and
SPE METRC STAA
Soiety of Petroleum Engineers
H6 b6lI bySl6m0HlS
u0
b L b
Society of Petroleum Engineers
L00l60lS
Adopted for use as a voluntar standard
by the SPE Board of Dirctor, June 1982.
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. ............. .. . . . ... ........ ... . . . . . . . . . . .. 2
Par 1: SI The International System of Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2
Intrduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2
SI Units and Unit Symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2
Application of the Metric System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3
Rules for Converion and Rounding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5
Special Ters and Quantities Involving
Mass and Amount of Substance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Mental Guides for Using Metric Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8
Appndix A (Terinology). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8
Appndix B (SI Units). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 9
Appndix C (Style Guide for Metric Usage) . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11
Appndix D (Generl Converion Factor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appndix E (Tables 1.8 and 1.9) ......................................... 20
Par Z Disussion of Metric Unit Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Intrduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 21
Review of Selected Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2
Unit Standards Under Discussion ......................................... 2
Notes for Table 2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Notes for Table 2.3 .................................................... 25
Second Printing
June 1984
Copyright 1984, Society of Petrol eum Engineers of AI ME. Printed in
U. S.A. This publ ication or any parts thereof may not be reproduced
by any means wi thout the pri or written permission of the publ i sher:
Society of Petrol eum Engineers, P. O. Box 833836, Ri chardson, TX
750833836. Contact the publ isher for additional copi es, i ndi vi dual
or in bul k, of thi s publ ication.
r0l0C0
The SPE Board in June 1982 endorsed revisions to "SPE
Tentative Metric Standard" (Dec. 1 977 lPT, Pages
1 5751 61 1 ) and adopted it for implementation as this
"SPE Metric Standard. "
The following standard is the fnal prduct of 12 years'
work by the Symbols and Metrication Committee.
Members of the current Metrication Subcommittee in
clude John M. Campbell , chairman, John M. Campbell
& Co. ; Robert A. Campbell , Magnum Engineering Inc. ;
Robert E. Carlile, Texas Tech U. ; J . Donald Clark,
petroleum consultant; Hank Groeneveld, Mobil Oil
Canada; Terr Pollard, retired, exofcio member; and
Howard B. Bradley, professional/technical training
consultant.
With ver few exceptions, the units shown are those
proposed and/or adopted by other groups involved in the
metrication exercise, including those agencies charged
with the responsibility (nationally and interationally)
for establishing metric standards . These few exceptions ,
still to be decided, are summarized in the introduction to
Par 2 of this repor.
These standards include most of the units used com
monly by SPE members . The subcommittee is awar that
some will fnd the list incomplete for their area of
specialty. Additions will continue to be made but too
long a list can become cumbersome. The subcommittee
believes that these standards provide a basis for metric
practice beyond the units listed. So long as one maintains
these standards a new unit can be "coined" that should
prve acceptable.
Il b~H6ul6Iul0ul bySl6H0ulS
Introduction
Worldwide scientifc, engineering, industrial , and com
mercial groups are convering to SI metrc units . Many
in the u.s. are now active in such conversion, based on
work accomplished by national ' and interational
2
authorities. Various U. S. associations, prfessional
societies, and agencies are involved in this process, in
cluding, but not limited to, American Society for Testing
and Materials (ASTM) ,
3
American Petroleum Inst .
(API) ,
4
,
5
American Nat! . Standards Inst. (ANSI) ,
3
,
6
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (AS ME) ,
and American Nat! . Metric Council (ANMC) .
8
The
Canadian Petroleum Assn. (CPA) and other Canadian
grups have been especially active in conversion
work. 1
3
The Society of Petrleum Engineers of AIME
intends to keep its wordwide membership informed on
the conversion to and use of SI metric units .
The term "sr' is an abbreviation for Le Systeme In
terational d'Unites or The Interational System of
Units.
SI is not identical with any of the former cgs, mks, or
mksA systems of metric units but is closely related to
them and is an extension of and improvement over them.
SI measurement symbols are identical in all languages .
As in any other language, rles of spelling, punctuation,
and prnunciation are essential to avoid errors in
numerical work and to make the system easier to use and
understand on a worldwide basis. These rles , together
with decimal usage, units coherence, and a series of
standard prefxes for mUltiples and submultiples of most
SI units, prvide a rational system with minimum dif
ficulty of transition from English units or older systems
of metric units. Refs . 1 through of this paper are
recommended to the reader wishing offcial information,
development histor, or more detail on SI; material frm
these and other references cited has been used frely in
this report.
Appendix A provides defnitions for some of the terms
used.
2
SI Units and Unit Symbols3
The shortform designations of units (such as f for feet,
kg for kilogrms, m for meters , mol for moles , etc. )
have heretofore been called unit "abbreviations" i n SPE
terminology to avoid confsion with the ter "sym
bois" applied to letter symbols used in mathematical
equations . However, interational and national standard
practice is to call these unit designations "unit sym
bois " ; the latter usage will be followed in this repor.
SI Units
SI is based on seven well defned "base units " that
quantif seven base quantities that by convention are
regarded as dimensionally independent . It is a matter of
choice how many and which quantities are considered
base quantities . SI has chosen the seven base quantities
and base units l isted in Table 1 . 1 as the basis of the Inter
national System. In addition, there are two "supplemen
tar quantities" (Table 1 . 2) .
Tables 1 . 1 and 1 . 2 show current practices for
designating the dimensions of base and supplementar
physical quantities , plus letter symbols for use in
mathematical equations.
SI "derived units" are a third class, formed by com
bining, as needed, base units, supplementary units , and
other derived units according to the algebraic relations
linking the coresponding quantities. The symbols for
derived units that do not have their own individual sym
bols are obtained by using the mathematical signs for
multipl ication and division, together with appropriate
exponents (e. g. , SI velocity, meter per second, m/s or
m' s ' ; SI angular velocity , radian per second, rad/s or
rads I) .
Table 1 . 3 contains a number of SI derived units, in
cluding all the 19 apprved units assigned special names
and individual unit symbols .
Appendix B prvides a more detailed explanation of
the SI systems of units , their defnitions , and
abbreviations.
SI Unit Prefxes
8
The SI unit prefxes, multiplication factors, and SI prfx
symbols are shown in Table 1. 4. Some of the prefxes
may seem strange at frst, but there are enough familiar
ones in the list to make it relatively easy for technical
personnel to adjust to their use; kilo, mega, deci, centi,
milli, and micro are known to most engineers and
scientists.
One particular waring is requird about the prfxes:
in the SI system, k and M (kilo and mega) stand for 1 000
and 1 000 000, respectively, whereas M and MM or m
and mm have been used prviously in the oil industr for
designating thousands and millions of gas volumes. Note
careflly, however, that there is no parallelism because
SI prefxes are raised to the power of the unit employed,
while the customary M and MM prefxes wer not . Ex
amples : km
3
means cubic kilometers, not thousands of
cubic meters ; cm
2
means square centimeters, not one
hundrdth of a squar meter. The designation for 1 000
cubic meters is 10
3
m
3
and for 1 million cubic meters is
1 0
6
m
3
not km
3
and Mm
3
, respectively.
Appendix C gi. ves examples of the vital importance of
following the precise use of uppercase and lowercase
letters for prefxes and for unit symbols.
Application of the Metric System
General
SI is the form of the metric system prferred for all ap
plications . It is imporant that this moderized version be
thorughly understood and properly applied. This sec
tion, together with Appendix material, provides
guidance and rcommendations concering style and
usage of the SI form of the metric system.
Style and Usage
Take care to use unit symbols properly; the agreements
in interational and national standards provide uniform
rles (summarized in Appendix C) . It is essential that
these rules be followed closely to provide maximum ease
of communication and to avoid costly errrs . Handling
of unit names vares somewhat among different countries
because of language difernces, but using the rules in
Appendix C should minimize most difculties of
communication.
Usage for Selected Quantities
Mass, Force, and Weight. The prncipal deparure of SI
frm the grvimetric system of metric engineering units
is the use of explicitly distinct units for mass and force.
In SI, kilogram is restricted to the unit of mass. Te
newton is the only SI unit of force. defned as 1
(kg ' m)/s
2
, to be used wherver force is designated, in
cluding derived units that contain forcee. g. , prssure
or stress (N/m
2
=Pa), energy (N"m=J), and power
[(Nm)/s =W] .
Ther is confsion over the use of the term weight as a
quantity to mean either force or mass. In science and
technology, the term weight of a body usually means the
force that, if applied to the body, would give it an ac
celertion equal to the local accelertion of free fall (g,
when referring to the earth's surface) . This acceleration
varies in time and space; weight, if used to mean fore,
varies also. The term force of gravit (mass times ac
celeration of grvity) is more accurate than weight for
this meaning.
In commercial and everday use, on the other hand,
the term weight neary always means mass. Thus, when
TABLE 1 . 1 SI BASE QUANTITI ES AND UNITS
length
mass
time
Base Quantity or
"Di mension"
electric current
thermodynamic temperature
amount of substance
l uminous intensity
SI Unit
meter
ki logram
second
ampere
kelvin
mol et
candel a
SI Unit Symbol
("Abbreviation").
Use Roman
(Upri ght) Type
m
kg
s
A
K
mol
cd
The seven base units, two supplementary uni ts and other terms are defined i n Appendixes A and S, Par 1.
SPE
Letter Symbol
for Mathematical
Equations.
Use Ital ic
(Sloping) Type
L
m
t
I
n
""SPE heretofore has arbHrarily used charge q, the product of electric current and time, as a basic dimension. In unH symbols this would be A's; in SPE mathematicl symbls, for.
tWhen the mole is used, the elementar entHies must be specified; they may be atoms, molecules, Ions, electrons, other paricles, or specified groups of such paricles. I n petroleum work,
the terms "kilogram mole," "pound mole," etc . . ofen are shorened erroneously to "mol e."
TABLE 1 .2 SI SUPPLEMENTARY UNITS
Suppl ementary Quantity or
"Di mension"
pl ane angl e
solid angl e
SI Uni t
radian
steradian
SI Unit Symbol
("Abbreviation").
Use Roman
( Upri ght) Type
rad
sr
"The seven base units, two supplementar unHs, and other terms are defined i n Appendixes A and S, Par 1 .
"ISO specifies these two angles as dimensionless wHh respect to the seven base quantHies.
3
SPE
Letter Symbol
for Mathematical
Equations.
Use Ital ic
(Sloping) Type
U
H
TABLE 1 .3 SOME COMMON SI DERIVED UNITS
51 Unit Symbol
("Abbreviation"), Formul a,
Quantity Uni t Use Roman Type Use Roman Type
absorbed dose gray Gy Jlkg
acceleration meter per second squared m/s2
activity (of radi onucl i des) becquerel Bq 1 /s
angul ar acceleration radi an per second squared rad/s2
angul ar velocity radi an per second rad/s
area square meter m2
8l5u5temperature degree Cel si us " K
density ki l ogram per cubic meter kg/m"
dose equivalent sievert Sv J/kg
electric capacitance farad F . A'sN (=CN)
electric charge coul omb C As
electrical conductance siemens 5 A
electric field strength volt per meter VIm
electric i nductance henr H Vs/A (=Wb/A)
electric potential volt V W/A
electric resistance ohm H VIA
electromotive force volt V W/A
energy joul e J N'm
entropy joul e per kelvin J/K
force newton N kgm/s2
frequency her Hz 1 /s
i l l umi nance lux Ix Im/m2
l uminance candel a per square meter cd/m2
l uminous flux l umen 1m cd'sr
magnetic field strength ampere per meter Am
magnetic fl ux weber Wb V's
magnetic fl ux density tesla T Wb/m2
potential difference volt V W/A
power watt W J/s
pressure pascal Pa N/m2
quantity of electricity coul omb C As
quantity of heat joul e J N'm
radiant fl ux watt W J/s
radiant intensity watt per steradian W/sr
specifiC heat joule per ki l ogram kelvin J(kg' K)
stress pascal Pa N/m2
thermal conductivity watt per meter kelvin W/(mK)
velocity meter per second m/s
viscosity, dynamic pascal second Pas
viscosity, ki nematic square meter per second m2/s
voltage volt V W/A
vol ume cubic meter m"
wavenumber 1 per meter 1 1m
work joul e J N'm
'I n , the General Conference on Weights and Measures adopted I er as a special name for the cubic decimeter but discouraged the
use of Ier for volume measurement of extreme precision (sse Appendix B).
TABLE 1 .4 SI UNIT PREFIXES
51 Prefix
Symbol ,
SI Use Roman
Multipl ication Factor Prefix Type Pronunciation ( U. S. ) Meani ng ( U. S. )
1 000 000 000 000 000 000 = 1 0' 8 exa E ex' a (a as in a bout) one qui nti l l i on ti mest
1 000 000 000 000 000 = 1 0' 5 peta P as inp etal one quadri l l ion ti mest
1 000 000 000 000 = 1 0' 2 tera T as in tera ce one tri l l i on ti mest
1 000 000 000 = 1 09 gi ga G j i g' a (a as in a bout) one bi l l ion ti mest
1 000 000 = 1 06 mega M as in mega phone one mi l l ion ti mes
1 000 = 1 0" ki l o k as in kio watt one thousand ti mes
1 00 = 1 02 hecto; h heck' toe one hundred ti mes
1 0 = 1 0 deka; da deck' a (a as i n a bout) ten times
0. 1 = 1 0

1 deci; d as i n deci mal one tenth of
0. 01 = 1 02 centi; c as in senti ment one hundredth of
0. 001 = 1 0" mi l l i m as i n mitar one thousandth of
0. 000 001 = 1 08 mi cro
M
as i n micro phone one mi l l ionth of
0. 000 000 001 = 1 09 nano n nan' oh (an as in an t) one bi l l ionth oft
0. 000 000 000 001 = 1 0

1 2 pico p peek' oh one tri l l i onth oft
0. 000 000 000 000 001 = 1 01 5 femto f fem' toe (fem as i n one quadri l li onth oft
fem i ni ne)
0. 000 000 000 000 000 001 = 1 01 8 atto a as i n anato my one qui nti l l i onth oft
Meani ng
I n Other
Countries
tri l l i on
thousand bi l l ion
bi l l i on
mi l liard
mi l l i ardth
bi l lionth
thousand bi l l ionth
tri l l ionth
'The first syllable of every prefix is accented to assure that the prefix will retain its identity. Therefore, the preferred pronunciation of kilometer places the accent on the first syllable, not the
second.
"Approved by the 1 5th General Conference of Weights and Measures (CGPM), MayJune 1 975.
tThesa terms should be avoided in technical writing because the denominations above 1 million are different in most other countries, as indicated in the last col umn.
*While hecto, deka, deci, and centi are Sl prefixes, their use generally should be avoided except for the SI un muHiples for area, volume, moment, and nontechnical use of centimeter, as
for body and clothing measurement.
4
one speaks of a person's weight, the quantity rferrd to
is mass . Because of the dual use, the term weight should
be avoided in technical practice except under cir
cumstances in which its meaning is completely clear.
When the term is used, it is important to know whether
mass or force is intended and to use SI units prpery as
described above by using kilogrms for mass and
newtons for fore.
Gravity is involved in deterining mass with a balance
or scale. When a standar mass is used to balance the
measurd mass, the efect of grvity on the two masses is
canceled except for the indirct efect of air or fuid
buoyancy. In using a spring scale, mass is measurd in
directly since the instrument rsponds to the force of
gravity. Such scales may be calibrted in mass units if
the variation in accelertion of grvity and buoyancy cor
rctions ar not signifcant in their use.
The use of the same name for units of fore and mass
causes confsion. When nonSi units 8 being con
verted to SI units, distinction should be made between
force and msse. g. , use lbf to denote fore in
grvimetric engineering units, and use Ibm for mass .
Use of the metric ton, also called tonne (1.0 Mg) , is
common.
Linear Dimensions. Ref. 3 prvides discussions of
length units applied to linear dimensions and tolernces
of materials and equipment, primarily of interst to
engineers in that feld.
Temperature. The SI tempertur unit is the kelvin (not
"degre Kelvin") ; it is the preferrd unit to exprss ther
modynamic tempertur. Degrees Celsius (DC) is an SI
derived unit used to exprss temperatur and tempertur
interals . The Celsius scale (formery called centigrde)
is rlated directly to the kelvin scale as follows: the
temperatur interval 1 DC = 1 K, exactly. Celsius
temperature (Toe) is related to thermodynamic
temperatur (TK) as follows: Toe =TK To exactly,
wher To =273.15 K by defnition. Note that the SI unit
symbol for the kelvin is K without the degre mark,
wheras the older temperatur units 8 known as
degres Fahrnheit, degres Rankine, and degres
Celsius, with degre marks shown on the unit symbol
(OF, OR, DC) .
Time. The SI unit for time is the second, and this is
prferrd, but use of the minute, hour, day, and year is
perissible.
Angles. The SI unit for plane angle is the rdian. The use
of the 8 degre and its decimal submultiples is per
missible when the radian is not a convenient unit . Use of
the minute and second is discourged except possibly for
carography. Solid angles should be exprssed in
steradians .
Volume. The SI unit of volume is the cubic meter. This
unit, or one of its rgulary fored multiples, is pr
ferrd for all applications. The special name liter has
been apprved for the cubic decimeter (see Appendix B) ,
but use of the liter is restricted to the measurment of liq
uids and gases.
5
Energy. The SI unit of energy, the joule, together with
its multiples , is prferrd for all applications . The
kilowatthour is used widely as a measure of electric
energy, but this unit should not be intrduced into any
new aras; eventually it should be rplaced by the
megajoule.
Torque and Bending Moment. The vector prduct of
force and moment ar is exprssed in newton meters
(N
.
m) by SPE as a convention when exprssing torue
energies.
Pressure and Stress. The SI unit for prssur and strss
is the pascal (newton per square meter); with proper SI
prfxes it is applicable to all such measurments . Use of
the old metrc gravitational unitskilogramfore per
squar centimeter, kilogramforce per squar millimeter,
torr, etc. is to be discontinued. Use of the bar is
discouraged by the standards organizations .
It has been rcommended interationally that pressur
units themselves should not be modifed to indicate
whether the prssur is "absolute" (above zer) or
"gauge" (above atmospheric prssur) . If the context
leaves any doubt as to which is meant, the wor
"prssur" must be qualifed appropriately: " . . . at a
gauge pressur of 13 kPa, " or " . . . at an absolute
prssur of 13 kPa, " etc.
Units and Names To Be Avoided or Abandoned
Tables 1.1 through 1.3 include all SI units identifed by
foral names, with their individual unit symbols. Vir
tually all other named metric units forerly in use .(as
well as nonmetric units) ar to be avoided or abandoned.
There is a long list of such units (e. g. , dyne, stokes,
"esu, " gauss, gilber, abamper, statvolt, angstrm,
fermi , micrn, mho, candle, calorie, atmospher, mm
Hg, and metric horsepower) . The rasons for abandon
ing the nonSi units ar discussed in Appendix B. Two of
the principal reasons are the rlative simplicity and
cohernce of the SI units .
Rules for Conversion and Rounding3
Conversion
Table 1.7, Appendix D, contains general conversion fac
tors that give exact values or sevendigit accuracy for im
plementing these rles except wher the natur of the
dimension makes this imprctical .
The conversion of quantities should be handled with
carefl rgar d to the implied corrspondence between the
accuracy of the data and the given number of digits. In
all conversions, the number of signifcant digits rtained
should be such that accuracy is neither sacrifced nor
exaggerated.
Proper conversion procedur is to multiply the
specifed quantity by the conversion factor exactly as
given in Table 1.7 and then rund to the appropriate
number of signifcant digits . For example, to conver
11.4 f to meters: 11.4xO.3048=3.474 72, which
runds to 3.47 m.
Accuracy and Rounding
Do not rund either the conversion factor or the quantity
before peroring the multiplication; this rduces ac
curacy. Proper conversion procedure includes rounding
the converted quantity to the proper number of signif
cant digits commensurte with its intended prcision.
The practical aspects of measuring must be considerd
when using SI equivalents. If a scale divided into six
teenths of an inch was suitable for makng the original
measurments, a metric scale having divisions of 1 mm
is obviously suitable for measuring in SI units, and the
equivalents should not be rpored closer than the nearst
1 mm. Similary, a gauge or caliper grduated in divi
sions of 0. 02 mm is comparable to one grduated in divi
sions of 0. 001 in. Analogous situations exist for mass,
fore, and other measurements . A technique to deter
mine the proper number of signifcant digits in rounding
converted values is described her for general use.
General Conversion. This apprach depends on frst
establishing the intended prcision or accuracy of the
quantity as a necessary guide to the number of digits to
rtain. The prcision should rlate to the number of
digits in the original , but in many cases that is not a
reliable indicator. A fgur of 1. 1875 may be a ver ac
curate decimalization of a noncritical 1:6 that should
have been exprssed as 1 . 19. On the other hand, the
value 2 may mean "about 2" or it may mean a ver ac
curate value of 2, which should then have been wrtten as
2. 0000. It is therefor necessar to deterine the intend
ed prcision of a quantity befor converting. Tis
estimate of intended precision shoul never be smaller
than the accuracy of measurement but usually should be
smaller than one tenth the tolerance i one eists. Afer
estimating the precision of the dimension, the converted
dimension should be runded to a minimum number of
significant digits (see section on "Signifcant Digits")
such that a unit of the last place is equal to or smaller
than the converted precision.
Eamples
1 . A stirring rod 6 in. long: In this case, precision is
estimated to be about Y in. ( 1 in. ) . Convered, Y in.
is 1 2. 7 mm. The converted 6in. dimension of 1 52. 4 mm
should be rounded to the nearst 10 mm, or 1 50 mm.
2. 50 OOOpsi tensile strength: In this case, precision is
estimated to be about 200 psi ( 1 . 4 MPa) based on an
accuracy of 0. 25 % for the tension tester and other fac
tors. Therefor, the convered dimension, 344. 7379
MPa, should be runded to the nearest whole unit, 345
MPa.
3. Test prssur 200 15 psi : Since one tenth of the
tolerance is 1. 5 psi ( 1 0. 34 kPa) , the convered dimen
sion should be rounded to the nearst 10 ka. Thus,
1 378. 95 14 1 03 . 421 35 kPa becomes 1 380 100 kPa.
Special Cases. Converted values should be rounded to
the minimum number of signifcant digits that will main
tain the rquird accuracy. In certain cases, deviation
frm this practice to use convenient or whole numbers
may be feasible. In that case, the word "approximate"
Iust be used following the conversione. g. , 1 '
i n. =47. 625 mm exact , 47. 6 mm normal runding, 47. 5
mm (approximate) runded to prferrd or convenient
halfmillimeter, 48 mm (approximate) runded to whole
number.
A quantity stated as a limit, such as "not more than"
6
or "maximum, " must be handled so that the stated limit
is not violated. For example, a specimen "at least 4 in.
wide" requirs a width of at least 101. 6 mm, or (rund
ed) at least 102 mm.
Signifcant Digit. Any digit that is necessar to defne
the specic value or quantit is said to be signicant.
For example, a distance measured to the nearst 1 m may
have been rcorded as 1 57 m; this number has thre
signifcant digits . If the measurment had been made to
the nearst 0. 1 m, the distance may have been 157. 4
mfour signifcant digits . In each case, the value of the
righthand digit was deterined by measuring the value
of an additional digit and then rounding to the desird
degre of accuracy. In other words, 1 57 . 4 was runded
to 1 57; in the second case, the measurment may have
been 1 57. 36, runded to 157. 4.
Importance of Zeros. Zeros may be used either t o in
dicate a specifc value, as does any other digit, or to in
dicate the magnitude of a number. The 1 970 U. S.
population fi gure rounded t o thousands was
203 1 85 000. The si x lefhand digits of this number ar
signifcant; each measures a value. The thre righthand
digits are zeros that merely indicate the magnitude of the
number rounded to the nearst thousand. To illustrte
furher, each of the following estimates and
measurments is of differnt magnitude, but each is
specified to have only one signifcant digit:
1 000
1 00
1 0
0. 01
0. 001
0. 000 1 .
It is also important to note that, for the frst thre
numbers, the identifcation of signifcant digits is possi
ble only through knowledge of the circumstances. For
example, the number 1 000 may have been rounded frm
about 965 , or it may have been runded frm 999. 7, in
which case all three zeros ar signifcant.
Data of Varying Precision. Occasionally, data rquird
for an investigation must be drwn frm a variety of
soures wher they have been rcorded with varing
degres of refnement. Specifc rles must be obsered
when such data are to be aded. subtracted. multiplied.
or divided.
The rle for addition and subtrction is that the answer
shall contain no signifcant digits farher to the rght than
occurs in the least precise number. Consider the addition
of three numbers drawn fm thre soures, the frst of
which rported data in millions, the second in thousands,
and the thir in units :
163 000 000
217 885 000
96 432 768
477 317 768
This total indicates a prcision that is not valid. The
numbers should frst be rounded to one signicant digit
farher to the right than that of the least prcise number,
and the sum taken as follows .
1 63 000 000
217 900 000
96 400 000
477 300 000
Then, the total is runded to 477 000 000 as called for
by the rle. Note that if the second of the fgurs to be
added had been 21 7 985 000, the rounding befor addi
tion would have prduced 21 8 000 000, in which case
the zer following 21 8 would have been a signifcant
digit. ,
The rle for multiplication and division i s that the
product or quotient shall contain no more signifcant
digits than ar contained in the number with the fewest
signicant digits used in the multiplication or division.
The differnce between this rle and the rle for addition
and subtraction should be noted; for addition and sub
trction, the rle merely rquirs rounding digits to the
rght of the last signifcant digit in the least prcise
number. The following illustration highlights this
diference.
Multiplication: 1 1 3 . 2 X 1 . 43 = 1 61 . 876 runded
to 1 62.
Division: 1 1 3. 2+ 1 . 43 =79. 1 6 runded
to 79. 2
Addition: 1 1 3 . 2 +1. 43 = 1 1 4. 63 runded
to 1 14. 6
Subtrction: 1 1 3 . 2  1 . 43 = 1 1 1 . 77 runded
to 11 1 . 8.
The above product and quotient are limited to three
signifcant digits since 1 . 43 contains only three signif
cant digits. In contrast, the rounded answers in the addi
tion and subtraction examples contain four signifcant
digits.
Numbers used in the illustration 8 all estimates or
measurments. Numbers that are exact counts (and con
version factors that are exact) are treated as though the
consist of an infnite number of signicant digits. Stated
more simply, when a count is used in computation with a
measurment, the number of signifcant digits in the
answer is the same as the number of signifcant digits in
the measurment. If a count of 40 is multiplied by a
measurment of 1 0. 2, the prduct is 408. However, if 40
wer an estimate accurate only to the nearst 10 and,
hence, contained one signifcant digit, the prduct would
be 400.
Rounding Values
10
When a fgur is to be runded t
o
fewer digits than the
total number available, the procedur should be as
follows .
When the First Digit
Discared is
less than 5
mor than 5
5 followed only
by zers*
The Last Digit
Retained is
unchanged
incrased by 1
unchanged if even,
incrased by 1 if odd
7
Examples :
4. 463 25 if runded to thre places would be 4. 463 .
8. 376 52 if runded to thre places would be 8. 377.
4. 365 00 if runded to two places would be 4. 36.
4. 355 00 if runded t o two places would be 4. 36.
Conversion of Linear Dimensions
of Interchangeable Parts
Detailed discussions of this subject ar prvided by
ASTM,
3
API,
4
and ASME
7
publications , and ar
recommended to the interested reader.
Other Units
Temperature. General guidance for converting
tolerances frm degres Fahrnheit to kelvins or degres
Celsius is given in Table 1 . 5 . Normally, temperaturs
exprssed in a whole number of degres Fahrnheit
should be converted to the nearst 0. 5 K (or 0. 5 C) . As
with other quantities , the number of signifcant digits to
rtain will depend on implied accuracy of the original
dimension e. g. , *
1005 F (tolerance); implied accuracy, estimated
total 2 F (nearst 1 C) 37. 77782. 7778C
rounds t o 383
"
C.
l 00050F (tolerance); implied accuracy, estimated
tota120 F (nearest l O C) 537. 777827. 7778 C
runds to 54030 C.
Pressure or Stress. Prssur or strss values may be
converted by the same principle used for other quan
tities . Values with an uncerainty of mor than 2 % may
be convered without runding by the approximate
factor:
I psi =7 kPa.
For conversion factors see Table 1. 7.
Special Length Unitthe Vara. Table 1 . 8, Appendix
E, provides conversion factors and.explanator notes on
the problems of converting the several kinds of vara units
to meters .
Special Terms and Quantities Involving
Mass and Amount of Substance
The Interational Union of Pur and Applied Chemistr,
the Interational Union of Pure and Applied Physics ,
TABLE 1.5 CONVERSI ON OF TEMPERATURE
TOLERANCE REQUI REMENTS
Tolerance
(OF)
:1
:2
:5
:10
:15
:20
:25
Tol erance
( K or C)
:O.5
:1
:3
:5.5
:8.5
: 11
:14
'Unless a number of rounded values are to appear in a given problem, most roundings
conform to the first to procedures  i.e., rounding upward when the first di gi t dis
crded is 5 or higher.
and the Interational Organization for Standardization
provide clarifing usages for some of the ters involving
the base quantities "mass" and "amount of substance. "
Two of these rquire modifing the terminology appear
ing prviously in SPE' s Symbols Standars.
Table 1 . 6 shows the old and the revised usages .
Mental Guides for Using Metric Units
Table 1 . 9, Appendix F, is ofered as a "memor jog
ger" or guide to help locate the "metrc ballpark"
rlative to customar units . Table 1 . 9 is not a conversion
table. For accurate conversions, rfer to Table 1 . 7 or to
Tables 2. 2 and 2. 3 for petroleumindustr units, and
rund off the converted values to practical prcision as
descrbed earlier.
References**
1. "The Interational System of Units (SI)," NBS Special Publica
tion 330, U.S. Dept. of Commere, Natl. Bureau of Standars,
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Goverment Printing Offce,
Washington, D.C. (1981). (Orer by SD Catalog No.
C\3.1O:330/3.)
2. "SI Units and Recommendations for the Use of Their Multiples
and of Cerain Other Units," second edition, 19810215, IntI.
Standar ISO H, IntI. Oranization for Standarization,
American Natl. Standars Inst. (ANSI), New York (1981).
3. "Standard for Metric Prctice," E 38082, Amercan Soc. for
Testing and Materals, Philadelphia. (Similar materal published
in IEEE Std. 2681982.)
4. Metric Practice GuideA Guide to the Use of SITe Intera
tional System of Units, second edition. API Pub. 2563 (now being
rvised), American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C. (Jan.
1973). (This material is derived frm ASTM E 38072.)
5. Conversion of Operational and Process Measurement Units to the
Metric (SI) System, frst edition. API Pub. 2564, Washington,
D. C. (March 1974).
6. "A Bibliogrphy of Metric Standards," ANSI, New York (June
1975). (Also see ANSI's annual catalog of national and intera
tional standards. )
7. ASME Orientation and Guide for Use of S] (Metric) Units, sixth
edition. Guide SII, American Soc. of Mechanicil Engineers
(ASME), New York (May 1, 1975). (ASME also has published
Guides SI2, Strength of Materials; SI3, Dynamics; SI5, Fluid
Mechanics; SI6, Kinematics; SI8, Vibration; and SIIO, Steam
Charts.)
8. Metric Editorial Guide, thir edition, American Natl. Metric
Council (ANMC), Washington, D.C. (July 1981).
9. "'Generl Principles Concering Quantities, Units and Symbols,"
General Introduction to ISO J1, second edition, Inti. Standard
ISO 31/0, IntI. Organization for Standarization, ANSI, New
York City (1981).
10. "American National Standard Prctice for InchMillimeter Con
version for Industrial Use," ANSI B48.11933 (RI947), ISO
R370196, IntI. Organization for Standardization, ANSI, New
York. (A later edition has been issued: "To1ernced Dimen
sionsConversion Frm Inches to Millimeters and Vice Vera, "
ISO 3701975.)
II. "Factors for HighPrcision Conversion," NBS LCI071 (July
1976).
'
12. "Inforation ProcessingReprsentations of SI and Other Units
for Use in Systems With Limited Charcter Sets," IntI. Standar
ISO 29551974, IntI. Organization for Standarization, ANSI,
New York City. (Ref. 5 rprduces the 1973 edition of this stan
dar in its entirty.)
13. "Supplementar Metric Prctice Guide for the Canadian
Petrleum Industr," fourh edition, P.F. Moor (ed.), Canadian
Petrleum Assn. (Oct. (979).
14. "Letter Symbols for Units of Measurment," ANSI/IEEE Std.
2601978. Available frm American Natl. Standars Inst., New
York City.
IS. Mechtly, E.A.: "The Interational System of UnitsPhysical
Constants and Converion Factors," NASA SP7012, Scientifc
and Technical Inforation Ofce, NASA, Washington, D.C.
1973 edition available frm U.S. Goverment Prnting Ofce,
Washington, D.C.
16. McElwee, P.G.: Te Teas Vara. Available frm Commissioner,
Generl Land Offce, State of Texas, Austin (April 30, 1940).
'See Appendix A and prior paragraph on "General Conversion."
For cost and address information on ordering, see paper SPE 6212, or contact SPE
Headquarters.
APPENI A3
Terminology
To ensure consistently rliable conversion and runding
practices , a clear understanding of the rlated
nontechnical ters is prerquisite. Accoringly, cerain
ters used in this standard ar defned as follows.
Accuracy (as distinguished from Precision). The
degre of conformity of a measured or calculated value
to some rcognized standard or specifed value. This
concept involves the systematic errr of an operation,
which is seldom negligible.
Approximate. A value that is nearly but not exactly cor
rect or accurate.
Coherence. A charcteristic of a cohernt system of
units , as described in Appendix B, such that the prduct
or quotient of any two unit quantities is the unit of the
TABLE 1 .6 SPECIAL TERMS AND QUANTmES INVOLVING MASS AND
AMOUNT OF SUBSTANCE
Old Usage
Term
atomic weight
(SPE Symbols Standard)
atomic weight
(elsewhere)
equivalent
mass of molecule
molar
molarity
molecular weight
(SPE Symbols Standard)
molecular weight
(elsewhere)
normal obsolete
Dimensionles
Dimensions
(ISO Symbols,
See Table 1 . 1 )
M
M
M
8
Standardized Usage
Term
mass of atom
relative atomic mass
mole
mol ecular mass
molar (means, "divided by
amount of substance")
concentration
mol ar mass
relative molecular mass
SI Unit
Symbol
kg
mol
kg
1 /mol
mol/m3
kg/mol
resulting quantity. The SI base units, supplementary
units, and derived units for a cohernt set.
Deviation. Variation frm a specifed dimension or
design rquirment, usually defning upper and lower
limits (see also Tolerance).
Digit. One of the 10 Arabic numerals (0 to 9) .
Dimension(s). Two meanings: (1) A grup of fn
damental (physical) quantities, aritrrily selected, in
terms of which all other quantities can be measurd or
identifed.
9
Dimensions identif the physical natur of,
or the basic components making up, a physical quantity.
They ar the bases for the formation of usefl dimen
sionless grups and dimensionJsl numbers and tor the
powerfl tool of dimensional anaysis. The dimensions
for the aritrrly selected base units of the SI ar length,
mass, time, electric curnt, therodynamic temper
tur, amount of substance, and luminous intensity. SI
has two supplementar quantities considerd dimension
lessplane angle and solid angle. (2) A geometric ele
ment in a design, such as length and angle, or the
magnitude of such a quantity.
Figure (numerical). An arithmetic value exprssed by
one or mor digits or a fraction.
Nominal Value. A value assigned for the purose of
convenient designation; a value existing in name only.
Precision (as distinguished from Accuracy). The
degre of mutual agreement between individual
measurments (repeatability and rprducibility) .
Quantity. A concept used for qualitative and quan
titative descrptions of a physical phenomenon.
9
Signifcant Digit. Any digit that is necessar to defne a
value or quantity (see text discussion) .
Tolerance. The total range of varation (usually
bilaterl) peritted for a size, position, or other requird
quantity; the upper and lower limits between which a
dimension must be held.
U. S. Customary Units. Units based on the foot and the
pound, commonly used in the U. S. and defned by the
Natl . Burau of Standars. '' Some of these units have
the same name as similar units in the U. K. (British,
English, or U. K. units) but are not necessarily equal to
them.
APPENI B3
SI Units
Advantages of SI Units
SI is a rationalized selection of units fm the metric
system that individually ar not new. They include a unit
of fore (the newton) , which was intrduced in place of
the kilogrmforce to indicate by its name that it is a unit
of fore and not of mass. SI is a cohernt system with
seven base units for which names, symbol s, and prcise
. defnitions have been established. Many derived units
ar defn in terms of the base units, with symbols
9
assigned to each; in some cases, special names and unit
symbols ar givene. g. , the newton (N) .
One Unit Per Quantity. The grat advantage of SI is
that ther is one, and only one, unit for each physical
quantitythe meter for length (L), klogram (instead of
gram) for mass (m), second for time (t), etc. From these
elemental units, units for all other mechanical quantities
ar derived. These derived units ar defned by simple
equations among the quantities , such as v=dldt
(velocity) , a=dvldt (acceleration) , F=ma (fore) ,
W=FL (work or energy) , and P= WIt (power) . Some of
these units have only generic names, such as meter per
second for velocity; others have special names and sym
bol s, such as newton (N) for fore, joule (J) for work or
energy, and watt (W) for power. Te Sf units for force,
energy, and power are the same regardless of whether
the process is mechanical, electrical, chemical, or
nuclear. A force of 1 N applied for a distance of 1 m can
prduce 1 J of heat, which is identical with what 1 W of
electric power can prduce in 1 second.
Unique Unit Symbols. Corrsponding to the SI advan
tages of a unique unit for each physical quantity ar the
advantages resulting from the use of a unique and well
defned set of symbols . Such symbols eliminate the con
fsion that can arise from currnt practices in different
disciplines such as the use of "b" for both the bar (a unit
of prssur) and bar (a unit of ara) .
Decimal Relation. Another advantage of SI is its rten
tion of the decimal rlation between multiples and sub
multiples of the base units for each physical quantity.
Prefxes ar established for designating multiple and sub
multile units frm "exa" (10
18
) down to "atto"
(10 
8
) for convenience in writing and speaking.
Coherence. Another major advantage of SI is its
cohernce. This system of units has been chosen in such
a way that the equations between numerical values , in
cluding the numerical factors , have the same form as the
corrsponding equations between the quantities : this
constitutes a "cohernt" system. Equations between
units of a coherent unit system contain as numerical fac
tors only the number 1 . In a cohernt system, the product
or quotient of any two unit quantities is the unit of the
rsulting quantity. For example, in any cohernt system,
unit ara rsults when unit length is multiplied by unit
length (1 m x 1 m = 1 m
2
) , unit force when unit mass * is
multiplied by unit acceleration (1 kg xl m/s
2
= 1 N) ,
unit work when unit force is multiplied by unit length ( 1
N x 1 m = 1 J) , and unit power when unit work i s divided
by unit time (1 J + 1 second = 1 W) . Thus, in a cohernt
system in which the meter i s the unit of length, the
squar meter is the unit of ara, but the ar** and hectar
ar not cohernt. Much worse disparities occur in
systems of " customar units" (both nonmetrc and older
metric) that rquir many numerical adjustment factors
in equations.
Base Units. Whatever the system of units, whether it be
cohernt or noncohernt, paricular samples of some
Note that the kilogram (not the gram) is the coherent SI unit of r8SS.
"The are is an old metric unit.
physical quantities must be selected arbitrrily as units of
those quantities. The rmaining units ar defned by ap
prpriate experiments rlated to the theortical interrla
tions of all the quantities. For convenience of analysis,
units peraining to certain base quantities are by conven
tion regarded as dimensionally independent; these units
are called base units (Table 1 . 1 ) , all all others (derived
units) can be exprssed algebrically in ters of the base
units . In SI , the unit of mass, the kilogrm, is defned as
the mass of a prtotype kilogrm prserved by the Inter
national Burau of Weights and Measurs (BIPM) in
Pari s. All other base units ar defned in ters of
rproducible phenomenae. g. , the wave lengths and
frquencies of specifed atomic trnsitions.
NonSI Metric Units
Various other units ar associated with SI but ar not a
par therof. They ar rlated to units of the system by
powers of 10 and ar employed in specialized branches
of physics. An example is the bar, a unit of prssur, ap
prximately equivalent to 1 atm and exactly equal to 1 00
kPa. The bar is employed extensively by meteorlogists .
Another such unit is the gal , equal exactly to an acceler
tion of 0. 01 m/s
2
It is used in geodetic work. These,
however, ar not cohernt unitsi . e. , equations involv
ing both these units and SI units cannot be written
without a factor of prportionality even though that fac
tor may be a simple power of 1 0.
Originally ( 1 795) , the liter was intended to be identical
to the cubic decimeter. The Thir General Confernce
on Weights and Measurs (CGPM) in 1 901 defned the
liter as the volume occupied by the mass of 1 kilogram of
pur water at its maximum density under normal at
mospheric prssure. Carfl determinations subsequent
ly established the liter so defned as equivalent to
1 . 000 028 dm
3
. In 1 964, the CGPM withdrw this
defnition of the liter and declard that "liter" was a
special name for the cubic decimeter. Thus , its use is
permitted in SI but is discouraged because it crates two
units for the same quantity and its use in precision
measurments might confict with measurments rcor
ed under the old defnition.
SI Base Unit Defnitions
Authorzed translations of the original Frnch defnitions
of the seven base and two supplementar units of SI
follow
3
(parnthetical items added) .
"Meter (m)The meter is the length equal to 1 650
763 . 73 wavelengths in vacuum of the radiation cor
.
rsponding to the transition between the levels 2 p g and
5ds of the krpton86 atom. " (Adopted by 1 1th CGPM
1 960.)
"Kilogram (kg)The kilogram is the unit of mass
(and is the cohernt SI unit); it is equal to the mass of the
interational prtotype of the kilogrm. " (Adopted by
First and Third CGPM 1 889 and 1 901 . )
"Second (s)The second i s the duration of 9 1 92 63 1
770 perods of the rdiation corrsponding to the trnsi
tion between the two hyperfne levels of the ground state
of the cesium 1 33 atom. t" (Adopted by 1 3th CGPM
1967. )
"Ampere (A)The amper i s that constant currnt
which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors
of infnite length, of negligible cirular crsssection,
10
and placed one meter apar in vacuum, would prduce
between these conductors a force equal to 2 x 10
newton per meter of length. " (Adopted by Ninth CGPM
1 948. )
"Kelvin (K)The kelvin, unit of terodynamic
temperatur, is the fction 1 1273. 1 6 of the ther
modynamic tempertur of the triple point of water. '
,
3
(Adopted by 1 3th CGPM 1 967. )
"Mole (mol)The mole i s the amount of substance of
a system which contains as many elementary entities as
ther 8 atoms in 0. 01 2 klogrms of caron12. "
(Adopted by 14th CGPM 1 97 1 . )
"NoteWhen the mole is used, the elementar en
tities must be specifed and may be atoms, molecules,
ions, electrons , other particles, or specifed grups of
such particles . "
, 'Candela (cd)The candela is the luminous intensity
in a given direction of a soure that emits
monochrmatic rdiation of frquency 540 (E + 1 2) herz
(Hz) and that has a radiant intensity in that dirction of
1 1683 watt per steradian. "
"Radian (rad)The rdian is the plane angle between
two rdii of a cirle which cut off on the circumfernce
an arc equal in length to the rdius. "
"Steradian (sr)The sterdian is the solid angle
which, having its verex at the center of a spher, cuts of
an ara of the surface of the spher equal to that of a
squar with sides of length equal to the rdius of the
spher. "
tThis definition supersedes the ephemeris second as the unit of time.
Defnitions of SI Derived Units
Having Special Names3
Physical Quantity
Absored dose
Activity
Celsius temperature
Dose equivalent
Electrc capacitance
Unit and Definition
The gray (Gy) is the absored
dose when the energy per unit
mass impared to matter by
ionizing rdiation is 1 J/kg.
The becquerel (Bq) is the activi
ty of a rdionuclide decaying at
the rate of one spontaneous
nuclear transition per second.
The degree Celsius ( 0 C) is equal
to the kelvin and is used in place
of the kelvin for exprssing
Celsius temperature (symbol
Toe) defned by Toe =TK To,
wher T K is the therodynamic
temperatur and To =273 . 1 5 K
by defnition.
The sievert i s t he dos e
equivalent when the absored
dose of ionizing radiation
multiplied by the dimensionless
factors Q (quality factor) and N
(prduct of any other multiply
ing factors) stipulated by the
IntI . Commission on Radiolog
ical Prtection is 1 J/kg.
The farad (F) is the capacitance
of a capacitor between the plates
of which there appears a dif
fernce of potential of 1 V when
it is charged by a quantity of
electrcity equal to 1 C.
Electric
conductance
Electric inductance
Electric potential
differnce, elec
trmotive force
Electric resistance
Energy
Force
Frequency
Illuminance
Luminous fux
Magnetic fux
Magnetic fux
density
magnetic induction
The siemens (S) is the electric
conductance of a conductor in
which a curent of I A is pro
duced by an electric potential
diference of I V.
The henr (H) i s the inductance
of a closed circuit in which an
electrmotive force of I V is
produced when the electric cur
rent in the circuit varies unifor
ly at a rte of I A/s.
The volt (V) is the difference of
electric potential between two
points of a conductor carrying a
constant curent of I A when the
power dissipated between these
points is equal to I W.
The ohm (0) i s the electric
resistance between two points of
a conductor when a constant dif
ference of potential of I V, ap
plied between these two points,
prduces in this conductor a cur
rent of I A, this conductor not
being the source of any elec
trmotive force.
The joule (J) is the work done
when the point of application of
a force of I N is displaced a
distance of I m in the direction
of the force.
The newton (N) is that force
which, when applied to a body
having a mass of I kg, gives it
an accelertion of I m/s
2
.
The hertz (Hz) is the frequency
of a periodic phenomenon of
which the period is I second.
The lu (lx) is the illuminance
prduced by a luminous fux of I
1m uniformly distributed over a
surface of 1 m
2
.
The lumen (lm) is the luminous
fux emitted in a solid angle of I
sr by a point source having a
uniform intensity of I cd.
The weber (Wb) is the magnetic
fux which, linking a circuit of
one tum, prduces in it an elec
trmotive force of I V as it is
reduced to zer at a uniform rate
in I s.
The tesla (T) i s the magnetic
fux density of I Wb/m
2
. In an
alterative approach to defning
the magnetic feld quantities the
tesla may also be defned as the
magnetic fux density that pr
duces on a I m length of wire
carring a current of I A,
oriented normal t o the fux den
sit, a force of 1 N, magnetic
fux density being defned as an
axial vector quantity such that
1 1
Power
Pressure or stress
Electric charge,
quantity of
electricity
the force exered on an element
of current is equal to the vector
product of this element and the
magnetic fux density.
The watt (W) is the power that
represents a rate of energy
transfer of 1 J/s.
The pascal (Pa) is the pressure
or stress of 1 N/m 2 .
Electric charge is the time in
tegral of electric current; its unit,
the coulomb (C) , is equal to 1
A s .
No other SI derived units havp been assigned special
names at this time.
APPENIX C3 , 8*
Style Guide for Metric Usage
Rules for Writing Metric Quantities
Capitals. UnitsUnit names, including prefxes, are not
capitalized except at the beginning of a sentence or in
titles . Note that for "degree Celsius" the word
"degree" is lower case; the modifer "Celsius" is
always capitalized. The "degree centrigrde" is now
obsolete.
SymbolsThe shor forms for metric units are called
unit symbols . They are lower case except that the frst
letter is upper case when the unit is named for a person.
(An exception to this rule in the U. S. is the symbol L for
liter. )
Examples: Unit Name Unit Symbol
meter** m
gram g
newton N
pascal Pa
Printed unit symbols should have Roman (upright) let
ters, because italic (sloping or slanted) letters are re
served for quantity symbols, such as m for mass and L
for length.
Pref SymbolsAll prefx names, their symbol s, and
pronunciation ar listed in Table 1 . 4. Notice that the top
five are upper case and all the rest lower case.
The imporance of following the precise use of upper
case and lowercase letters is shown by the following ex
amples of prefxes and units .
G for giga; g for grm.
K for kelvin; k for kilo.
M for mega; m for mill i .
N for newton; n for nano.
T for tera; t for tonne (metric ton) .
Information ProcessingLimited Character Sets
Prefxes and unit symbols retain their prescrbed forms
regardless of the surrounding typography, except for
systems with limited character sets . ISO has prvided a
standard 1
2
for such systems ; thi s standard i s
recommended.
Plurals and Fractions. Names of SI units form their
plurls in the usual manner, except for lux, hertz, and
siemens .
Values less than one take the singular fon of the unit
name; for example, 0. 5 kilogrm or ' kilogram. While
decimal notation (0. 5, 0. 35 , 6. 87) is generly preferrd,
the most simple fractions are acceptable, such as those
wher the denominator is 2, 3, 4, or 5.
Symbols of units ar the same i n singular and
plurle. g. , 1 m and 1 00 m.
Periods. A period i s not used afer a symbol , except at
the end of a sentence. Examples: "A curnt of 1 5 D is
found . . . " "The feld measurd 350 X 125 m. "
The Decimal Marker. ISO specifes the comma as the
decimal marker
9
; in Englishlanguage documents a dot
on the line is acceptable. In numbers less than one, a
zero should be wrtten befor the decimal sign (to pr
vent the possibility that a faint decimal sign will be
overooked) . Example: The oral exprssion "point
seven fve" is written 0. 75 or 0, 75.
Grouping of Numbers. Separte digits into grups of
three, counting from the decimal marker. A com
should not be used between the groups of three
9
; in
stead, a space is lef to avoid confsion, since the comma
is the ISO standard for the decimal marker.
In a fourdigit number, the space is not rquired unless
the fourdigit number is in a column with numbers of
fve digits or mor:
For
For
For
For
4, 720,525
0. 52875
6, 875
0. 6875
Ref. 8 is primary source .
write
write
write
write
4 720 525
0. 528 75
6875 or 6 875
0. 6875 or
0. 687 5
The spel l i ngs "metre" and "l itre" are preferred by ISO but "meter" and "l iter" are
official u. s. government spel l i ngs.
Spacing. In symbols or names for units having prfxes,
no space is lef between letters making up the symbol or
the name. Examples ar k, kiloamper; and mg,
milligram.
When a symbol follows a number to which it rfers, a
space must be lef between the number and the symbol ,
except when the symbol (such as 0) appears in the
supersct position. Examples : 455 kHz, 22 mg, 20
mm, 10 N, 30 K, 20 C.
When a quantity i s used as an adjective, a hyphen
should be used between the number and the symbol (ex
cept 0C). Examples: It is a 35mm flm; the flm width is
35 mm. I bought a 6kg turkey; the turkey weighs 6 kg.
Leave a space on each side of signs for multiplication,
division, addition, and subtrction, except within a com
pound symbol . Examples : 4 cm X 3 m (not 4 cm X 3 m) ;
kg/m
3
; N m.
Powers. For unit names, use the modifer squared or
cubed afer the unit name (except for ara and
volume)e. g. , meter per second squard. For ara or
volume, place a modifer befor the unit name, including
in derived units: e. g. , cubic meter and watt per squar
meter.
For unit symbols, write the symbol for the unit fol
lowed by the power superscripte. g. , 14 m
2
and 26
cm
3
.
12
Compound Units. For a unit name (not a symbol) de
rived as a quotient (e. g. , for kilometers per hour) , it is
prferble not to use a slash (I) as a substitute for ' ' per'
,
except wher space is limited and a symbol might not be
understood. Avoid other mixturs of wors and symbols .
Examples : Use meter per second, not m/s. Use only one
"per" in any combination of unitse. g. , meter per sec
ond squard, not meter per second per second.
For a unit symbol derived as a quotient do not, for ex
ample, write k. p. h. or kph for km/h because the frst two
are undertood only in the English language, wheras
km/h is used in all languages. The symbol km/h also can
be written with a negative exponente. g. , km h

' .
Never use more than one slash (I) in any combination
of symbols unless parntheses ar used to avoid ambigui
ty; examples ar m/s
2
, not m/s/s; W/(m K) , not
W/m/K.
For a unit name derived as a prduct, a space or a
hyphen is recommended but never a "product dot" (a
period raised to a centerd position)e. g. , write newton
meter or newtonmeter, not newton meter. In the case of
the watt hour, the space may be omittedwatthour.
For a unit symbol derived as a product, use a prduct
dote. g. , N m. For computer printouts, automatic
typewriter work, etc. , a dot on the line may be used. Do
not use the product dot as a multiplier symbol for
calculationse. g. , use 6. 2 x5 , not 6. 2 5 .
Do not mix nonmetric units with metrc units, except
those for time, plane angle, or rtatione. g. , use
kg/m
3
, not kg/f
3
or kg/gal .
A quantity that constitutes a rtio of two like quantities
should be expressed as a frction (either common or
decimal) or as a perentagee. g. , the slope is 1 1 1 00 or
0. 01 or 1 %, not 10 mm/m or 10 m/km .
SI Prefx Usage. GeneralSI prefxes should be used to
indicate orders of magnitude, thus eliminating non
signifcant digits and leading zers in decimal fctions
and prviding a convenient alterative to the powers
of l O notation prferd in computation. For example,
12 300 m (in computations) becomes 1 2. 3 km (in non
computation situations) ; 0. 01 23 /A ( 1 2. 3 X 10 
9
A for
computations) becomes 1 2. 3 nA (in noncomputation
situations) .
SelectionWhen exprssing a quantity by a numerical
value and a unit , prfxes should be chosen so that the
numerical value lies between 0. 1 and 1 000. Generally,
prfxes reprsenting steps of 1 000 ar recommended
(avoiding hecto, deka, deci , and centi) . However, some
situations may justif deviation fm the above:
1 . In exprssing units rised to powers (such as ,
volume and moment) the prfxes hecto, deka, deci , and
centi may be rquirde. g . , cubic centimeter for
volume and cm
4
for moment .
2. In tables of values of the same quantity, or in a
discussion of such values within a given context, it
generally is prferable to use the same unit multiple
thrughout.
3 . For cerain quantities in paricular applications, one
cerain multiple is used customarily; an example is the
millimeter in mechanical engineering drwings, even
when the values lie far outside the rnge of 0. 1 to 1 000
mm.
Powers of UnitsAn exponent attached to a symbol
containing a prfx indicates that the multiple or sub
multiple ofthe unit (the unit with its prfx) is raised to
the power expressed by, the eonent. For example,
1 cm
3
=( 1 O 
2
m)
3
= 1O 
6
m
3
1 ns  1 =( 1 0 
9
s)  1 = 10
9
s  1
1 mm
2
/s =( 1 0 
3
m)
2
/s = 1 O 
5
m
2
/s
Double PrefesDouble or multiple prfxes should
not be used. For example,
use GW (gigawatt) , not kMW;
use pm (picometer) , not ppm;
use Gg (gigagram) , not Mkg;
use 1 3 . 58 m, not 1 3 m 580 mm.
Pref MituresDo not use a mixtur of prfxes
unless the difernce in size is extrme. For example,
use 40 mm wide and 1 500 mm long, not 40 mm wide
and 1 . 5 m long; however, 1 500 m of 2mmdiameter
wire is acceptable.
Compound UnitsIt is preferable that prefxes not be
used in the denominators of complex units, except for
kilogram (kg) which is a base unit. However, ther ar
cases where the use of such prfxes is necessar to ob
tain a numercal value of convenient size. Examples of
some of these rare exceptions are shown in the tables
contained in these standards.
Prfxes may be applied to the numerator of a com
pound unit; thus, megagram per cubic meter (Mg/m
3
) ,
but not kilogrm per cubic decimeter (kg/ dm
3
) nor grm
per cubic centimeter (g/cm
3
) . Values rquird outside
the range of the prfxes should be exprssed by powers
of 10 applied to the base unit.
Unit of MassAmong the base units of SI, the
kilogrm is the only one whose name, for historical
reasons, contains a prfx; it is also the coherent SI unit
for mass (See Appendices A and B for discussions of
coherence. ) However, names of decimal multiples and
submultiples of the unit of mass ar formed by attaching
prefxes to the word "gram. "
Prefes AloneDo not use a prefx without a
unite. g. , use kilogram, not klo.
CalculationsErr in calculations can be minimized
if, instead of using prfxes, the base and the coherent
derived SI units are used, exprssing numerical values in
powersof 1 0 notatione. g . , 1 MJ = 1 0
6
J .
Spelling of Vowel Pairs. Ther 8 thre cases wher
the fnal vowel in a prfx is omitted: megohm, klohm,
and hectar. In all other cases, both vowels 8 retained
and both are pronounced. No space or hyphen should be
used.
Complicated Expressions. To avoid ambiguity in com
plicated expressions, symbols ar prferd over wors.
Attachment. Attachment of letters to a unit symbol for
giving information about the natur of the quantity is in
correct : MWe for "megawatts electrical (power) , " kPag
for "kilopascals gauge (pressur) , " Paa for "pascals ab
solute (prssur) , " and Vac for "volts ac" are not ac
ceptable. If the context is in doubt on
30 centimeters
0.3 meter
0. 03 cubi c meter
0.06 cubi c meter per ki l ogram
0. 1 square meter
, ACTI VI TY
h.r  /t
"
( OF I ONI ZI NG
F REQUENCY
, RADI ATI ON SOURCE)
I
, I
.
= =  = = = = =  = = J
Ut
( A'S)
= .  = . = = =
POWE R,
HEAT F L OW RATE
I
I
I
1
I
I
1
1
t
I
I
I
CE LSI US I
1
TEMPE RATURE I
g'
I
= TC 213. 1 5 1
         
L _ _ __.
MAGNETI C
f l UX
DN8I T
lUI

L UMI NOUS f l UX Il l UMI NANCE
SOL I D LI NES I NDI CATE MULTI PLI CATI ON;
BROKEN L I NES, DI VI SI ON
l
1
I
I
g
m
2 _ _ __ J
Mg. 2.1 Graphic Relatinshi ps of b Units With Names.
23
Force
Any force ten will use the newton (N) . Derived units
involving force also require the newton. The expression
of force using a mass ten (like the kilogram) is ab
solutely forbidden under these standards.
Mass
The kilogram is the base unit, but the gram, alone or
with any apprved prefx, is an acceptable SI unit.
For large mass quantities the metric ton (t) may be
used. Some call this "tonne: ' However, this spelling
sometimes has been used historically to denote a regular
shor ton (2, 000 Ibm) . A metric ton is also a megagram
(Mg) . The tens metric ton or Mg are prefered in text
references .
Energy and Work
The joule (J) is the fndamental energy unit; kilojoules
(k) or megajoules (MJ) will be used most commonly.
The calorie (large or small) is no longer an acceptable
unit under these standards . The kilowatthour is accep
table for a transition perod but eventually should be
replaced by the megajoule.
Power
The ten horsepower disappears as an allowable unit.
The kilowatt (kW) or megawatt (MW) will be the
multiples of . the fndamental watt unit used most
commonly.
Pressure
The fndamental pressure unit is the pascal (Pa) but the
kilopascal (kPa) is the most convenient unit. The bar
( 1 00 kPa) is an allowable unit. The pressure ten
kglcm 2 is not allowable under these standards .
Viscosity
The tens poise, centipoise, stokes , and centistokes are
no longer used under these standards. They ar replaced
by the metric units shown in Table 2. 2.
Temperature
Although it is penissible to use e in text references, it
i s recommended that "K" be used in graphical and
tabular summaries of data.
Density
The fundamental SI unit for density is kglm
3
. Use of this
unit is encouraged. However, a unit like kg/L is
penissible.
The traditional ten "specific gravity" will not be
used. It will be rplaced by the ten "relative density. "
API grvity disappears as a measure of relative density.
Relative Atomic Mass and Molecular Mass
The traditional tens "atomic weight" and "molecular
weight" are replaced in the SI system of units by
"relative atomic mass" and "relative molecular mass, "
respectively. See Table 1 . 6.
24
Unit Standards Under Discussion
There are some quantities for which the unit standards
have not been clarifed to the satisfaction of all paries
and some controversy remains . These primary quantities
are summarized below.
Permeability
The SPEpreferred peneabilit unit is the squar
micrmeter (Im2 ) . One darcy (the trditional unit)
equals 0. 986 923 Im2 . *
The fndamental SI unit of peneability (in square
meters) is defned as follows : "a peneability of one
meter squared will penit a fow of 1 m
3
Is of fuid of
1 Pa ' s viscosity through an area of 1 R
2
under a
pressure grdient of 1 Palm. "
The trditional tens of "darcy" and "millidarcy"
have been apprved as prefered units of peneability.
Note 1 1 of Table 2. 2 shows the relationships between
traditional and SI units and points out that the units of the
darcy and the square micrometer can be considered
equivalent when high accurcy is not needed or implied.
Standard Temperature
Some reference temperatur is necessar to show cerain
prperties of materials, such as density, volume, viscosi
ty, energy level , etc. Historically, the petrleum industr
almost universally has used 60 F ( 1 5. 56 C) as this
reference temperature, and metric systems have used
oo e, 20o e, and 25 e most commonly, depending on
the data and the area of specialty.
API has opted for 1 5 e because it is close to 60F
ASME has used 200 e in some of its metric guides . The
bulk of continental European data used for gas and oil
correlations is at oo e, although 1 5 e is used sometimes.
The SPE Subcommittee feels that the choice between
oo e and 1 5 e is arbitrar. Tentatively, a standard of
1 5 e has been adopted simply to confon to API stan
dards . It may be desirable to have a fexible temperature
standard for various applications .
Standard Pressure
To date, some grups have opted for a pressure reference
of 1 01 . 325 kPa, which is the equivalent of one standard
atmosphere. The Subcommittee considers thi s an unac
ceptable number. Its adoption possesses some shorten
convenience advantages but condemns ftur genera
tions to continual oddnumber conversions to refect the
change of pressure on prperties . It also violates the
powersof l O aspect of the SI system, one of its primar
advantages .
The current SPE standard is 1 00 kPa and should be
used until frher notice. It is our hope that rason will
prevail and others will adopt this standard.
Gauge and Absolute Pressure
There is no prvision for differentiating between gauge
and absolute pressure, and actions by interational
bodies prohibit showing the difference by an addendum
to the unit symbol . The Subcommittee recommends that
gauge and absolute be shown using parntheses follow
ing p:
p=643 kPa, p(g) =543 ka
[p is found
frm peg) by adding actual barmetric
prssur. ( 1 00 kPa is suitable for most engineering
calculations. )]
In custody transfer the standar prssur will be
specifed by contract. Unless ther is a special rason not
to do so, the standard prssur will be 1 00 kPa to
prsere the "multiples of ten" principle of the metric
system.
Standard prssur norally is defned and used as an
absolute prssur. So, p sc = 1 00 kPa is prper notation.
Absolute prssur is implied if no (g) is added to denote
gauge prssure specifcally.
Standard Volumes
Cubic meters at standard rfernce conditions must be
equated to a term with the standard "se" subscript. For
example, for a gas prduction rate of 1 200 000 m
3
/d,
write
qg
sc = 1 . 2 X 1 0
6
m
3
/d or 1 . 2 (E+06) m
3
/d
rad as " 1 . 2 million cubic meters per day. "
If the rate is 1 200 cubic meters per day, write
qg
sc = 1 . 2 X 1 0
3
m
3
/d.
For gas in place, one could write
Gsc = I 1 . 0 X 1 0 1
2
m
3
Notes for Table 2. 2
1 . The cubem (cubic mile) is used in the measurment
of ver large volumes , such as the content of a
sedimentar basin.
2. In surveying, navigation, etc. , angles no doubt will
continue to be measurd with instruments that rad
out in degrees, minutes, and seconds and need not
be convered into radians . But for calculations in
volving rotational energy, rdians ar prferd.
3 . The unit of a million years is used in
geochrnology. The megaannum is the prferrd
SI unit, but many prefer simply to use mathematical
notation (i . e. , X 1 0
6
) .
4. This conversion factor i s for an ideal gas .
5. Subsurface pressures can be measured i n
megapascals or as freshwater heads in meters. If the
latter apprach is adopted, the hydrstatic grdient
becomes dimensionless .
6. Quantities listed under "Facility Throughput,
Capacity" ar to be used only for charcterizing the
size or capacity of a plant or piece of equipment.
Quantities listed under "Flow Rate" ar for use in
design calculations .
7. This conversion factor is based on a density of 1 . 0
kg/dm
3
8. Seismic velocities will be exprssed in km/s.
9. The interval trnsit time unit is used in sonic log
ging work.
25
1 0. See discussion of "Energy, Torue, and Bending
Moment , " Part 1 .
1 1 . The permeability conversions shown in Table 2. 2
ar for the trditional defnitions of darcy and
millidarcy.
In SI units, the square micrmeter is the preferred
unit of permeability in fuid fow through a porus
medium, having the dimensions of viscosity times
volume fow rate per unit area divided by prssur
gradient, which simplifes to dimensions of length
squared. (The fndmental SI unit is the squar
meter, defned by leaving out the factor of 10  1
2
in
the equation below) .
A permeability of 1 p,m
2
will perit a fow of
1 m
3
/ s of fuid of 1 Pa ' s viscosity thrugh an ara
of 1 m
2
under a prssur gradient of 10 1
2
Palm
(neglecting gravity effects) :
1 pm
2
= 1 0  1 2 Pa ' s [m
3
/(s ' m
2
)] (m/Pa)
= 10  1
2
Pa ' s(m/s)(m/Pa)
= 1 0  1
2
m
2
The range of values in petroleum work is best
served by units of 1 0 
3
pm
2
The trditional
millidarcy (md) is an inforal name for 1 0 
3
pm
2
,
which may be used where high accuracy is not
implied.
For virually all engineering puroses, the
familiar dary and millidarcy units may be taken
equal to 1 pm
2
and 1 0 
3
pm
2
, rspectively.
1 2. The ohmmeter is used in borhole geophysical
devices.
1 3 . As noted in Section 1 , the mole is an amount of
substance exprssible in elementar entities as
atoms, molecules , ions, electrns , and other par
ticles or specifed groups of such particles . Since
the exprssion kilogram mole is inconsistent with
other SI practices , we have used the abbreviation
" kmol " to designate an amount of substance which
contains as many kilogrms (groups of molecules)
as ther ar atoms in 0. 01 2 kg of caron 1 2
multiplied by the rlative molecular mass of the
substance involved. In effect, the "k" prfx is
merly a convenient way to identif the type of en
tity and facilitate conversion fm the trditional
pound mole without violating SI conventions .
Notes for Table 2. 3
1 . The standard cubic foot (sct and barrl (bbl) r
ferrd to ar measurd at 60 F and 1 4. 696 psia; the
cubic meter is measured at 1 5 C and 1 00 kPa
( 1 bar) .
2. The kPa is the preferd SPE unit for prssur. But
many ar using the bar as a prssur measurment.
The bar should be considered as a nonapprved
name (or equivalent) for 1 00 kPa.
3 . See discussion of " Torque, and Bending Mo
ment, " Par 1 .
TABLE 2.2TABLES OF RECOMMENDED SI UNITS
Metric Uni t
Customary SPE Other
Quanti and SI Uni t Uni t Preferred Al l owabl e
SPACE,.* TI ME
Length m naut mi l e km
mi l e km
chain m
l i nk m
fathom m
m m
yd m
ft m
cm
i n. mm
cm
cm mm
cm
mm mm
mi l
I
m
micron (
I
)
I
m
Length/length m/m fmi mlkm
Lengthlvol ume m/m3 ftU. S. gal m/m3
ftft3 m/m3
ftbbl m/m3
Length/temperature m/K see "Temperature, Pressure, Vacuum"
Area m2 sq mi l e km2
section km2
ha
acre m2
ha
ha m2
sq yd m2
sq ft m2
cm2
sq i n. mm2
cm2
cm2 mm2
cm2
mm2 mm2
Area/vol ume m2/m3 f2/in.3 m2/cm3
Area/mass m2/kg cm2/g m2/kg
m2/g
Vol ume, capacity m3 cubem km3
acreft m3
ham
m3 m3
cu yd m3
bbl (42 U. S. gal ) m3
cu ft m3
dm3 L
U. K. gal m3
dm3 L
U. S. gal m3
dm3 L
liter dm3 L
U. K. qt dm3 L
U. S. qt dm3 L
U. S. pt dm3 L
An asterisk indicates that the conversion factor is exact usi ng the numbers shown; all subsequent numbers are zeros.
" Conversion factors for length. area. and volume (and related quantities) i n Table 2.2 are based on the international fool. See Footnote 1 of Table 1 . 7. Par 1 .
See Notes 1 through 1 3 on Page 25.
26
Conversion Factor*
Mul ti pl y Customar
Unit by Factor to
Get Metric Uni t
1 . 852*
1 . 609 344*
2. 01 1 68*
2. 01 1 68*
1 . 828 8*
1 . 0*
9. 1 44*
3. 048*
3. 048*
2. 54*
2. 54*
1 . 0*
1 . 0*
1 . 0*
2. 54*
1 . 0*
1 . 893 939
8. 051 964
1 . 076 391
1 . 91 7 1 34
2. 589 988
2. 589 988
2. 589 988
4. 046 856
4. 046 856
1 . 0*
8. 361 274
9. 290 304*
9. 290 304*
6. 451 6*
6. 451 6*
1 . 0*
1 . 0*
1 . 0*
5. 699 291
1 . 0*
1 . 0*
4. 1 68 1 82
1 . 233 489
1 . 233 489
1 . 0*
7. 645 549
1 . 589 873
2. 831 685
2. 831 685
4. 546 092
4. 546 092
3. 785 41 2
3. 785 41 2
1 . 0*
1 . 1 36 523
9. 463 529
4. 731 765
E + OO
E + OO
E + 01
E  01
E + OO
E + OO
E  01
E  01
E + 01
E + 01
E + OO
E + 01
E + OO
E + OO
E + 01
E + OO
E  01
E + 01
E + 01
E + OO
E + OO
E + OO
E + 02
E + 03
E  01
E + 04
E  01
E  02
E + 02
E + 02
E + OO
E + 02
E + OO
E + OO
E  03
E  01
E  04
E + 00
I l lt
E + 03
E  01
E + OO
E  01
E  01
E  02
E + 01
E  03
E + OO
E  03
E + OO
E + OO
E + OO
E  01
E  01
TABLE 2.2TABLES OF RECOMMENDED SI UNITS (cont'd.)
Conversion Factor"
Metric Unit
Multi pl y Customary
Customar SPE Other Unit by Factor to
Quanti and SI Unit Uni t Preferred Al l owabl e Get Metric Unit
SPACE," TI ME
Vol ume, capacity m3 UK fl oz cm3 2. 841 308 E + 01
U. S. fl oz cm3 2. 957 353 E + 01
cu i n. cm3 1 . 638 706 E + 01
mL cm3 1 . 0' E + OO
Vol umellength m3/m bblli n. m3/m 6. 259 342 E + OO
(l i near di spl acement)
bbl/ft m3/m 5. 21 6 1 1 9 E  01
ft31ft m3/m 9. 290 304" E  02
U. S. gal/ft m3/m 1 . 241 933 E  02
dm3/m Ur 1 . 241 933 E + 01
Volume/mass m3/kg see "Density, Specific Vol ume, Concentrati on, Dosage"
Pl ane angl e rad rad rad 1 . 0' E + OO
deg CO) rad 1 . 745 329 E  02 (2)
1 . 0' E + OO
mi n e ' ) rad 2. 908 882 E  04 (2)
1 . 0' E + OO
sec (") rad 4. 848 1 37 E  06 (2)
1 . 0" E + OO
Sol i d angl e sr sr sr 1 . 0' E + OO
Time s mi l l i on years (MY) Ma 1 . 0' E + OO (3)
yr a 1 . 0' E + OO
wk d 7. 0' E + OO
d d 1 . 0' E + OO
hr h 1 . 0' E + OO
mi n 6. 0' E + 01
mi n s 6. 0' E + 01
h 1 . 666 667 E  02
mi n 1 . 0" E + OO
s s 1 . 0" E + OO
mi l l i microsecond ns 1 . 0' E + OO
MASS, AMOUNT OF SUBSTANCE
Mass kg U. K. ton (l ong ton) Mg 1 . 01 6 047 E + OO
U. S. ton (shor ton) Mg 9. 071 847 E  01
U. K. ton k
!
5. 080 235 E + 01
U. S. cwt kg 4. 535 924 E + 01
kg kg 1 . 0' E + OO
Ibm kg 4. 535 924 E  01
oz (troy)
J
3. 1 1 0 348 E + 01
oz (av)
J
2. 834 952 E + 01
J J
1 . 0" E + OO
grain mg 6. 479 891 E + 01
mg mg 1 . 0" E + OO
J J
1 . 0" E + OO
Mass/length kg/m see "Mechanics"
Mass/area kg/m2 see "Mechanics"
MasSol ume kg/m3 see "Density, Specific Vol ume, Concentrati on, Dosage"
Mass/mass kg/kg see "Density, Specific Vol ume, Concentration, Dosage"
Amount of mol Ibm mol kmol 4. 535 924 E  01
substance
g mol kmol 1 . 0" E  03
sid m3 (OC, 1 atm) kmol 4. 461 58 E  02 14, 1 3)
sid m3 ( 1 5C, 1 atm) kmol 4.229 32 E  02 14, 13)
std h (60F, 1 atm) kmol 1 . 1 95 3 E  03 14, 1 3)
27
TABLE 2.2TABLES OF RECOMMENDED SI UNITS (cont'd.)
Conversion Factor*
Metric Uni t
Mul ti pl y Customary
Customary SPE Other Uni t by Factor to
Quanti! and SI Uni t Uni t Preferred Al lowable Get Metri c Unit
CALORI FI C VALUE, HEAT, ENTROPY, HEAT CAPACI TY
Cal orific val ue J/kg Btu/I bm MJ/kg 2. 326 E  03
(mass basis) kJ/kg J/g 2. 326 E + OO
(kWh)/kg 6. 461 1 1 2 E  04
cal/g kJ/kg J/g 4. 1 84* E + OO
cal/lbm J/kg 9. 224 1 41 E + OO
Calorific val ue J/mol kcal/g mol kJ/kmol 4. 1 84* C + 03' 3
(mol e basis)
Btu/Ibm mol MJ/kmol 2. 326 E  03' 3
kJ/kmol 2. 326 E + 00' 3
Cal orific val ue J/m3 therm/U. K. gal MJ/m3 kJ/dm3 2. 320 80 E + 04
(vol ume basis  kJ/m3 2. 320 80 E + 07
solids and l i qui ds)
(kW'h)/dm3 6. 446 660 E + OO
Btu/U. S. gal MJ/m3 kJ/dm3 2. 787 1 63 E  01
kJ/m3 2. 787 1 63 E + 02
(kW'h)/m
3
7. 742 1 1 9 E  02
Btu/U. K. gal MJ/m3 kJ/dm3 2. 320 8 E  01
kJ/m3 2. 320 8 E + 02
(kW'h)/m3 6. 446 660 E  02
Btulft3 MJ/m3 kJ/dm3 3. 725 895 E  02
kJ/m3 3. 725 895 E + 01
(kW'h)/m3 1 . 034 971 E  02
kcal/m3 MJ/m3 kJ/dm3 4. 1 84* E  03
kJ/m3 4. 1 84* E + OO
cal/mL MJ/m3 4. 1 84* E + OO
ftlbf/U. S. gal kJ/m3 3. 581 692 E  01
Calorific value J/m3 cal/mL kJ/m3 J/dm3 4. 1 84* E + 03
(vol ume basis 
kcal/m3 kJ/m3 J/dm3 4. 1 84* E + OO
gases)
Btu/ft3 kJ/m3 J/dm3 3. 725 895 E + 01
(kW' h)/m
3
.1 .034 971 E  02
Specific entropy J/kg'K Btu/(l bmoR) kJ/(kg'K) J(g ' K) 4. 1 86 8* E + OO
cal/(goK) kJ/(kg'K) J(g ' K) 4. 1 84* E + OO
kcal/(kgC) kJ/(kg'K) J(g ' K) 4. 1 84* E + OO
Specific heat J/kg K kWhr/(kgoC) kJ/(kg'K) J(g . K) 3. 6* E + 03
capacity
Btu/(l bmoF) kJ/(kg'K) J(g ' K 4. 1 86 8* E + OO
(mass basis)
kcal/(kgC) kJ/(kgK) J(g ' K) 4. 1 84* E + OO
Molar heat J/molK Btu/(I bm moloF) kJ/(kmol 'K) 4. 1 86 8* E + 00' 3
capacity
cal/(g mol C) kJ/(kmol 'K) 4. 1 84* E  00' 3
TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE, VACUUM
Temperature K OR K 5/9
(absolute)
OK K 1 . 0* E + OO
Temperature K OF C (OF 32)/1 . 8
(traditional)
C C 1 . 0* E + OO
Temperature K OF K C 5/9 E + OO
(difference)
C K C 1 . 0* E + OO
Temperature/length Km F/1 00 ft mKlm 1 . 822 689 E + 01
(geothermal gradient)
Length/temperature m/K ttrF m/K 5. 486 4* E  01
(geothermal step)
Pressure Pa atm (760mm Hg at OC or MPa 1 . 01 3 25* E  01
1 4.696 (l bf/in.2) kPa 1 . 01 3 25* E + 02
bar 1 . 01 3 25* E + OO
bar MPa 1 . 0* E  01
kPa 1 . 0* E + 02
bar 1 . 0* E + OO
at (techni cal atm. , kgf/cm2) MPa 9. 806 65* E  02
kPa 9. 806 65* E + 01
bar 9. 806 65* E  01
28
Quantity and SI Uni t
Pressure Pa
Vacuum, draft Pa
Li qui d head m
Pressure drop/length Palm
Density (gases) kg/m3
Density (l i qui ds) kg/m3
Density (sol ids) kg/m3
Specific vol ume m3/kg
(gases)
Specific vol ume m3/kg
(l i quids)
Specific vol ume m3/mol
(mole basis)
Specific vol ume m3/kg
(clay yiel d)
Yield (shale m3/kg
di sti l l ation)
Concentration kg/kg
(mass/mass)
Concentration kg/m3
(masslvol ume)
TABLE 2.2TABLES OF RECO
'
MMENDED SI UNITS (cont'd.)
Metric Uni t
Customary SPE Other
Uni t Preferred Al l owabl e
TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE, VACUUM
Ibf/i n.2 (psi)
i n. Hg (32F)
i n. Hg (60F)
in. H20 (39.2F)
i n. H20 (60F)
mm Hg (OC) = torr
cm H20 (4C)
Ibf/ft2 (psI)
.m Hg (OC)
.bar
dyne/cm2
in. Hg (60F)
in. H20 (39.2F)
in. H20 (60F)
mm Hg (OC) = torr
cm H20 (4C)
ft
i n.
psilft
psi/ 1 00 ft
MPa
kPa
bar
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
Pa
Pa
Pa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
kPa
m
mm
cm
kPalm
kPalm
DENSITY, SPECI FI C VOLUME, CONCENTRATI ON, DOSAGE
I bm/ft3 kg/m3
g/m3
I bm/U. S. gal kg/m3
g/cm3
I bm/U. K. gal kg/m3
kg/dm3
Ibm/ft3 kg/m3
g/cm3
g/cm3 kg/m3
kg/dm3
API g/cm3
I bm/ft3 kg/m3
ft3/l bm m3/kg
m3/g
ft3/l bm dm3/kg
U. K. gal /I bm dm3/kg cm3/g
U. S.
s
al/Ibm dm3/kg cm3/g
Ug mol m3lkmol
ft3/l bm mol m3/kmol
bbl/U. S. ton m3/t
bbl/U. K. ton m3/t
bbl/U. S. ton dm3/t Ut
bbl/U. K. ton dm3/t Ut
U. S. gal/U. S. ton dm3/t Ut
U. S. gal/U. K. ton dm3/t Ut
wt % kg/kg
g/kg
wt ppm mg/kg
Ibm/bbl kg/m3 g/dm3
g/U. S.
s
al kg/m3
g/U. K. gal kg/m3 gIL
29
Conversion Factor*
Mul ti pl y Customary
Unit by Factor to
Get Metric Unit
6. 894 757 E  03
6. 894 757 E + OO
6. 894 757 E  02
3. 386 38 E + OO
3. 376 85 E + OO
2. 490 82 E  01
2. 488 4 E  01
1 . 333 224 E  01
9. 806 38 E  02
4. 788 026 E  02
1 . 333 224 E  01
1 . 0* E  01
1 . 0* E  01
3. 376 85 E + OO
2. 490 82 E  01
2. 488 4 E  01
1 . 333 224 E  01
9. 806 38 E  02
3. 048* E  01
2. 54* E + 01
2. 54* E + OO
2. 262 059 E + 01
2. 262 059 E  01 (5)
1 . 601 846 E + 01
1 . 601 846 E + 04
1 . 1 98 264 E + 02
1 . 1 98 264 E  01
9. 977 633 E + 01
9. 977 633 E  02
1 . 601 846 E + 01
1 . 601 846 E  02
1 . 0* E + 03
1 . 0* E + OO
1 41 . 5/( 1 31 . 5 + API )
1 . 601 846 E + 01
6. 242 796 E  02
6. 242 796 E  05
6. 242 796 E + 01
1 . 002 242 E + 01
8. 345 404 E + OO
1 . 0* E + 00' 3
6. 242 796 E  02'3
1 . 752 535 E  01
1 . 564 763 E  01
1 . 752 535 E + 02
1 . 564 763 E + 02
4. 1 72 702 E + OO
3. 725 627 E + OO
1 . 0* E  02
1 . 0* E + 01
1 . 0* E + OO
2. 853 01 0 E + OO
2. 641 720 E  01
2. 1 99 692 E  01
TABLE 2.2TABLES OF RECOMMENDED SI UNITS (cont'd.)
Conversi on Factor
Metric Unit
Mul tipl y Customar
Customary SPE Other Unit by Factor to
a
uanti and SI Uni t Uni t Preferred Al l owabl e Get Metri c Unit
DENSITY, SPECI FI C VOLUME, CONCENTRATI ON, DOSAGE
Concentration kg/m3 I bm/1 000 U. S. gal g/m3 mg/dm3 1 . 1 98 264 E + 02
(masslvol ume)
I bm/1 000 U. K. gal g/m3 mg/dm3 9. 977 633 E + 01
grai ns/U. S. gal g/m3 mg/dm3 1 . 71 1 806 E + 01
grai ns/ft3 mg/m3 2. 288 352 E + 0
I bm/1 000 bbl g/m3 m
!
/dm3 2. 853 01 0 E + OO
mg/U. S. gal g/m3 mg/dm3 2. 641 720 E  01
grai ns/1 00 ft3 m
!
/m3 2. 288 352 E + 01
Concentration m3/m3 bbl/bbl m3/m3 1 . 0 E + OO
(vol umelvol ume)
ft3/ft3 m3/m3 1 . 0 E + OO
bbl/acreft m3/m3 1 . 288 923 E  04
m3/ham 1 . 288 923 E + OO
vol % m3/m3 1 . 0 E  02
U. K. gal/ft3 dm3/m3 Lm3 1 . 605 437 E + 02
U. S. gal1ft3 dm3/m3 Llm3 1 . 336 806 E + 02
mLlU. S. gal dm3/m3 Lm3 2. 641 720 E  01
mLlU. K. gal dm3/m3 Llm3 2. 1 99 692 E  01
vol ppm cm3/m3 1 . 0 E + OO
dm3/m3 Lm3 1 . 0 E  03
U. K. gal /1 000 bbl cm3/m3 2. 859 406 E + 01
U. S. gal /1 000 bbl cm3/m3 2. 380 952 E + 01
U. K. pt1 000 bbl cm3/m3 3. 574 253 E + OO
Concentration mol/m3 I bm moI /U. S. gal kmol/m3 1 . 1 98 264 E + 02
(mol e/vol ume)
I bm moI/U. K. gal kmol/m3 9. 977 633 E + 01
Ibm mollft3 kmol/m3 1 . 601 846 E + 01
std ft3 (60F, kmol/m3 7. 51 8 1 8 E  03
1 atm)/bbl
Concentration m3/mol U. S. gal /1 000 std ft3 dm3/kmol Llkmol 3. 1 66 93 E + OO
(vol ume/mol e) (60F/60F)
bbl/mi l l ion std ft3 dm3/kmol Llkmol 1 . 330 1 1 E  01
(60F/60F)
FACI LITY THROUGHPUT, CAPACITY
Throughput kg/s mi l l ion Ibm/yr tla Mg/a 4. 535 924 E + 02
(mass basis)
U. K. tonlyr tla Mg/a 1 . 01 6 047 E + OO
U. S. ton/yr ta Mg/a 9. 071 847 E  01
U. K. ton/D td Mg/d 1 . 01 6 047 E + OO
th, Mg/h 4. 233 529 E  02
U. S. ton/D td 9. 071 847 E  01
th, Mg/h 3. 779 936 E  02
U. K. ton/hr tlh Mg/h 1 . 01 6 047 E + OO
U. S. ton/hr tlh Mg/h 9. 071 847 E  01
I bm/hr kg/h 4. 535 924 E  01
Throughput m3/s bbl/D tla 5. 803 036 E + 01 (7)
(vol ume basis)
m3/d 1 . 589 873 E  01
m3/h 6. 624 471 E  03
ft3/D m3/h 1 . 1 79 869 E  03
m3/d 2. 831 685 E  02
bbl /hr m3/h 1 . 589 873 E  01
fP/h m3/h 2. 831 685 E  02
U. K. gal /hr
m3/h 4. 546 092 E  03
LIs 1 . 262 803 E  03
U. S. gal /hr m3/h 3. 785 41 2 E  03
LIs 1 . 051 503 E  03
U. K. gal/mi n m3/h 2. 727 655 E  01
LIs 7. 576 81 9 E  02
U. S. gal/mi n m3/h 2. 271 247 E  01
LIs 6. 309 020 E  02
30
TABLE 2.2TABLES OF RECOMMENDED UNJ(cont'd.)
Conversion Factor*
Metric Unit
Mul ti pl y Customary
Customary SPE Other Uni t by Factor to
auanti and SI Unit Uni t Preferred Al l owabl e Get Metric Uni t
FACI LITY THROUGHPUT, CAPACITY
(6)
Throughput mol/s I bm mollhr kmol/h 4. 535 924 E  01
(mol e basi s)
kmol/s 1 . 259 979 E  04
FLOW RATE
(6)
Pi pel i ne capacity m3/m bbl/mi l e m3lkm 9.879 01 3 E  02
Flow rate kg/s U. K. ton/mi n kg/s 1 . 693 41 2 E + 01
(mass basis)
U. S. ton/mi n kg/s 1 . 51 1 974 E + 01
U. K. ton/hr kg/s 2. 822 353 E  01
U. S. ton/hr kg/s 2. 51 9 958 E  01
U. K. tontO kg/s 1 . 1 75 980 E  02
U. S. tontO kg/s 1 . 049 982 E  02
mi l l i on Ibm/yr kg/s 5. 249 91 2 E + OO
U. K. ton/r kg/s 3. 221 864 E  05
U. S. ton/yr kg/s 2. 876 664 E  05
I bm/s kg/s 4. 535 924 E  01
Ibm/min kg/s 7. 559 873 E  03
I bm/hr kg/s 1 . 259 979 E  04
Flow rate m3/s bbl/O m3/d 1 . 589 873 E  01
(vol ume basis) Us 1 .840 1 31 E  03
ft3/0 m3/d 2. 831 685 E  02
Us 3. 277 41 3 E  04
bbl/hr m3/s 4. 41 6 31 4 E  05
Us 4. 41 6 31 4 E  02
ft3/hr m3/s 7.865 791 E  06
Us 7. 865 791 E  03
U. K. gal/hr dm3/s Us 1 . 262 803 E  03
U. S. gal/hr dm3/s Us 1 . 051 503 E  03
U. K. gal/mi n dm3/s Us 7. 576 820 E  02
U. S. gal/min dm3/s Us 6. 309 020 E  02
ft3/min dm3/s Us 4. 71 9 474 E  01
fWs dm3/s Us 2. 831 685 E + 01
Flow rate mol/s I bm mol/s kmol/s 4. 535 924 E  01 13
(mol e basi s)
I bm mol /hr kmol/s 1 . 259 979 E  04
'
3
mi l l ion scf/O kmol/s 1 . 383 449 E  02
'
3
Flow rate/length kg/s'm Ibm/(sf) kg/(s'm) 1 .488 1 64 E + OO
(mass basis)
Ibm/(hrft) kg/(s'm) 4. 1 33 789 E  04
Flow rate/l ength m2/s U. K. gal/(mi nft) m2/s m3/(sm) 2. 485 833 E  04
(vol ume basis)
U. S. gal/(mi nft) m2/s m3/(s m) 2. 069 888 E  04
U. K. aal/(hri n. ) m2/s m3/(sm) 4. 971 667 E  05
U. S. gal/(hrin. ) m2/s m3/(sm) 4. 1 39 776 E  05
U. K. gal/(hrft) m2/s m3/(s m) 4. 1 43 055 E  06
U. S. gal/(hrft) m2/s m3/(sm) 3. 449 81 4 E  06
Flow rate/area kg/s'm2 Ibm/(sft2) kg/s'm2 4. 882 428 E + OO
(mass basis)
I bm/(hrW) kg/sm2 1 . 356 230 E  03
Flow rate/area m/s ft3/(Sft2) m/s m3(sm2) 3. 048* E  01
(vol ume basis)
ft3/(mi nft2) m/s m3/(sm2) 5. 08" E  03
U. K. gal/(hri n.2) m/s m3/(s'm2) 1 . 957 349 E  03
U. S. gal/(hri n.2) m/s m3/(sm2) 1 . 629 833 E  03
U. K. gal/(mi nf2) m/s m3/(s'm2) 8. 1 55 621 E  04
U. S. gal/(mi nW) m/s m3/(sm2) 6. 790 972 E  04
U. K. gal/(hrW) m/s m3/(s m2) 1 . 359 270 E  05
U. S. gal/(hrW) m/s m3/(s'm2) 1 . 1 31 829 E  05
Flow rate/ m3/sPa bbl/(Opsi) m3/(d'kPa) 2. 305 91 6 E  02
pressure drop
(productivity i ndex)
31
TABLE 2.2TABLES OF RECOMMENDED SI UNITS (cont'd.)
Conversion Factor*
Metric Unit
Mul tipl y Customary
Customar SPE Other Unit by Factor to
Quanti! and SI Unit Uni t Preferred Al lowable Get Metric Unit
ENERGY, WORK, POWER
Energy, work J quad MJ 1 . 055 056 E + 1 2
TJ 1 . 055 056 E + 06
EJ 1 . 055 056 E + OO
MWh 2. 930 71 1 E + 08
GWh 2. 930 71 1 E + 05
TWh 2. 930 711 E + 02
therm MJ 1 . 055 056 E + 02
kJ 1 . 055 056 E + 05
kW h 2. 930 71 1 E + 01
U. S. tonfmi l e MJ 1 . 431 744 E + 01
hphr MJ 2. 684 520 E + OO
kJ 2. 684 520 E + 03
kWh 7. 456 999 E  01
chhr or CVhr MJ 2. 647 796 E + OO
Kj 2. 647 796 E + 03
kWh 7. 354 99 E  01
kWhr MJ 3. 6* E + OO
kJ 3. 6* E + 03
Chu kJ 1 . 899 1 01 E + OO
kWh 5. 275 280 E  04
Btu kJ 1 . 055 056 E + OO
kWh 2. 930 71 1 E  04
kcal kJ 4. 1 84* E + OO
cal kJ 4. 1 84* E  03
ftIbf kJ 1 . 355 81 8 E  03
Ibfft 8 1 . 355 81 8 E  03
J kJ 1 .0* E  03
Ibfft2/s2 kJ 4. 21 4 01 1 E  05
erg J 1 . 0' E  07
I mpact energy J kgfm J 9. 806 650' E + OO
Ibfft J 1 . 355 81 8 E + OO
Work/length JIm U. S. tonfmi l e/ft MJ/m 4. 697 322 E + 01
Surface energy J/m2 erg/cm2 mJ/m2 1 . 0' E + OO
Specific i mpact J/m2 kgfm/cm2 J/cm2 9. 806 650' E  OO
energy
I bfft/i n. 2 J/cm2 2. 1 01 522 E  01
Power W quad/yr MJ/a 1 . 055 056 E + 1 2
TJ/a 1 . 055 056 E + 06
EJ/a 1 . 055 056 E + OO
erg/a 3. 1 70 979 E  27
W 3. 1 70 979 E  24
mi l l i on Btu/hr MW 2. 930 71 1 E  01
ton of kW 3. 51 6 853 E + OO
refrigeration
Btu/s kW 1 . 055 056 E + OO
kW kW 1 . 0* E + OO
hydraul i c horse kW 7. 460 43 E  01
power hhp
hp (el ectric) kW 7. 46' E  01
hp (550 fIbf/s) kW 7. 456 999 E  01
ch or CV kW 7. 354 99 E  01
Btu/mi n kW 1 . 758 427 E  02
ftlbf/s kW 1 . 355 81 8 E  03
kcal/hr W 1 . 1 62 222 E + OO
Btu/hr W 2. 930 71 1 E  01
ft'lbf/min W 2. 259 697 E  02
Power/area W/m2 Btu/sft2 kW/m2 1 . 1 35 653 E + 01
cal/hr'cm2 kW/m2 1 . 1 62 222 E  02
Btu/hrft2 kW/m2 3. 1 54 591 E  03
32
TABLE 2.2TABLES OF RECOMMENDED SI UNITS (cont' d.)
Conversi on Factor'
Metric Unit
Multiply Customary
Customary SPE Other Uni t by Factor to
Quanti and SI Unit Uni t Preferred Al l owable Get Metric Unit
ENERGY, WORK, POWER
Heat flow unit hfu jal/scm2 mW/m2 4. 1 84* E + 01
(geothermics)
Heat release rate, W/m3 hp/f3 kW/m3 2. 633 41 4 E + 01
mi xi ng power
cal/(hrcm3) kW/m3 1 . 1 62 222 E + OO
Btu/(sft3)
kW/m3 3. 725 895 E + 01
Btu/(hrft3) kW/m3 1 . 034 971 E  02
Heat generation cal/(scm3) jW/m3 4. 1 84* E + 1 2
uni t hgu
(radioactive rocks)
Cool i ng duty WIW Btu/(bhphr) W/kW 3. 930 1 48 E  01
(machi ner)
Specific fuel kg/J I bm/(hphr) mg/J kg/MJ 1 . 689 659 E  01
consumption kg/(kW'h) 6. 082 774 E  01
(mass basis)
Specific fuel m3/J m3/(kWhr) dm3/MJ mm3/J 2. 777 778 E + 02
consumption
dm3/(kW'h) 1 . 0* E + 03
(vol ume basis)
U. S. gal/(hphr) dm3/MJ mm3/J 1 . 41 0 089 E + OO
dm3/(kW'h) 5. 076 321 E + OO
U. K. pt/(hphr) dm3/MJ mm1/J 2. 1 1 6 809 E  01
dm3/(kW'h) 7. 620 51 2 E  01
Fuel consumption m3/m U. K. gal/mile dm3/1 00 km U1 00 km 2. 824 81 1 E + 02
(automotive)
U. S. gal/mi l e dm3/1 00 km U1 00 km 2. 352 1 46 E + 02
mi le/U. S. gal km/dm3 km/L 4. 251 437 E 01
mi l e/U. K. gal km/dm3 km/L 3. 540 060 E  01
MECHANI CS
Velocity (l i near) , m/s knot kmlh 1 . 852* E + OO
speed
mi le/hr km/h 1 . 609 344* E + OO
m/s m/s 1 . 0* E + OO
fs m/s 3. 048* E  01
cm/s 3. 048* E + 01
m/ms 3. 048* E 0418)
fmin m/s 5. 08* E  03
cm/s 5.08' E  01
fhr mm/s 8. 466 667 E  02
cmls 8. 466 667 E  03
fD mm/s 3. 527 778 E  03
mId 3. 048' E  01
i n.ls mm/s 2. 54* E + 01
cm/s 2. 54* E + OO
i n.lmi n mm/s 4. 233 333 E  01
cm/s 4. 233 333 E  02
Velocity (angul ar) rad/s rev/min rad/s 1 . 047 1 98 E  01
rev/s rad/s 6. 283 1 85 E + OO
degree/min radls 2. 908 882 E  04
I nteral transit ti me s/m sIft slm js/m 3. 280 840 E + 0019)
Corrosion rate m/s i n./yr (i py) mm/a 2. 54* E + 01
mi l/yr mm/a 2. 54* E  02
Rotational frequency rev/s rev/s rev/s 1 .0* E + OO
rev/min rev/s 1 . 666 667 E  02
rev/min rad/s 1 . 047 1 98 E  01
Acceleration m/s2 fs2 mls2 3. 048* E  01
(l i near) cm/s2 3.048' E + 01
gal(cm/s2) m/s2 1 . 0* E  02
Acceleration rad/s2 rad/s2 rad/s2 1 . 0* E + OO
(rotational)
rpmls rad/s2 1 .047 1 98 E  01
Momentum kgm/s I bmfts kgm/s 1 . 382 550 E  01
33
TABLE 2.2TABLES OF RECOMMENDED SI UNITS (cont'd.)
Conversion Factor
Metric Unit
Multi pl y Customar
Customary SPE Other Uni t by Factor to
Quantity and SI Uni t Uni t Preferred Al l owabl e Get Metric Uni t
MECHANI CS
Force N U. K. tonf kN 9. 964 01 6 E + OO
U. S. tonf kN 8. 896 443 E + OO
kgf (kp) N 9. 806 650 E + OO
I bf N 4.448 222 E + OO
N N 1 . 0 E + OO
pdl mN 1 . 382 550 E + 02
dyne mN 1 . 0 E  02
Bending moment, N'm U. S. tonfft kN m 2. 71 1 636 E + OO( l O)
torq
u
e
kgfm Nm 9. 806 650 E + OO('O)
Ibfft N'm 1 . 355 81 8 E + OO( 'O)
I bfi n. N' m 1 . 1 29 848 E  01 (' O)
pdl ft Nm 4. 21 4 01 1 E  02('O)
Bendi ng moment! N' m/m ( l bfft)/i n. (Nm)/m 5. 337 866 E + 01 ( 'O)
length
( kgfm)/m (N'm)/m 9. 806 650 E + OO( 'O)
(I bfi n. )/i n. (Nm)/m 4. 448 222 E + OO(lO)
Elastic modul i Pa Ibf/i n. 2 GPa 6. 894 757 E  06
(Young' s, Shear bul k)
Moment of i nertia kgm2 I bmft2 kgm2 4. 21 4 01 1 E  02
Moment of section m' i n. ' cm' 4. 1 62 31 4 E + 01
Section modul us m3 cu in. cm
3
1 . 638 706 E + 01
cu ft cm3 1 . 638 706 E + 04
mm3 2. 831 685 E + 04
m3 2. 831 685 E  02
Stress Pa U. S. tonf/i n. 2 MPa N/mm2 1 . 378 951 E + 01
kgf/mm2 MPa N/mm2 9. 806 650 E + OO
U. S. tonf/ft2 MPa N/mm2 9. 576 052 E  02
Ibf/i n. 2 (psi ) MPa N/mm2 6. 894 757 E  03
Ibf/ft2 (psf) kPa 4. 788 026 E  02
dyne/cm2 Pa 1 . 0 E  01
Yiel d point, Ibf/1 00 ft2 Pa 4. 788 026 E  01
gel strength
(dri l l i ng fl ui d)
Mass/length kg/m I bm/ft kg/m 1 . 488 1 64 E + OO
Mass/area
kg/m2 U. S. tonlft2 Mg/m2 9. 764 855 E + OO
structural loadi ng,
bearing capacity
I bm/ft2 kg/m2 4. 882 428 E + OO
(mass basi s)
Coeficient of m/(mK) i n.l(i n.oF) mm/(mmK) 5. 555 556 E  01
thermal expansion
TRANSPORT PROPERTI ES
Diffusivity m2/s ft2/s mm2/s 9. 290 304 E + 04
cm2/s mm2/s 1 . 0 E + 02.
ft2/hr mm2/s 2. 580 64 E + 01
Thermal resistance (km2)1W (OCm2hr)/kcal (Km2)/kW 8. 604 208 E + 02
(OFft2 hr)/Btu (Km2)/kW 1 . 761 1 02 E + 02
Heat flux W/m2 Btu/(hr'ft2) kW/m2 3. 1 54 591 E  03
Thermal W/(mK) (cal/scm2.C)/cm W/(mK) 4. 1 84 E + 02
conductivity
Btu/(hrft2.oF/ft) W/(mK) 1 . 730 735 E + OO
kJ m/(hm2. K) 6. 230 646 E + OO
kcal/(hrm2.oC/m) W/(mK) 1 . 1 62 222 E + OO
Btu/(hrft2.oF/i n. ) W/(mK) 1 . 442 279 E  01
cal/(hrcm2.oC/cm) W/(m K) 1 . 1 62 222 E  01
34
TABLE 2.2TABLES OF RECOMMENDED SI UNITS (cont' d.)
Metri c Unit
Conversion Factor
Multi pl y Customary
Customary SPE Other Unit by Factor to
Quantit: and SI Unit Unit Preferred Allowable Get Metric Unit
TRANSPORT PROPERTI ES
Heat transfer W/{m2.K) cal/{scm20C) kW/{m2K) 4. 1 84 E + 01
coefficient
Btu/{sft20F) kW/{m2K) 2. 044 1 7.5 E + 01
cal/{hrcm20C) kW/{m2K) 1 . 1 62 222 E  02
Btu/{hrft2_0F) kW/(m2K) 5. 678 263 E  03
kJ/{hm2.K) 2. 044 1 75 E + 01
Btu/{hrft2OR) kW/{m2.K) 5. 678 263 E  03
kcall{hrm20C) kW/{m2.K) 1 . 1 62 222 E  03
Vol umetric heat W/{m3'K) Btu/{sft3_0F) kW/{m3K) 6. 706 61 1 E + 01
transfer coefficient
Btu/{hrft30F) kW/{m3'K) 1 . 862 947 E  02
Surace tension N/m dyne/cm mN/m 1 . 0 E + OO
Viscosity Pa's {l bfs)/i n. 2 Pa's {N's)/m2 6.894 757
E
+ 03
(dynamic)
{l bfs)/ft2 Pas {N's)/m2 4. 788 026 E + 01
{kgfs)/m2 Pas ( N's)/m2 9. 806 650 E + OO
Ibm/{fts) Pas {Ns)/m2 1 .488 1 64 E + OO
{dynes)/cm2 Pa's { Ns)/m2 1 . 0 E  01
cp Pa's ( N's)/m2 1 . 0 E  03
Ibm/{fthr) Pas (Ns)/m2 4. 1 33 789 E  04
Viscosity m2/s ft2/s mm2/s 9.290 304 E + 04
(kinematic)
i n. 2/s mm2/s 6.451 6 E + 02
m2/hr mm2/s 2. 777 778 E + 02
cm2/s mm2/s 1 . 0 E + 02
ft2lhr mm2/s 2. 580 64 E + 01
cSt mm2/s 1 . 0 E + OO
Permeabil ity m2 darcy jm2 9. 869 233 E  01 (1 1 )
mi l l i darcy jm2 9. 869 233 E  04(1 1 )
1 03 jm2 9. 869 233 E  01
(
1 1 )
ELECTRI CIT, MAGNETI SM
Admittance S S S 1 . 0 E + OO
Capacitance F jF jF 1 . 0 E + OO
Capacity, C Ahr kC 3. 6 E + OO
storage battery
Charge density C/m3 C/mm3 C/mm3 1 .0 E + OO
Conductance S S S 1 . 0 E + OO
U {mho) S 1 .0 E + OO
Conductivity S/m S/m S/m 1 .0 E + OO
U/m S/m 1 . 0 E + OO
mU/m mS/m 1 . 0 E + OO
Current density Alm2 Amm2 Amm2 1 . 0 E + OO
Displacement C/m2 C/cm2 C/cm2 1 . 0 E + OO
Electric charge C C C 1 .0 E + OO
Electric current A A A 1 .0 E + OO
Electric dipol e Cm Cm Cm 1 . 0 E + OO
moment
Electric field VIm VIm VIm 1 . 0 E + OO
strength
Electric flux C C C 1 . 0 E + OO
Electric polarization C/m2 C/cm2 C/cm2 1 . 0 E + OO
Electric potential V V V 1 . 0 E + OO
mV mV 1 . 0 E + OO
Electromagnetic Am2 Am2 A'm2 1 . 0 E + OO
moment
Electromotive force V V V 1 .0 E + OO
Flux of displ acement C C C 1 . 0 E + OO
35
Quantity and SI Unit
Frequency Hz
I mpedance n
I nteral transit ti me s/m
Linear current Am
density
Magnetic di pol e Wbm
moment
Magnetic field Am
strength
Magnetic fl ux Wb
Magnetic flux T
density
Magnetic i nduction T
Magnetic moment Am2
Magnetic T
polarization
Magnetic potential A
difference
Magnetic vector Wb/m
potential
Magnetization Am
Modul us of S
admittance
Modul us of n
i mpedance
Mutual i nductance H
Permeabi l ity Him
Permeance H
Permittivity F/m
Potential difference V
Quantity of C
electricity
Reactance n
Rel uctance H 1
Resistance n
Resistivity no m
Self i nductance H
Surface density C/m2
of charge
Susceptance S
Vol ume density C/m3
of charge
Absorbed dose Gy
Acoustical energy J
Acoustical intensity W/m2
Acoustical power W
Sound pressure N/m2
I l l umi nance I x
I l l umi nation I x
I rradiance W/m2
Light exposure Ix's
Lumi nance cd/m2
Luminous efficacy I mIW
TABLE 2.2TABLES OF RECOMMENDED SI UNITS (cont' d.)
Conversion Factor'
Metric Uni t
Multi pl y Customary
Customary SPE Other Unit by Factor to
Uni t Preferred Al l owabl e Get Metric Unit
ELECTRI CITY, MAGNETI SM
cycles/s Hz 1 . 0' E + OO
H n 1 . 0' E + OO
fs/ft fs/m 3. 2
8
0 840 E + OO
Amm Amm 1 . 0' E + OO
Wbm Wbm 1 . 0' E + OO
Amm Amm 1 . 0' E + OO
oersted Am 7. 957 747 E + 01
gamma Aim 7. 957 747 E  04
mWb mWb 1 . 0' E + OO
mT mT 1 . 0' E + OO
gauss T 1 . 0' E  04
mT mT 1 . 0' E + OO
Am2 Am2 1 . 0' E + OO
mT mT 1 . 0' E + OO
A A 1 . 0' E + OO
Wb/mm Wb/mm
Amm Amm
S S
n n
H H
fH/m fH/m
H H
fF/m fF/m
V V
C C
n n
H 1 H 1
n n
ncm ncm
nom nom
(
1 2)
mH mH
mC/m2 mC/m2
S S
C/mm3 C/mm3
ACOUSTI CS, LI GHT, RADI ATI ON
rad Gy 1 . 0' E  02
J J
W/cm2 W/m2 1 . 0' E + 04
W W
N/m2 N/m2 1
footcandl e Ix 1 . 076 391 E +01
footcandle Ix 1 . 076 391 E +01
W/m2 W/m2
footcandl es Ixs 1 . 076 391 E + 01
cd/m2 cd/m2
ImIW Im/W
36
Quantity and SI Uni t
Lumi nous exitance I m/m2
Lumi nous flux 1m
Lumi nous i ntensity cd
Quantit of l i ght I' m s
Radiance W/(m2'sr)
Radiant energy J
Radiant flux W
Radiant i ntensity W/sr
Radiant power W
Wave length m
Capture uni t m
'
Radioactivity
TABLE 2.2TABLES OF RECOMMENDED SI UNITS (cont' d. )
Customary
Uni t
Metric Uni t
SPE Other
Preferred Al l owabl e
ACOUSTI CS, LI GHT, RADI ATI ON
I m/m2 I m/m2
1m 1m
cd cd
talbot I' m s
W/(m2sr)
W/(m2'sr)
J J
W W
W/sr W/sr
W W
' nm
1 0 3cm
'
m
 '
1 0

"cm
'
m

'
m
 '
curi e Bq
37
Conversion Factor"
Mul ti pl y Customary
Uni t by Factor to
Get Metric Uni t
1 . 0' E + OO
1
1 . 0' E  01
1 . 0' E + 01
1
1
3. 7' E + 1 0
TABLE 2.3S0ME ADDITIONAL APPLI CATION STANDARDS
Conversi on Factor
Metric Uni t
Mul ti pl y Customar
Customary SPE Other Unit by Factor to
Quanti and SI Uni t Uni t Preferred Al l owabl e Get Metric Unit
Capi l lary pressure Pa ft (fl ui d) m (fl ui d) 3. 048 E  Ol
Compressi bi l ity of Pa ' psi 
'
Pa ' 1 . 450 377 E  04
reseroir fl ui d kPa
'
1 . 450 377 E  Ol
Corrosi on allowance m i n. mm 2. 54 E + Ol
Corrosi on rate m/s mi l/yr mm/a 2. 54 E  02
(mpy)
Differential orifice Pa in. H2O kPa 2. 488 4 E  Ol
pressure (at 60"F) cm H2O 2. 54 E + OO
Gasoil ratio m3/m3 scf/bbl "standard" 1 . 801 1 75 E  Ol l ' )
m3/m3
Gas rate m3/s scf/D "standard" 2. 863 640 E  021 ' )
m3/d
Geologic ti me s yr Ma
Head (fl ui d mechanics) m ft m 3. 048 E  Ol
cm 3. 048 E + Ol
Heat exchange rate W Btu/hr kW 2. 930 71 1 E  04
kJ/h 1 . 055 056 E + OO
Mobi l ity m2/Pa's d/cp /m2/mPas 9. 869 233 E  Ol
/m2/Pas 9. 869 233 E + 02
Net pay thi ckness m ft m 3. 048 E  Ol
Oil rate m3/s bbl/D m3/d 1 . 589 873 E  Ol
short ton/yr Mg/a ta 9. 071 847 E  Ol
Particl e size m mi cron /m 1 . 0
Permeabil itythickness m3 mdft md'm /m2.m 3. 008 1 42 E  04
Pi pe di ameter (actual ) m i n. cm 2. 54 E + OO
mm 2. 54 E + Ol
Pressure bui l dup Pa psi kPa 6. 894 757 E + 00(2)
per cycle
Productivity i ndex m3/Pas bbl/(psi D) m3/(kPad) 2. 305 9 1 6 E  02(2)
Pumpi ng rate m3/s U. S. gal/mi n m3/h 2. 271 247 E  Ol
Us 6. 309 020 E  02
Revol uti ons per mi nute rad/s rpm rad/s 1 . 047 1 98 E  Ol
rad/m 6. 283 1 85 E + OO
Recovery/uni t vol ume m3/m3 bbl/(acreft) m3/m3 1 . 288 931 E  04
(oi l ) m3/ham 1 . 288 931 E + OO
Reseroir area m2 sq mi l e km2 2. 589 988 E + OO
acre ha 4. 046 856 E  Ol
Reseroir vol ume m3 acreft m3 1 . 233 482 E + 03
ha' m 1 . 233 482 E  Ol
Specific productivity m3/Pasm bbl /(Dpsift) m3/(kPad m) 7. 565 341 E  02(2)
i ndex
Surface or interfacial N/m dyne/cm mN/m 1 . 0 E + OO
tension i n reseroi r
capi l l aries
Torque N' m Ibfft N' m 1 . 355 81 8 E + 00(3)
Velocity (fl ui d flow) m/s fs m/s 3. 048 E  Ol
Vessel di ameter m
1 0 1 00 cm i n. cm 2. 54 E + OO
above 1 00 cm ft m 3. 048 E  Ol
"An asterisk indicates the conversion factor is exact using the numbers shown; all subsequent numbers are zeros.
" See Notes ' 3 on page 1 598.
38
TABLE 2. 4FAHRENHEI T  CELSI US TEMPERATURE CONVERSI ON CHART

459.67 to  1 9
 1 8 to 53
54 to 350 360 to 1 070 1 080 to 1 790 1 800 to 3000
(
O
C
)
C
F
)
(
0
C
) e
F
)
(
O
C
) C
F
) e
C
)
(
O
F
)
(
O
C)
C
F
)
(
0
C
)
(
O
F
)
1 7 J 1 l 459 67 27 78 1 8 0 4 I I I 1 4 1 11 1 1 8 1 1 160 680 0 181 2 1 , 080 1 . 976 0 9!2 2 1 , 100 1 . 1 7 l 0
2 67 78 10 27 21 1 7 1 4 1 2 8 5 \ I I I 0 1 87 8 1 70 698 0 58/ 1 1 , 090 1 . 994 0 917 I 1 , 1 1 0 3 . 1 90 0
161 21 440 26 67 1 6 1 2 1 3 . 3 5 6 I II 8 1 91 1 180 " 1 6 0 5 91 1 1 , 1 00 2 , 0 1 2 . 0 993 3 1 , 120 3 , 308 0
15 6 67 30 26 1 2 I S 5 0 1 3 9 57 1 34 6 1 98 9 390 734 0 598 9 1 , 1 1 0 2, 030 0 991 9 1 , 130 3 3 16 0
1 \ 1 1 1 420 2 5 1 6 1 4 6 8 1 4 4 1 8 1 1 6 4 104 4 '00 I I I 0 60' 4 1 , 1 20 2, 048 0 1 , 00' 4 1 , 140 ), 3" 0
1 4 \ 16 o 2 1 00 1 3 8 6 1 1 0 59 1 38 1 1 1 0 0 . 1 0 70 0 6 1 0 0 1 , 1 30 2, 066 0 1 , 0 1 0 0 I . ! 50 ), )61 1
1'0 00 400 1' 44 1 1 10 4 1 1 6 60 1 '0 0 2 1 1 6 410 788 0 6 1 1 6 1 , 1 40 2, 014 0 1 , 0 1 1 6 UtO U80 0
234 " 190 1 3 89 I I I I I 1 6 I 6 1 1 . 1 8 2 2 1 I '10 806 0 611 I 1 , 1 10 2, 1 02 0 1 , 02 1 1 1 , 170 3 , 3 9 ! 0
llB 89 180 =t I i i 1 0 1 4 0 1 6 7 61 1 ' 1 6 2 2 6 7 440 8 14 6 626 7 1 , 1 60 2 , 1 20 0 1 , 026 7 1 , 110 1 . 1 6 0
l l l I I 3 7 0 2 2 7 8  9 1 1 8 1 7 2 ! l 1 . : ' 2 I 1 1 ' 1 0 8 41 0 61 1 1 1 , 1 7 0 2 , 1 1 8 0 I , Oll 2 1 , 190 l . 4l4 0
1 1 7 78 i 60 1 1 1 2  8 1 7 6 17 8 64 W 2 2 1 7 8 460 860 0 6 3 7 I I I S0 2, 1 16 0 1 . 0 1 7 I 1 , 900 1 , ' 1 2 0
1 1 1 1 1 l I D 1 1 61  I 1 9 4 1 8 1 : : 1 49 0 1 4 3 1 410 81S 0 64l 3 1 , 1 90 2, 1 14 0 1 ,l. J 1 , 9 1 0 3 , '10 0
106 67 1'1 1 1 1 1  6 2 1 1 1 8 9 66 1 10 8 2'S 9 .SO 8 96 0 6'1 9 1 , 100 2 . 1 92 0 UI8 9 1 , 920 1 418 0
101 I I 3 3 0 10 16  I 13 0 1 9 4 61 1 1 1 6 1 1 4 490 9 1 4 0 6 1 4 4 1 , 2 1 0 2, 2 1 0 0 1 , 01 ' 1 . 910 3 , 106 0
1 ' 1 1 6 m 10 00  . 14 8 20 a 68 1 1 4 4 1.0 0 100 91 1 0 660 0 1 , 1 10 2 , 228 0 1 . 060 0 1 . 9.0 3, 51"
1 '0 00 3 1 ) _1 9 ,  3 16 6 10 6 69 1 1 6 1 1 6 1 6 1 1 0 9 10 0 6 6 16 1 . 13 0 1, 246 0 1 , 061 1 1 . 910 l . l ' 2 0
_1 84 : 300 1 8 89  1 18 11 I 10 1 18 0 1 7 1 I 1 1 0 968 0 6 1 1 1 1 , 140 2 . 264 C 1 , 01 1 1 1 , 960 3 , 160 0
1 7 8 87 190 1 8 3 1  I 10 1 2 1 7 I I 1 19 8 11 6 7 1 30 986 0 6 1 6 I 1 . 210 2. 182 0 1 ,07 6 7 1 , 970 3 , 1 7 1 n
1 7 3 3 3 180 1 7 8 0 l l O II I I l 1 6 1 6 18l l 140 1 ,004 0 68 1 1 1 , 160 2 . 300 0 1 , 081 ! 1 , 980 3 , 1 9 6 0
1 69 1 1 173 I I  S Q 6 1 1 7 1 I 3 3 8 2 2 8 I l 1 6 3 4 181 8 1 10 10 22 0 687 8 1 . 110 2 , 3 1 8 0 1 . 081 i 1 . 9 90 1 . 1 1 ' 0
1 68 89 1 I l \ 7 6 1 6 7 1 1 1 6 1 1 3 1 4 1 6 1 1 2 9 3 1 1 60 1 , 0'0 0 693 1 1 . 280 1 , 3 36 0 1 , 091 3 2 , 000 3 . 1 2 ,
I !l 78 lIO _4 14 0 1 6 1 i 3 7 4 1 1 ' 7 1 1 61 0 198 9 1 70 1 , 0 1 8 0 698 , 1 1 90 UI ' 0 1 . 098 9 2 . 0 1 0 3. 61 0 e
1 62 1 1 160 0 6 0 1 1 6 4 1 9 1 1 : 4 1 6 1 68 8 1 04 \80 1 , 07 6 71. . 1 , 100 1. m 0 1 , 1 04 4 2 , 010 3 , 661 0
1 1 6 61 2 10 1 8 0 1 1 0 I '1 0 21 0 7 1 1 1 0 6 1 1 0 0 1 90 1 094 0 1 1 0 0 1 , 1 1 0 1 . 1'0 0 1 , 1 1 0 0 2, 01 0 3 . 686 '
_l S I 1 \ 1' 0 00 0 1 . 4 6 41 8 l S 6 78 I n . 1 1 1 6 600 1 , 1 1 2 0 1 1 1 6 13 10 1 , 4 0S 0 I , I I I 6 2, 040 3. 70. 0
1 4 \ 1 6 210 1 81 0 1 1 9 7 44 6 26 I 19 1 7 ' 1 3 1 1 I 6 1 0 1 , 1 10 0 7 1 1 I 1 , I 30 2, ' 1 6 0 1 , 1 2 1 1 2. 050 3 , me
1 .0 00 210 16< 0 I l l 8 46 4 2 6 1 80 1 1 6 0 1 16 I 620 1 , 1 48 0 726 I 1 . 340 2, U' 0 1 , 1 26 I 2, 060 ), 740
1 34 44 11 0 146 0 1 1 8 9 '! 1 21 2 S I 1 71 8 l l l l 6 10 1 . 1 66 0 7 1 2 2 1 . 31 0 2, 462 0 1 , 1 1 2 1 2 . 070 ). / 1 8 0
1 2 ! 89 100 llS 0 1 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 27 8 81 1 19 6 l l 7 S 6.0 1 , 1 8' 0 7 1 1 8 1 , 160 2 , 480 0 1 , 1 1 7 I 2. 080 3 . 1 7 6 C
1 1 1 1 1 1 90 3 1 0 0 _1 1 7 I I 1 1 8 18 1 81 1 81 4 1 '1 3 61 0 1 , 101 0 7 ' 1 1 1 , 1 1 0 2, 498 0 1 , 1 4 1 3 2, 090 l , 7 U C
I I I I S 1 80 191 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 6 2S 9 8' 1 8 3 2 2'8 9 660 1 , 220 0 7'8 9 1 , 3 80 2 , 1 1 6 0 1 , 1 4 1 9 1 . 1 00 3 , 1 1 1 e
1 1 1 1 1 1 10 114 0 1 0 6 1 1 1 1 4 19 4 8 1 1 8 1 0 1 \ 4 4 610 1 , 118 0 7 54 . 1 , 390 2, 5H 0 1 , 1 5 ' 2 , 1 1 0 3, 11 0 0
1 0 6 61 1 60 1 :6 0 1 0 0 U 51 l 30 0 86 1 8 6 8 3 60 0 680 1 , 1 5 6 0 760 0 1 , 400 1 . 1 1 1 0 1 . 1 60 0 2 , 1 20 3 , 1'1 0
_1 0 1 1 1 1 10 218 0  9 44 1 \ \ 9 0 10 6 8 1 1 88 6 I : : 6 690 1 , 174 0 7 6 1 6 1 , ' 1 0 1. 110 0 1 , 1 61 1 2, 1 30 3, 166 C
 9 1 16 1 .0 220 0  8 H9 1 6 60 8 3 1 1 8S 1 9 0 4 1 I I I 700 1 . 292 0 7 1 1 I 1 , '20 2 , 5 18 0 1 , 1 1 1 . 1 2 , 1 '0 ] , 11' 0
 90 00 1 30 201 0  8 ll I I 61 6 1 1 7 89 1 9 2 1 1 1 6 7 1 1 0 1 , 1 1 0 0 776 7 1 , 4 30 2, 606 0 1 , 1 7 6 7 2, 1 10 ),901 C
 84 .U 1 10 1 84 0  7 1 8 1 8 64 4 1 1 1 90 1 9 4 0 18 1 1 710 1 , 118 0 7 8 1 1 1 , 440 2, 61 < 0 1 , 1 82 2 2 , 1 60 3 , 920 0
 7 8 89 1 1 0 1 66 0  7 2 2 1 9 66 1 3 1 8 9 1 1 9 5 8 lSI 8 730 1 , 346 0 781 8 1 , 4 \ 0 2 , 6 4 1 0 1 , 1 11 1 2 . 1 70 3 , 931 0
 1 1 1 3 1 00 1 4 8 0  6 61 10 68 0 33 3 91 1 9 1 6 393 3 7.0 1 , 364 0 7 9 3 3 1 60 1 , 660 0 I , m. ) 1 , 1 80 3 , 91 1 0
 70 1 6  9 5 1 19 0
 6 I I 1 1 69 8 ll 9 9 3 1 9 9 4 198 9 7 1 0 1 , 181 0 798 9 1 , 470 2, 611 0 1 , 1 91 9 2, 1 90 3 , 910
 67 1 8 = 90 1 30 0  \ 1 6 I I 1 1 6 34 4 94 20 1 1 404 4 760 1 , 400 0 804 1 , 480 2 , 69 6 0 1 . 204 4 2 , 200 3, 992 0
 6 1 00  8 1 1 1 1 0  1 00 1 3 1 1 4 31 0 9 5 2 0 3 0 4 1 0 0 770 1 , 4 1 8 0 8 1 0 0 1 , 490 1 . 7 1 4 0 1 , 1 1 0 0 2, 2 1 0 4.0 1 0 0
 61 1 1  80 1 1 1 0  4 44 14 I I I 11 6 96 104 8 4 1 1 6 780 1 , 4 3 6 0 8 1 5 6 1 . 100 2 . 7 3 1 0 1 , 2 1 1 I 2, 210 4, 021 0
 I' 4 \ = I I 1 0 1 0  3 8 ' 1 1 7 1 0 16 I 97 106 6 '1 1 1 790 1 . 4 ,. a 8 1 1 I 1 . 1 1 0 2. 7 1 0 0 1 , 1 1 1 I 2, 1l0 4, 046. 0
 1 6 61  70  94 0  3 I I 1 6 78 8 36 7 98 208 4 16 1 800 1 , 471 0 S 1 6 7 1 . 1 20 1 . 1 68 0 1 , 116 7 2, 240 4. 014 0
 : i t  6 1  8 \ 0  1 1 8 1 1 80 6 3 7 1 99 1 1 0 2 4l l l 8 1 0 1 , 490 0 8 3 1 1 1 , \ 30 2. 1 86 0 l , m 2 2. 21 0 ', 012 0
 51 i l  60  1 6 0  1 1 1 18 81 ' 31 8 1 00 1I l 0 4 3 1 8 810 1 . 108 0 8 3 7 8 1 , 1 40 2, 10' 0 1 . 23 1 I 2, 210 4 , 1 00 0
 ' 8 1 '  \ \  67 0  1 67 19 8 4 2 43 1 1 1 0 130 0 W 3 810 1 , 1 16 0 8.l l 1 . 1 50 2. 821 0 1 , 1 ' 3 3 2 , 110 ' , 1 1 1 0
 .\ : :  1 0  18 0  I I I 30 86 0 48 9 1 1 0 1'8 0 448 9 8'0 1 , 5 44 0 848 9 1 , \60 1, 8'0 0 1 , 241 9 2, 110 ' , 1 ) 6 0
 ' 1 7 8  4 \  49 0  0 \ 6 3 1 81 8 1 4 4 1 3 0 266 0 4 54 4 8 10 1 , 5 62 0 S 5" 1 . 1 70 2 . 8 18 0 1 . 2 14 4 2, 290 4 , 1 54 0
 .0 00  ' 0  40 0 0 1 1 89 6 60 0 1 '0 184 0 460 0 860 1 . 180 0 860 0 1 , 180 2 , 81 6 0 1 , 160 0 2, )0 ' , 1 1l 0
 1 9 . \  19 . 18 1 o \6 3 3 9 1 4 65 6 1 50 302 0 4 6 \ 6 8 10 1 , 198 0 8 6 1 6 1 . 1 90 1, 89' 0 1 , 161 6 2 , 3 1 0 ', 1 90 0
 3 8 8 9  18  16 ' I I I 3 4 9l l I I I 1 60 3 10 0 4 1 1 I 880 1 , 6 1 6 0 87 1 . 1 1 , 600 2, 9 1 1 0 1 , 2 7 1 1 2, 3 20 4 , 201 0
~ I t i :  1 7  34 6 1 67 J \ 9 1 0 76 I 1 10 llS O 41 6 7 890 1 . 634 0 816 I 1 , 6 1 0 1, 930 0 1 , 276. 7 1 , l lO , 226 0
 3 1 7 8  16  3 1 8 I I I I : : t 81 1 1 80 3 5 6 0 '81 1 900 1 , 611 0 882 2 1 , 610 2 , 9 4 8 0 1 . 212 2 l. l'O 4 , 244 0
 ll l l ~ I :  3 1 0 1 18 37 98 6 81 8 1 g e 3 7 . 0 '81 8 9 1 0 1 . 670 0 831 8 1 , 630 2, 966 0 1 . 2 8 1 1 U50 ' , WO
 i 6 61 = i  19 1 I i i 38 1 00 4 93 3 100 3 9 1 0 4 9 l J 9 10 1 , 688 0 8 9 3 3 1 . 6'0 1, 98' 0 1 , 193 3 ' 1, 360 4, 210 0
 3 6 1 1  i i  lI '
3 89 39 l O l l 98 9 1 1 0 . 1 0 0 498 9 9 10 1 . 106 0 898 9 1 , 650 3, 001 0 1 , 2989 2 , 370 ' , 291 0
 1 1 1 6 . I !  1 1 6 4 4 4 '0 1 04 0 1 04 4 1 10 4 1 8 0 104 4 940 1 . 1 14 0 904 4 1 . 660 3, 020 0 1 , 3 04 4 2, lIO 4, 3 1 6 0
 3 1 00  1 1  1 3 8 \ 00 4 1 1 0 \ 8 1 1 0 0 130 4 46 0 \ 1 0 0 9 50 1 . 741 0 9 1 0 0 1 , 610 3 , 03 1 0 UI O O 2, 390 ' , 3 3 ' 0
 I :  30  1 1 0 \ 1 6 4 1 1 0 1 6 1 1 1 6 140 464 0 5 1 5 6 960 1 , 760 0 9 1 1 6 1 , 680 3 , 0 1 6 0 I , W 3 2. 450 .. .. 1 0
 3 1 89  19  10 1 6 1 1 I 1 09 4 1 1 1 1 1 10 4 81 0 5 2 1 I 910 1 . 118 0 9 1 1 I 1 , 690 3, 07' 0 1 , 3 7 1 1 2, 100 ' , \ 3 1 0
~ i i I I  l8  1 8 ' 6 61 44 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 7 160 500 0 1 1 6 7 980 1 . 196 0 9 1 6 7 UOO 3 , 091 0 I , m 9 2 . 1 50 4 , 621 0
 l l l 8  1 7  1 6 6 I I I ' 5 : 1 3 0 1 12 1 170 1 1 8 0 \ 3 1 1 990 1 , 8 1 4 0 9 l l 1 UI O 3 , 1 1 0 0 1 , 416 7 1, 600 '. 1 1 2 0
 3 1 1 1  16  1 4 8 7 78 46 1 1 4 8 I JI 8 180 \ 3 6 0 \ 3 7 8 1 , 000 I , m 0 9 3 1 8 1 . 1 10 3 , 1 21 0 1 , ' \ 4 4 2. 6 50 ' , 12 0
 3 1 67  1 \  1 3 0 8 3 3 4 1 1 1 6 6 I 4 J 3 190 I I ' 0 1 43 3 1 , 0 1 0 1 , 810 0 9 4 3 1 1 . 130 1 , \ 46 0 1 ,412 . 2 2, 700 ' , 192 0
 3 1 1 1  l '  I l l 8 S9 '8 1 1 8 4 1 4 8 9 100 \ 7 1 0 148 9 1 , 010 1 , 868 0 9.8 9 1 . 1'0 3 , 1 64 0 1 , 1 1 0 0 2. 1 1 0 4. 912 0
 10 1 6  1 1  9 4 9 44 49 1 10 2 1 54 4 II 0 1 90 0 1 14 4 1 , 010 1 , 886 0 9 1 4 4 1 . 1 5 0 3 , 1 81 0 1 , 5 3 1 8 2. 100 1 , 072 0
 30 00  1 1  1 6 1 0 0 \0 I II 0 1 6 Q 0 310 608 0 560 0 1 , 0'0 1 , 904 0 960 0 1 . 160 3 , 100 0 1 , \65 . 1 1. 1 50 1 , 1 62 0
 1 9 4 1  2 1  1 8 1 0 6 5 1 I I I 8 1 6 1 6 3 3 0 616 0 56\ 6 1 , 010 1 . 9ll 0 9 65 6 1 . 1 70 3 , 1 1 1 0 1 , 5n3 2. 90 1 . 2 1 1 0
 18 8 9  10  4 0 I I I \ 1 I I I 6 1 1 \ I 3'0 64 4 0 \ 1 1 I 1 , 060 1 , 940. 0 911 I 1 . 180 3 , 2 3 6 0 1 . 611 1 2, 910 I , W 0
 18 1 '  1 9  2 1 I I I 1 3 1 11 4 1 7 6 7 3 10 661 0 5 1 6 7 1 , 070 1 , 958 0 976 7 1 . 190 3. 214 C 1 . 648 9 3. 000 \ . 4 32 0
39
Notes