freedom accords with the sense of the true and the good that God has put in the human heart 2. By the working of grace the Holy Spirit educates us in spiritual freedom in order to make us free collaborators in his work in the Church and in the world . the more we grow in inner freedom and confidence during trials. In him we have communion with the "truth that makes us free. such as those we face in the pressures and constraints of the outer world 3.
Sir 15:14) 2. fear. Thomas Aquinas www. It stems from the same root as consciousness. Conscience is an awareness restricted to the moral sphere . the sovereign Good. Freedom attains perfection in its acts when directed toward God. Conscience is that faculty of the mind. God willed that man should be left in the hand of his own counsel (cf. 3. The conscience is a highly misunderstood concept today." "the knowledge we share with another. The New Testament stresses the need of having a good conscience toward God. Ph." "joint knowledge with others. is an inalienable requirement of the dignity of man 7. duress.org/articles/conscience. The right to the exercise of freedom.ourladyswarriors." b. Etymology 1.htm http://en. The Role and Freedom of Conscience. Iway.22 Summary 1. From the Latin conscientia. 2000 Catechism of the Catholic Church (sections 1776-1802) Summa Theologica by St. 2. 5. Commonly used metaphors for conscience include the "voice within" and the "inner light" 4. 4. due primarily to lack of good catechesis. by which we judge of the moral character of human conduct.org/wiki/Conscience Introduction 1. which is a compound of the preposition con and scio. The responsibility for an action can be diminished or nullified by ignorance. which means "awareness of. Human being as Moral Agent – Conscience Compiled by Arniel M. THEO 204 Sources Sabalaskey.wikipedia. The exercise of freedom does not entail the putative right to say or do anything. meaning "to know together. and other psychological or social factors 6. Definition of Conscience a. especially in religious and moral matters. Freedom characterizes man as responsible and voluntary agent 5." a. Bruce.D. as well as being a much abused tool to foster the errors of modernism on today's Catholics. Freedom of conscience is used to justify any belief or behavior inconsistent with Catholic doctrine and dogma. Freedom is the power to act or not to act 3. or inborn sense of right and wrong.
The Oxford dictionary 1. intuition. Psychology 1. Jobs says: "My heart shall not reproach me" (Job 27:6). Acts 26:9. nineteen times in the writings of Paul." and wissen is "to know. We read of David that his heart smote him (II Sam. and "seared" (1 Tim. 2:15). 19. [Cf. 271] . or judgment of the intellect that distinguishes right from wrong. It is common to all men. 3:21) 5. 1 Pet.23 c. "together. 4. 1:5. A moral sense of right and wrong. 9:1. The German Gewissen has the same meaning. "to know. faculty. It is a moral awareness 2. Conscience is the most secret core and sanctuary of a man. 1952: AAS (1952). March 23. Rom. Conscience is an aptitude. 1 Tim. 4:2). has a guilty conscience) e. There he is alone with God. Rom. Psalms 32:1-5 and 51:1-9 are the cries of anguish of an aroused conscience. 2 Cor. Conscience is described as leading to feelings of remorse when a human does things that go against his/her moral values. An inner feeling as to the goodness or otherwise of one's behavior (my conscience is clear. to have common knowledge together with someone. the "together with. twice in Acts. 8:10. and to feelings of rectitude or integrity when actions conform to such norms. Conscience in scriptures 1. the idea is well known and is expressed by the term "heart. c. 24:10) b. The word syneidesis or "conscience" appears thirty times in the NT. 1Tim 1:5. Whose voice echoes in his depths. it has been perverted by the Fall (John 16:2. 2." that is. c." a." b. especially as felt by a person and affecting behavior (my conscience won't allow me to do that) 2. 2. Heb. Like all our other faculties. The Greek equivalent in the NT is syneidesis. Pius XII. d. a. five times in Hebrews. The prefix ge expresses a collective idea. 1:12. A "conscience void of offence" is to be sought and cultivated (Acts 24:16. The word "conscience" does not appear in the OT. However. It is spoken of as "defiled" (Titus 1:15). and once in the Gospel of John 3. Important New Testament passages that deal with conscience are Rom. Vatican II Gaudium et Spes 1. to know together with." and eidenai. 2. 3. three times in the letters of Peter.15 and 1Cor. 13:18) 6. p. 2:14. Conscience is the awareness that an action conforms to or is contrary to one's standards of right and wrong (Acts 23:1. a compound of syn.
man detects a law which he does not impose upon himself." Just another factor which affects behavior. Therefore.] 6. c. 1952: AAS 44 (1952) pp. The Word of God is the light for our path [Cf. In a wonderful manner conscience reveals that law which is fulfilled by love of God and neighbor. Differences between the Catholic View of Conscience and the Secular (Humanist) View of Conscience God's law written into a person's very heart. To be obeyed. 5. the conscience is used to guide moral behavior 1. 2:15-16. A law which man does not impose on himself. Pius XII. according to it he will be judged. avoid evil. [Cf. and to live it Use of the conscience in Decisions 1. "Summon man to love good and avoid evil" 2.always. because it comes from God. The Christian faithful ought carefully to attend to the sacred and certain doctrine of the Church. Dignity is ignored. shun that. "Hold man to obedience" to "a law written by God into man's heart. Rom. 4.24 3. and love God and neighbor . For man has in his heart a law written by God. Moral sense or inner feeling. Emanates from within the person ("sense. Love good. b. We must also examine our conscience before the Lord's Cross. conscience can make a right judgment in accordance with reason and the divine law . embrace it. The education of the conscience to guarantee freedom and bring about peace of heart. "Faced with a moral choice. Always summoning him to love good and avoid evil. Ps. a. to obey it is the very dignity of man. [Cf. 270-278] 2. 3. Very simply. In the depths of his conscience. Offers a person his/her very dignity The Role of Conscience. We must assimilate it in faith and prayer and put it into practice.seek God's Truth. Obligated to learn the Truths. radio message. March 23." ." "feeling") No guidance as to what "goodness" means. and then hold on to it once found Formation of Conscience Vatican II Dignitatis Humanae tells us clearly: 1. anything goes as long as the "conscience is clear. the voice of conscience when necessary speaks to his heart: do this. but which holds him to obedience. 119:105].
Catholics are called to examine their conscience daily. Christian Faith and Its "Fulfillment" of the Natural Moral Law. this right of conscience does not allow one to summarily disagree with a church teaching and claim that they are acting in accordance with conscience UNIT II." [Rom 14:21] Catholic teaching on the practice of conscience: 1. Some rules apply in every case: 1. John Hardon's Modern Catholic Dictionary Waldron.ethics. Man has the right to act according to his conscience and in freedom so as personally to make moral decisions 3. 2 When the Pharisees noticed this. Must not be prevented from acting according to his conscience. cf.. they said to Jesus. c. do so to them. 2. And the help of the Holy Spirit and his gifts.. William E.org/resource/plus-decision-making-process Reading – Mat 12:1-8 1 It happened that Jesus walked through the wheat fields on a Sabbath. The Golden Rule: "Whatever you wish that men would do to you. do anything that makes your brother stumble. M.. The virtue of prudence. (1912). b. and with special care before confession. "Look at your disciples. He must not be forced to act contrary to his conscience 4. His disciples were hungry. 2004 Fr. you sin against Christ. New York: Robert Appleton Company." [1 Cor 8:12] Therefore "it is right not to . Lk 6:31. they are doing what is prohibited on the Sabbath!" . especially in religious matters 5. Theology 204 Lecture Notes Sources: May.newadvent. Man must always seriously seek what is right and good and discern the will of God expressed in divine law 3.A. The advice of competent people.] 2. PERSONS AS DECISION MAKER Compiled by Arniel M. 2010 Digital Catholic Bible http://www.. Virtue. Strive to interpret the data of experience and the signs of the times assisted by a. Iway.D. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. Charity always proceeds by way of respect for one's neighbor and his conscience: "Thus sinning against your brethren and wounding their conscience .http://www.htm Catholic Encyclopedia Retrieved December 23. and began to pick some heads of wheat and crush them to eat the grain." [Mt 7:12. However.org/cathen/15472a. Ph.25 2. Tob 4:15.
. The object of a human act 1. The reason is that we are always obliged to avoid all evil as far as we can. The circumstances of a human act 1. such as taking even a small amount of urgently needed money from a very poor man. A human action is morally good only if all three elements are substantially good. the purpose may be to escape evils that person is unwilling to bear. 7 If you really knew the meaning of the words: It is mercy I want. It is that which the action of its very nature tends to produce 3. 5 And have you not read in the Law that on the Sabbath the priests in the Temple break the Sabbath rest.26 3 Jesus answered. and the purpose that the one performing the act has in mind. It answers to the question: Does it conform or is it contrary to the standard of right conduct? 2. but only the priests." THE THREE MORAL DETERMINANTS OF A HUMAN ACT 1. as distinguished from his or her ultimate purpose in doing it 2. An action becomes morally bad if even one of these three elements is bad. there are Conditions that need to be fulfilled to determine the morality of human conduct 2. If an essential part of an action is evil. we cannot avoid that evil part unless we refrain from the whole action. They are: the object of the act. If. and they ate the bread offered to God. . The accidental modifications that affect its morality 2. i. b. 4. 8 Besides the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath. unnecessary servile work on Sunday. 4. In order to judge the goodness or badness of any particular human act. 5. 1. 8. the circumstances surrounding the act. 6. the act considered in its relationship to the moral law 5. although neither he nor his men had the right to eat it. Is that which the one acting sets out to do. the object of a suicide's act is to take his or her life. three elements must be weighed from which every act derives its morality 3. It is the act viewed in its moral nature. then. an ordinarily venially sinful act into a mortal sin. not sacrifice. 7. "Have you not read what David did when he and his men were hungry? 4 He went into the house of God. one is performing a sinful action. yet they are not guilty? 6 I tell you. there is greater than the Temple here.e. you would not have condemned the innocent. one does an action in spite of the substantially evil element in it. For example. such as: a. Circumstances are capable of changing: an ordinary indifferent act into a sinful one.
13 9 Jesus then left that place and went into one of their synagogues. either this or that. such as unjustly striking a person consecrated to God. The key to this step is to not limit yourself to obvious alternatives or what has worked in the past but to be open to new and better alternatives. 2. The end or purpose of a human act 1. How many alternatives? As many as possible. Distinguishing between fact-based evaluation and non-fact -based evaluation in developing a "confidence score" for each alternative a. 2. To get away from the trap of seeing "both sides of the situation" b. 3. 10 A man was there with a paralyzed hand. but . "What if one of you has a sheep and it falls into a pit on the Sabbath? Will you not take hold of your sheep and lift it out? 12 But a human person is much more valuable than a sheep! It is therefore permitted to do good on the Sabbath. must be careful to differentiate between what you know for a fact and what you believe might be the case 2. 2. Iway. PROCESS / STEPS IN DECISION MAKING Compiled by Arniel M. PROCESS / STEPS IN DECISION MAKING Step 1: Define the problem 1. Describing why a decision is called for and identifying the most desired outcome(s) of the decision making process a." 13 Then Jesus said to the man. The intention that prompts one to perform such an act. and a sinful action into a doubly sinful. As when a person reveals some hidden failing of another in order to injure that person's reputation. biases and predispositions. d. Step 2: Identify available alternative solutions to the problem 1. Defining what one wanted or expected and the actual situation b. Reading – Mt 12: 9 . Looking at the likely positive and negative cones for each which is subject to the decision maker's personal perceptions. Define the difference between expected and/or desired outcomes and actual outcomes. Step 3: Evaluate the identified alternatives 1. a. Ph.D. "Stretch out your arm." He stretched it out and it was completely restored. a. an ordinarily mortally sinful act into a venial sin. and people who wanted to bring a charge against Jesus asked him. Limiting one's alternatives to two opposing choices. The definition of the problem determines how one defines causes and where one searches for solutions. as sound as the other one.27 c. such as blaspheming when only half aware of what one is doing. "Is it permitted to heal on the Sabbath?" 11 But he said to them. The need to determine not just what results each alternative could yield.
Did it change appreciably? c. the more confident he/she can be that the expected outcome will occur. 3. 6 A time for searching. a. posit). While this might seem obvious. a clear list of the alternatives that were considered and a clear rationale for the proposed solution. a time for throwing away. 8 A time for loving. The law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. a time for losing. tangible step in changing the situation." Step 6: Evaluate the decision 1. The law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) 2. 2. complete with a clear definition of the problem. Every decision is intended to fix a problem. The final test of any decision is whether or not the problem was fixed. 7 A time for tearing. a time for uprooting. a time for hating. The phrase natural law is opposed to the positive law (meaning "man-made law". on the other hand. The natural next step after selecting the best alternative 2. cf. 3 A time for killing. or the same? d. a time for keeping.D. a time for planting.28 how probable it is that those results will be realized. In natural law jurisprudence. As Lou Gerstner (CEO of IBM) said. Iway. or worse. a time for mourning. the content of positive law cannot be known without some reference to the natural law . Becoming a Christian Moral Agent: NATURAL LAW 1. not "good law". It is not enough to think about it or talk about it or even decide to do it. a time for laughter. Step 4: Make the decision 1. 2.Ecclesiastes 3:1-8 1 There is a given time for everything and a time for every happening under heaven: 2 A time for giving birth. Did it go away? b. it is necessary to make the point that deciding on the best alternative is not the same as doing something. When working in a team environment. Ph. 3. Step 5: Implement the decision 1. a time for gathering stones. a time for healing. a time for dying. a time to refrain from embracing. The more the evaluation is fact-based. Reading . The use of reason to analyze human nature and deduce binding rules of moral behavior. A decision only counts when it is implemented. a time for embracing. a time for knocking down. a time for sewing: a time to be silent and a time to speak. a time for peace. a time for war. "There are no more prizes for predicting rain. 4. a time for dancing. There are only prizes for building arks. 5. 4 A time for tears. b. What new problems did the solution create? BECOMING A CHRISTIAN MORAL AGENT NATURAL LAW Compiled by Arniel M. Is it better now. a time for building. this is where a proposal is made to the team. The action itself is the first real. 5 A time for throwing stones.
In virtue of his intelligence and free will. 6. St. Aside from the "particular" laws that each people has set up for itself. 4. What makes us righteous before God is not hearing the Law. 2. practice naturally what the Law commands. 11 He made everything fitting in its time.Ecclesiastes 3:10-22 10 Finally I considered the task God gave to the sons of men. but obeying it. 7. He willed to ordain and direct them to an end.D. lead to our destined end. and to be guided by reason 2. Ph. reflecting that ordination and direction of all things. especially when the "particular" law of one's own city was averse to the case being made. 5. 12 I know that there is nothing better for him to do than to seek pleasure and well-being during his life. The qualities of the natural law 1. The same is to happen on the day when God. applies to the entire human race b. it cannot cease to exist NATURAL MORAL LAW Compiled by Arniel M. will judge people's secret actions in the person of Jesus Christ. . It could be rhetorically advantageous to appeal to such a law. Those actions which conform to its tendencies. he too has a law laid down for him. when they condemn or approve their actions. When God willed to give existence to creatures. Reading . act. which is the eternal law. It is immutable (Absolute) in itself and also extrinsically. 7. Thomas Aquinas and the Natural law 1. Paul and the Natural law (Romans 12:13-16) 1. 4. This ordination is of a character in harmony with his free intelligent nature. Every man is bound to live conformably to his own rational nature. Those at variance with our nature are wrong and immoral. although man is not able to embrace the work of God from the beginning to the end. who do not have law. It is universal a. speaking within them also shows it. as he pleases. or abstain from action. When the non-Jews.29 Natural law and Aristotle 1. and are thereby constituted right and morally good. The eternal law is God's wisdom. they are giving themselves a law. Sowing that the commandments of the Law are engraved in their minds. Unlike the things of the mere material world he can vary his action. Yet he is not a lawless being in an ordered universe. The natural law is "nothing else than the rational creature's participation in the eternal law " 3. In the very constitution of his nature. 2. according to my gospel. 3. but he also set eternity in their hearts. man is master of his conduct. not that there actually was such a law. St. Iway. Taught that all human or positive laws were to be judged by their conformity to the natural law. 6. Their conscience. there is a "common" law that is according to nature 2.
Certain knowable truths revealed by God through creation 2. the wicked. 16 I have also seen under the sun. in short. both come from dust and return to dust. The natural moral law. n. Certain moral precepts that are genuine moral absolutes without even having the need to believe in God or appeal to Holy Scripture to know 5. his wise and loving plan for human existence. 17 And I said to myself. is given to all human beings in order to help them to make true judgments about what they are to do and in the light of this truth to make good moral choices. not on tablets of stone. 6. and a judgment for every deed. Dignitatis humanae. Yet God has ordained that men fear him. instead of justice. 14).e. An absolute is an objectively true moral principle that is unchanging and crosscultural. 3. Furthermore Catholic teaches that the new "law of love" proclaimed in the gospels "fulfills" and "perfects" the natural moral law a. by making the persons to whom the new law of love is given new creatures who share in the divine nature just as Christ. 14 I know that everything God does remains forever. their brother. 5. Certain moral laws or norms that are true and can be discerned by all 3. nothing to take from it.27). for it is a law rooted in the nature of human beings (cf. 6. and in the place of the just. The Catholic theological tradition holds that the moral precepts of the Mosaic law are precepts of the natural moral law... how God wants to test them and let them see that they themselves are animals. It is true whether or not anyone believes it to be true. 2. God recovers what has gone. The natural moral law is given. In “Veritatis splendor” John Paul II rightly says: "The moral law has its origin in God and always finds its source in him: at the same time. for that is his lot. Moral norms that come from God 4. 15 What has happened comes again. Both go to the same place. Paul. God and His moral law is available to all men and women apart from the special revelation in the Bible. which derives from divine wisdom. These are laws that we discover morality — we do not invent it. These basic principles of moral obligation are absolutes that are knowable (at least in principle) by all people everywhere without the aid of Scripture. man has no superiority over animals for all pass away like wind.  which is engraved. 7. Catholic teaching on natural moral law 1. there is nothing to add. drink and find satisfaction in his work is a gift from God. i.e. The natural moral law is the uniquely human way of "participating" in God's divine and eternal law. but on tablets of flesh. what is now has already been. 19 For the destiny of man and animal is identical: death for one as for the other. on creation. 21 Who knows if the spirit of man rises upward and if the spirit of the beast descends earthward? 22 I understood that the best man can do is to be happy in what he does.30 13 To eat. 4. by virtue of natural reason. For who will take him to see the beyond? Becoming a Christian Moral Agent: NATURAL MORAL LAW 1. it is a properly human law" (n. i. wickedness. to those bodily beings who have been made in the "image and likeness of God" (Gn 1. "God will judge the just and the wicked for there is a time for everything. 40). shares in their .  to every human being. 8." 18 I also thought about men. 20 Both have the same spirit. To St. in the human heart.
but a bribe corrupts his heart. for dejection resides in the womb of fools. 4 The heart of the wise man is in the house of mourning. 9. is inwardly disposed to act with the confidence. Reading . CHRISTIAN COMMANDMENTS Compiled by Arniel M.Ecclesiastes 7:1-10 1 An honorable name is better than perfumed oil. by reason of their living faith. Pope John Paul II makes it clear that the primordial moral requirement of natural law is the twofold law of love of God and love of neighbor. for to this end all come. The Beatitudes. These are the modes characterizing the life of persons who. They are internal dispositions. inclining the Christian to do what is pleasing to the Father and what contributes to . These modes of Christian response specify ways of acting that mark a person whose will. Better the day of death than the day of birth. 2 Better to go to a house of mourning than to a house of feasting. are called "blessed" by the Lord. 9 Don't be easily dejected. 10. The first three of the commandments of the Decalogue call "us to acknowledge God as the one Lord of all and to worship him alone for his infinite holiness" 5. Iway. 8 Better to reach the end than to begin.D. And that the precepts of the second tablet of the Decalogue are based on the truth that we are to love our neighbor as ourselves. that integral human fulfillment is indeed realizable in and through union with Jesus. and eternal life 3. Becoming a Christian Moral Agent: CHRISTIAN COMMANDMENTS 1. while the heart of the fool is in the house of feasting. and let the living take this to heart: 3 Sorrow is better than laughter. by enabling. the blessings given by our Lord to his faithful disciples. 6 Like the crackling of thorns under a pot is the fool's laugh. enlivened by the love of God poured into his heart.31 human nature b. 7 Oppression makes a wise man mad. Each Christian therefore is called to carry out a personal vocation as a member of Jesus' people based on the laws of love and the beatitudes 7. The Beatitudes are "modes of Christian response" specifying the requirements of the new law of love. Better patience than a haughty spirit. 8. 5 Better to heed the rebuke of a wise man than to listen to a fool's song. 10 Do not ask why former times were better than the present. 4. and born of Christian hope. It is not wisdom that prompts such a question. There is an essential link between obedience to the Ten Commandments and the natural law 2. are rooted in the new command that Jesus gives us to love others even as he loves us. Summary: the natural moral law is given to all human persons on creation so that they can come to a knowledge of moral truth and in the light of this truth make true moral judgments and good moral choices so that they can be morally good persons. Ph. The Catholic tradition has always recognized the ten commandments as requirements of natural law. empowering those to whom it is given not only to know but also to do both what the natural law requires and what the new law of love makes known and possible. for a sad face brings healing to the soul. 6.
Therefore let us stop passing judgment on one another . nor his ass. The Ten Commandments 1. "Do not plot harm against your neighbor.32 the redemptive work of Jesus. "Keep on loving each other as brothers." This is the first and greatest commandment. 10th Commandment Two commandments of Love "'Teacher. to keep it holy. that you may be sons of your Father in heaven. "Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain. "Accept him whose faith is weak. which is the greatest commandment in the Law?' Jesus replied: 1. nor any thing that is thy neighbour's. "Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. without passing judgment on disputable matters . thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife. 5th Commandment 6. Each of us will give an account of himself to God.-Matthew 22:36-40 Other notable commandments a. "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house. 2nd Commandment 3. 12-13.." -Prov 3:29-30 e. or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above.' But I tell you: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you. nor his manservant." . 22 d.Romans 14:1. "Thou shalt not commit adultery." -Exodus 20:8." -Psalm 4:4 ." All the Law and the Prophets hang on these two commandments. or that is in the water under the earth." -Mt 7:12 b. 'Love your neighbor and hate your enemy.. for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. do to others what you would have them do to you. 2." -Hebrews 13:1-3 f. Who are you to judge someone else servant? To his own master he stands or falls . who lives trustfully near you. nor his maidservant. You have heard that it was said." -Exodus 20:14. 4th Commandment 5. "In your anger do not sin." -Exodus 20:15.. "Thou shalt have no other gods before me. "Thou shalt not kill. 9th Commandment 10. 6th Commandment 7. "Remember the sabbath day." -Exodus 20:13. 7th Commandment 8. And the second is like it: "Love your neighbor as yourself. "Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." -Exodus 20:3 1st Commandment 2. Whatever you believe about these things keep between yourself and God.. Do not accuse a man for no reason." -Exodus 20:12." -Exodus 20:4.'" . '"Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind." -Exodus 20:7. "Thou shalt not steal. "Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image. and those who are mistreated as if you yourselves were suffering.." -Matthew 5:43-45 c. Do not forget to entertain strangers. nor his ox. 8th Commandment 9. when you are on your beds. "So in everything. 4." -Exodus 20:16. search your hearts and be silent." -Exodus 20:17.when he has done you no harm. Remember those in prison as if you were their fellow prisoners. or that is in the earth beneath.. 3rd Commandment 4. for by so doing some people has entertained angels without knowing it.
16 So famished was he that he longed to fill his stomach even with the food given to the pigs. His father was so deeply moved with compassion that he ran out to meet him.. I'll give it tomorrow'." -1 Timothy 5:1-2 j. I have sinned against Heaven and before you." Hebrews 13:5 i.' With that thought in mind he set off for his father's house." -Proverbs 20:22 SIN AND CONVERSION Compiled by Arniel M. Treat younger men as brothers. he said: 'How many of my father's hired workers have food to spare. he was hard pressed when a severe famine broke out in that land. but no one offered him anything. Do not say to your neighbor. but exhort him as if he were your father. 14 Having spent everything. 13 Some days later. and he will deliver you." -1 Timothy 5:8 k. "Do not say. "If anyone does not provide for his relatives. "Do not rebuke an older man harshly. Ph. he heard the sound of music and dancing. "There was a man with two sons. We shall celebrate and have a feast.D. and especially for his immediate family. Put a ring on his finger and sandals on his feet. I have sinned against God and before you.32 11 Jesus continued.' So the father divided his property between them. with absolute purity.. older women as mothers. 21The son said: 'Father. the younger son gathered all his belongings and started off for a distant land where he squandered his wealth in loose living. 20 He was still a long way off when his father caught sight of him. Iway. . and here I am starving to death! 18 I will get up and go back to my father and say to him: Father. 26 He called one of the servants and asked what it was all about.when you now have it with you. 'Come back later. 12 The younger said to his father: 'Give me my share of the estate. when it is in your power to act. "Keep your lives free from the love of money and be content with what you have. 'I'll pay you back for this wrong!' Wait for the LORD. 24 for this son of mine was dead and has come back to life. and younger women as sisters.' And the celebration began. I no longer deserve to be called your son. 19 I no longer deserve to be called your son. "Do not withhold good from those who deserve it." -Proverbs 3:27-28 h. the elder son had been working in the fields. threw his arms around his neck and kissed him. Treat me then as one of your hired servants.33 g. 15 So he hired himself out to a well-to-do citizen of that place and was sent to work on a pig farm. He was lost and is found. 17 Finally coming to his senses. 25 Meanwhile. he has denied the faith and is worse than an unbeliever. 23 Take the fattened calf and kill it. Reading – Luke 15: 11 . As he returned and was near the house.' 22 But the father turned to his servants: 'Quick! Bring out the finest robe and put it on him.
Chastity . lovely and noble. patience. 30 Then when this son of yours returns after squandering your property with loose women. Yet you have never given me even a young goat to celebrate with my friends. and consists of chastity. Never have I disobeyed your orders. and everything I have is yours.' 28 The elder son became angry and refused to go in. Embracing of moral wholesomeness and achieving purity of thought-through education and betterment. These four initial virtues were seen as the main attributes for a person to have 5. is opposed to the seven deadly sins. kindness. and to all of humanity. just. knowledge. pure. restraint or temperance. Abstaining from sexual conduct according to one's state in life 2. SEVEN HEAVENLY VIRTUES 1. and love or charity. In Catholic catechism. and courage or fortitude. and the 3 theological virtues of faith.'" Becoming a Christian Moral Agent: SIN AND CONVERSION (see slides) Reading – Philippians 4: 4 . with each one having its counterpart. charity. An alternative list. these were adopted by the Church Fathers 4. Becoming a Christian Moral Agent: CHRISTIAN VIRTUES 1. honesty. Practicing these virtues is considered to protect one against temptation from the seven deadly sins. I have slaved for you all these years. And for that we had to rejoice and be glad. what you heard from me or saw me doing. holy. one's friends. and the God of peace will be with you. 32 But this brother of yours was dead. will keep your hearts and minds in Christ Jesus. The practice of courtly love and romantic friendship 3. He was lost and is found. hope. what I passed on to you.34 27 The servant answered: 'Your brother has come home safe and sound. the seven virtues refer to one of two lists of virtues 2. brothers and sisters. 3. 4 cardinal virtues of prudence. His father came out and pleaded with him. To be honest with oneself. 8 Finally. 9 Put into practice what you have learned from me. fill your minds with whatever is truthful. and has come back to life. you are always with me. 6. temperance. The Lord is near: 6 do not be anxious about anything.' 31 The father said: 'My son. you kill the fattened calf for him. In everything resort to prayer and supplication together with thanksgiving and bring your requests before God. and humility. which surpasses all understanding. . wisdom (Lust) 1. 5. Cleanliness through cultivated good health and hygiene. diligence. Be mindful of whatever deserves praise and admiration.9 4 Rejoice in the Lord always. one's family. and maintained by refraining from intoxicants 4. justice. I say it again: rejoice 5 and may everyone experience your gentle and understanding heart.Purity. the seven heavenly virtues. 29 The indignant son said: 'Look. 7 Then the peace of God. and your father is so happy about it that he has ordered this celebration and killed the fattened calf.
4. rather than engendering suffering. benevolence. Charity. Patience . hostility and antagonism.Self-Control. 4. temperance. integrity (Envy) 1. honour. sufferance (Wrath) 1. Prudence to judge between actions with regard to appropriate actions at a given time. 5. Constant mindfulness of others and one's surroundings. reverence. 3. Charity . modesty. To inspire kindness in others. Monitoring one's own activities to guard against laziness. because it is said to both glorify and reflect the nature of God. 5. Kindness . fortitude. ahimsa. Humility -Bravery. and the capability of not giving up. ethics. 6. 2. Budgeting one's time. 2. rectitude (Sloth) 1. A zealous and careful nature in one's actions and work. mercy. loyalty. The ability to forgive. self-sacrifice. Practicing self-control. Having positive outlooks and cheerful demeanor. Empathy and trust without prejudice or resentment. Proper moderation between self-interest. 2. Diligence . justice. 4. 4.Persistence. To practice moderation of meat consumption and consistent life ethic.is the greatest of the three theological virtues. moderation. 5. especially when no one else is watching (integrity). such love can be self-sacrificial.Peace. In its most extreme form. to show mercy to sinners. is held to be the ultimate perfection of the human spirit. charity -. and with it no one can be lost. compassion and friendship for its own sake. Upholding one's convictions at all times. effort. Love. sacrifice (Greed) 1. The ability to refrain from being distracted and influenced by hostility. compassion. Forbearance and endurance through moderation. Not killing or being violent in any way to any life form or sentient being. 6. generosity. abstention. 2. abstention (Gluttony) Restraint. 3. versus public-interest. steadfastness in belief. charity. 5. Generosity. zero-sum and deferred gratification. 3. 3. 3. In Christian theology. regardless of what emotions it stirs up. in the sense of an unlimited loving kindness towards all others. Temperance . as opposed to resorting to violence.35 6. 4. 5. Unconditional love and voluntary kindness without bias or spite. 4. The love that is "caritas" is distinguished by its origin – being divinely infused into the soul – and by its residing in the will rather than emotions. and against the rights and needs of others. This love is necessary for salvation.Will. 7. 5. altruism (Pride) . justice. 2. 7. Resolving conflicts and injustice peacefully. 1. 2. 6. 3.or love (agäpé) -.Satisfaction. The term should not be confused with the more restricted modern use of the word charity to mean benevolent giving. Decisive work ethic. Creating a sense of peaceful stability and community. temptation or corruption.
Moreover. It’s a spirit of self-examination. by which we trust. but had no love. under a supernatural movement of the will. It differs from hope inasmuch as it regards God not as our good precisely (nobis bonum). faith and hope are compatible with grievous sin. not on the motive of intrinsic evidence. in virtue of which. 7. 4. selflessness. charity is the most excellent. I would only be sounding brass or a clanging cymbal. with an unshaken confidence grounded on the Divine assistance. by which God. or intimidation. The virtue. knowing secret things with all kinds of knowledge. but as such they are only imperfect virtues. 6. its ultimate end. it assents firmly to the supernatural truths of Revelation. while charity excludes all mortal sin. is affected by charity. Hope 1. involving as they do a certain imperfection. Refraining from despair and the ability to confront fear and uncertainty. Modest behavior. 2 If I had prophecy. his will also must tend to that end. 6. by which the intellect is perfected by a supernatural light. and even gave up my own body. to attain life everlasting. and our neighbor loved on account of God. as a good possible of attainment. 3. will cease with this life. it would be of no value to me. Being faithful to promises. But the will must not only tend to God. 3. but only to receive praise and not through love. Faith and hope. I would be nothing. a hermeneutic of suspicion toward yourself and charity toward people you disagree with. obscurity of light and absence of possession. Giving credit where credit is due. and had faith great enough to remove mountains. That theological virtue. 2. namely. This spiritual union or conformity. Humility is not thinking less of yourself. and the giving of respect. the sovereign Good. it is only when informed and vivified by charity that their acts are meritorious of eternal life Love is the greatest 1 Cor 13: 1. 8.36 1. but had no love. 2. 4. not unfairly glorifying one's own self. but as good in Himself (in se bonum). It differs from faith. 2. 8. THE THEOLOGICAL VIRTUES Faith 1. 5. but on the sole ground of the infallible authority of God revealing. no matter how big or small they may be.13 1 If I could speak all the human and angelic tongues. But not only man's intellect must be perfected with regard to his supernatural end. by which the will is so perfected. It is commonly defined as a divinely infused virtue. 5. Charity 1. our ultimate end is loved by reason of His own intrinsic goodness or amiability. 3 If I gave everything I had to the poor. tedious or unglamorous and to graciously accept the sacrifices involved. Faith is an infused virtue. by which the soul is united to God. The courage of the heart necessary to undertake tasks which are difficult. 7. . it must also be united to Him by certain conformity. is the theological virtue of hope. Reverence for those who have wisdom and those who selflessly teach in love. Of the three theological virtues. but charity involving no essential defect will last forever. 3. as it regards God not under the aspect of truth but of good.
but when I grew up. 12 Likewise. Their hearts break when a friend dies. They smile when they want to scream.37 4 Love is patient. and reaching out. “But I won’t” the lord protested. They sing when they want to cry. IT IS THAT THEY FORGET THEIR WORTH. love and joy. They’ll drive. The Lord replied “Not only will she be able to think. 8 Love will never end. “Have you seen spec sheet on her?” She has to be completely washable. It is not boastful or arrogant. IF THERE IS ONE FLAW IN WOMEN. Women come in all shapes. They go without so their family can have. They give moral support to their family and friends.” “She is soft” the Lord agreed. tongues be silent and knowledge disappear. have a lap that can hold four children at a time. her loneliness. They love unconditionally. 6 It does not take delight in wrong. “The tear is her way of expressing her joy. They go to the doctor with a frightened friend. They stand up to injustice. They grieve at the loss of a family member yet they are strong when they think there is no strength left.” And she is! Women have strengths that amaze men.” The Angel then noticed something. her sorrow. touched the woman’s cheek. They cry when their children excel and cheer when their friends get awards. . An Angel appeared and said “Why are you spending so much time on this one?” and the Lord answered.” The angel was impressed. You thought of everything! Woman is truly amazing. The Lord said. The heart of a woman is what makes the world keeps turning. They don’t take “no” for an answer when they believe there is a better solution. They are happy when they hear about a birth or a wedding. Wait until tomorrow to finish. fly. have over 200 movable parts. but the greatest of these is love. without envy. 13 Now we have faith. 9 For knowledge grasps something of the truth and prophecy as well. “You are a genius Lord. but rejoices in truth. hope and love. run or email you to show how much they care about you. 7 Love excuses everything. However. They have compassion and ideals. The Angel was astonished at the requirements. “But you have made her so soft. 11 When I was a child I thought and reasoned like a child. They cry when they are happy and laugh when they are nervous. everything imperfect will pass away. but then I will know as I am known. Now we know in part. believes all things. They fight for what they believe in. but they hold happiness. but then it shall be face to face. She already heals herself when she is sick and can work 18 hour days. Prophecies may cease. “but I have also made her tough. kind. “I am close to finishing this creation that is so close to my own heart. endures all things. The one flaw in women BY the time the Lord made a woman. it looks like you have a leak” the Lord corrected. hope and love. I gave up childish ways. her grief and her pride. It is not illmannered nor does it seek its own interest. They know that a hug and a kiss can heal a broken heart. They bear hardships and they carry burdens. They bring joy. sizes and colors. at present we see dimly as in a faulty mirror.” “Will she be able to think?” asked the angel. all replaceable and able to run on diet coke and leftovers. “Oops. she will be able to reason and negotiate. these three.” The Angel moved closer and touched the woman. You have no idea what she can endure or accomplish. 5 Love overcomes anger and forgets offenses. He was into his sixth day of working overtime. walk. “that’s a tear!” “What the tear for?” the angel asked. 10 And when what is perfect comes. “Only two hands? No way! And that’s just on the standard model? That’s too much work for one day. Lord. but not plastic. Women have vital things to say and everything to give. hopes all things.
abortion. Bioethics (Greek bios. but have no power to kill the soul. 31 So do not be afraid: you are worth much more than many sparrows. In the case of many non-Western cultures. is characterized by a naturalistic outlook that leads to a rationalistic. 8. there is a lively discussion on bioethical issues. ranging from debates over. Christian and Muslim faiths have each developed a considerable body of literature on these matters.g. 29 For only a few cents you can buy two sparrows. 2331–2400 Digital Catholic Bible http://www. and philosophy 4. politics. Ph. Theology 204 Lecture Notes Sources: Fr. Addressed a broad swath of human inquiry. life.31 28 Do not be afraid of those who kill the body. biotechnology. in general. It is concerned with the ethical questions that arise in the relationships among life sciences. In Africa. Rather be afraid of him who can destroy both body and soul in hell. The boundaries of life (e. pragmatic approach. 9. 6.38 UNIT III – CHRISTIAN WITNESS TO FAITH IN SPECIFIC ISSUES Compiled by Arniel M. John Hardon's Modern Catholic Dictionary Markwell and Brown 190 JAMC Catholic bioethics: Bioethics for clinicians • 24 July 2001 Catechism of the Catholic Church. Bioethics 1. Many religious communities have their own histories of inquiry into bioethical issues and have developed rules and guidelines on how to deal with these issues from within the viewpoint of their respective faiths 5. the debate on bioethics frequently focuses on its practical relevance in the context of underdevelopment and geopolitical power relations. 30 As for you. The Jewish. 1. Iway. . medicine. and partly also in Latin America.ncbcenter. for example. behavior) was coined in 1927 by Fritz Jahr 3. Purpose and scope.org (The National Catholic Bioethics Center) BIOETHICS Reading – Mat 10: 28 .usccb. law. ethos. euthanasia). In many Asian cultures.D. yet not one sparrow falls to the ground without your Father's consent. Bioethics is the study of the ethical controversies brought about by advances in biology and medicine 2. 7.org www. every hair of your head has been counted. Buddhist bioethics. a strict separation of religion from philosophy does not exist.
2. Surrogacy 3. The allocation of scarce health care resources (e.g. organ donation, health care rationing) 4. The right to turn down medical care for religious or cultural reasons 5. The morality of medical treatments or technological innovations, and the timing of medical treatment of humans (to some) 6. The conduct of biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects 7. The morality of all actions that might help or harm organisms capable of feeling fear and pain, and include within bioethics all such actions of a bear in relation to medicine and biology Fundamental to Catholic bioethics is: 1. A belief in the sanctity of life a. The value of a human life, as a creation of God and a gift in trust, is beyond human evaluation and authority. b. God maintains dominion over it. c. We are stewards, not owners, of our own bodies d. Accountable to God for the life that has been given to us. 2. A metaphysical conception of the person as a composite of body and soul. a. As long as there is a living body, even if mental capacities are reduced or absent, there is still a person present. b. Some principles spouse by secular bioethics do not capture entirely the spiritual dimension of the faith of the individual c. Others may appreciate various kinds of spiritual aid and support at the end of life, be it psychological support or the sacraments Catholic bioethics is concerned with a broad range of issues 1. Sexuality 2. Marriage 3. Reproduction 4. Birth control 5. Sterilization and abortion 6. Reproductive technologies a. Artificial donor b. Insemination c. In-vitro fertilization d. Surrogacy e. Cloning 7. End-of-life issues a. Advance directives b. Palliative (SOOTHING) care and pain control c. Suicide d. Euthanasia e. The refusal or cessation of futile treatments f. Organ donation g. The definition of death
Why is Religion important in bioethics? 1. Patients and their families expect that their religious beliefs and values will be respected whatever the faith of the health care professionals responsible for their care It is important for clinicians who work in such settings to be aware of the policies that flow from such a mission Clinicians should be aware of the religious convictions of their patients and the possibility that some procedures they might suggest could seriously violate the patient’s beliefs and lead to problems of conscience So too, patients should not expect physicians to engage in practices that they consider to be morally unacceptable Catholic teaching on birth control and abortion derives from a view of marital sexuality and responsible parenthood in which the sexual expression of love between the spouses is integrated with the procreative implications of that union By this standard, permissible, contraception and contraceptive sterilization are not
Specific issues: Reproduction 1.
The Catholic tradition rejects “direct” abortion on the grounds that it takes an innocent human life. Any intentional termination of a pregnancy is a direct abortion, a. An “indirect” abortion occurs when a “tubal pregnancy” or a cancerous uterus is removed. In such a case, the death of the fetus would be viewed as the unintended consequence of an action intended to save the mother’s life.
The Catholic position on new reproductive technologies has been generally cautious. a. The use of in-vitro fertilization that does not preserve the integrity of the unitive and procreative aspects of marital sex - The Church asserts the right of the child to be born to parents united in the exclusive commitment that is marriage. b. The same is true of any procedure involving donated gametes or embryos.
Specific issues: Genetic testing 1. To the extent that genetic screening and counseling, as well as prenatal genetic diagnosis, may precipitate deliberation about birth control and abortion, 2. An effort should be made to explore the convictions of the parties involved before genetic tests are carried out. 3. Some Catholic couples may seek prenatal diagnosis solely for the sake of knowing the results and being prepared. 4. Open access to genetic testing and nondirective counseling respect this purpose. Specific issues: Organ donation 1. 2. The Catholic Church has no objection to “cadaveric” organ donation and transplantation; indeed, it views such gifts as a demonstration of Christian love. Some Catholics, however, may have folk beliefs that make them disinclined to
41 donate organs; that is, they may think that a lack of bodily integrity postmortem may preclude the resurrection of the body after death. Church doctrine does not support these beliefs.
3. Proposals to change the criterion of death from whole brain death to persistent vegetative state will meet with much resistance from the Catholic community, which sees the body as an essential aspect of the human person. Catholics also share in the general reluctance to offer payment of any kind for organ donations on the grounds that it runs contrary to the idea of the “gift of life” and treats human remains as a commodity.
Specific issues: Hospitalization for episodes of acute mental illness 1. Although the duty to preserve one’s health extends to all types of illness, in cases of mental illness a clash between the principles of autonomy and of beneficence can become sharply evident. 2. The Catholic position on a person’s right to refuse treatment unless he or she is a potential harm to oneself or others. 3. Within Catholicism, the individual has a duty to promote his or her own health, and thus may be seen as having a moral obligation to seek treatment even if he or she does not meet legal criteria for involuntary commitment and treatment. Specific issues: Research involving human subjects 1. Given the Catholic view that a person does not have the moral right to take serious risks to health, the likelihood of harm will set limits to participation in clinical trials. The deliberate use of deception in psychological or behavioral experiments is also problematic for those who take the view that deception is inherently wrong and cannot be justified by the beneficial results of a study. With respect to genetic research, the generally accepted principles that protect confidentiality, privacy, self-determination, justice and, ultimately, the dignity of the human person are compatible with Catholic health care ethics.
SPECIFIC ISSUES: LIFE SUPPORT
Reading - John 5: 1-9 1 After this there was a feast of the Jews and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 2 Now, by the Sheep Gate in Jerusalem, there is a pool (called Bethzatha in Hebrew) surrounded by five galleries. 3 In these galleries lay a multitude of sick people - blind, lame and paralyzed. 4 All were waiting for the water to move, for at times an angel of the Lord would descend into the pool and stir up the water; and the first person to enter after this movement of the water would be healed of whatever disease that person had.) 5 There was a man who had been sick for thirty-eight years. 6 Jesus saw him, and since he knew how long this man had been lying there, he said to him, "Do you want to be healed?" 7 And the sick man answered, "Sir, I have no one to put me into the pool when the water is disturbed; so while I am still on my way, another steps down before me." 8 Jesus then said to him, "Stand up, take your mat and walk."
Ordinary means of preserving life are all medicines. or which. medical futility. and he took up his mat and walked.. 3. Now that day happened to be the sabbath. b. The monotheistic religions of Judaism. his or her prognosis. Some authorities stressed the aspect of burden.. It is also clear that one cannot think in terms of an A list of ordinary procedures and a B list of extraordinary ones. 6. c. pain or other inconvenience . 2. mean all medicines. The level of pain that patients could endure. would not offer a reasonable hope of benefit 7. a. 8. First. pain or other inconvenience. The issue was primarily the patient’s obligations. many extreme measures to preserve life have become customary. including Augustine and Aquinas. These faiths have always rejected suicide. the stage of the illness and so forth. if used. 5. disfigurement and. depending on the condition of the patient. Islam and Christianity maintain that we have a duty to protect the life given to us by God. in recent medical practice. and only secondarily the physician’s duties. Although the physician has the right and the duty to inform the patient about treatment possibilities and their potential benefits and risks. e.42 9 And at once the man was healed. and the distances they would have to travel to obtain care were relevant. Two points are in order here. others included the notion of medical futility in the calculation. perhaps most significant.. 9. may be ordinary or extraordinary. for example. Use of a procedure should be determined not by whether or not it is routine but by factors such as financial burden to the family and to society.. pain. they were not obligated to reduce their family to poverty in an effort to stay alive. Patients were obligated to use measures within their financial means. Early authorities in the Catholic Church. The use of a ventilator. condemned rational suicide. . which cannot be obtained without excessive expense. it is primarily the patient and his or her family who has the right to determine what is ordinary or extraordinary from an ethical point of view. and operations. Failure to use ordinary measures to preserve life is regarded as morally equivalent to suicide within the Catholic tradition. treatments. A person is obligated to use ordinary measures but has the choice whether to accept extraordinary measures. Life support 1. . d. 4. and operations which offer a reasonable hope of benefit for the patient and which can be obtained and used without excessive expense. Extraordinary means of preserving life . treatments. holding it to be outside the authority of the individual to take his or her own life. It is now necessary to ask which means of preserving life should be medically routine and which should be a matter of choice.
2 Jesus was also invited to the wedding with his disciples. Jesus comments on these commandments in Matthew 5:27-28: "You have heard that it was said. Instead you have kept the best wine until the end. 5. "Do whatever he tells you. the mother of Jesus said to him. 'For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife. 4. Jesus makes reference Genesis in his teachings on marriage in Matthew 19: "Have you not read that he who made them from the beginning made them male and female. Deuteronomy 5:18.43 SEXUAL ETHICS: PREMARITAL AND EXTRAMARITAL Reading – John 2: 1 . "Woman.10 1 Three days later there was a wedding at Cana in Galilee and the mother of Jesus was there.’ It is in cases in which sexual expression is sought outside sacramental marriage. forbidding adultery and coveting a neighbor's wife. your thoughts are not mine! My hour has not yet come. What therefore God has joined together." The Church considers the expression of love between husband and wife to be an elevated form of human activity. 3 When all the wine provided for the celebration had been served and they had run out of wine. 7 Jesus said to the servants "Fill the jars with water. 3. See Exodus 20:14. husband and wife in complete mutual self-giving." the human body and sex must likewise be good. 'You shall not commit adultery. Human life and human sexuality are both inseparable and sacred. joining as it does. 17." 4 Jesus replied. "They have no wine." 11 This miraculous sign was the first. God created human beings in his own image and likeness and that he found everything he created to be "very good. “The sexual activity.' But I say to you that every one who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart. he called the bridegroom 10 to tell him. "Everyone serves the best wine first and when people have drunk enough. "Now draw some out and take it to the steward. 2." 3." Catholic teachings on sexual morality 1. So." 5 However his mother said to the servants. and the two shall become one flesh'? So they are no longer two but one flesh." And they filled them to the brim. 21. In this way he let his Glory appear and his disciples believed in him. 8 Then Jesus said. 6. The Catechism teaches that "the flesh is the hinge of salvation. is ‘noble and worthy. he serves that which is ordinary. through which human life is transmitted. 9 The steward tasted the water that had become wine. and said. without knowing from where it had come. and opening their relationship to new life." 6 Nearby were six stone water jars meant for the ritual washing as practiced by the Jews. Two of the Ten Commandments directly address sexual morality. in which husband and wife are intimately and chastely united with one another. and Jesus performed it at Cana in Galilee. let not man put asunder. for only the servants who had drawn the water knew. 2." So they did. each jar could hold twenty or thirty gallons. Sexuality in the Scriptures 1. .
Because sex is considered chaste only within context of marriage it has come to be called the nuptial act in Catholic passages. Among Catholics. The virtue of chastity comes under the cardinal virtue of temperance. such as when the personality is being formed during childhood and adolescence. 6. 11. Pope John Paul II wrote. 13. This gift is in the mind of the author of the Ephesians when he exhorts married couples to "defer to one another out of reverence for Christ" (Eph 5:21). All baptized are called to chastity. 17. 8.44 or in which the procreative function of sexual expression within marriage is deliberately frustrated. the nuptial act is considered to be the conjoining of two human . 16. 9. It presupposes renewed effort at all stages of life The effort required can be more intense in certain periods. 7. 2. One can never consider it acquired once and for all. At the center of the spirituality of marriage. isolated from its procreative and “unitive” purposes." the model for all chastity. 7. 3. homosexual practices and artificial contraception. Unmarried Catholics express chastity through sexual abstinence. All Christ's faithful are called to lead a chaste life in keeping with their particular states of life. but likewise as a virtue connected with the gifts of the Holy Spirit—above all. 12. 15. Lust is disordered desire for or inordinate enjoyment of sexual pleasure. Besides being considered a grave sin. 4. that the Catholic Church expresses grave moral concern. the gift of respect for what comes from God (donum pietatis). which seeks to permeate the passions and appetites of the senses with reason. It is also a gift from God. The Christian has "put on Christ. a fruit of spiritual effort Chastity includes an apprenticeship in self-mastery which is training in human freedom The alternative is clear: either man governs his passions and finds peace. fornication. pornography. a grace. therefore. 10. 5. Among the sins gravely contrary to chastity are masturbation. 9. 14. The Vocation to Chastity and sexuality 1. 10. there lies chastity not only as a moral virtue (formed by love). 8. Chastity is the successful integration of sexuality within the person and thus the inner unity of man in his bodily and spiritual being Chastity is a moral virtue. Sexual intercourse within marriage is considered chaste when it retains the twofold significance of union and procreation. or he lets himself be dominated by them and becomes unhappy Self-mastery is a long and exacting work. the procurement or assistance in abortion can carry the penalty of excommunication. Sexual pleasure is morally disordered when sought for itself. Catholicism defines chastity as the virtue that moderates the sexual appetite.
9:21 etc. Teenager girls who have sex are 2x more likely to commit suicide than girls who practice abstinence. Transmission is not prevented by condoms. Rev 2:14. Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ? (1 Co 6:13) Mt: 15:19. Acts 15:20. 2004) 5. considered an act of love between two married persons. (ibid) 6.45 beings through sexual intercourse. 2. That's about one every 250 years. Voluntary sexual intercourse other than between a married couple. and God raised the Lord and will also raise us by his power.. for whatever reason. 21:25.000% (that's not a typo). ("Point of View" Dec 10. Col 3:5. Mk 7:21. Masturbation 1. especially where either person or both persons are unmarried.. It offends chastity because it perverts the conjugal act." 3. and the third that of virgins. (Gage Dictionary) The body is meant not for fornication but for the Lord. 18. 29. The second that of widows. 2. theft etc. Gal 5:19. and is considered in this way. 2. That's a rate of 1 STI/yr since North American young people started having sex before marriage. . 3. There are three forms of the virtue of chastity: 1. 4. The removal of real or simulated sexual acts from the intimacy of the partners. 1 Thes 4:3. The Church has firmly maintained that masturbation is an intrinsically and gravely disordered action. In the last 40 years the number of common STI's has skyrocketed to over 60. The first is that of spouses. 3. Eph 5:3. in order to display them deliberately to third parties. 1 Cor 6:13. 2. an increase of 25. Fornication: 1. outside of marriage is essentially contrary to its purpose. Girls who have abortions are 6x more likely to commit suicide than those who don't. 25% of girls 15-25 years old have venereal warts (HPV)." Pornography 1. In the first 5000 years of civilization less than 20 STI's became common. talks about this concern It puts "sex before marriage" (fornication) right up there with the worst of sins of humanity such as murder. and the Lord for the Body. The deliberate stimulation of the genital organs in order to derive sexual pleasure. 4. Teenage boys who have sex are 7x more likely to commit suicide than boys who are sexually abstinent. the intimate giving of spouses to each other. 2. "The deliberate use of the sexual faculty. a gift from God. PREMARITAL SEX Ugly statistics: from the National Post 1. 20-21. 3.
Rape deeply wounds the respect. Graver still is the rape of children committed by parents (incest) or those responsible for the education of the children entrusted to them. 3 Some Pharisees approached him. They wanted to test him and asked. freedom. too. the public). or social pressure. Also called to fulfill God's will in their lives and are called to chastity 6. It causes grave damage that can mark the victim for life. 3. and physical and moral integrity to which every person has a right. compassion. 2. on the other side of the Jordan River. but also men. the church teachers that they must be accepted with respect. Prostitution is a social scourge. It usually involves women. It is always an intrinsically evil act.).12 1 When Jesus had finished this teaching. Injures the dignity of the person who engages in it. and sensitivity. It immerses all who are involved in the illusion of a fantasy world. 2 A great crowd was with him and there. 4. Prostitution 1. Chastity and homosexuality 1. 4. It does grave injury to the dignity of its participants (actors. Rape 1. vendors. Reading – Mt 19: 1 . since each one becomes an object of base pleasure and illicit profit for others. by prayer and sacramental grace. Is the forcible violation of the sexual intimacy of another person It does injury to justice and charity. reducing the person to an instrument of sexual pleasure The one who pays sins gravely against himself: he violates the chastity to which his Baptism pledged him and defiles his body. Scriptures describes it as an act of grave depravity and contrary to the natural law. the imputability of the offense can be attenuated by destitution. children. they can and should gradually and resolutely approach Christian perfection. 4. 3. 5. he left Galilee and arrived at the border of Judea. and adolescents (The latter two cases involve the added sin of scandal. 2. blackmail. "Is a man allowed to divorce his wife for any reason he wants?" . While it is always gravely sinful to engage in prostitution. 2. However. EXTRAMARITAL SEX: Offenses against the Dignity of Marriage The sexual act must take place exclusively within marriage. Homosexuality refers to relations between men or between women who experience an exclusive or predominant sexual attraction toward persons of the same sex. It does not proceed from a genuine affective and sexual complementarity. By the virtues of self-mastery that teach them inner freedom. 4.46 3. he healed their sick. Outside of marriage it always constitutes a grave sin and excludes one from sacramental communion. 3. at times by the support of disinterested friendship.
to which the spouses freely consented. Does injury to covenant of marriage c. 4." 11 Jesus said to them." ADULTERY 1. Transgresses the rights of the other spouse d. 5. Divorce does injury to the covenant of salvation. but only those who have received this gift. 7. but it was not so in the beginning. accept it." 7 They asked him." 10 The disciples said. 3. and marries another. 4. even if it is recognized by civil law. they see it as an image of the sin of idolatry. Divorce 1.47 4 Jesus replied. Compromises the good of human generation and the welfare of children who need their parents' stable union. The Lord Jesus insisted on the original intention of the Creator who willed that marriage be indissoluble. and be joined to his wife. "If that is the condition of a married man. 2. adds to the gravity of the . to live with each other till death. 6. 2. unless it be for infidelity. Undermines the institution of marriage by breaking the contract e. have sexual relations—even transient ones—they commit adultery. When two partners. He abrogates the accommodations that had slipped into the old Law. "Then. 5 and he said: Man has now to leave father and mother. Christ condemns even adultery of mere desire. commits adultery. 5. Contracting a new union. why did Moses command us to write a bill of dismissal in order to divorce?" 8 Jesus replied. The prophets denounce the gravity of adultery. Fails in his/her commitment. let no one separate what God has joined.175 Divorce is a grave offense against the natural law. and the two shall become one body? 6 So they are no longer two but one body. so he allowed you to divorce your wives. of which sacramental marriage is the sign. 3. The sixth commandment and the New Testament forbid adultery absolutely. of whom at least one is married to another party. Let the one who can accept it. Adultery refers to marital infidelity. "Have you not read that in the beginning the Creator made them male and female. But there are some who have given up the possibility of marriage for the sake of the kingdom of heaven. S/he who commits adultery a. Adultery is an injustice. 12 Some are born incapable of marriage. Some have been made that way by others. 9 Therefore I say to you: whoever divorces his wife. it is better not to marry. b. It claims to break the contract. "Not everybody can accept what you have just said. "Moses knew your stubborn heart.
to children traumatized by the separation of their parents and often torn between them. and homosexual practices. . should acknowledge and accept his sexual identity. . .48 rupture: the remarried spouse is then in a situation of public and permanent adultery 6. rejection of marriage and inability to make long-term commitments. . Chastity means the integration of sexuality within the person. Polygamy . Concubinage. St. ." 4. Trial marriage where there is an intention of getting married later . Free union. Other offenses against the dignity of marriage 1. If a husband. man and woman. Christ is the model of chastity. Human love does not tolerate "trial marriages. IN BRIEF 1. they destroy the very idea of the family. 3. By creating the human being man and woman. and because of its contagious effect which makes it truly a plague on society. 4. Incest corrupts family relationships and marks a regression toward animality. 7. In the name of the Lord Jesus . "Love is the fundamental and innate vocation of every human being" (FC 11). This disorder brings grave harm to the deserted spouse. . Every baptized person is called to lead a chaste life. fornication. . because she has drawn another's husband to herself. for a man is living with his father's wife. approaches another woman. pornography. each according to his particular state of life. 2.Carnal union is morally legitimate only when a definitive community of life between a man and woman has been established. . 3. he is an adulterer because he makes that woman commit adultery. . All these situations offend against the dignity of marriage. a. separated from his wife. 5. they weaken the sense of fidelity. 6. It includes an apprenticeship in self-mastery. and the woman who lives with him is an adulteress." It demands a total and definitive gift of persons to one another. Incest designates intimate relations between relatives or in-laws within a degree that prohibits marriage between them. you are to deliver this man to Satan for the destruction of the flesh. because it is contrary to the equal personal dignity of men and women who in matrimony give themselves with a love that is total and therefore unique and exclusive 2. Divorce is immoral also because it introduces disorder into the family and into society. 8. Paul stigmatizes this especially grave offense: "It is actually reported that there is immorality among you . Among the sins gravely contrary to chastity are masturbation.negates the plan of God from the beginning. God gives personal dignity equally to the one and the other. They are contrary to the moral law. 5. . Each of them. a man and a woman refuse to give juridical and public form to a liaison involving sexual intimacy. .
The covenant which spouses have freely entered into entails faithful love. Fecundity is a good. It imposes on them the obligation to keep their marriage indissoluble. "He has gone to the house of a sinner as a guest. and if I have cheated anyone. I will pay him back four times as much. 7 All the people who saw it began to grumble and said.49 6. Iway.htm http://www. but he was a short man and could not see because of the crowd. Craig. Political Ethics.com/ http://www.org/wiki/Business_ethics http://en. Lord. 2 a man named Zaccheus was there. John Hardon's Modern Catholic Dictionary Hans Jonas: The Imperative of Responsibility: In Search of Ethics for the Technological Age (1979) Mayberry. Theology 204 Lecture Notes Sources: B.nwcitizen." 6 So Zaccheus hurried down and received him joyfully. come down quickly for I must stay at your house today. 1999 Business Ethics by Roa. 3 He wanted to see what Jesus was like.com/entry/political-ethics Jan 16. 2007 http://en.wikipedia. .learnwell. for he is also a true son of Abraham. spouses participate in God's fatherhood. "The half of my goods.T. Adultery. he looked up and said to him. "Salvation has come to this house today.com/entry/political-ethics http://www. From there he would be able to see Jesus who had to pass that way." 8 But Zaccheus spoke to Jesus.org/politicalethics. polygamy. 8. "Zaccheus. divorce. He was a tax collector and a wealthy man.wisegeek. Adeney: Global Ethics in New Dictionary of Christian Ethics and Pastoral Theology 1995 Leicester Fr. http://www. I give to the poor. UNIT VI – BUILDING A JUST SOCIETY Compiled by Arniel M. a gift and an end of marriage.nwcitizen. 4 So he ran ahead and climbed up a sycamore tree. 5 When Jesus came to the place.scu.wikipedia. By giving life.htm BUSINESS ETHICS Reading . 7. and free union are grave offenses against the dignity of marriage. 2010 Catechism of the Catholic Church (2426 – 2432) Digital Catholic Bible Business Ethics by Shaw." 9 Looking at him Jesus said.html http://www. Ph.D.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/environmental_ethics/lesson3.Luke 19: 1-10 1 When Jesus entered Jericho and was going through the city.org/wiki/Good_citizenship http://business-ethics.com/what-are-political-ethics.
It applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and business organizations as a whole. The bottom line is that somewhere somehow peoples rights are being violated. . Within this structure of interaction of people a lot of questionable practices occur – misrepresentation. their values disrespected and the interests of the common good disregarded. The Nature of Business Business is a part and parcel of the human society which does complex activities like production. insider trading can be best solved using moral reasoning.50 10 The Son of Man has come to seek and to save the lost. corporations have redefined their core values in the light of business ethical considerations (e. manufacturing. The resolution of some ethical issues like sexual harassment. false advertising. evaluation. Historically.g. BP's "beyond petroleum" environmental tilt). marketing. moral rules and ethical principles as they apply to people and institutions in business It is the study. graft. customers. workers.g. questionable pricing policies. The Importance of Ethics in Business The study of business ethics paves way for common ground in our understanding of the fundamental idea of what is good and what is bad in our human conduct while doing business. Today most major corporations lay emphasis on commitment to promoting non-economic social values under a variety of headings e. employees and competitors. unfair competitions. policies. it was developed as a means to absolve one's conscience of any duty to practice true ethical behavior. ethics codes. analysis and questioning of ethical standards. selling and the like and whose main interest is to gain profit. advertising. lying. and local price cutting among others. misrepresentation. social responsibility charters and in some cases." Business Ethics It is the study of what is right and what is wrong human behavior and conduct in business It is the study of the perception of people about morality. bribery. It allows business leaders and managers to confront issues and problems affecting the business enterprise using not just quantitative techniques but also by moral reasoning. moral norms. moral norms and ethical theories that managers and decision makers use in resolving moral issues and ethical dilemmas affecting business It is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. misbranding. It will prepare and equip managers for a more effective way of managing people and organizations. adulteration. People involve in business deals with suppliers. or consider the ethical implications of one's decisions.
Ethics has a place in Business. 4. 5. Business operates within the structure of belief and value system of human society thus any activity devoid of morality will bring more harm than good to people in particular and the society in General. People are entitled to their values and beliefs but in their exercise of these value systems. thus. There are more universal moral principle that people share and agree upon regardless of religious orientations. Theft. Moral Reasoning in Business The essence of studying business ethics is to provide managers and decision makers with a framework for the resolution of moral issues and problems affecting business activities and the organization. rules/policies Ethical principles Codes of conduct Moral norms Ethical issues And problems REALITY CHECK Moral Judgment Example Graft. ethics dictates the correct conduct to follow. The first task of managers is to prevent moral problems and help in the resolution when it arises. No.51 Ethics provides us with a clear distinction between morality and legality. they must consider the values and religious orientations of others. written in the hearts of men that should govern our human conduct where positive laws maybe absent. The Truths of Ethics in Business 1. cost Moral or Immoral Legal or Illegal . of people affected. The personal rights of people are limited by the rights of others. In the absence of laws. Business activities had a decisive impact on the social scene. Profit maximization is a good end in business but the means of doing business must also conform to what is right and noble in man. Framework for moral reasoning Moral Norm Moral Standard Company Policy Ethical Principles Com. business must consider its moral and social obligations to the stakeholders. 2. cultures and value system. Good business ethics promotes healthy competition and not destroy competitors 6. The cultural context of Ethics is limited to some areas only. Bribery Gravity of offense Frequency of offense Harm done. There are unwritten laws. Moral reasoning is a process in which ethical issues and problems are benchmarked against a moral standard so that a moral judgment is made possible. In short the action of business people had an impact and gravity on others. sexual Harassment. 3.
Political ethics deals with acting ethically in politics 3. The Positive side of Profit motive: 1. Simon? Who pay taxes or tributes to the kings of the earth: their sons or the other people?" 26 Peter replied. fair treatment of employees and the respect for environment. it deprives people to make reflections as they are more focused on the practical side of money making 4. "The others. it promotes unhealthy rivalry among competitors 2. It generates potential capital for the business resulting in more jobs. take it and let it pay for you and for me." Political Ethics 1. skills they apply and the returns for the capital they invested in organizing the business. .Mt 17: 24-27 24 When they returned to Capernaum. throw in a hook and open the mouth of the first fish you catch. it promotes ingenuity and cleverness in running a business. it makes people focus only on money 3.52 The Morality of Profit-motive There are plenty of reasons why people go into business but the most dominant and the most common is to make profit. However recent developments argue that besides profit the business people must also look into other aspects of business such as customer satisfaction. are tax-free. corruption by political office holders. 27 But so as not to offend this people. Like all other kinds of ethics. "What do you think. "The sons. There are obstacles to overcome to be successful 3." Peter then entered the house. c. "Does your master pay the temple tax?" 25 He answered. Political ethics are a set of codes of behavior pertaining to political activities 2. You will find a coin in it. goods and services The Negative side of Profit Motive: 1. it makes people productive 4. b. a. it has to do with good action and its unique connection to politics 4. Profit is the anticipated reward or a compensation for the efforts they spend. "Certainly. It motivates people to do something meaningful 2. but immediately Jesus asked him. go to the sea. the Temple tax collectors came to Peter and asked him. it deals with an area unique to politics such as. violence between nations. then." And Jesus told him. lying by political office holders. it promotes self-interest rather than the common good POLITICAL ETHICS Reading .
Ethical governing means not practicing political corruption. Average citizens (like you and me). violence). b. Ethical Governing Government office holders are very important players in politics because they have unique decision-making powers. Political Corruption. the political leader governing a political community. but is a realm that allows us the opportunity to do good for others. but also that politics is something good. Political ethics then deals also with how to act in a political realm that has evil in it. and government as major stakeholders. The chart shows the business stakeholder model including shareholders. Handling Other Funding Questions 3. employees. What we want from them is ethical governing. Political corruption means a political actor puts himself above good laws The Political Stakeholder model 1. . f. It is always interesting to see the similarities between business ethics and political ethics.g. Handling Limited Resources 2. environment. 7.. communities. When any business makes a decision that is going to impact one or more of these stakeholders. political debate on issues often disagreed by people. 2. the political candidate campaigning for office. customers. 3. corruption. Some of what exists in politics is evil (e. collective decision on the use of limited resources. 5. Making positive changes to help others in the community. And ethical governing may be defined as acting in the interest of one's political community 1.53 d. 6. suppliers. it is concerned with the action of three main kinds of political actors: a. e. it becomes an ethical issue. and c. lying.
In fact. This creates the business equivalent of shareholders and politicians face a lot of pressure to support one stakeholder. 15. politicians have to monitor special interest groups who can make or break political futures. often at the expense of other political stakeholders. 18. 10. as politicians have to behave ethically and figure out how to balance all stakeholders. 6. Politicians face their own powerful stakeholder in the form of their political party. 19. citizens outside their district. Politicians face a similar stakeholder model. There is such a direct link between customers and the financial health of a company that business has to watch its patrons very carefully to make sure decisions will not negatively impact the customer. Often a decision is made that benefits the shareholders at the expense of other stakeholders. 16. 9. It is the responsibility of business to balance the needs of each of those stakeholders and make sure that decisions do not unnecessarily harm one stakeholder while benefiting another. 14. Like businesses monitoring customers. business interests and other governments 7. citizens in their districts (who may or may not vote). The party is responsible for that politician's committee assignments. . 8. 20.54 4. 21. This creates one of the foundational pieces required for democracies to work. who can inflict serious harm on a company if they choose to boycott that business's product. legislative support. Each of these stakeholders has a wide variety of needs and an ethical politician will learn to balance these needs and not make decisions that unduly impact one stakeholder over another. This situation creates most of the ethical issues in business. not just their political party and special interest groups. In business. special interest groups. The second most powerful stakeholder for business is customers. One of the foundations for successful market economies is that businesses must behave ethically. Each politician has to deal with his/her political party as well as voters. 5. and 'get out the vote' efforts. 22. One big issue in business is the power of the shareholders (or owners) of the company. 12. who are often subject to harmful decisions in order to protect “more important” stakeholders. Politicians face the same dynamic. campaign fundraising. 13. 17. but in that instance political parties and special interest groups hold more sway in decision making than other stakeholders. many business classes teach that the primary responsibility of business is to make a profit for their shareholders/owners 11. The equivalent of this relationship for a politician is the special interest groups who provide the bulk of campaign financing. an increasingly difficult challenge. the dynamic that shareholders and customers have so much power makes it difficult for other stakeholders.
The good citizen is characterized as one who. middle of the night debates and votes 6. Politicians must act in a transparent manner as well. and petitioning. protests in a rally against a government action one opposes. participatory skills (such as deliberating civilly. 2. proves himself one worthy of the love and protection of the government rather than one possessing certain political obligations and rights. A good citizen is one who properly fulfills his role as a citizen.000 page bills before anyone can read them. simply because it is easy to assume they are hiding things. Transparency and Communication 1. If our politicians are not transparent. pays taxes. follows principles in the Sermon on the Mount thinks a lot about political candidates for whom you consider voting. even if they are doing the right things they can be perceived as acting unethically. b. 7. writes letters to government officials to express one's viewpoints.55 23. but it is even more important that politicians recognize they have to balance the needs of all their stakeholders. obeys all laws. As long as politicians behave unethically by shortchanging other stakeholders to maintain their ties with special interest groups and political parties. these are the two requirements for managing all stakeholders 2. 5. 4. Good Citizenship 1. Good citizenship is standing up for what one believes in. Good citizenship is obedience to society's expectations as formulated in laws 2. To make sure needs are being met and issues dealt with in a timely fashion. 3. a. we will continue to struggle. voting on 2. special agreements with special interest groups. c. 3. intellectual skills (such as critical thinking) 2. d. business must communicate with all stakeholders on a regular basis. monitoring the government. serves on juries. 8. Secret meetings and closed-door negotiations. Requires: 1. building coalitions. 5. . It is increasingly important that business balances the needs of all of their stakeholders. 4. speaking or testifying before public bodies) Traits of good citizens: 1." 4. managing conflict peacefully and fairly. through his behavior. 6. The following all lead to the appearance of a lack of ethics. Participates in a union. 3.
d. 7. 8. 6. Dynamic motivation. and you shall eat what the field yields of itself without cultivation. The notion of justice underlies concern about animal welfare. air and water) and the injustice of greater pollution that often characterize lower-income communities . Ultimate values are seen in the light of being valuable to God.12-14) c. caring for people (Matthew 25) b. and also the value and moral status of. 23. . which shows itself in selfishness and thoughtlessness. sufficiency and compassion. your year of Jubilee. Environmental concerns challenge us to extend these principles to include the well-being of the natural world and our human duties to it The classic formal principle of justice is that equals should be treated equally unless there is a sufficient reason to treat anyone (or anything) unequally. and humankind accountable to God for the use of the resources entrusted to humankind. Recent advances in biology have shown that the differences between humans and other animals are much less than many of us might think. This applies both in breadth of scope a." 12 "This Jubilee year shall be holy for you." Environmental Ethics 1. we should ask: Does the equality of humans and animals as living creatures require far more humane treatment of 3. nor gather the grapes from the uncultivated vines.14f) and dealing with the underlying spiritual disease of sin. environmental health (Deuteronomy 22. To apply justice to an environmental. solidarity and participation. 4. the love of Christ controlling (2 Corinthians 5. 2. the environment and its nonhuman contents Previous EE were focused mainly on issues concerned with wilderness and the reasons for its preservation The Christian world view sees the universe as created by God. you shall neither sow nor reap the after growth.8. Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers extending the traditional boundaries of ethics from solely including humans to including the non-human world 2. 4. Environmental ethics is the discipline in philosophy that studies the moral relationship of human beings to.Leviticus 25: 11-12 11"In this fiftieth year.56 ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS Reading . Environmental justice is concerned with the inequitable access to environmental resources (clean food. There are three basic pairs of principles in Ethics use for moral reasoning about concerns of the environment: justice and sustainability.not wealthy suburbs. In many countries this relationship of accountability is symbolized at harvest thanksgiving. 3. 5. Justice and sustainability 1.
at least in some people's minds. It underlies the practice of empathy. Sustainability extends justice into the future. we should ask: Will the decision permit all those involved. the future of humans is tied to the well-being of all other creatures. we should ask: What duties do we have to the other creatures likely to be affected by our actions? .and on human communities: to ensure that everyone has access to the goods that they need to live a life of dignity. which means they will not be available to people in the future. 3. To apply the principle of sufficiency to an environmental decision. The ethical principle of justice is at play because it underpins the need to equitably balance the needs of those alive today (the rich and poor) with future generations. soil or air) are morally significant. to live more simply. 9. 7. 6. Sustainability can be defined as meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. 8. and the elements (such as water. we should ask: What are the immediate and long-term effects of the problem before us? Sufficiency and compassion 1. Compassion extends the notion of sufficiency to the Earth. 10. This principle can conflict.to share. 8. to think creatively . To assert that any wild animal is worthy of our moral concern begins the process of learning about the interdependence of all creatures on the habitat and food resources provided by other creatures in an ecosystem. to whom we have moral duties. 7. Ultimately.57 animals? 5. topsoil and water) today faster than they can be naturally replenished. 9. The principle also means no one should waste or hoard resources intended for the sufficiency of all. To apply the principle of compassion to an environmental decision. 2. 10. to have enough resources on which to live and flourish? 6. 5. Upholding the norm of sufficiency makes demands upon individuals . We are consuming or degrading many resources (such as fossil fuel energy. Thus. and that humans have responsibilities to act so that their needs are met too. It is simply impossible to consider the well-being of one other creature in isolation from their environment. This principle helps us think about whom else we need to consider. To apply the principle of sustainability to an environmental decision. Non-human forms of life have moral significance equivalent to humans. with the notion that the Earth does not have sufficient goods to meet everyone's needs. The principle of sufficiency mandates that all forms of life are entitled to enough goods to live on and flourish. especially the poor. Environmental ethics asserts that other animals. 4. environmental ethics takes the notion of fundamental fairness and stretches it to include those yet to be born. plants.
4. and to act in such a way that reflects concern for the well-being of others." 9 After the meeting with the king." 3 When Herod heard this he was greatly disturbed and with him all Jerusalem. 8 Then he sent them to Bethlehem with the instruction. so that I too may go and honor him. 5 "In the town of Bethlehem in Judea. The star that they had seen in the East went ahead of them and stopped over the place where the child was. The demands of solidarity point us to the principle of participation. in the land of Judah. during the days of King Herod. the one who is to shepherd my people Israel. report to me.human and non-human . our local community. 4 He immediately called a meeting of all high-ranking priests and those who taught the people of God his Law.who are especially vulnerable? Participation extends the idea of solidarity to make it practical. As soon as you have found him. They opened their bags and offered him their gifts of gold. 3. meaning that each individual has access to the same information that everyone else has. we should ask: Who are all the human stakeholders involved in this situation? Are there any stakeholders ." they told him.but then challenges us to consider the full range of relationships with others.58 Solidarity and participation 1. 8. we should ask: Do all stakeholders in this decision actually have a say in how the decision is going to be made? ETHICS IN TECHNOLOGY Reading – Mt 2: 1. The principle of solidarity invites us to consider how we relate to each other in community. 11 They went into the house and when they saw the child with Mary his mother. 10 The wise men were overjoyed on seeing the star again. or our national community . you are by no means the least among the clans of Judah.18 1 When Jesus was born in Bethlehem. and asked them where the Messiah was to be born. 5. 2 They asked. for from you will come a leader. "Where is the newborn king of the Jews? We saw the rising of his star in the east and have come to honor him. wise men from the east arrived in Jerusalem." 7 Then Herod secretly called the wise men and asked them the precise time the star appeared.our biological family. 7. The ethical principle of participation requires us to recognize all of the parties . they set out. 2. incense and myrrh. To apply the principle of solidarity to an environmental decision. Bethlehem. in Judea. Solidarity requires us to consider this kind of extended community. "Go and get precise information about the child.likely to be affected by a decision. they knelt and worshiped him. To apply the principle of participation to an environmental decision. . It assumes that we recognize that we are a part of at least one family . and to recognize that all parties should have a say in how the decision is made. "for this is what the prophet wrote: 6 And you. 6.human and non-human . Genuine participation requires transparency. so that those affected by an environmental decision can shape how it is made.
or contextually right or wrong to invent and implement a technological innovation. or might inflict suffering in the third world? 4. Technology itself is incapable of possessing moral or ethical qualities. 8. new cloning technologies. does a scientist have an ethical obligation to produce or fail to produce a nuclear weapon? What are the ethical questions surrounding the production of technologies that waste or conserve energy and resources? What are the ethical questions surrounding the production of new manufacturing processes that might inhibit employment. wailing and loud lamentation: Rachel weeps for her children. b.59 12 In a dream they were warned not to go back to Herod. 9. and stay there until I tell you for Herod will soon be looking for the child in order to kill him. Ethics of technology is a subfield of ethics addressing the ethical questions specific to the Technology Age. The ethics involved in the development of new technology—whether it is always. In this way. what the prophet Jeremiah had said was fulfilled: 18 A cry is heard in Ramah. he was furious." 14 Joseph got up. Ethics in Technology 1. 5. For example. He gave orders to kill all the boys in Bethlehem and its neighborhood who were two years old or under. 6. so they returned to their home country by another way. took the child and his mother. 7. since "technology" is merely tool making. and left that night for Egypt. what the Lord had said through the prophet was fulfilled: I called my son out of Egypt. 13 After the wise men had left. She refuses to be comforted. In law. 15 where he stayed until the death of Herod. Ethics of such things as computer security and computer viruses asks whether the very act of innovation is an ethically right or wrong act. genetic screening. . The ethical questions that are exacerbated by the ways in which technology extends or curtails the power of individuals—how standard ethical questions are changed by the new powers. 17 In this way. Such tracing devices as RFID. an angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph and said. biometric analysis and identification. bioethics is now largely consumed with questions that have been exacerbated by the new life-preserving technologies. 16 When Herod found out that he had been tricked by the wise men. "Get up. 3. the right of privacy is being continually attenuated by the emergence of new forms of surveillance and anonymity. The ethics of technology quickly break down into the ethics of various human endeavors as they are altered by new technologies. c. for they are no more. Similarly. take the child and his mother and flee to Egypt. 2. This was done in line with what he had learned from the wise men about the time when the star appeared. and new technologies for implantation. never. all take old ethical questions and amplify their importance. a. The old ethical questions of privacy and free speech are given new shape and urgency in an Internet age.
aspx Ming. Robert E. John. Christian Faith and Its "Fulfillment" of the Natural Moral Law. Adeney: Global Ethics in New Dictionary of Christian Ethics and Pastoral Theology 1995 Leicester Business Ethics by Roa. Douglas P.officelive. Bioethics: A Nursing Perspective. Minnesota.com/four-human-endowments-to-distinguish-reality-fromillusion. Catholic Encyclopedia Summa Theologica by St. Elsevier Health Sciences. 1974 Markwell and Brown 190 JAMC Catholic bioethics: Bioethics for clinicians • 24 July 2001 May. 2007 Sabalaskey. LII. Nelson. University of California at Berkeley. Waldron. How to Argue About Abortion. Jean (lee@jyi. Megan-Jane. 2010 McManaman. Ramon B. John.1 (October 2006) Roa.T. Business Ethics. Stephen R. “Christian Morality: Jesus’ Teaching on the Law. Business Ethics 3rd ed. USA Johnstone.wikipedia.org). Bruce. John Hardon's Modern Catholic Dictionary Hans Jonas: The Imperative of Responsibility: In Search of Ethics for the Technological Age (1979) Jakoblich. Vol. Lee. (1991) Ethics and the Filipino. "Human Acts. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. Chapter 1.htm Catholic Encyclopedia Retrieved December 23. Jon. William E. 1982 Digital Catholic Bible Fr. Article 3) Catechism of the Catholic Church (sections 1776-1802) Catechism of the Catholic Church. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1978.com/?expert=Leopold_A.org/wiki/Conscience http://en.com/entry/political-ethics Jan 16.dreammanifesto.org/wiki/Good_citizenship http://en.org/wiki/Person http://EzineArticles. 2003. Floriano C. Philippines. Gregorio._Foullah http://nochimera.com/personhood.A. Craig. New York." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Section 1.com/ http://en.H. Political Ethics. 2000 Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy “The Definition of Morality” Sullivan.wikipedia. Field. 2007 D. March 2002 Noonan. http://www.” Themelios 32.org/wiki/Business_ethics http://en. 2007 Business Ethics by Shaw. 2010 <http://www. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press. Dennis M. National Bookstore B. 1.60 Bibliography (Sources) Books and Journals Agapay. Personhood and the Conception Event.nwcitizen. Integrative Biology. Virtue.tech.htm>.newadvent. Ethics: New Bible Dictionary. 102–103.G. 2007 Miranda. Thomas Aquinas Web Resources http://business-ethics. 26 Oct. 2008 Joyce. Manila.wikipedia. 1907. Christian Morality. The New Scholasticism Vol. (1912).wikipedia. 2331–2400 Covey.http://www. Reclaiming the Person as Moral Agent. The Role and Freedom of Conscience. pp. 2004 Mayberry. 1999 Catechism of the Catholic Church (2426 – 2432) Catechism of the Catholic Church (Part 3. Four Human Endowments to Distinguish Reality from Illusion. M.html?q=printme .org/cathen/15472a. The conception view of personhood: A review. 1. 2010 www. 2000 P.org/cathen/01115a.newadvent.
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