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Design Parameters Page 1 of 5

COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., JUNE 2008


TUBULAR STEEL FRAME PUNCHING LOAD CHECK
TECHNICAL NOTE
WSD2000 CHECK - PUNCHING SHEAR METHOD
This section describes the methodology used for the punching load check
when the steel design code is set to API RP2A-WSD2000 and the punching
shear method is specified to be used to calculate the punching load stresses.
Note that both the steel design code and the punching load method, which
can be punching shear or nominal load for the API RP2A-WSD2000 design
code, are specified in the steel design preferences. The preferences are
accessed using the Design > Steel Frame Design > View/Revise
Preferences command.
The design check is based on criteria published in Sections 4.3.1 and 4.3.2 of
the American Petroleum Institute 2000 reference.
Design Parameters
Joint Geometric Parameters
Figure 1 illustrates the some of the geometric parameters used in the
punching load check. They are as follows:
= Angle measured from the chord to the brace.
g = Gap distance.
t = Brace thickness.
T = Chord thickness.
d = Brace diameter.
D = Chord diameter.
In addition, three more geometric parameters are derived from those shown
in Figure 1. They are as follows:
T
t
=
D
d
=
2T
D
=

Tubular Steel Frame Punching Load Check WSD2000 Check - Punching Shear Method
Overview of Punching Load Check Page 2 of 5
T
D
g
d
t

Chord
Brace
Brace

Figure 1: Joint Geometric Parameters

Chord Yield Strength
The chord yield strength is designated Fyc. It is taken as the smaller of the
yield strength, Fy, of the considered chord member and two-thirds of the
tensile strength, Fu, of the chord member.
Overview of Punching Load Check
The program performs the punching load check based on the requirements for
simple joints presented in Section 4.3.1 of the American Petroleum Institute
2000 reference. In addition, if the joint classification associated with the
considered brace is specified as K Overlap, the punching load check also
considers the equations in Section 4.3.2 of the reference.
Acting Punching Shear
The acting punching shear, Vp, is calculated using API equation 4.3.1-1.
sin f V
p
= Eqn. 1
where f is the nominal axial, in-plane bending, or out-of-plane bending stress.
The acting punching shear is kept separate for each type of stress.
Tubular Steel Frame Punching Load Check WSD2000 Check - Punching Shear Method
Allowable Punching Shear Stress Page 3 of 5
Allowable Punching Shear Stress
The allowable punching shear stress, vpa, in the chord wall is taken as the
lesser of the AISC shear allowable and API equation 4.3.1-2. The one-third
allowable stress increase is included for vpa where applicable. The AISC shear
allowable is taken as 0.4Fyc. Thus,
yc
yc
f q pa
0.4F
0.6
F
Q Q v s = Eqn. 2
where Qq is determined from API Table 4.3.1-1 and Qf is calculated as
described in the following subsection. Note that it is also possible for the user
to directly specify values for Qq and Qf.
Calculation of Qf
The Qf value used in Equation 2 is calculated as follows.
2
f
A 1.0 Q = Eqn. 3
where,
= 0.030 for brace axial stress.
= 0.045 for in-plane bending stress.
= 0.021 for out-of-plane bending stress.
and,
yc
2
OPB
2
IPB
2
AX
0.6F
f f f
A
+ +
= Eqn. 4
The one-third allowable stress increase is included in the denominator of
Equation 4 where applicable. In Equation 4, the terms
AX
f ,
IPB
f and
OPB
f are
the nominal axial, in-plane bending and out-of-plane bending stresses in the
chord.
Qf is set to 1.0 when all extreme fiber stresses in the chord are tensile. The
program considers this condition to be met when the axial stress in the chord
is tensile and 0 f f f
OPB IPB AX
> .
Tubular Steel Frame Punching Load Check WSD2000 Check - Punching Shear Method
Simple Joint Check Ratios Page 4 of 5
Simple Joint Check Ratios
The two ratios given in API equations 4.3.1-3a and 4.3.1-3b are calculated for
all joints.
0 . 1
v
V
v
V
Ratio1
2
OPB
pa
p
2
IPB
pa
p
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= Eqn. 5
1.0
v
V
v
V
arcsin

2
v
V
Ratio2
2
OPB
pa
p
2
IPB
pa
p
AX
pa
p
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = Eqn. 6
In Equation 6, the arcsin term is in radians. In Equations 5 and 6, AX means
axial load, IPB means in-plane-bending, and OPB means out-of-plane
bending.
Overlapping Joints
For braces that are assigned a K Overlap joint classification, the additional
check described in this section is performed. The axial load component of the
brace perpendicular to the chord, P , is first calculated.
Psin P = Eqn. 7
where P is the axial load in the brace.
The allowable axial load component of the brace perpendicular to the chord,
a
P , is calculated using API equation 4.3.2-1.
2 w wa 1 pa a
l t v 2 l T v P + = Eqn. 8
where,
vwa = Allowable shear stress for weld between braces.
tw = The lesser of the weld throat thickness or the thickness of the
thinner brace.
l1 = Circumference for that portion of the brace that contacts the chord.
l2 = Projected chord length (one side) of the overlapping weld measured
perpendicular to the chord.
Tubular Steel Frame Punching Load Check WSD2000 Check - Punching Shear Method
References Page 5 of 5
The ratio for overlapping joints is calculated using Equation 9.
a
P
P
Ratio3

= Eqn. 9
References
American Petroleum Institute (API). 2000. Recommended Practice for
Planning, Designing, and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms
Working Stress Design; API Recommended Practice 2A-WSD (RP 2A-
WSD). Twenty-First Edition. December.