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The worship of the dead; or, The origin and nature of pagan idolatry and its bearing upon the early history of Egypt and Babylonia; (1909)
Author: Garnier, John, 1838Subject: Ancestor worship Publisher: London : Chapman & Hall, limited Possible copyright status: NOT_IN_COPYRIGHT Language: English Call number: SRLF_UCLA:LAGE-1498169 Digitizing sponsor: Internet Archive Book contributor: University of California Libraries Collection: cdl; americana Scanfactors: 11 Full catalog record: MARCXML This book has an editable web page on Open Library.

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"List of the principal works consulted": p. xxix-xxxii

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THE Worship of the Dead








Late Roy a/ Engineers





intimate relation of the ancient Paganism to the early history

mankind, and its influence on the fate and fortunes of the human no little interest and importance to any inquiry into its origin and nature, and many learned men, during the last sixty years, have carefully collected and compared the traditions and archaeological remains relating to it in various countries. But, although their works form a valuable literature on the subject, they are not only too voluminous to be consulted by the ordinary reader, but they fail to supply a succinct and comprehensive history of its origin, development and exact nature, without which its true character and significance cannot be fully recognised. In the present work the author has endeavoured to supply
race, gives

this want, and, while availing himself of the researches of previous

writers, has

endeavoured to compress into a moderate compass and

readable form, the facts and archaeological discoveries which show
the relation of the gods and religious systems of various nations to each other, and to point out the significance and interpretation of

the ancient traditions and mythological stories, and their bearing

on the events of actual history. Attention is called to the fact that the numerous testimonies referred to by the author are not those of one people and one agC; but of many individuals living in different ages, and of diflferent nationalities and that one and all are without the slightest evidence

of artificial construction or systematic purpose.

They are, for the persons most part, the statements of without relation to each other, who simply record the statements and opinions of the people of other
They form,
therefore, a

countries, or briefly allude to the general belief current in their own.

whose testimony entirely unaware
It will


number of perfectly independent the more valuable because they


are often



and significance



be seen,


that their statements mutually explain and




oo O



confirm each other, while their very mistakes and misconceptions, due to their ignorance of the matters to which they refer, are a

guarantee of the genuineness of the statements themselves, and often help to explain their significance. In the face of this total absence of all evidence of design and
be regarded as valid and conclusive.

might be thought that their testimony would But of late years a school of which seeks to discredit this testimony, and criticism has arisen, boldly asserts it to be mere invention and forgery. This is especially the case with regard to the evidence which proves that the originals of the Pagan gods were human beings who had once lived upon the
system on their part,

These critics say, without the slightest justification, that merely an invention of the later Pagan writers, and assert, equally without a shadow of real evidence for the assertion, that every testimony in support of it is a forgery. This kind of destructive criticism has indeed been extended, more or less, to all ancient history and tradition, including that of the Old Testament. But it will be observed that it mainly depends upon mere assertions and plausible suggestions, such as those which represent the prophecies of Scripture to be merely the utterances of imaginative and patriotic men, whose wishes were fathers of their thoughts, or that certain prophecies were so exactly fulfilled, that they must have been written after the event. This school of criticism also seizes upon every point and feature in sacred and profane tradition which is out of the common, or In difficult of explanation, to impugn the veracity of the whole. the case of sacred history, most of these attacks have been fully replied to, and shown to be without foundation, although they continue to be repeated. But in the case of ancient profane history and tradition, it is evident that, while fable and exaggeration would be almost certain to collect round the memories of celebrated persons, yet they are no proof that these persons never existed. This is the case with the fables which have collected round the history of the celebrated Arthur, King of the Silures, and which have afforded an excuse for saying that he never existed. But Gibbon, sceptic though he was, warmly repudiates such a conclusion, which is quite
this is

unwarranted. Niebuhr, again, rejected the whole history of the kings of Rome and as fabulous, but without any sufficient reason for so doing recent researches have confirmed the history and proved this hyper;

criticism to be false.

that the Pagan gods were only deified men. It is absurd to suppose that the people in ." Yet every page of his chronicles bears the impress of a man who is honestly and faithfully relating exactly what he saw and heard. and on which their own influence depended. therefore he himself is stigmatised as a liar. For it was this very thing. and that full records of the controversy would have existed ? But there are no such records. as was natural of the age in which he lived. who have summarised or have referred to the general belief of their day. if it had been the case. and it is impossible that they should not have been aware of it. Hindu. Moreover.PREFACE vii f There are also people who assert that Herodotus. never give the smallest hint of a suspicion that it was an invention. the only tendency of which was to belittle history." and it impossible to suppose that the very priesthood combined to support an invention which tended to diminish the mystery and solemnity which surrounded their gods." — — ! their own gods by bringing them down to the level of human beings. if it was an invention unfounded on fact. often believed himself were mythological fables. as indicating actual facts concealed beneath the allegorical language of mythology. and other sources. Assyrian. was the secret teaching also of the most solemn feature is in the Pagan religion. which the early Christian apologists cast in the teeth of their Pagan opponents and the latter could not deny it. whose writings evince their reverence for their religion. or referred to It it. as if he had been the inventor of them Such assertions only illustrate the superficiality and injustice which characterise much of this destructive criticism. should invent a theory. But because some of his stories which he simply relates as he was told them. Moreover. and equally inconceivable that they should not have noticed . "The Mysteries. The Greek and Latin testimony in support of it is also corroborated by similar evidence from Egyptian. and. how could the inventors have persuaded the rest of the Pagan world to accept a belief so opposed to its previous convictions ? Is it not certain that many would have opposed it. The later Pagan and early Christian writers. " What possible reason or motive could there be for such inventions and forgeries ? " It is quite inconceivable that Pagans. In the case of those who assert that every testimony in support of the human origin of the Pagan gods is an invention or forgery. Phoenician. some of the myths related by Herodotus are probably of no little value. " the father of was the very "father of lies. it may be asked.

devoid of the method and artificialities which characterise invention. in spite of the accumulative evidence referred to above. of the human they speak of as their ancestors or forefathers. and in different fabricate it. and that of C with E is shown. But when. in accretions time. been one of the predominant tendencies human nature ? In the face of these considerations. in addition to this. and we find the kings of Babylon. but entirely in addition to this. and will be observed For instance. should these forgeries. as might be expected. and that of B with C. who obtained most of their gods and religious ideas from Egypt. and the identity of B with D and E. yet. and of D with E. it is Now quite evident that certain differences . before rejecting them. But although the identity of the various Pagan gods and goddesses with each other is the general conclusion arrived at by all the most learned men who have studied the subject. evidences be declared to be inventions and when we have before our eyes the fact that the worship of the dead. combined to Even the monumental evidence corroborates it. it is strongly opposed by some who. we see that the testimony in proof origin of the gods is not only consentient. wisdom or piety. the force of the conclusion is enormously increased. seize upon every superficial point of that the evidence is accumulative.viii PREFACE ages. This is the case with the gods of Greece and Rome. or of men celebrated for their power. and round the gods of those nations who originally obtained them from other nations. when no just grounds for the assertion can be its favour ? given. we may ask why should there be such hostility to the evidence in Why. the identity of A with B may be shown. and of C with D. the identity of A with C. Phoenicia and They not only misunderstood the allegorical language. difference in the character of the gods as a reason for rejecting it. and local names would naturally gather. and from this the identity of all might be fairly inferred. D and E. all these different countries. It will be seen that much of the force of the conclusions arrived at in the course of our inquiry. especially those connected with the human origin of the gods. and in of all ages. depends on the evidence in proof of the it identity of the various gods and goddesses. Egypt and India claiming to be descended from these gods whom But when. Babylon. the reader may reasonably ask for some better evidence than the mere assertion or suggestion that these testimonies are fabrications and forgeries. has always.

will be of interest to many. it is own race and country. the Cushite Empire of Nimrod. in the face of the accumulative force of the evidence in support of that identity. which have been hitherto rejected for the uncertain testimony of the Greek records of Manetho. . . nor is it probable that any unprejudiced person will do so. To some readers the details of this evidence may seem it will to be tedious. but a certain degree of acquaintance with be found to be necessary for the proper understanding of the general argument which it and the conclusions which follow from it. and the authenticity of Sanchoniathon's . and the true nature of Pagan magic and sorcery. this being manifestly absurd to make these local and generally superficial differences a reason for rejecting the far stronger and broader proofs of the original identity of these gods. Much of the interest of the inquiry will be the light appears to throw upon the early history of Egypt and on the identity of the mysterious Shepherd kings. history.PREFACE and misinterpreted characteristics. In the Appendices the author has examined Sir Gardner Wilkinson's view of the Egyptian gods and religion certain modern theories respecting the antiquity of the human race. and it will be seen that the conclusions arrived at are confirmed by the monumental records of The inquiry also into that country. the early influence of the Semitic race. while the author's analysis of the true moral aspect of the Ancient Paganism may be worth the attention of the thoughtful Christian. the distribution of peoples after the Deluge. the Deluge and the Glacial Period the ancient Aecadians and Turanians and their religion. But. and their relation to the phenomena of modern Buddhism and Spiritualism. the monumental records of that monarch. the occult aspect of the Pagan gods. ix but the symbolism which revealed their true they naturally attributed to them many of the characteristics of their recognised.


The Pagan Gods and Goddesses. . PART I. Egypt. " the habitation of Nin " Bel Merodach —Belus. Egypt. the Hunter and Huntress. Greece. the second king of Babylon Nimrod a giant Nin the Assyrian Hercules Nimrod and the giant Orion Origin of horns and crowns as symbols of sovereignty Evidence that Ninus was Nimrod Nineveh. "the Goddess with Ten Thousand Names " The god Nin the same as Ninus. . and after death had become the inhabitants of the Sun. . "the Leopard called by Rawlinson Bel Nimrod Subduer " Nimrod not deified under his own name Must be identified by his deified attributes Testimony that the various gods were only the deified attributes of two original gods Only one original goddess called Dea Myrionymus. pages 3-11 Chapter II. : of names explained by it .— — — CONTENTS List op the Principal Works Consulted or Quoted. . — Objections Moon and Stars Worship of human origin of the Pagan gods Rawlinson king of Babylon — the sons of are without foundation — Testimony — of Professor of the Assyrians. stated to be first show that there were two gods of the first and second Belus and the first and second Cronus of Greek and Phoenician writers Bilu Nipru and Bilta Niprut. Rome. Greece. Mother and Son Sun and Nature worship the distinguishing feature of Pagan — Idolatry — Consentient human Noah beings who had once to the testimony of ancient writers that the gods were lived on Earth. —Chaldee the sacred language Etymology Idolatry it The common origin of Pagan of all of etc. and Notices of ANY Particular Editions Used page xxix . All the gods and goddesses resolve themselves into a trinity of Father. all — The rising Deluge. etc. . The Gods of Babylon. Introductory. the chief god —The inscriptions name of "Belus" —The — — — — — — — — — — — — — — xi . Nimrod and his Queen Etymology of Niprut Bilu Nipru Etymology of Nimrod. . —The events of the Deluge interwoven with —Memorial nations —The Feast of the Dead on the 17th day of the Deluge in the second month — The of the Pleiades — Correspondence of the Pagan Systems of nations — Pagan Idolatry originated at Babylon Testimonies to the common origin of the religions Babylon. Chapter I.

the inventors of Tower of Fire. as of of of of of Osiris. wife of Saturn or Cush and also of Nimrod Diana or Artemis Despoina Astarte Ashtaroth Etymology of Ashtart Ishtar Venus Aphrodite Ishtar. Pthath and Vulcan — Seb Sun God the or Saturn — Hermes and Bel — Anubis and Mercury. gods the gods —jiEsculapius Generation — Animals symbolic gods Cannes the name — Cush as Dagon and Cannes — Story meaning Noah and the Ark — Ham the by Berosus— Bacchus Ichthys — Egypt — Khem. Pan. Dis and Deo Naush — Nimrod the dead — Pan. The Great Goddess. Jupiter—Mars and Bellona — Anu. the wife of Ninus. king of the Cyclops. like V^ulcan. conductors the Heart— meaning dead— Horus and Apollo — Cupid god Cush as the father Bunsen and Wilkinson — Names Remarks Paganism — Names of Nimrod as the the gods and great teacher be the Sun Great Hunter and king — All the gods are declared respects with Nimrod — His Izdubar— His identity in Legend and with equal identity with the Chaldean Sun god and god Izdubar the god Nin or Bar. Cnouphis. is a proof that the originals of these gods were Nimrod and Cush Possible etymology of the name Izdubar Portrait of Izdubar Hea — Chapter III. Mendes and the Egyptian Khem. Vulcan. Hephaistus — — Nimrud the — — — — — Moloch and Mulkiber — Origin of human and with the Chaldean cannibalism — Nimrod the god and Tammuz — Adonis Zoroaster and Tammuz — Moumis — Bacchus — The " Nebros — Figure Bacchus and the spotted fawn symbolism — Bacchus the son of ^thiops or Assyrian god — and symbolism — and Bacchus Bacchus Figure — Cush the god and — son Seb Leopard skins insignia names " Mizraim and " Egypt a Cushite — Origin or Saturn— Bacchus —The Egyptians were Cushites — Conquests Ninus. the Assyrian Hercules — The relationship building sacrifices Cronus. suc- ceeded Ninus on throne of Babylon Her identity with Rhea the Great Goddess Mother Semiramis builder of the walls of Babylon Origin of turreted crowns of goddesses Rhea. of of of Its of of of of to of all of Fire." and the Prophet Nebo Sin and Nebo Dumuzi Relation of Hea or Tammuz corresponds to Nin and Bel Merodach and Nebo to Hermes or Thoth Hermes or Mercury the cause of the confusion of tongues at Babel Janus. or Saturn the father of the gods Also Hea. and Pluto. Chaos. pages 12-57 Semiramis. "the All-wise Belus. of with This — bani and the identity of the latter with the god Hea. Diune Isis Doves of Heaven Semiramis "The Branch-bearer" Its meaning sacred to Juno Semiramis and Zirbanit Remarks of Rawlinson on the Pagan goddesses Revelation of goddess to Apuleius Dea Myrionymus Histoiy of — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — . Bel the first Cronus. identified Osiris of " of Its of its Osiris of his priests Osiris " of Osiris of of Osiris.— xii — — " CONTENTS and Nergal Nimrod lesser. Queen Neith Ceres M inerva Juno. — Remarks of Mr George — Evidence that Cush was the Smith on the first deification of Belus.

the institutor of the worship of the gods " Meni the Numberer " and "the Lord Moon. was the first teacher of Idolatry Its nature. sons of Cush — The Rameses — Cushite emigration Egypt — first settlers in of of of Osiris etc. were also the first kings — — — — Pan. of to . — — — — — — — — — — of ^gyptus a of title of Sesostris — Error of Greeks in attributing history to Raraeses Sesostris a Cushite — Sculpture of Sesostris on face of Rock in the Pass of Karabel — Sesostris a giant like Nimrod — The giant Sesochris Ninus II. called Himyaric.— — CONTENTS Ninus and Semiramis by Ctesias — • xiii Objections to it without foundation with the history of Nimrod Semiramis. The Aryan race worshippers of one god and opponents of Cushite Idolatry Later Hindu Religion combined with Cushite Idolatry Isi and Iswara. "mind"— Hermes the god of Intellect " Mind " the same as Saturn or Belus of god kings in Egypt — Same succession kings of Babylon. Moon and Stars and phallic worship. Sesoris. — Connection Egypt and India— Rama and Sova are Raamah and Seba. also Magic The land of Cush The two u^thiopias Arabia called " Accadian " the first land of Cush The Aribah and Adites Their language. The Gods op India. Sethothes." a title of Thoth— " Men. Cush as Hea. the — — Same story of Hermes and Osiris — Evidence first — and remarks of Rawlinson Egypt as in Babylon First human kings Meni and Athoth Meni." from mens. the son of Meni. The God Kings op Egypt and Babylon. — of Story of Sesostris same as that of Osiris Both the son of Belus or Cush Belus also king of Africa Thoth or Belus made king of Egypt by the second Cronus or Nimrod that Belus and Ninus. Sun. was the son of Thoth The handwriting at Belshazzar's Feast The correspondence between the reigns of Belus and Ninus and those of Meni and Athoth pages 70-88 "Number" as the father of the gods same Menes — Athoth. like Thoth or Hermes. similar to those Ninus. similar to the Accadian or ancient Chaldean Originators of Idolatry and mighty builders Djemschid and the Aribah or Adite conqueror Zohak the propagator of Phallic worship His conquests Djemschid identified with Cush and Zohak with Nimrod^ Modern theories concerning the Accadians Sesostris The Mizraimites and Egyptians Cushite origin of Egyptians ^gyptus is Osiris the All-wise Belus. — History — — — Sesostris similar to that The names Sesostris. married by Ninus Story of Vulcan. Capeyanas and Deonaush. Isis and Osiris Iswara — the Phallic god— The Lingam — Deonaush — Siva the same as Iswara and Osiris — Cushites India— Opposition between the worshippers Brahma and Siva — Mighty temples of Siva Worship Lingam — Dasyus black and Demon worshippers — Traditions of Divodesa. the — — Chapter V. etc. the father of the gods. Hermes. wife of Oannes. Venus and Mars The works undertaken by Semiramis after the death of Ninus pages 58-69 — — Its correspondence — — — Chapter IV..

called Buddha —The existence of previous Buddhas—The one supreme Buddha — Sakya Muni a Brahmin— Brahmins acknowledge a Buddha distinct from Sakya Muni— Southern Buddhists. Poden — Buddha. distinct from Sakya Muni — Amitabha only a prophet—Variations of the name chief god — Sakya Muni Buddha — Bud. The Gods op Eastern Asia — Buddhism. the Indian Pluto— Cama. Pot. Jupiter— Juggernaut— Dyaus and Heaven and Earth — Chrishna the Indian Apollo— Ramadeva the Indian Cupid — Parvati Doorga the Indian Minerva — Luksnii the Indian Venus —Yuni the Indian Juno — The sacred Bulls of Egypt the wife of Siva. Boud. " the Voice of the Serpent god" — Buddha the Sun god — Sakya Muni. with a child in her arms Tree worship similar to that of Western Paganism Buddhist worSaint worship Prayers for the dead Purgatory Conship of the dead Rites of initiation similar to the Egyptian Mysteries secration of Idols Baptism Buddhist demonology and magic similar to that of Assyria Magic constitutes the chief influence of and Western Paganism Buddhism Necromancy Supernatural powers of Buddhist priests of — — — — — — — — — — — — . called Deva Tat and Deva Twashta. judge of the dead. Pout. is is is is titles Mercy. the same as Parvati Doorga and India— Yama. the son of the Sun — His birthday. the same —Diespiter.— xiv — — CONTENTS —Surya the Sun—Agni god of Fire. acknowledged as his ecclesiastical superior by the Emperor of China— Identity of primitive Buddhism with other forms of Paganism — The Buddhist Trinity — Buddha. regarded as heretics — Amitabha the Sakya Muni Iswara. Dharma and Sangha — Dharma the same as the goddess Kwanyin — Denial of the gods by Sakya Muni — Represented them as impersonal — Sangha. "the Great Mind" — Other Buddhas — Professor Baldwin on the primitive Buddha — Thibet the seat of the primitive Buddhism — The Grand Llama. another form of pages 89-98 the Indian Cupid —His identity with Horus and Osiris Chapter VI. of the Vedas — Fire worship Cali. like other Pagan goddesses. the Queen of Heaven and goddess The gods as Siva Prithiri. Pho. also Mahi-man. as in Pagan Rome Sakya Muni identified with Sangha as the Voice of the Dragon — All Pagan gods identified with the Serpent or Dragon — Similar worship of Serpent in China — Amitabha as the Serpent god — Sakya Muni as "King of the Serpents" and "the Tree of Knowledge" and Sangha the Sun— Similarity to Hea and Hermes — The Triratna of Buddhism and the Caduceus of Hermes — Antiquity of the Buddhism of Thibet The Grand Llama the same as the Pontifex Maximus of other Pagan —The mitre of Dagon—The celibate priesthood of systems — His Thibet — Their tonsure as priests of the Sun god — The Aureole or Nimbus as the token of divinity — Buddha the Sun god — Bowing to the East — The goddess Kwanyin. represented. with whom the chief Buddha. the incarnation of the primitive Buddha. December 25th. the Reformer. the Buddha of Thibet. Sakya Muni.

son of Hermes. Celts and Arabians Hermes the Moon god Meni Mane and Mani the Moon god of Anglo-Saxons Hermes or Taautus called Teut and Tuisto by Germans Tuisto. Gothic Mythology Woden. The Serpent the symbol of wisdom and divination The Python of Apollo The Celtic Hu The Obi of Canaanites Janus Cronus and Buddha Buddha represented as black and of Cushite — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — race . identified with the Ark Mother of Menu and also of Buddha— Also the wife of Menu and of Buddha Both called Dharma Rajah Buddha as Deva Datta. — — — — — — pages 99-132 Chapter VII.. etc." the second Man bull of Zend Avesta " Twashta " a title of Buddha Mahabad." prophet. Celts. teacher. Tuista and Twashta or Tuasta— Woden same as Poden or Buddha — Odin.. intellect. Colossal images of gigantic foot and teeth The Budd of the Arabs has no relation to Sakya Muni Teaching of latter Magic Symbols of esoteric doctrine The Svastika of Buddhism found in Scandinavian inscriptions The Chinese "Fo. Nuh (Noah) Maya. Father Boud Dad. the symbol of Ark and the goddess mother Woden identified with Hermes Woden author of — Wodensday. mother of gods — Teut. Mercury's day—Woden father of gods — Freya. god of Magic. the Great Mother. god of Magic The sacred books of Buddha.. Hermes. The Gods op Other Nations Ancient Germans. the divine Dat Ab Boud Dad. the name of Buddha Maia the mother of Hermes or Mercury. born of a Cow.. Nimrod The Solar and Lunar races of Paganism Buddha the head of the Lunar race in India Said to live in the Moon The Moon chief god among the Germans. Mexicans and Peruvians.. conductor of dead like — — — . from Tuasta or Twashta.. or Mind. the great Bad or Bud— Monarch of the whole world— Identified with Menu Dat or Tat. Vile and Ve Sons of Patriarch Noah. mind Identical with character of Hermes or Meni. Rhea. and also of Buddha Mercury's day same as Buddha's day Star Mercury called Buddha Both represented by conical black stones Both conductors of the dead The Triratna of Buddha the same as the Caduceus of Mercury Meaning of name " Buddha. etc. sage. wisdom.— CONTENTS — — XV The Shamanas Description of their powers Attained by Asceticism Mesmerism Origin of magic from Accadians Accadian the sacred Similar magic of Ugric and Altaic races language of Assyria Shamanas of Bactria and Persia Similarity of Accadian language to Turanian The Accadian and Thibet Llamas Meaning of term "Llama" General identity of Buddhism with other Pagan systems Origin of the primitive Buddha The mysterious A. the Man. Belus and Osiris Buddha and Menu Menu. Hea.U. son of Woden or Odin. sacred books.M. The Serpent symbol of both Buddha called Dagon Dagon the same as Oannes or Hea Buddha. the Victim" Similarity to Brahma. like Hea. Vile and Ve— Balder. inventor of letters. the first sacred Man bull " Taschta.

gods compounds of Mexicans. crushes head of the countries — Mexican god. for of Odin as in deity. the Phallic god. Noah and one of the builders Prescott to tradition shown to be without was Cush — Objection foundation. — Same lamentations him —Thor son —The Buddhist Topes and Scandinavian Haughs—The Scandinavian Svastica and Nandavesta same Buddhist — The Cobra symbol of Scandinavia — Dragon the royal standard as in China Great Father Scandinavians came from Asia. .. etc. called the dead — Samano.. Sun — Sacred Fire — Vestal Virgins The Peruvians. of pages 133-143 PART II.. sisters. Worshippers as in Egypt — Ra. but the Idolatry instituted by them was the same in principle as that afterwards Chief characteristics of the primitive Idolatry Magic established Buddhist countries the chief seat of modern worship and demon Hermetic teaching The books of Buddha Claim of supernatural Intuitional memory Previous astral Modern Theosophy powers Clairvoyance Power over forces of nature Projection of existence Incantations Powers of The Divine Essence soul through space Pagan were spirits gods devils or of Agency Egypt of magicians daimonia The Delphic Oracle Its celebrity Tiie Pythoness possessed by a god or spirit Pagan gods supposed to be spirits of the dead — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — .. Cush and Nimrod did not originate their own worship. Chapter VIIL The Teaching op Hermes Magic. name of Sun god. etc. the Great Hesa— Celts worshipped also Hesa — Buddha Apollo. was grandson Babel — Proof that Woden. Tat's day— Saman.— xvi slain like Osiris. judge —The Celtic Hu called Budd and Menu — The Bull and Serpent s}Tnbols —The Irish also worshipped Bacchus. as —Incas only marry their dead of the Sun — Augurs — Festival Egypt — Raymi. Serpent — Mexican tradition that Woden. of of in festival on November 2nd. called Asas — The Moon their male Druidical The — Chief god Teutates— Their god Mahesa. Celts. Buddha. of Buddha Tat. CONTENTS Tammuz. Origin and Nature of Pagan Idolatry. also of of la title his of sacrifices Sacrifice of of of fast of of like of of etc.. their ancestor. Necromancy. Stone same as Phoenician and Cushite — Worship of Buddha by ancient Irish Tatt or Tat — First Thoth called as Bud. religion called sacrifices fires first Circles.. Language Phoenician — Names — children Baal or Bel — Vast numbers of human victims sacred to Sun god — Image of god painted black Hearts the Cross Mexican Pyramids similar to that of Babylon — Worship the Sun as in other Pagan forty days in honour Lenten other Pagan gods. the etc. Jupiter and Minerva — Human of Druids same on of Tammuz as Phoenicians — Fire worship — Beltane — Baal the —Tree worship —The Cross —Druidical Cromlechs. Mars.

Manetho. Indian... The Nephilim. Theosophy and Romanism only a course with spirits leptoi its spirits spirits belief of spirits of will spirit of classes localities spirits revival of Paganism . Menu. first " efforts inter- pages 147-181 Chapter IX.— CONTENTS State of the dead similar to those cast out — xvii —Pagan gods stated by Scripture to be daimonia by Christ. Josephus — The Indian traditions — The books Vishnu. Buddha... before the Deluge Cannes — Chrysor or Hephsestus one — Distinct from the postdiluvians — Postdiluvian Idolatry a revival of antediluvian — The buried writings — Tradition of Berosus. Mahabad. Prydain — Interpretation of these and other mythological — Fanciful fables Greeks due to —The Description of Cannes and the Annedoti antediluvian Chrysor or Hephaestus the first Hermes of the gods of the of traditions. Buddhistand Greek mythology Scriptural account The "Sons Meaning of the term The giants or Nephilim Meaning of of God " Nephilim. the " Fallen Ones " Intercourse with women Testimony of ancient writers Iranian tradition of Djemschid Reference to the Nephilim by St Peter Nature of their sin Hindu tradition that the tlie esoteric — — — — — 6 — — — — — — — . stories of their ignorance of — meaning of Pagan allegory and symbolism Correspondence between Pagan traditions and the Scriptural account The ten antediluvian kings The giants of Gothic. Celtic. and whose chief was Satan — Power claimed by the latter— Theosophy — Intercourse with — Testimony of Cyprian and Clement — Temples of health — Remarkable cures — Enthousiastai — Dreamers of Dreams Theomanteis — Daimonia The prophetic faculty — Capacity for receiving impressions from spiritual agencies — Physical conditions — Similar to those inculcated in the foretold apostasy from Christianity which commenced with the worship of the dead — Explanation of dreams and visions — Instances of these — Real nature of intuitional memory — Spiritualism — Number of adherents —Testimonies to reality of phenomena— Mixed up with trickery— The personate the of the dead — Similar Pagans Description of Spiritualistic phenomena — Analysis of — Levitation The same in Paganism — Roman Catholic Saints — Magical power of Pagan Idols — Proof that phenomena of Spiritualism due to Clairvoyance and Mesmerism due to same agency — Use of Mesmerism by Pagan priests for consulting the gods — Part played by the Mesmeriser — Self Mesmerism — Indian Pakirs — Colonel Townshend — Electro Biology and Hypnotism due to same agencies — Mesmeric power independent of force — Powers of adept due to possession by a — Phenomena Electro Biology not due to Biologist— Similar Phenomena of Hypnotism — Pagan divination by table-turning — The Trinity of Theosophy same as that of Paganism — Supernatural phenomena which are not due to daimonia — Distinction between the two of phenomena — Other phenomena — Haunted houses and under a curse — "The Doune murderers — Modern to revive —Spiritualism. Chinese.

." "beautiful" — Possible origin of postdiluvian intercourse with Nephilim — Derketo. of of of of for this Its of sacrifices of of of his Sacrificed of of of Sacrifice of first-born in Csiris of of sacrifices of of his of Recapitulation . Cronus — The nymph Anohret— Meaning The human of the name "Heavenly Image" or "Heavenly Mortal"— Comparison with story Semiramis — Semiramis a Nephilim-born woman — Story them to the demon gods Saturn devouring children — the time Cham or Ham — Tradition Zoroaster the Egypt to — Judgment God in the Tenth Plague Crigin these — Story swaddled stone given to Saturn son Jupiter — Hence stones became symbols the god instead — Story Titan (Shem) and Saturn (Cush) — explanation " History of Sanchoniathon" of —Appearance of of giants in the fourth fifth first of this of to of " to " " of of of of of Its object. the Nephilim intercourse — Repetition intercourse evidence Nephilim descent — Agruerous the husbandman. from the gods or demons — Name specially applied and Taautus or Thoth— Break in narrative — Hypsistus and Beruth beget Epigeus or Curanos (Heaven) and Ge (Earth) — Epigeus. Atlas —The Second Ci'onus —Jupiter Belus. wife of Dagon Black colour of Cushite race possibly the judgment of God on the Nephilim intercourse — "Children of darkness" and "seed of the gods became incarnate taken by the Nephilim sister title Serpent. Dagon.. Pontus — War Babel— the worship the demon Curanos — The Tower Heaven — This war was the same gods — Curanos the representative the Titans against Curanos Saturn and as that as the war war— interpretation Reason given in Greek mythology Mutilation Curanos — Comparison with Scriptural account.. father — Evidence that he was Noah —The meaning Hypsistus and Beruth. Apollo— Hercules. the the Titans in the tenth generation shown Noah — Titan. and Nemaus.— — xviii . father Chrysor be Noah — The Titans. Rhea.. of Its pages 182-212 . Confusion gods in the subsequent narrative— Cronus. Betylus. wife of Ham — Semiramis." —The ten generations before the Deluge or generation. dependthe Titans ent on the earth or a husbandman — Curanos.. Astarte. CONTENTS —The Nephilim and daimonia the same— Form — Cannes and the Annedoti— Cannes the Serpent —Nephilim intercourse after the Deluge—The giant races of Canaan not Canaanites — The Rephaim — Means taken for inviting intercourse with the Nephilim — The temple of Belus at Babylon and the temple at Thebes — Spirit marriages of Spiritualism — Persian tradition that black race arose from this intercourse — Its sudden appearance in the world — Unaffected by climate — Traditions of the marriage of Djemschid with a demon-born woman — Nimrod a giant — Naamah. of TubalCain. " Earth-born or not descended name given to sons Shem — Misor. daughter of goddess "Son and Derketo and wife of both Cush and Nimrod — Hence Husband of the Mother" — "Naamah. Cronus against Cupid. Typhon.

S. the Serpent god. — Spiritual influence ascribed to the Sun — The Cross as symbol of the Sun — Ode to the Sun god — Mystic of Sun god Bacchus.— — CONTENTS Chapter X. 360. the Serpent god Nahash." its esoteric meaning Hea. Father and Mother The Serpent god of the Mysteries The letter * the symbol of the Serpent god The word " Phoenician " The Python. the sacred number of Paganism and the number of Scripture — The Sigillum or Magic Square — The Sun as the Creative Power or Great Father — The Earth as the Great Mother— Worship the Phallus or Lingam —The Phallus. the Serpent. Sun human mind Knowledge and civilisation of the antediluvians Knowledge of God by jjostworship not a spontaneous product of the diluvians —Teaching of Hermes — Male and female Creators — Pretence of in Paganism — Substitution of material type for — Sun and Fire worship — Esoteric and exoteric meanings —The Sun regarded as source of both material and spiritual — Fire as a means of purification from sin — The Sun as the Divine Wisdom or source of Hght — The Serpent identified with the Sun as source of Life and Knowledge — The Phallus and Tree as manifestations of the Life and Generation of which the Sun was supposed to be the source — Hermetic teaching of the present day — Dupuis. the symbol natural and death — The Cross as symbol of the Tree —The Tree of Life and Knowledge — The Cross as symbol of the Sun and principal Pagan gods — The Crux Ansata or sign of Life — The Cross the symbol of the Tree of Death Emblem of worldly power and honour — Different aspects of the Cross — Worship the Cross—The Cross and Phallus combined used in Italy and Spain — The N. letters evil Solis of of life really of still letters I. the cypher. the three symbols in the Mysteries — I. the symbol of the Sun god Apollo Bacchus or Dionusius identified with lao. "the Man-instructing Serpent" and " the Life Restorer " The Serpent and Egg.H. Its Identified with "the Word" or the Divine Wisdom ^sculapius the Sun and Serpent god. the symbol of the seed and the disk of the Sun — The Asherah — The Tree and the Cross — True meaning of the Cross. — — The Sun.O. "Serpent" Janus. I. lone and Serpent. — Numbers as symbols of the Sun god — The numbers. Di'anus and Cannes " Diphues. " the race of the Serpent symbol of worldly dominion The Dragon Serpent gods Cnouphis and Agathodaemon The Serpent god Onuphis — — — — The Serpent the standard of Rome — The " — — . the symbol of Bacchus — O. the Sun and Serpent god J'anus. the Serpent god of Phoenicia Deonaush or Deva Nahusha.I. — The Serpent— worship originated by Thoth (Cush) — The Serpent the symbol of the Sun The Winged Disk and Serpent — Its symbolism — The Serpent as the spirituality — Sun worship — — the invention of a subtle and atheistical mind spiritual reality life spiritual etc.R. 365 and 666 — Scriptural significance of numbers — The number 666. identified by Rawlinson with the Serpent of Scripture Bel and the Creator — — — — — — — — — Dragon ^Ethiopian. the Phallus and the Tree.

conquests The Death of the Pagan God. Chapter XII. the Sacred Serpent Serpent — Human victims Obi Avorship in Africa — Mexican worship — Similar worship in Peru—The Serpent gods.— — XX a title of Osiris — CONTENTS —The Caduceus Hermes or Mercury—Aphthah or — Pharaoh or Phra— Egyptian kings as sons of the Sun and Alexander the Great and Augustus to be sons Serpent — Claim of the Serpent god — The Serpent god Beelzebub — Symbolic the Canaanites Serpent god — Oph. PART III. . Extent of Nimrod's — The intimate connection of Cush and Nimrod with Egypt Manetho's god kings — The two races in Egypt. The Worship of the Stars. Obi. Centaurus. Overthrow of the Primitive Paganism and its Relation TO THE Early History of Babylon and Egypt. Phsethon. China — Druidical Serpent Siva and Buddha — The Dragon god worship— The Dragon god Hu. pages 213-245 Chapter XI. the overof initiates. child of the Sun. and Deceit the principles of Paganism . The precession of the Equinoxes and the signs of the Zodiac The names of the constellations have no relation to their form The Scripture asserts that they were given them by God The precession of the Equinoxes and its relation The eclipse cycles of time Their relation to the period of man's life Evidence that the to the great prophetic periods and to geometry Evidence of preuniverse is governed by exact mathematical laws ordained design The heavenly bodies given as signs They mark the dates in human history Statements of Scriptui'e that the history of — — — — — — — — — — redemption until the time of the restitution of all things was foretold by the Stars and explained by the prophets Evidences of this knowledge pages 246-252 It was made use of and perverted by Paganism — — . by the Carians and Egyptians — The by priests by by lightning — Death of Orpheus. Pagan god also said to be ^sculapius. Mestraoi and Egyptians — Death of Nimrod— Exact similarity of the death the various gods with whom he was identified — Ninus. Zoroaster. the Victorious Beli or Bel — Moral Paganism with the Satan Scripture identity the Serpent god — The bestower worldly dominion on those who worshipped him — death by The Cross symbol and or the Cross in Egypt "Typhos"— Seal Human Priests Infants — Murder. Orpheus. Ob. torn in pieces — The Spotted Fawn — Death of Osiris — Mode of death imitated Baal. of killed of . Juggernaut. Mystery — Human in Mexico — of Phthah of of figures of of sacrificed to it of of of of of his altar Sacrificial fire sacrifices to Osiris sacrifices called of Sacrifice of . Orion — Judicial death of Tammuz — Similar death Osiris— His body cut in pieces by order of the Egyptian judges — Typhon (Shem). Bacchus.

and after that called Typhon. called also " CAo/t. Typhon. which had brought about the destruction of the antediluvian world Set symbolised by a Boar Tusks of a Boar emblem of the power of the mouth. the evil spirit Symbolised by a Red Ass Red or ruddy said to be the fatiier of the of — tradition — complexion sacrificed to the black Osiris Christ called Typhon in Egypt and symbolised by an Ass Set as the god Bes The power of words by which Typhon overcame Osiris of complexion of — — — Set— Men similar — Story — — — — represented as horrid yells and shrieks Christians in after times — Similar misrepresentation of that — Shem. " the Lamenter." and the god of Eloquence Set or Typhon — — — — — — — — Jews and builder of Jerusalem General Jews that Shem was Melchisedek. identical with the Shepherd king Set or Saites The latter called Set Nubti in the reign of Rameses II. the principle of evil. and given same titles as the god Set or Typhon Proofs that the Shepherd king Set was Typhon City of Avaris built by him called Typhonian city. the Egyptian Hercules. and the zone in which it was built the Sethroite zone Story of the overthrow of Idolatry by the Shepherds identical with that of the overthrow of Osiris by Typhon Description of Shepherds as " Wander- — — — — ing Phoenician kings" exactly descriptive of Semitic Patriarchs Reason for building Avaris by Shepherd king Set Shepherds as to Typhon Identification of the Shepherds as the same race as the Israelites by Manetho Shepherds called " Our Ancestors " — — Same hatred to — .— CONTENTS thrower of Osiris (Nimrod) (Cush) xxi — Set — Set the —Titan (Shem)." " Set the Golden " Subsequent hatred of Set and his identification with Typlion. or of words Sem or Shem. the overthrower of Saturn real also called name of Typhon Set a synonym of Shem or Sem Semu Sem the Greek form of Shem Set worshipped — — — as a god until time of the Rameses. which was headed by Saturn The giants represented with the long hair and beards distinctive of the Moon god spirit evil stories of Set. or Mahesha and Ganesa.. and secret resuscitation of Idolatry in assisted his of of of refers Its of — Chaldean legend of the war of the wicked gods (Cush) — Scandinavian tradition of the death of Balder by Loki the of — Indian tradition of the overthrow of the gods by Durga — Exact similarity to the story of Typhon — Similar Semitic Patriarchs against the the Titans against Coelus (Heaven). or Titan." "the Lamenter" Hercules Ogmius. as the enemy of Osiris Means taken by Shem to overthrow Osiris Shem a prophet of God His warning against Nephilim worship. kin-^ and priest of Jerusalem The Sha emblem of Set Set worshipped as " Set JVubti. said be by brother Titans in war against Saturn — Implies general co-operation other — descendants Noah against the Cushites "War uiants against the Pagan gods to the same event— distinction from the war that country his to Typhon they assumed the shapes of went to Egypt This refers to the — when gods were overthrown by animals by the advice of Pan.

— Could not have been commenced at the very beginning of his reign Proof that Set and Suphis were both immediate successors of Menes and Athothes Consequent identity of Set and Suphis— Story of Pyramid kings Both overthrowers of Idolatry exactly the same as that of Shepherds Both said to have reduced inhabitants to slavery Both regarded with the same hatred Both commence to reign at the same period Statement of Herodotus implying that Pyramid kings were called Shepherd kings Pyramid kings stated to be of a difi'erent race to other Egyptian kings Reigns of first two Shepherds and first two Pyramid kings the same length Period of the Shepherd dominion identical with the period during which Idolatry was suppressed by the Pyramid kings Resuscitation of Idolatry by Mencheres synchronous with its resuscitation in B.ibylon by Arioch. which is an additional proof that the overthrow of Osiris by Typhon and the overthrow of Egyptian Idolatry by the Shepherd kings were one and the same event Real names of Shepherds carefully erased from monuments. . in 2180 or 2177 B. which had been restored. pages 255-273 Chapter XIII. and chose Set as his god Called a Shepherd Shepherds had been an abomination to Egyptians in consequence Long interval between him and the first previous to his reign Hatred to Shepherds Every means taken to conceal Shepherds Their names only nicknames Cannot therefore be their identity found on the monuments Hatred to memory of Apepi As a Shepherd king. the grandson of Semiramis Mencheres and Nitocris Evidence of hatred to Pyramid kings Prenomen of Shepherd king Set the same as that of the Pyramid — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — . Date of Great Pyramid built by Suphis 2170 B.C. The Shepherd kings the immediate Recapitulation of conclusions successors in Egypt of the Cushite kings Menes and Athothes (Cush and Nimrod) Shepherds represented as the first kings of Egypt by Josephus and others Seemingly no record of them on the monuments Mystery surrounding them The Menthu kings in the Saite zone Worshippers of Set Constructed Sphinxes in his of Semitic race honour The Shepherd king Apepi one of these Menthu Distinction between Apepi and the first Shepherd kings Apepi the Pharaoh — — — — — — — — under whom Joseph ruled He rejected worship of the Egyptian gods.c. he is said to be one of those who warred against Osiris. Period of the first Shepherd kings Testimonies to the beginning of Babylonian Empire in 2234 b.— xxii — — CONTENTS by Josephus of — Destruction j^^thiopia Cushites to beards like Semitic Mystery hitherto surrounding Shepherd kings temples gods by Shepherds— Flight — Shepherd sculpture with long hair and Patriarchs — Shepherds always so represented of of . The Shepherd Kings and the Pyramid Builders.C. Termination of the joint reigns of Menes and Athothes (Cush and Nimrod).

— PART IV.— — CONTENTS king Suphis to that of — xxiii — Soris the predecessor of Suphis—His description answers —Pyramid of Soris— Suphis placed by Manetho in 4th Dynasty — Manetho's interpolated dynasties denied by the monuments — The name Suphis means "much hair." the distinguishing feature of the Shepherds — Saophis Comastes or " long-haired — Granite group of Shepherd period — Character and symbolism of Great Nimrod " Pyramid shows that it must have been built by one who was. Suphis group of Shepherds an evidence of hatred to them This hatred shown only to Shepherd and Pyramid kings Granite group probably represents those kings.. constructed in honour of Set Tanis Sphinxes all with same features Must represent Shepherd king Set or Shem Example of the antediluvian type The Great Sphinx another strong evidence that Suphis was the Shepherd king Set Description of its features Must have been originally the same as those of the Tanis Sphinxes Tradition that Great Pyramid is the tomb of Seth Its significance Symbolic significance of the Great Sphinx Comparison of features of Tanis Sphinxes with those of granite group of Shepherds and with those of the statue of Shefra Their apparent identity Fair complexion of Set or Shem The true type of the Israelites Identical with that of the Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian The probable Semitic to hatred of priests — Due The Shepherd Sculptures. — — — — pages 301-309 Resuscitation and Development of the Primitive Idolatry. — — — Granite — No sculptures of Set or — — — — — — — — — — origin of the latter . Flight of Saturn or Gush where he founded the cities of Saturnia and Janicula on the future site of Rome Ancient Italy called the Saturnian land Overthrow of primitive Idolatry among the Japhetic nations Restoration of Idolatry at first secret Gods said to have taken the form of animals by advice of Pan (Cush) Establishment of priesthood by Isis for collection and worship of various portions of the dead body of Osiris (Nimrod) each represented by some animal Influence of the knowledge of the true God in Egypt Consequent necessity for caution in restoring Idolatry The Egyptian Mysteries for the revelation of the god to the initiated Not the same concealment in Babylon Simultaneous restoration in both countries in reigns of Mencheres and Arioch Death of god said to have been for good of mankind— Represented to be the promised seed of the woman This the real origin of the anthropomorphic gods of Paganism The — — — — — — — — — — — — — .. Chapter XV. a prophet and priest of God Recapitulation of evidence. but features destroyed The Tanis Sphinxes Sphinxes especially associated with Shepherds. pages 274-300 — Chapter XIV. to Italy. Resuscitation of Idolatry... like Shem.

efficacy sacrifices Pagan god by the Cross or by fire.— xxiv — CONTENTS " etc." a Nin. "Gods many and Lords many " The Hero gods The worship of the dead — a stepping-stone to worship of daimonia Influence of priesthood through their magical powers The worship of idols an inseparable feature of Paganism of — Idols the habitation of the — Testimony of Spiritualists and Buddhists — Haunted — Principle of image same as that of shrines. or "the Son" — " Semiramis. "Seed of Cush " — "Asar. work of one mind." "the Ark "—Th aba." The Sun as the source of Life and Generation The Phallic worship Moral characteristics of the Sun god identified him with the Prince of Evil — — Identified also with the Serpent even in Christian times .. from material agencies followed by their worship — Spiritual Gradual moral degradation. Zar. " the city of the gods. " the Seed of the "Woman meaning a and the seed Sarus a cycle Zoro.." "Mother the Seed"—The god shown as a child nations — The god also represented as in mother's arms in the Slayer of the Serpent — Lamentations for the death of the god Effect upon his worshippers — Rites of the god also for purification of Christ of Paganism— The Ark a symbol of sin — Became the the Deluge incorporated with the revived Idolatry Christ — Events The Ark became the symbol of the goddess — Thebes. of certain sacred groves of the gods. "the Mother of the Gods" —The Deluge the type of regeneration— Baptism of the Lesser Mys—Probable commemoration of Deluge previous Idolatry Names given to Pagan god to identify him with the true God Double meaning of names — Resuscitated Idolatry founded on perPatriarchal faith — Principal features the two version the same — Winged Lions and Bulls and the Cherubim — Summary of steps taken for the gradual restoration of Idolatry— Methods used for propagation in the Japhetic races — Statues and homage to heroes. Zero.. — General Features of the Revived Idolatry. and as that of the occult symbols.. — prophecies regarding Christ — Zoroaster. by — Supposed spiritual of Sun worship — —Fire regarded as divine and an emanation from the Sun—The regarded as Son of Sun as God — The dead king." "the Branch-bearer" — "Zerbanit. — Influence of this worship pages 313-337 Chapter XVI.. temples and houses. amulets and charms — The Cross and Circle — The Tonsure The Nimbus — The Sacred Heart — Holy Water— Human to the this — — The reason — — daimonia etc. "from Thebe. " the spirit which worketh in the children of disobedience. El bar. as the promised God and therefore as the Sun — Goddess regarded as the Earth and Moon — Process of development carried on from age to age — The circle of title of his all false of teries to of of rituals its effects Sacrifice fire efficacy fire seed. both being symbols or manifestations . of Osiris time Chusorus.

.. when in the zenith of its power. evil spirits it pages 352-365 APPENDIX Sir A. Mantle of Romance thrown round Paganism by Greek poets Higher moral characteristics of Greeks and Romans Influence of Israel Decay of Pagan influence — — — — — — — — — — — — — under influence of evil spirits Pagans worshipped these supposing them to be spirits of the dead The complete moral degradation resulting from this. as in the case of the Canaanites Commands of God to Israelites Idolatry pronounced Modern excuses for Idolatry False piety honoured to be accursed Why Idolatry is accursed Not the result of an arbitrary decree but of a moral law To be accursed is to be cut off from the protection of God Partial and complete separation from God Complete transfer by Paganism of dependence on God to created things Substitution of the psychical for the spiritual The Pagan idolator self-accursed Its full evil seen — The Moral Aspect of Paganism. the symbol of the Sun god. offered for the sins of the people Purgatory Sacrifices for the dead Peuance The Mysteries seci-et Chapter XVII. Liable to fall — evil spirits — Fascination of Idolatry material and sensible — Likened to madness and drunkenness Idolatry appeals to the natural inclinations of for the spiritual — Faith man Substitutes the a stumblin»-block — — — — to be followed by adoption the doctrines symbolised — Propaganda by Idolatry — Idolatry places the idolater under the the priesthood influence and dominion of — Warnings against by the of of Religion of sacraments and signs always an attraction Danger from the presence of the images and symbols of Idolatry Equal danc^er from adopting the ritual forms of Idolatry Their symbolism Certain Apostolic writers .— CONTENTS of the XXV — — — — — Initiates prepared by fasting and confession — Description of Greater Mysteries — Their object the revelation of the god — The dread or " Apporeta"— Revelation of the god as the Serpent pages 338-351 god No bloody sacrifices offered to the goddess The Round Cake.. Idea of Wilkinson that the worship of true God was developed out of Idolatry Sun worship shown to be the later form of Egyptian Idolatry The Sun as the Creator and god of Generation Sun worship by Amenhotep III. Gardner Wilkinson on the Egyptian Religion. and Rhamestes Cnouphis likened by Wilkinson But Cnouphis identified with the Sun o-od to the Spirit of God Amenra as the Creator Animal worship of Egyptians Commentary of the Apostle Paul on this Animal worship Wilkinson's excuse for of purer religion in of righteousness — Effects — — — — — — — — . as described in Romans i. His valuable facts.. but sometimes incorrect deductions His admiration for Egyptian art and civilisation has led him to idealise Egyptian Idolatry — Egypt obliged Idolatry to put on a garb and mystery.

APPENDIX Geological speculations of C.— xxvi Animal worship CONTENTS — Its fallacy Idolatry merely the result of the studied confusion of the material and spiritual in order to cover its evil origin of the gods Osiris — Admission Egyptian of Egypt — Wilkinson's arguments of — Plutarch's — Metaphysical character of Egyptian — Wilkinson's opposition to the human weak attempt to allegorise history of priests that the gods self -contradictory .. Cannes and the Annedoti. — pages 380-390 ..ods pages 377-380 Possible forms of fallen spirits at Babylon — — — — — — — — ... — — Their rejection of Old Speculations of modern archaeologists Testament history and chronology The chronology of Berosus corroboThe date given by Nabonadius not to be depended on rates Scripture Manetho's Manetho's dynasties Many of them contemporaneous Denied by the Monumental Lists Evidence interpolated dynasties that they are repetitions of certain kings in certain relations These facts ignored by those who desire to prove greater antiquity of the human race Necessary to carefully examine the grounds of their — — — — — — — — — assertions . — Form expressive of moral and psychical characteristics this Every creature obeys law — Conclusion that if spiritual beings took material forms they must be expressive of their characteristics Form taken by fallen spirits Form taken by Satan Animal forms of gods in Greek mythology The Annedoti the natural form of the Nephilim Tradition of former world destroyed by fire Previous existence of mighty Saurians Nearly all destroyed Worshipped as <. Howarth to be due to torrents water under the American Continent great deep — The abysses Evidence by Catlin — The overflow of these abysses — The Great Lakes — The St Lawrence —The Gulf Stream — Universality the Deluge Glacial The Deluge followed by a Glacial Period — Evidences Period — The Mammoth — Countries formerly temperate now — Fallacious " deductions fallacies of glacial of of of of of this arctic This Glacial Period sufficient to account for all evidences of Glacial Historical evidences of the remains of this Glacial Period action 2000 years ago Permanent alteration of climate of northern countries — — which were previously temperate Human remains previous to this Disorder of superficial strata of earth Glacial Period were antediluvian in consequence of the Deluge. had been rulers pages 367-377 APPENDIX Universal law B.. —Thickness stalagmites covering human remains regarding the Stone Age — Similar action shown by The Glacial theory — Many supposed traces water — "The fountains the Sir H. Speculations Regarding the Antiquity of the Human Race. .

(3). with Nimrod Nimrod must have been first king of Accad. should probably read ''En Sar Sargani " " Sumu Ahi " and " Sumu la Uu." king of Kienge. The question of language Semitic races in the valleys of Tigris and Euphrates must have outnumbered the Cushites Evidence of the is —This — the argument of — — — Consequent predominance the Semitic people and language the days Amraphel and The language Canaan — Powerful influence Semitic and the conquest and dispersion Hamitic Canaanites account Semitic character — Previous language similar Accadian — The Hittites — The northern Amorites probably Aramaeans migration to India in of of decline of the Cushite power in the days of Abraham — — Early Cushite his successors. possessed high civilisation and knowledge of Astronomy. : Evidence that inhabitants of Chaldea before Cushite conquest were Turanian Impossibility that Turanians could have imposed their language and religion on their conquerors. king of Erech. and were the originators of the learning and civilisation of the Chaldees This wholly inconsistent with Turanian — — character (2). is "The king Sargani " Inscriptions describing him identify him with Nimrod and show him to be King of Accad. Erech. M. Lenormant between the Babylonian and Accadian religions — Nothing known of Accadian religion as distinct from that of the kings of Ur— Absence of outward forms among first Israelites. Assertion that there was never a Cushite conquest of Babylon The Nimrod Myth " No mention of Nimrod on monuments "Nimrod " only a soubriquet." or " Zamu. and probability that they adopted the language and religion of the Cushites and carried it with them in their subsequent migrations to the east and north Accadians were the authors of cuneiform writing. Ur and Babylon Lugal Saggisi. is what might be expected. not his real name Identity of ''Sargani Sar Ali." first kings of Babylon Their probable identity with Cush and Nimrod Their successor " Zabu.— —— CONTENTS APPENDIX D. Semitic Language of Canaanites in later times also Semitic DisSemitic tinction drawn between Cushite and Accadian religion Argument by M. Accadian magic and nature gods similar to those of the Turanian races Accadian language also similar to that of Turanians Later Chaldean Hence it is argued that the Cushite language was language." king of Accad. Erech and Ur Called son of Bel (Gush). and " Kienge Accad "is also Nimrod " Un Sag Saggani. — xxvii The Accadians." king of Ur." is probably the " Zames " of the Greek lists Correspondence " — — — — — — — — — — . and king of the children of Bel (Cushites) Shown to have been deified ''Lugal Kigub. Turanian races (4). Renan The force of it shown. of of peoples. of sufficient to for its later to — Cuneiform writing used at by Distinction by M. Lenormant that Accadians were Turanians and not Cushites — — — — — Replies to these conclusions (1).

. is not a genealo2:y That it has nothing to do with genealogy of Professor Sayce — — — — descendants of Noah and is only a geographical description Supposed parallel of direct contradiction of the meaning of Scripture " daughter nations " The absurdity of the language used Its fallacy — — — —Apparent if the names are countries and not persons sacred writer countries Excuse for theory Change of race in certain countries Case of Amorites and Elamites Later Elamites were Turanian. pages 411-413 pages 415-422 PLATES. the people of Chusistan Date of Samu la Ilu shown All earlier dynasties contemporaneous Date of Naram to be 2234 B. . The Tanis Sphinxes. Statue of Shefra or Num Suphis. „ III. and Naram Sin Date of Sagarkti Buryas fixed by Nabonidus The Bavian inscription of Sennacherib Ptemarkable agreement between the termination of the third Kassite dynasty and the corresponding dynasty of Berosus Uncertain position of Kadasman Bel the contemporary of Amenophis Egyptian chronology not to be depended on Evidence that list III. Granite Group of Shepherds.... — — — — of corresponding missing — Assyrian kings are out of order and some names pages 390-411 Date of Isme Dagon .. . Assertion that Genesis x. Lugal Usumgal. Shepherd.— xxviii of first — CONTENTS — Babylonian dynasty with that of Berosus First three dynasties = Kissioi. king of Erech.. king of Lagas Sin Gamil.. . II.. to it — APPENDIX " History of Sanchoniathon. Plate . I.C." it History translated by Philo Byblius of —Only portions preserved by Eusebius — Attempts modern writers discredit by asserting that was the history opposed to a forgery by Philo — Internal evidence assertion — No motive for such a forgery — Motives suggested by modern writers forced and unlikely — Assertion that the history was assertion forged to support Euhemerus — No evidence in support — The assertion that Euhemerus invented the human origin of the those who make these the evidence — The motive gods opposed to forgery and invention — The fascination exercised by the assertions ancient Paganism on many — The opposition to be expected from those of this of this all of of with Roman Index .. E. Catholic proclivities .. IV. — — Countries —Positive statement of the not ppople after called after people and — — Notes on Chronological Table. Sin Second and third Kassite dynasties partly contemporaneous Probability that Ammurabi reigned at the end of first Babylonian dynasty Exact correspondence with sacred chronology Date given by Asshur Kassite — — — — — — Banipal for Kedor Nakhunta Its probable explanation. Statements by (5). Enlarged View.

Ancient Mythology. Bunsen History of Egypt. Birch (Samuel) — History of Egypt.) — Gael and Cimbri. Barker and Ainsworth — Lares and Penates of Beal — Catena of Buddhist Scriptures.List of the Principal Works Consulted or Quoted. — Prehistoric Nations. 1851. Healy. Do. Marcellinus — History. Baldwin Cilicia. Edition 1876. —Mexican Antiquities. Tusculan Disputations. Cicero — De Natura Deorum. Do. — — Great Dionysiac Myth. Edited by Hodges. Bryant Plagues of Egypt. Berosus — From Cory's Fragments. and Notices of any Particular Editions Used. Colebrook — Religious Ceremonies of the Hindoos. 1642. Do.) — — Caesar — Commentaries. 1836. Citie of Do. The Uplifted and Subsided Rocks of North America. translation by J. Betham (Sir W. Do. Do. 1891. Conder (Colonel R. Computation of the Number 666 — Nisbet. Etruscan Literature and Antiquities. Isis : Brugsch History of Egypt. Augjustine — De Civitate Deo. Catlin — North American Indians. Coleman — Indian Mythology. Do. Cory — Ancient Fragments.)— The First Bible. Revelata Enquiry into Animal Magnetism. Do. God . Apuleius — Opera. Brown (R. . Bancroft — Native Races of the Pacific Coast of North America. Aglio Ammianus Asiatic Researches. Belzoni — Operations and Discoveries in Egypt and Nubia. Colquhoun — Magic and Witchcraft. E.

Alexander) — Stupa of Bharhut. Humboldt Researches on the Ancient Inhabitants Hurd Rites and Ceremonies. — The Mammoth Do. Cunningham (Major-Gen. Deane — Worship of the Serpent. Edkins — Chinese Buddhism. Kenrick — Egypt under the Pharaohs Kinns — Moses and Geology. Gill— Myths of the South Pacific. Elliot— Horae Apocalypticae. Gall — Primeval Man Unveiled. The Glacial Nightmare. Do. and the Flood. Davies — Celtic Researches. Dymock — Classical Dictionary. Eusebius — Praeparationes Evangelicae. 7th Edition. Kitto — Illustrated Commentary . Arnold & Co. Kennett — Roman Antiquities. — — '-^ Josephus — Whiston's. Mythology and Rites of British Druids. Ignatius — Atlantis. 1840. Hislop Howarth — Two Babylons. One Volume Edition.). Gray (Mrs Hamilton) Sepulchres of Etruria. Dryden's Virgil. — 1843. Kennedy — Hindu Mythology. Hales' Chronology. H. Ball. Donnelly. (Sir H. Cumberland — History of Sanchoniathon. Faber— Origin of Pagan Idolatry.XXX Crabb LIST OF WORKS CONSULTED — Mythology. Dupuis — Origin of Religions translation by Partridge. Diodorus Si cuius — Bibliotheca. Crichton — Ancient and Modern Scandinavia. Ferguson — Tree and Serpent Worship. Herodotus. of America. Burns. Gibbon — Decline and . Fall.

LIST OF WORKS CONSULTED Lang Do. Maimonides — More Nevochim. Macrobius — Opera. —Nineveh and Remains. Do. Mallet— Northern Antiquities. Griffin & Co. (Cardinal) — Development of Christian Doctrine. do. their Origin and Destiny. Mankind. Maurice — Indian Antiquities. 1882. xxxi Layard — Origin and Migrations of the Polynesian Nation. Pliny — Natural History. Purchas — Pilirrimaofes. Perfect Way (The). — Classical Dictionary. In one Volume. Petrie (Flinders) — History of Egypt. Routledge. Piazzi Smyth — Life and Work at the Great Pyramid. Poole — Horae Egypticae. — Roman Emperors. its Nineveh and Babylon. Osburn Monumental History of Egypt. — Conquest of Mexico. Plato — Opera. 1850. Ovid Opera. Lempriere Do. 1855. Peter Martyr— De Orbe Novo. In one Volume. Newton (Benjamin Wills) — Reflections on the Spread Nash Newman of Spiritualism. Pember Potter Prescott and Boyd — Grecian Antiquities. Nimrod. — Chaldean Magic and Sorcery. Bohn. . Conquest of Peru. Moor's Hindu Pantheon. — The Pharaoh of the Exodus. — Ancient History of the East. Lillie Lenormant Lynam — Buddha and Early Buddhism. — — — Earth's Earliest Ages. Do. Pococke — India in Greece. Boulston & Sons. Pompeii. Plutarch — De Iside et Osiride.

Tylor Researches into the Early History of Mankind. Sayce Fresh Light from the Ancient Monuments. Rasrozin Rawlinson (G. — Stories of the Nations Chaldea. Ancient and Modem.xxxii _ LIST OF WORKS CONSULTED Quarterly Review. Yule —Marco Polo. Do. — — — — Vaux —Nineveh and Persepolis. 1878. . Tacitus Taylor New Zealand and Its Inhabitants. Wild — Spiritual Dynamics. TertuUian Opera. 1841. Toland History of the Druids.) Do. Classical Dictionary. Herodotus. Sanchoniathon — History from Cory's Fragments. — Egypt and Babylon. — Manners of the Germans. — Egypt. Suggestive Inquiry into the Hermetic Wisdom. — Smith Do. — Bohn — Stonehenge and Avebury. Do. : Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient East. B. Secret Doctrine (The)— By H. Early Israel and the Surrounding Nations. Smith (George) Stukeley Strabo — Chaldean Account of Genesis. Edited by Birch. Salverte (Eusebe)— Sciences Occultes. 6 Vols. Sharon Turner Anglo-Saxons. Wilkins — Hindu Mythology. 2nd Edition. P. do. — — Dictionary of the Bible. — Buddhism. Vyse (Colonel Howard) — Pyramids of Egypt. Do. 1877. Virgil. Rhys Davis Russell : Saville— Truth of the Bible. Wilkinson — Manners and Customs of the Egyptians. Do. 1888. Races of the Old Testament.











ceremonies." as in Peru and Egypt (Lang's Polynesia. the Aborigines of Australia. showing that. This is not the case the theory is wholly opposed to the conclusions of those who have most fully studied the subject. The works of Faber. not merely Egyptians. Greeks and Romans. as collected by Mr Faber. Mexicans and Peruvians. Rawlinson and others have indisputably proved the connection and identity of the religious systems of nations most remote from each other. NewGuinea. There Mr Lang quotes Sir Stamford Eaffles and Marsden as stating that there was one original language common to the South Sea Islands and to Sumatra. 19. and even the savages of the South Sea Islands. and that their religious customs are similar to those of the Mexicans. customs. but also the Hindus.) ' . and in the names and relations of their respective gods and goddesses. and more lately by the additional traditions of the Mandan and other North American Indians. 20. Jones. 41-44. He says that the language of the Polynesians has also a remarkable resemblance to that of the Chinese. Druids. in Mr Catlin's interesting work on those are religious superstitions . Sir W. Pococke. There is no more convincing evidence of this fact than the common tradition in all these nations of the Deluge. the Goths. Madagascar and the Philippines.^ must have all derived their religious ideas from a common source and a common centre.The Worship of CHAPTER INTRODUCTORY I the Dead —THE DELUGE some modern writers who have represented the various and idolatries of different nations as being the spontaneous invention of each race. Chaldeans. Wilkinson. pp. Phoenicians. See also Taylor's New Zealand and Gill's Myths of the South Pacific. Hislop. Peruvians. Phoenicians and Egyptians. and the natural and uniform outcome of human nature in a state of barbarism. the Buddhists of China and of Thibet. Sir G. traditions. the name even of their Sun god being " Ea. Anglo-Saxons. Everywhere we find the most startling coincidences in rites.

formerly observed at or near the is beginning of November by the Peruvians. and must have been derived from a refer to different local floods in each exhaustively shown in his three folio common The source. as in Egypt.THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD tribes/ is showing that. the seventeenth day of the second month the month nearly corresponding with our November. Catlin. the ancient Persians. . IT. there hardly a nation or tribe in the world which does not possess a I tradition of the destruction of the human race by a flood. Pagan Idolatry^ book iii. that they case. and the seventeenth day of the second month would therefore correspond with the fifth day of our month of November but as the festival was originally. ii. ' Indians. the Hindus.. the very day on which. the ancient Egyptians and the northern nations of Europe. the ancient among the Japanese. held by all on or about centuries of time. vol. the people of the Tonga Islands. . and to have been more generally kept on November 2nd. with the exception of the Negro races. or was. both by the ocean and by This festival is. which some have made. force of this argument is illustrated by the fact of the observance of a great festival of the dead in commemoration of the by nations more or less in communication with each by others widely separated. the Pacific ancestors. The Jewish civil year commenced at the autumnal equinox. or about September 20th. Now Mr Faber has volumes that the mythologies of all the ancient nations are interwoven with the events of the Deluge and are explained by it. and on that day the gay ^ exchanging the boulevard for the cemetery. but — . Mr Haliburton says " The festival of the dead. vi. the Australians. and the details of these traditions are too exactly in accordance with each other to permit the suggestion. according to the Mosaic account. viz. the Romans and the ancient " Wherever the Roman Catholic Church exists. or feast of event. Faber. it appears to have been put back three days in countries where one day's festival only was observed. not only other. : — now. Australians. lunch at the graves of their relatives and hold unconsciously their 'feast of Parisians. The Mammoth and the Flood. chap. moreover. preceded by three days' mourning. Ho worth in his work. the Egyptians. solemn Mass for I jkAll Souls is said on the 2nd November. and continued for three days Hindus. North American general summary of these traditions has also been collected by Sir A H. thereby proving that they are all Ibased on a common principle. the Deluge I took place. Islanders.

p. as that constellation approached the zenith. was offered up to avert the dread calamity which they believed impended over the human race. ' Hislop..' carrying in arms. D. lugubrious songs and plaintive music. . ' " The month of November was formerly called in In spite of the calendar having been changed. —from Life and Work at the Ibid. with prayers for their deceased relatives. and at midnight. 3 Ibid. and it was customary to visit the tombs of relations. and whose supposed resurrection and reappearance was celebrated with rejoicing. in a similar manner. a human victim. and they the . Two Babyloiis. in the beginning of November. vol.' because they celebrated the solemn festival of the is called * Aya Marca. p." ^ I Again. takes place in Ceylon.INTROD UCTOR V— THE DEL UGE ancestors ' 5 on the very same day that savages in far-distant quartera of the globe observe. and all the religious rites were made to centre round it. 390 et Osiride.' from ' ' ' dead with tears. the Lord of Tombs. speaking of the festival of agriculture and death in Persia.. 136 Plutarch. their festival of the dead. and to leave in them food and drink. by Piazzi Smith. at that time. Haliburton ' Great Pyramid. They had a tradition that. 4 5 . the world had been previously destroyed. ^ . with reference to the Peruvian festival of the 'dead. It began at sunset. says Prescott.. the festival took place at the same time as in Peru " and he adds that a similar festival of agriculture and death. ii. Persia month of the angel of death. says belief in ^ : Even the Church — Rivers. 387.' " The Year of the Pleiades. Ibid. and was regulated by the Pleiades." Again. — Mr Haliburton says.^ A like ceremony was held in November among the people of £he Tonga Islands. pp. 388.' and Marca. clings devoutly ito All Saints. G.. 382-391." by R. as we shall explain later. 336. p. ii.s who was fabled to have been 'shut up in the deep for one year like Noah. Mr Haliburton writes " The month in which it occurs. and on the seventeenth day of their second month commenced their solemn imourning for Osjj^s.^ The death of the god was the great event in Paganism. De hide p. of England. 372-73. Jbid. p. ' Aya^ a corpse. In Mexico " the festival of the dead was held on the IZ^i November. 4 The Egyptians began their year at the same time as the Jews. It is worthy of remark that this feast was celebrated among the ancient Peruvians at the same period and on the same day that Christians solemnise their commemoration of the dead 2nd November. which rejects All Souls as based on a purgatory and as being a creation of Popery. pp. vol.

from Life and Work. "to sail. " Their Haliburton." and the belief that their rising marked the best time to start on a voyage. Mr Hull. If their festival was in any way regulated by them. namely. and there can be little doubt that it referred to the same event. and Hales. in honour of Bacchus. but by far the most general period the majority of nations is among the beginning of November. But the Pleiades. Lemprifere.." In Rome the festival month ^ dreaded that a similar catastrophe at the end of a cycle would annihilate the of the dead. which would be exactly marked by the rising of the Pleiades in the Northern Hemisphere. when the ark rested on Mount Ararat. This also. as their other name. Pleiades. Never- theless there was another event in the Mosaic account of nearly equal importance. There are certainly strong grounds for connecting the two events. p. are spring stars in the Northern Hemisphere. the second " of their year. Chronology. ii. from Pleo. p." called " Dii Manes." and was held on of the second May day month of the year at that time This also was the seventeenth for the old Latin ." commenced on February was 17th. says. who was identical with the Egyptian Osiris.^ is suggestive of the event to which the feast referred." implies. vol. whereas the Deluge commenced in the autumn nor does it appear that the festival of the dead. among the nations of the Northern Hemisphere. "Vergilige. called Lemuria. A similar variation in the period of the festival occurred some- times in more modern times. and the very name Pleiades. nected with the rising of the Pleiades. speaking of the Australian Aborigines. which month consisted of thirty-six days. vol. where the seasons are the reverse of ours. the 11th. Ibid. year commenced April year." or "the day of the spirits of the dead. 390. the time being transferred to the second month of their 1st. was ever con. it must have been by their setting. would be the best time for starting on a voyage. In the Southern Hemisphere. Mr Haliburton has some interesting arguments to prove that the festival in many nations was fixed by the first rising of the Pleiades above the horizon. i. " festival of the spirits. the seventeenth day of the seventh month. . In more ancient times. p. being the commencement of the summer. or " Feralia. so that May 11th was exactly the seventeenth day of the second month. 44." believed to be the souls of deceased friends.6 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD human race.^ A feast called the " Anthesteria " was also celebrated at Athens on February llth-13th. 396.

" The ceremony was viewed as a national acknowledgment to the gods. the observance of this festival at. the second being called " Matarii i raro. also the So the festival. now sunk in barbarism. called by them " Matarii i nia. when they appear at the horizon in the evening and are visible all night." " The celebration in the Pleiades below. a usage prevailed resembling for souls in purgatory." ^ The Society fruits Islanders also held a festival of the dead. and a first- month of November. and perhaps initiated. connected with the rising of the Pleiades. the South Sea Islanders and others. the constellation worshipped by one body as the giver of rain'' Mr Haliburton adds. pp." ^ offer prayers for the spirits of departed It is clear from these remarks that one or other of the two great events in the history of the Deluge. It shows also that nations like the Aborigines of Australia. there to relatives. the three days' mourning which preceded Finally. namely. are evidences of the unity of the religious system from which it emanated. 386-387." or " The Pleiades above." which marked the commencement of their year. and the identical day on which it was held by nations separated from each other by periods of probably several thousand years.. When the prayers were much the Popish custom of Mass to his Each one returned special home or family Marae. was the central uniform character of it. " Now the Pleiades are most distinct in the spring month of November.INTRODUCTORY— THE DELUGE grand corroborees are held only in the spring (our autumn). pp. principle of the ancient idolatry. that worship of the dead which. . the commencement of the waters and the beginning of their subsidence. ended." This festival of the dead and of the first-fruits " is evidently that referred to by Ellis as taking place or completing of the year. that all the corroborees of the natives are associated with a worship of the dead and last three days." Mr Fyers says that " they dance and sing to gain the favour of the Pleiades (Mormodellick). as we shall see. 384-386. some nations observing one event and some the other. or about. "We are told by one gentleman examined by the Committee." at the ripening. It would also appear probable that the observance of this festival was intimately connected with. the seventeenth ' Haliburton. were observed throughout the ancient world. when the Pleiades are generally most distinct. He says. ^ Ibid." He further says. or rather the first season of their year. were probably ofF-shoots from one or other of the highly-civilised nations of antiquity. from Ufe and Work. and their corroboree is a worship of the constellation which announces spring.

both in fanciful speculation and in artificial observance. in commemoration of a world-wide cataclysm in which a few survivors saw all their friends and relations swept away by a mighty flood of aters. I Egypt. however. in accordance ith the spirit of the present day. Greece from Egypt and Phoenicia. i. The point. — person who takes the pains of thoroughly investigating the subject can avoid being fully persuaded that they must have all sprung from This is also confirmed by Scripture. •Speaking of the sciences of arithmetic and astronomy. 34. and partly in later ages from Greece. an Asiatic colony from the same original centre. was one of the first countries •conquered by Nimrod. although for that very reason. Zonares writes " It is said that these came from the Chaldees to the Egyptians and thence to the Greeks." ' Layard ^ also says." ^ and as the astronomy of the Chaldees was inseparable from their religion. these facts imply that the religion of Egypt and Greece came from the same source." likens the eiFect of the idolatry to drunkenness. not only in what is obvious and natural. Bunsen concludes that "the religious system of Egypt was derived from : — Asia and the primitive Empire in Babel. and states " Babylon ^ : — hath been a golden cup in the hand of the Lord to make all the earth "drunken. lib. in all of which the tradition of the i Deluge is so deeply interwoven. therefore are the rnations mad" (Jeremiah li. 7). vi. and the very names they gave to the stars were the names of their gods. .: THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD day of the second month of the recognised year in exact accordance with the Mosaic account. The nations have drunken of her wine. modern criticism and modern science ave done what they can to discredit it. Egypt receiving her religion from Chaldea. by almost every race and nation of the earth. is overpowering evidence of the reality of the Flood and of e truth of the Bible . partly from the Etruscans. could not have been the separate Speaking of all the various systems of Pagan "There is such a idolatry which he examines. This is also the conclusion of Bunsen and Layard. vol. " Of Origin of Pagan Idolatry. that no invention of each race. which we have to consider at present is this ^ •that the similar religious rites and beliefs of different nations so • widely separated from each other. Mr Faber writes: minute and regular accordance between them. as will be shown later on. p. which some common origin. i. and Rome. p. It is further confirmed by the ^researches of modern writers who uniformly regard Babylon and Assyria as the cradle of the ancient Paganism. Zonares. but also in what is arbitrary and circumstantial. the founder of the Babylonian Empire. 59.

ii. p. and there united with a certain number of local notions. p.— INTROD UCTOR Y— THE DEL UGE the great antiquity of this primitive worship. which was intertwined with it. Cadmus. after the ' Bunsen's Egypt. the Egyptian historian. . ii. See Lempriere. See Manetho's Dynasties Cory's Fragments. even without conformity of idea. and which would naturally bring their religion with them. 'Phoenician. vol. 440. i. 444. pp. 50. p. lib. says that "the Egyptians claimed the honour of having transmitted to the Greeks the first elements of Polytheism. ii. having preceded that of Egypt. 4 ( all the gods came Much nician of the religion of Greece it is said. All these separate facts. Ouwaroff' s Eleusinian Mysteries.7 religion fact also that The in Bceotia. 79. 20. . Herodotus."' Herodotus also states that the names of almost from Egypt to Greece. vol. there evidence. who. p. in his work on the Eleusinian mysteries. It obtained the epithet of Esif gfit. which was the chief centre of Egyptian idolatry. cap. never lost the character of their origin. vol. that the mysteries. ii.^ calling it and according to Macrobius the Phoenicians derived the principal features of their Cadmus built Thebes Egyptian city of that name. was introduced by Cadmus the taught the Greeks the worship of Phoeletters. from the Chaldees. xxi. recur to that fruitful principle which places the East the centre of science and civilisation. 440. and consequently their mythology. is abundant of and that it originated among ' the inhabitants the Assyrian plains we have the united testimony of sacred and profane historians. i. Layard's Nineveh and Its Remains." and concludes his inquiry in the following words: "These positive facts would sufficiently prove. sect. and especially entitled Diospolis (the city of the gods). of The is identity of many of the Assyrian doctrines with those ^ Egypt alluded to by Porphyry and Clemens." Birch also on the Babylonian inscriptions writes " The Zodiacal signs show unequivocally that the Greeks derived their notions and : — arrangements of the Zodiac. ^ all these in scattered testimonies. 439.' and was believed to be the most ancient of religious systems. also speaks of colonies which migrated from Egypt to Greece. transplanted into Greece.^ and Egyptian gods and the use of from the Assyrians. Manetho. Saturnalia. shows that his religion was also obtained from Egypt. ^ 3 ^ 5 ^ ^ Layard's Nineveh." ^ Ouwaroff. derived from the cradle of the moral and religious ideas of the universe. Macrobius.

Ill. Virgil represents his hero ^Eneas as finding on the site of that city. — ^ Colonel Conder. two names of the deity known as the "father of the gods. p. the ruins of two cities. of mythological notions and ideas. In short. Egypt. is frequently found both in the ancient Hittite language and in Turkish.E. was primarily obtained from the Etruscans. JEmeid. too general and too close in particular some respects to allow of the supposition that mere accident has produced the resemblance.lo THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD Professor Rawlinsou remarks : — " The striking resemblance of the Mythology seems worthy of The resemblance is attention. and whose coins and monumental remains intimately connect them with both Chaldea and Chaldean system to that of the Classical . . lines p. or the cities of Saturn and Janus. vol i. vol.'^ established at a very early date in Italy. there is the fact that Italy in most ancient times was called " the Saturnian Land. Eastern World." or Land of Saturn. called Saturnia and Janicula. Grey's Etruria. See Mrs Hamilton 3 •» T/ie First Bible. quotes Dr Isaac Taylor (Etruscan Researches and Etruscan Language) as showing that the Etruscan language was remarkably similar to the ancient Chaldean or Accadian.^ This seems to indicate that the Etrurians were an ancient colony from Chaldea. chap. there sources.. p. 608. viii. R. In the Pantheons of Greece and Rome and in that of Chaldea the same general grouping is to be recognised the same genealogical succession is not unfrequentlj^ to be traced and in some cases even the familiar names and titles of classical divinities admit of the most curious illustration and explanation from Chaldean We can scarcely doubt but that. in some way or other. Saturnia.s The above constituted the principal civilised nations of ancient ' Rawlinson's Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient vii. and note 7 467." The religion of Rome. 72. 207. 470." or " Tarquon. . on either side of the Tiber. 5 Lemprifere. long before the foundation of Rome.. - pp. 112. lib." the name of the first great Etruscan king and hero. a passage in very early times from the shores of the Persian Gulf to lands washed by the Mediterranean.^ " Tarkon. ill. and in confirmation of this. although in later times partly borrowed from Greece." and both these languages are intimately allied to the ancient Chaldean. which is repeated in "Tarquin. signifying "a chief." and Saturn was certainly of This shows that the ancient Paganism was Chaldean origin." king of Rome. to whom their patrician youth was sent for instruction. was a communication of beliefs.

are intimately related to the religion of Babylon. either the Semitic Assyrian or the ancient Chaldean. of Babylon having been the centre from which the ancient Paganism many of the gods. the names. in which the word " vulcanise " is derived from the supposed characteristics of the god Vulcan. instead of explaining the names of gods by the meaning of words in common use. pp. the invention of letters and writing is it universally attributed to the Babylonians and Egyptians.INTRODUCTORY— THE DELUGE Paganism. the founders of the city of Accad. in the course of our inquiry that the religions of other more remote nations. viz. the nations of Eastern Asia. It was carefully preserved. See Rawlinson's i. viz. and of terms connected with religion. 45. Hence. the words originated from some particular attribute of one or other of the gods. it is probable that. originated. the ancient Germans. and ii we shall see. and this may have been much more commonly the case with the ancients. . the latter would necessarily exercise considerable influence on their language. Egypt. Five Great Monarchies. and the Mexicans and Peruvians of America. and used for their incantations and magical sorceries by the Assyrians. and the sanctity thus attached to their religion it would naturally lead those nations who received from Babylonia and Assyria to preserve the names of many of the gods when adopted by them. ' dialect. Greece and Rome. 44. must have had a similar origin. and must have originally been derived from the same source. that of the Sumerians or Accadians.. and the meaning and etymology of these names and terms ought not. The language known in later times as Chaldean was an Aramtean or Semitic and distinct from the ancient Chaldean or Accadian. was regarded as the sacred language. Moreover. in many cases. such as the Hindus. Celts. and as was simul- taneous with the origin of their religion. to be sought from the language of those countries. because the most ancient language of Babylonia.. but from that of Babylonia and Assyria. This is the case even with modern English. therefore. vol. in other countries.^ This is the more important.

Limits of space prevent more than a brief reference to their explanations and conclusions. mother and son Tthat this fact was well known to the initiated. but its discussion is necessary for the proper understanding of the conclusions based on it. In considering the origin and nature of the ancient Paganism. though known by many names and tdifierent characteristics. GREECE. reason being that pp. can yet all be resolved into one or other of and i the persons of a Trinity composed of a father. and it is important therefore to present a condensed summary of their researches. and the researches of modern archaeologists among the monumental remains of Assyria. Romans. I although identified with him. EGYPT. the result of which was that both father and son were sometimes called by the same name. is the key to the whole subject. It has been concluded by those who have studied the subject that the gods best known among the ancient Greeks. the first point to be determined is what. and who. This point.CHAPTER II ETC. that all the various gods and I •goddesses of the ancients. Greece and Rome. for a fuller explanation of which the reader is referred to the authorities quoted. Egyptians . The subject in itself is an abstruse one. etc. But their learned works are too voluminous and tedious for perusal by the general reader. was yet said to be his own son by the t goddess mother. which are of no little historic and religious interest. THE GODS OF BABYLON. It should also be the » observed that the father and the son constantly melt into one incarnation also fabled of th there was a e^ who. were the gods worshipped. especially in the case of the etymologies of words and names. Hence being the father of this supposed incarnation of himself. and has been fully examined by the authors referred to in the last chapter. indeed. It is of importance to notice first. he was naturally sometimes confused with the original father of the gods. Our sources of information respecting the ancient Paganism are the mythological traditions of Phoenicia. Egypt. : 12 . the notices of ancient historians.

Hesiod. bk. . yet they may be generally recognised as two distinct persons. 1 A were the who was the contemporary of Homer. i. 13 Bel. moon and stars." ' But a close examination shows that though father and son are. etc. first . moon and stars deified. Horus. "*" . ' on account of their extraordinary virtues." ^ The names of the gods varied also in some degree according to the — attribute under various languages of the nations. constantly confused with each other. were subsequently identified with the sun. are more distinctively the titles of the supposed incarnation ." 3 chap. such as Cronus. which were regarded as their habitations. according to their different attributes. Hermes. and the poetry of Greece still attributes.. each beino. related to each other as father and queror. are all one and the same god. Thammuz. " that all the gods are ulti- Mr Faber mately one and the same person. ii. and Babylonians. Saturn. Thoth. vol. originals of the Pao-an gods were were deified that this was the real foundation of the Pagan system and that these spirits of the dead. ll l^called " The great goddess. Origin of Pagan Idolatry. as sage and conand as counsellor and great king while some. and quotes the statement of a multitude of ancient Pagan and mythological writers to this effect. however. Wilkinson's Egyptians. or of their son. ETC. after death men who The evidence 1 1 1 of the Pagan writers on the subject is conclusive. son. as explained. and for this reason was Bea Myrionymus " " the goddess with ten thousand names. GREECE. i. EGYPT. is always one. viz. posterity. further multiplied and gave personality to each of these Nevertheless. Mars. that the great gods of the heathen were simply the powers of nature and the sun. as Apollo and Horus. Hercules and Jupiter. iv. Dionysius. Bacchus. Osiris. the strongest evidence to show that the . Sun worship and nature worship constituted the essence of the Pagan system but there is. p. Opera et Dies.the separate deification of him under different aspects and attributes . as well as according to the particular which the god was recognised. Mercury. nevertheless.GODS OF BABYLON. and which received their distinctive names from them. verses 120-125. of the son. * 3 Hesiod. the initiated were well acquainted with the fact that all the different gods or goddesses festations of the were but different manisame god and goddess. The question is. Apollo. This is so far correct. says that " the gods souls of men who were afterwards worshipped by their Faber.. vol. 179. lib. iv. II. however What was the origin of the Pao-an — gods I ? It has been argued by some.

i. Vulcan.^ lib. i.. x. Inquire to whom those sepulchres belong which are so commonly shown in Greece. . Bihl. Disp. Saturn. lib. that II. Deor. xiii. iv. but that after they died their souls migrated into some one or other of the heavenly bodies. or Cronus. more system. Cicero. for you are initiated. and all their other principal deities were once inere men." ^ Euhemeros.14 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD The writer who adopts the name of " Hermes Trismegistus " asserts that " iEsculapius."^ it is said by Sanchoniathon." he says. who are deemed Dii Majoram Gentium (the greater gods) had their originals here below. it would be found that even those very gods themselves. as testifying to the : — to bring into contempt." The testimony of Euhemeros. Mede's Apost. the Pagan been has held up to scorn by certain modern writers. of Later Plutarch. that he venerated. 15. and that these are the very gods now become the object of our adoration ? Euhemeros tells us when these ^ gods died." "^ Cicero employs the same argument to the person with disputing detail : — whom if he is " What." ^ Plutarch states that the Egyptian priests expressly taught " that Cronus. i. chaps.. like every other ancient testimony Cicero also quotes B. Apud. whose souls were worshipped after their death by the Egyptians. which tends • ^ Herm. xlii. and became the animating spirits of their new celestial mansions. who was the same as Cronus. Remember. Osiris and Thoth were all holy men. Euseb. and other cognate deities were all originally sovereigns of the people by whom they were Similarly. lib. Osiris. and where they were buried.. what you have been taught in the mysteries. chap. pp. lib. 3 chap. Evan.. De Nat. was once was deified by the Phoenicians after his death. Horus.C. Proep. " of those who assert that valiant and powerful men have obtained divine honours after death. 1. p. De Iside. Tusc. pt. chap. Diodorus Siculus says that " Osiris. who lived about three centuries same thing " What think you. 354. 13. and that his soul was believed to have passed into the planet which bears his name. filled with the huvian race But I should search and examine antiquity. 14. not to carry on this ? any further. a man. i. 4 5 '' Diodorus..3 viz. Times. and go to the bottom of this affair from the things which the Greek writers have delivered.. or cast discredit upon. is not almost all heaven. and ascended from hence into heaven.. xii.

" ' also declares that " The stars life. 224. intelligent beings.. Civ. 352. 3 Clem. 5 Asiatic Researches. Faber. 9. lib. 29 Arnob. "The gods first worshipped are the same 'persons. Jul. Faber. Intell. 35 . Augustine. pp. men and women. 226. Alexander the Great also wrote to his mother that. the Christian apologists in their arguments the Pagans taunted the latter with worshipping gods who were I with only deified men. p. De Civ. represents the stars " as parts of Jupiter.. De Jesude Hattorah. . one of them animated beings. 4.. from Bp. Hence the sun. vol. vol. 13 * Moor's Hind. p. vii. for Menu. Dei. Panth.5 The supreme god of the southern Buddhists is likewise recognised to have been a man born aspects. ETC. Asiatic Researches." and required that the letter should be burnt after it had been revealed to her. GREECE. apud Stob .GODS OF BABYLON. EGYPT..'' . or the sun. and that the secret was told him by Leo. Jupiter. the other as a human being.. Juno and Saturn and the other gods. " Even the higher gods. of Sanchoniathon. p."^ In short. Alex. lib. the one as Menu Satyavrata.4 as. Apud Cvdw. Had Euhemeros been the only authority for that origin. chap. vi. * . ii. xi. especially. about five centuries B.C. 479. Syst. who is regarded as having two Vishnu in his character of the sun. 15 by those with Roman Catholic is used by them as a term of contempt for those who support the human origin of the Pagan gods. . and Euhemerising " the subject. even to his time received and worshipped as gods. pp. 471. prof. Posid. Dei. chap. 6^en^. Firm.." ^ Maimonedes standing. p. ^ '' Zen. of their equally admitted by the Hindus of their god8. p. showing that the fact was generally admitted by I the Pagans. 9. pp. 34. or Vishnu... . Cohort. proclivities. endued with ' and spheres are every knowledge and under- Augustine. De Error. iii.3 This is instance. pp. chap. 31. p. ii. and his statements must therefore be regarded as a valuable and unquestionable expression and explanation of the general belief and opinion of those who were best acquainted with for obvious " reasons. viii. 228. iv. moon and stars were regarded as " wise and actuated by a divine spirit " and Posidonius .. 8. . v. Cumberland's Hist. p. were men. vi. Adv. rel. there would have been some reason for questioning it. Euseb. but his testimony is supported by that of every other Pagan writer who has referred to the matter. vol. the high priest of Egyptian sacred things. Eusebius says that. apud Stob p. 14 . and that they were all living creatures with rational souls.

Ham. as if : — ' Plot. speaking of the death of heroes who dwelt in the stars/ the great warrior and hunter Orion. as I we proceed. ' 3 Ovid. v. 99 .' and erected a temple to his parent. would have been absurd and unmeaning. says. but called by the Jews Hamon No. the Egyptians. " Osiris (the principal god of the Egyptians) having married Isis. the Pagan historian.^ It is thus abundantly evident that. with Sun. says.. "He was added to the " that is to say. For he and those who concurred with him in opinion. but the Egyptians Ammon. Cedrenus gives an account of the manner in which the worship of I " Of the tribe of Japhet was born ancestors arose in other nations Seruch. It also shows that the Egyptian god Osiris was a son. who flourished about 44 I B. lines 540-544. who first introduced Hellenism and the worship of idols. or characters renowned during their lives for valour or virtue. lib. and was original of the or Ammon. was the principal Sun god of worshipped under the name of Jupiter This fact is a clear proof that Ham was the human Sun god of Egypt. without such claim. and the Jews ' Hamon and Q^m. lib. identified the the been Egyptian therefore. of Sanchomathon^ p. in many ways promoted the good of that kingdom (Egypt)." which. ix. Hist. ii.. but especially by building the chief city thereof. of Ham. called by the Greeks Diospolis (Thebes). The evidence of this will be seen to accumulate — . moon and stars.C. and that the inferior gods were deified Thus Ovid. Diodorus Siculus. whether warriors. they were also supposed to be the spirits of dead heroes and ancestors who inhabited those planets that this was especially revealed to those who were initiated into the mysteries. When. with columnar statues. honoured their predecessors. although the gods of the ancients were identified with the sun. although in later times Osiris held that position. Quoted by Cumberland. and who took especial care in collecting and recording the traditions of Pagan mythology. and that it was the primary foundation of the Pagan system. he was identified with that particular constars stellation which now bears his name. or leaders. and that the gods of the ancients were therefore the immediate descendants of the patriarch Noah." 3 Ammon. Ennead. these gods had kings who could claim descent from them took the title of " Sons of the Sun. whom the Greeks call Zeus and Hera.i6 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD The Platonists held that all the superior gods were aspects or manifestations of the sun. Fasti. or grandson.

overstepping the intention of their ancestors. p. the father of the Ethiopians. . ' Cedrenus. and sacrificed. 17 they had been their progenitors. Japetus and Titan as the three sons of the patriarch Noah. 56. and the rest. " Cushite " and " Ethiopian " being synonymous. quoted by Eusebius." "^ Epiphanius. that Cronus. and all were regarded as gods. B . Evan. before alluded to. pp.. 54. the father of the -(Ethiopians and brother of Mistraim.4 speak of Cronus. PrcBp. were esteemed and honoured as gods. Titan is clearly Shem. honoured them as heavenly gods. ETC. and as Japetus is Japhet. 58. See article in Quarterly Review. p. a Christian bishop of the fourth century. and Apollo. Zeus. and from him descended a second Belus. " Sama. 55. ix. the father of Canaan and Cush. Sozomon and Theodoret. owing to the tendency.. is therefore Ham. Cronus is Ham. Cory.^ Here. the father of the Egyptians. Bab vloiiians. or Cronus. who is the same as Cronus (the father of the gods among the Greeks). testifies same origin of idolatry among the Greeks. GREECE. 52. Cory. But it was not until after (their death). that they should honour them as their progenitors and inventors of good things with sacrificed to monuments only." ^ Eupolemus. The most ancient portion of the Sibylline Oracles.— GODS OF BABYLON. Rhea. SimiHarly. Ham appears to have been worshipped in Egypt only. but Belus is more usually identified with his son Cush. and at a considerable interval. lib. Euseb. is clearly Cush. and Chanaan. For. of the father of the gods and his son to blend into : : — : — Ham sometimes took the place of Cush. and he adds "The Egyptians. from Cory's Fragments. again. the authority of which as an historical record was appealed to by both the Pagans and early Christian apologists in their controversies. Belus. Phrygians and Phoenicians were the first propagators of this superstition of making images and of the mysteries. 1877. in the Hindu mythology. EGYPT." " Chama" and " Pra each other. ^ ^ ^ Cory. He adds " Another of his sons was Chum. But after this their successors. and tendered them a species of religious veneration as a kind of gods. and this Chanaan was the father of the Phoenicians " (Phoenicia being the name given to the land of Chanaan by the ancients)." 3 Chum. writes " For the Babylonians say that the first was Belus. p. from whom it was transferred to the Greeks from the time of Cecrops downwards. lated the to the who trans- Greek histories of Socrates. and them as such. on the age and authority of this portion of the ^ SibyUine Oracle.

Greek mythology also speaks of Cronus. Eel. ii. or Coelus. Cronos and Zeus. and of those who lived when the Pagan system was still in existence.. states that in . .. and having travelled through many nations." " Siva " and " Brahma. his forefather. and to be their animating spirits. The Pagans believed many absurdities. Asiatic Researclves. while he was yet a resident among men. moon and other planets. Japetus and Typhon I as the principal sons of Ouranos. and who. 172-174. p. From thence he went into Syria to Cassino. THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD ^Japeti" are said to be born of Menu. is that the gods were believed to be men who had lived upon the earth. Moor's Hind. and afterwards passed over to Panchea. were supposed to inhabit the sun. as the son of Ouranos and father of Zeus. Spiritualism at the present day p.. the Egyptian Sem. the Greek form of Shem. and Euhemeros. Cham or Khem. after death. and says that the latter went to Babylon. £55 . who must therefore I be Noah . on which He represents Cronos account he was called Ouranos " (Heaven). be. (a probable allusion to the statement in Gen. as quoted from Diodorus Siculus. pp. he was honoured by all and universally acknowledged as god. they could not be men. on which was a regular history of the actions of Ouranos. Evan. viii." ^ it is clear that Chama is only a form of is name of Ham. Passing from thence into Cilicia he conquered Cilix. by Hodges. Prcsp. He relates that " the first king (of the world) was Ouranos. 20). is that. a man renowned for justice and benevolence. vol. In all ages mankind have shown a tendency to worship their dead relatives. and the consentient testimony of Pagan writers. But it is not a question of what they could. " where he was hospitably received by Belus. Panth. and that Sama The objection made by modern writers to the human origin of the Pagan gods has no valid support. and well conversant with the motion of the stars. and to be the human names of tthe gods " Vishnu. or pious and celebrated men. ^ Euseb.'^ In the temple stood a golden column. or could not.." ^ " Pra Japeti " means " the Lord Japhet. and had every means of ascertaining its nature and characteristics. but what they were believed to be." and the final " a " in Sama and Chama being quiescent." and that " he was the first wJio honoured the heavenly gods with sacrifices. quoted by Eusebius. where " there was a temple of Zeus (Jupiter)... founded by him when he ruled over the I habitable world. 173. . 681 Cory's Fragments. where he erected an altar to Ouranos. p. if The only reason for this objection these gods were sun and nature gods. his travels he visited the Island of Panchrea. as ' is the case in Romanism and viii.

the Sun. Cory's Fragraents. in which he refers to Belus and Beltis. the god and goddess of Babylon." 5 From this it is clear that both the Egyptians and the Babylonians held the belief that their gods were human beings from whom they were descended. Cory's Fragments. quoted by Abydenus. and there is the strongest evidence to prove that the first originals of f the gods were the founders of the Babylonian or first great empire of the world. Castor. vol. which no ingenuity can religion of ancient moon and stars. " it is translate into a metaphorical representation of to the air phenomena attaching whether and to the heavenly bodies. 65. but one aspect of the mythology. the Moon. Cush and his son Nimrod. and. and not rather primitive deities." I ^ to represent heroes rather than celestial bodies. Cory's Fragments. the five planetary gods. The . Eupolemus also states. 111. Beliis. the chief god of the Assyrians and Babylonians. his death " Belus was the first 3 king of the Assyrians. still more. is represented in the dynasties of Berosus and others as the first king of Babylon. p. Ibid. vii. and they all attributes quite distinct from their physical or astronomical Both Scripture and profane historians agree in attributing the origin of the Pagan system to Babylon and Assyria. p. as "my ancestors. not by any means its full and complete exposition. records a speech of Nebuchadnezzar. They are real persons with a life and history. or the worship of the sun. They seem have character.2 Castor says. and after was worshipped as a god. in the dedication of his History to Ptolemy. " The Babylonians say that the first of ' - 3 * 5 Rawlinson's Five Great Moiiarchies. i. In short. king of Babylon. a power and an influence. Chaldean Dynasties. though in one aspect the Chaldea was astral. EGYPT. . 169. p.GODS OF BABYLON. p. Professor Rawlinson remarks that. 70."'^ In like manner the Egyptian priest and historian Manetho. ETC. and this 19 was equally characteristic of the ages succeeding the Deluge. It is doubtful indeed the gods of this class are really of astronomical origin.. pp. calls the Egyptian god Hermes " our forefather." Megasthenes. chap. GREECE. 44. are something above and beyond those parts of nature.^ther. 71. whose characters and attributes were settled before the notion arose of connecting them with certain parts of nature.

Genesis xi. was. Eupolemus. and was the first founder of the city. " Cepheus." and they are associated with a goddess called "Bilta NipruV Bil. p.5 and that from him descended a second Sanchoniathon.^ This classical writers in the centuries The of " — belief of the civilised world at that time that the father of the king of the Cushite race. Cory. and so also are " t called. Cicero. In strict seen that Eupolemus says that Belus conformity with the Assyrian inscriptions. Bilu. we have is the same as Cronus. Nimrod was the first king of the Babylonian empire. ." while Niprut is suggested to be a variation of the name " Nimrod. or Belus's. the first of whom is called by Sir H.3 aud is therefore recognised in the dynastic lists as the first king. under the name of Bel or The inscriptions Belus. This would make his father. are according to the reading of Sir Henry Rawlinson. •» Lempriere. on the part taken by Cush in the building of p. but the belief of the Babylonians themselves. ' Eupolemus. and that both he and his son shows that it was the general were deified after death. " the first who began to be mighty on earth. after his death. 13. show that there were two god-kings of the name of Belus. they say. Rawlinson " Bel Nimrod the lesser. etc. "Bilu Niprth." Apollodorus. immediately preceding the Cepheus. 4-8. and who." ^ showing that this was not a mere invention of the Greeks. or Bel signify " The Lord." " P " and " b " " are interchangeable letters in ancient languages. Diet. Chronus. the first Belus." and it was his son. who refers to Pausanias. as we shall see. 58. 58. Smith's Class. ^ p.'* Greek name Belus. which was commenced at the same time. 32. p. and Cepheus. the son of Belus. ^ Babel. See infra. Ovid.20 their kings THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD was Belus. placed among the stars that is. Cory. was the human original of the Babylonian god Belus.^ In the monumental inscriptions the two Bels.. Cory. History. to be Cush. who under Nimrod were the founders of the Babylonian empire. worshipped as a god. who was by far the most important person in the Babylonian worship. the Phoenician. the of Saturn." but it would appear that his father Cush had previously been the ringleader in the attempt to build the Tower of Babel." as the first king Christian era speak of the Ethiopians. ' ^ See also Lemprifere. is especially identified with Nimrod. the second Belus or Bel Nimrod. or Cushites. also states that Cronus begat a son called Cronus." and Bilta " The Lady.

Nebrod * in m " and " b " were often and Nimrod would thus become Nibrod or Egypt. EGYPT. Hislop.. . 117. vol. " to subdue." the chief seat of his wori ^hip." which/ f s the same as "Nipru." and that this was the case as late as the reign of city. speak of the former as " Bel Nimrod^ ^ Sir H. according to an and the protector of hunters. 449). 118.^ On the other hand. would seem to be derived from napar." Much uncertainty exists with regard to the phonetic value of the as presiding over." in commemoration of him as the first to use the hunting leopard.' GODS OF BABYLON. GREECE. Nebuchadnezzar. and the Greeks no doubt adopted the name from the Egyptians p. or Nibrud.3 Niffer' -was the ancient Babylon.. p. and " d." and rad. or Niff'er. iv. 598. when Arabia was a Cushite country . essay x. and both Sir Henry and Professor Rawlinson therefore . Nimrod was also a mighty hunter. s '' Hislop. and Bilu Nipru and Bilu Niprut are " The Hunter and Huntress. and means "The subduer of the leopard." from nimr. p. and the name by which he is called in the Bilu Nipru and Bilu Septuagint version of the Old Testament. note. Ibid. ' '' Rawlinson's Herodotus. Niprut. pp. ' Rawlinson's Five Great Monarchies. pp.. it would seem that the etymology of the names Nipru and Nimrod is diffierent. the name of Nimrod among the Greeks. " Nipru. which was the beginning of Nimrod's kingdom. on Arabia as the first home of the Cushite race. i. chap. is called in the inscriptions " The City of Bilu Nipru." and the latter is represented Bilu Nipru and Bilta Niprut are also called " Lady of Nipur.^ Niprut would therefore be equivalent to The Lord and Lady Nebrod. although the latter rebuilt the The Lord and Arabian tradition' before the time of Islam. pp. vol. and having practically the same phonetic value. which would also vary in different dialects. for the chase of deer. etc. Nimrod " is later Chaldean. 596. Rawlinson remarks in confirmation of this that Babylon.'^ and ^beginning of Nimrod's kingdom. 47." and. i. 596." called also "Nipra. of ^cheetah. See infra. might be so spelt by foreigners while as there is much uncertainty regarding the vowels intended by the inscriptions. 44. " i. 594. " to pursue. p. Rawlinson's Berod." and to be the name given to him as " god of the chase. i. might be regarded as the same name as Nebrod. ^^ ' In Egypt. vol. where the Septuagint was translated. vol. or Nimrod." ETC. convertible (Bunsen. 597." or " spotted one. the seat of the Tower of Babel. " leopard. 21 and Niprut might therefore be read Nibrud. note.^ But while this tends to identify Bilu Nipru with Nimrod.

the Pagan goddess was called "Dea Myrionymus. 3 p. Hhid. and it is especially the case with the Egyptian Pantheon as pointed out by Sir Gardner Wilkinson. we see that the attributes and relationships of those gods agree with the characteristics of those monarchs. Ibid. This was the case with the Babylonian goddess.^ and the latter incestuous union. 599. 626." implying that they were all one and the same being. however. that is to say." But for the purpose of identification. but as the god Hence. while the ancient Chaldean or Accadian equivalent of Bel or Bilu is " Mulge " or " Enge. vol. and that the gods of ancient Babylon were the first monarchs of that empire. vol. i. Therefore. the first is spoken of by Sir H. so far modified by the fact that the goddess is the wife of one set of gods. 51. therefore. is therefore one of the distinguishing marks between the two sets of gods. and it confirms the testimony of the ancient writers. it is what we might expect. worshipped under many different aspects. and both wife and mother of the other. Rawlinson as " Bel Nimrod the lesser. at the most." "the goddess with ten thousand names. and alternative readings of these names have been suggested. Of the two gods called Belus. or Bel Nimrod. It is by both Sir Henry and not likely. two original gods. 589." and he is the father This first Bel Nimrod is shown of the second or greater Bel Nimrod. In short.. however. We have referred to the fact that the various gods of Paganism represent merely the different deified characters or attributes of. as being that used Professor Rawlinson. pp. it will be preferable to retain the name " Bel Nimrod " in the following remarks. This is fully recognised by those who have studied the question. ^ Eawlinson's Herod. not as being himself the mighty hunter. the identification of the gods with those monarchs must be expected rather from their attributes than their names.. p. that Nimrod would have been deified under his own name.22 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD cuneiform inscriptions. 625. The conclusion is. p. . When. by Sir Henry Rawlinson to be the same as a god called " Hea" and '^ ' See infra. as every god had a goddess associated with him.^ and Professor Rawlinson refers to the same feature in the gods of Babylon. or the subduer of the leopard for hunting. i.. 601. ^ Pagan gods were human beings.^ it follows that these gods must also be different aspects of one and the same original being. as the voice of antiquity testifies or protector of hunters. which will be more fully to the fact that the originals of the referred to hereafter. but under a name or names expressive of some divine attribute.

599. Cory's Fragments. p. 23 also shown on the Nin" or " Nin-ip. I the Hellenic termination. and Five Great Monarchies. vol. the first king of the Assyrians. was succeeded by Ninus and Semiramis... and " Bel Nimrod the greater. * Barker's Lares and Penates of Cilicia. i. ^ vol. and his characteristics correspond exactly with ' therefore.^ Nin or Hercules is simply another aspect of the second Belus or Bel Nimrod the greater." " The First. or Non. i." "The Warrior who subdues Foes. as another deified aspect of Eawlinson's Herod. vol. He is called " Lord of the Brave." He it is also called " The Eldest Son. Hislop. p. 66. who says that Hercules Belus is the There can be little doubt." and. 121. 619. •» Ihid. p. 624.." " The Champion." So also Nin is the Assyrian Hercules. p. p 53. 223." he is the god of the chase as well as the ^od of war. Eawlinson's Herod. as we shall see hereafter." " The God is of Battle. and the latter queen would therefore correspond to Velleius Paterculus in his History also represents f Ninus and Semiramis as the first rulers of the Babylonian empire. s Hislop. He was likewise called " Bar " and Nin. EGYPT. This also is the meaning of his name.. like Nimrod the mighty hunter." " He who of tramples upon the wide world. and Bar the Semitic for "a son. and as Nin was the son of the first ^ Bel Nimrod.e.. vol. iii. moreover. is the later Chaldee. or Bel Nimrod the greater.^ and they would therefore be Nimrod and his queen." "The Destroyer of Enemies. .^ and he must be regarded. is said to have been a giant.GODS OF BABYLON. ^Castor. that most ancient Hercules. p. Nimrod. 618. p." ^ " first All this strictly descriptive him who began to be mighty upon the earth. p. GREECE." 5 So also. i. * ''Ibid. therefore. and they were the Lord and Lady of Nipur. Ind."^ and is represented as a giant hunter overcoming by sheer strength a lion and a bull (see woodcut). p. Nimrod. 131 ' Maurice.." who inscriptions to be the father of a god called is especially represented at Nipur to be the husband of Bilta Niprut/ Now. and in accordance with the above Castor says that Belus. H Bilta Niprut. \Hea ^' is ETC. note. 34. p.3 The characteristics given to Nin on the Babylonian inscriptions tend to confirm this. This Hercules is also identified by Barker with Dayyad the hunter. this tends to identify Nin with Bel Nimrod. he must be the second Belus. .. Nin is the same name as the Ninus of the Greeks with i. as Bilta Niprut was the wife of Bel •Nimrod. pp. was in his aspect as "The Son" that the second person of the Pagan Trinity was especially worshipped. Eawlinson's Herod. or Chief of the Gods. . Nimrod. 65..^ Hercules is identified with Belus by Cicero. 601. note. Antiquities. and in the Septuagint he is called " Nimrod the Giant.

Birch also says that " the identity of Nimrod with the constellation Now Orion was a giant and a mighty Orion is not to be rejected. as It is also fawn. was called The feat of strength by the Assyrian Hercules Nehros. and Ovid. on which account he was killed by the bite of a scorpion. 3 Babylon and Nineveh. represented as a giant. In a woodcut. the origin of the significance of a horn as a symbol of power and sovereignty throughout the world. " added that is.3 Nin. is represented attacking a lion and killing him. was Nimrod for a spotted fawn was one of Nimrod's distinctive . and in Greece. as sacred to him. 439-340. v. It will also be noticed that there is a fawn at the feet of the Assyrian Hercules. p.24 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD It thus those of Nimrod. 57. s Ibid. and. p. pp. says Ovid. 33-35. Hislop. and then. 605. Orion. note. of the appears that Nimrod was the original sort of knight-errant. symbols. or Nin. of a Babylonian cylinder. whom the Greeks turned into a and associated with so many fanciful legends.^ probably the origin of the gigantic man-bulls in the Assyrian sculptures representing Assyrian deities. given by Layard. . Lempri^re. Hislop. where Nimrod was known " as " Nehrod" the probably. it is a further evidence that Hercules." hunter who boasted that no animal could compete with him. p. In green Jaisper. crowned with the bull's hunter Orion. ^ — worshipped as a god. the Assyrian Hercules. This is exactly in keeping with the character of the mighty and killing a bull.." ^ is pointed out by Mr Hislop. and as this was a usual way of symbolising the person represented. Fasti. ' ^ lib. j ffl^^JU^Ir'9^'^ ^ •?^ horns 4s a token of his prowess. This is further confirmed by the fact that the Chaldean " Tur " means both " bull " and Layard's Nineveh. regarded after death as that constellation and to the stars " Hercules of the ancients. lines 540-544 '' . pp. is shown first attacking Babylonian Cyl'Jider. 47 and note.

"prince" . or Bel for Cronus. . Tertullian. or Kronos.C. Bihl. Fragments. has a crown. or Nimrod. " Ninus. incited by a new passion. 32. a famous Pagan writer on mythology about 115 B. ^ Ibid. GREECE. p. This also explains the meaning of the title " Cronus " given to Belus. however. says. first of all changed the contented moderation of the ancient manners. valour. and he conquered all nations from Assyria to Lybia. performed great actions. vol. p. or Hebrew " a began to be mighty on earth " (Genesis x. 11." by which crowns are surmounted. the Semitic Assyriaus. vii. Hist. 23."'* Trogus Pompeius says. cap.e. or " horns. p. the father of Nin. for they appear. emphatically asserts the identity of Ninus with Nimrod. vol." a word having the same double significance. note." are forced and unnatural. note. viz.. . ii. to represent another great monarch setting up a kingdom in the immediate neighbourhood of Nimrod. he Being naturally disposition. 85 . is derived from krn " a horn." ^ The Latin corona." ^ Saturn. 8). king of the Assyrians." and indicates the origin of the points. p. 25 "ruler. . 23. as they were as yet unacquainted with the art of war. 340 Hislop. p. and by that means accustomed them to bear the fatigues of war and to face dangers with intrepidity. p. 63 . " Ninus.5 This can only apply to Nimrod.' Thus the horned man-bulls are simply symbols of The Mighty Prince.." and "Tur'' without the points becomes Shur. 615 Hislop. who first " began to be mighty on the earth. descriptive of the acquirement of empire by Nimrod. without any previous introduction. p." Similarly.. vol. p. Cronus or Belus) was " the first who wore a crown. the first of the Assyrian kings mentioned in history. * Diodorus. Justin's Trogus Pompeius. 35. Rom. "is Nimrod.. and was generally represented as the first king of the Babylonian empire. Hislop. p. 33. Diodorus Siculus says. and ambitious warlike of glory that results from of a armed a considerable number of young men that were brave and vigorous like ' ETC. Apollodorus. J ^ 5 De Corona Militis." and thus means " the horned one." he title well expressive of him who " first . Appollodori.GODS OF BABYLON. 40. p. ii.. Moreover. ii. i. . He was the first who carried on war against his neighbours. " Ninus. We are also told by Pherecydes that Saturn (i. EGYPT." ^ Mr Hislop has also pointed out that the words in Genesis x. Hislop. the desire for conquest. the • Hislop. 68 Miiller. trained them up a long time in laborious exercises and hardships. " a similar evidently derivation. " out of that land went forth Ashur and builded Nineveh. Scrip. was the first Belus. lib..

and was worshipped under that name in the great temple of Belus at Babylon. the father of the gods. or Bel This is confirmed by his title " The firstNimrod the greater. ' Hislop.^ and must therefore be another aspect of Bilta Niprut. as in the case of Merodach and Jupiter. vol. p." Assyrians under the name of " Bel " only. verb " asher " Hislop. This relationship to the latter seems to be indicated by her name Zerbanit from Zer. p. and as the classical authors always recognise Saturn as the same as Cronus or Belus. i..26 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD descendants of Ashur. son we have seen. Nebo and Mercury. " seed. etc.. He is constantly spoken of by the Merodach" or " Meridug. ^ Ibid. ' Assyriologists have suggested that Nin was represented by the planet Saturn. ii. who. Nergal and Mars." 9 " mother of the son. p.. to be was the Jupiter Jupiter." the " first-born of the gods. the wife of the first Bel Nimrud. and mother and wife of the second." but the original will not bear this translation. p. or Bel Nimrod the lesser. or Bel Nimrod the greater. we must conclude that they had strong grounds for doing so. "Out passage. of Saturn. and. i." ^ which is synonymous with that of " The eldest He is also the star son. *' "* — ' Chaldee Lexicon in Clavis Stockii. or Belus.. p. ^ Ibid. . p.'VsA^'**- '^^^^^l ''V means " the habitation of Nin." who is stated to be the queen of Babylon.." Now if Nimrod built Nineveh it further identifies him with Ninus.e.^ which indicates that he was the particular form of the god Belus worshipped by the Assyrians." ^ There are two other gods in the Babylon Pantheon who must be One of these is "Bel regarded as deified aspects of Nimrod." the title of Nin.. did not rise into prominence until many For this reason some have proposed to render the passage " Out of that land he went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh. or Zero. and Mr Hislop remarks that the word " ashur " is the passive participle of a This word which in its Chaldee sense means " to make strong." or " son. = ^liawlinson's Herod. 629. for the word Nin-neveh '"'^^t'^rw I . 4Rawlinson's Five Great Monarchies. but there is no direct proof of this. 24 and note. 630. 18 and note. vol. born of the gods. Hislop. p. " husband of a goddess called Zerbanit. At the same time he is spoken of in connection with We must therefore conclude another Bel as Bel and Merodach. heing made strong. 25. p. 13. .5 he must be the second Belus. centuries afterwards. " genetrix. as he is stated on the tablets to be the son of Hea." he of that land.^ and He was also the the first Cronus." and banit. vol. and father of the gods." i. sRawlinson's Herod. the make would — ' (Nimrod) went forth and builded Nineveh." that Bel Merodach was one of two gods known as Belus or Bel Nimrod. 628. 630.

. and he is also the titular god of Babylon. Of course Nimrod was deified. cap. i. toI." the sun. idea that Nimrod was Bel or Elu. i. and to his identification with Nergal.." " King of Battle. who represents him as thus This would naturally lead to the worship of the This was no doubt the case with the Assyrians. 631. vol. 27 called " god of war and of hunters. In short. 627-629. by the case by Herodotus. such as '^ .GODS OF BABYLON. the original identity of the god would soon be lost sight of." and " God of the Chase." or "Bin. ' ^Herodotus. all the principal Pagan gods were eventually recognised as The Sun. who adopted the Babylonian gods.^ The tendency of the Pagans to invoke each god under various is identified He titles descriptive of his different attributes is illustrated of Croesus referred to invoking Jupiter. and who may be expected to be merely aspects of one or other of the gods mentioned. 3 . " The recognising the human origin of the Pagan gods. EGYPT. who alone had access to them." His character is thus precisely the same as that of Nin and Bel Nimrud the greater. pp. as is always the case." is the ETC. he being considered one of the creators of the universe and the father of the gods. because the worship of Bel was much more ancient. GREECE. the common people had little or no knowledge of the past history of their country. p. i. Professor Rawlinson considers him to be a deified form of Nimrod.3 We may here refer to a remark of Mr George Smith which expresses the difficulty many learned writers have experienced in He says. lib." like " Nin. Rawlinson's Herod. is impossible. "* Rawlinson's Herod. and. " Nergal. 181. xliv. and in the case of nations who adopted the gods of another nation.. like other celebrated kings but in no case was a deified king invested as one of the supreme gods and represented as a creator such a process could only come if a nation entirely forgot its history and lost its original mythology.^ god under different titles. as in the case of Belus. the second god in the great Babylonian triad. etc. He is The Great Hero." To this it may be replied that the historical archives were deposited with the priesthood.. therefore be regarded as the original of the with the planet Mars. * The Chaldean Account of Genesis. who was the man-headed lion. Nimrod was certainly not deified at Babylonians." " Champion of the gods. and " Iva. and must Roman god of war. 632." the god of the wind. the god of Babylon. whose temple at Babylon was the Temple of the Sun. It is not necessary to refer particularly here to other gods of the Shamash. Similar objections apply to the supposition that Nimrod was Merodach. pp.

has elaborately argued. did everything to enhance the — power and glory of their gods. See description of this development. if viz. is also to be observed that the ancients called all the direct descendants of a person his sons. there is nothing incompatible with this in the fact that he should have ultimately developed into the Sun god and Creator a development which was natural and inevitable among a priesthood who. whose fame quite eclipsed his father Ham. then Bel Nimrud the lesser. and after it had served its purpose that origin was carefully kept out of sight. the belief that he had once become incarnate. But there a constant tendency in religion to development^'^ and for the fact. the first Belus. Nimrod. or Belus. and had been slain for the good of mankind by the principle of evil only enhanced the reverence in which he was held. indeed stated the Sibylline Oracles. which would make him Ham. by was the son of Noah and brother of Japetus and Titan (Japhet and Shem). it is evident that Nin. chap.— 28 first THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD as is The Creator. there later writers to regard the first Belus as Ham. Nimrod is the lesser. which caused them to be sometimes confounded together as one individual. or Bel Nimrud is the It greater. when the chief god had come to be regarded as the Creator and Lifegiver whose manifestation was The Sun. of primitive Christianity there little Newman . or Ninus. Their human origin was merely a stepping-stone to their ultimate aspect. xv. The gods as first worshipped were not what they afterwards became. would thus be the most prominent " son " of Noah in that family. that the first Cronus. as priesthood to magnify and exalt the powers and attributes of their gods. It is accumulative evidence to show that the first Belus was Cush. He was simply worshipped as a hero. and led As we shall see. and Cush. as the human original of the different gods representing 'This is illustrated by the present religion of the Eoman is Catholic Church. or Hea. But this is an error arising from the identity of name of the first and second Belus.^ Turning now to the father or Bel of Nin. that the ultimate aspect of the ancient Paganism process of gradual was arrived at by a development continued from age to age. had reigned as a king on earth. in order to recommend their religion. Everything points to the we shall see hereafter. is Nimrod. between which and that But. Moreover. Therefore. or revealed only to the initiated. while it would have been absurd and impossible to have represented Nimrod immediately after his death as The Creator. the former has been developed Development of Christian Doctrine. as Cardinal out of the latter ' resemblance. Gush. infra..

pp. Ibid. 599. p. it is quite impossible that the identity of the ' Eawlinson's Herod. through which is the latter obtained his power." " The Teacher of Abyss or Great Deep. vol. and Cush. i. 29 the various attributes under which he was deified. . 114. p. Nebo." Bilta is " The Queen of heaven.." " glorifier of Bel He who possesses Intelligence. is " He The Intelligence. The Lord of the The Intelligent Fish." the " father of the gods. 600 .s of Babylon." " The He who hears from afar." and " Mother of the great gods. and Ishtar must therefore be another aspect of Bilta." ^ In these respects he appears to be identical with " Neho" the prophetic god and " god of writing and science.GODS OF BABYLON. Chaldean Magic. the Bilta is " The Lady is Bilta and although worshipped under a different name. The Lady of Babylon. 120 and 138. EGYPT. GREECE.." Ishtar is also the goddess of war and the chase..." Mankind " and " The Lord of Understanding. two goddesses should not have been recognised by the initiated. p. - ^ » ^ Rawlinson's Herod. is god bears to the younger. Chaldean Magic and Sorcery. But if so. as the father of these gods. or Bel Nimrod the lesser. was therefore known as "Cronus. vol. was called " Hea. p." and both gods are equally symbolised by the wedge or arrow head which was the essential element of cuneiform writing. Ishtar " is the same. i. p. and this. was the most prominent and important deity in the Pagan mythology. i." so also is Ishtar." Bilta is the goddess of generation or fecundity. like Hea. 637 Eawlinson's Herod." But he also held another equally important position. Lenormant. or Hea. as if both had been inventors of writing. i. ETC." Ishtar is called " The Great Goddess. we may conclude that he is another form of that god. We have seen that the elder Belus. 601. must be either the first or second Belus. Beltis of the Greeks. the wife of Nebo Babylonian name of "Ishtar." or " Saturn." " counsellor or instructor of Bel Nimrod the greater." and is called " The Nimrod. . as particular relation which the elder we shall see.^ Nebo. 69.y p. vol. Ibid. the husband of Ishtar. Lenormant. 635." and Hea is described as the source of all knowledge and science. p. 139. and Five Great Monarchies." 3 The latter title may mean that he was the Teaches. the goddess "Nana" which was the respects Now Ishtar corresponds in all The Great Goddess. and as his characteristics are identical with those of the first Belus." Ishtar is called "The Bilta is called " Mistress of heaven. vol. 635." " and is called " is entitled " He who Supreme Intelligence.'"^ to Bilta Niprut." and " Queen of all the gods. the Moreover.

i. as Nimrod was the founder of son of the all-wise Belus.e. Babylon. Hea was so evidently a god of the first importance." and he is and must therefore be one ' of the gods known as Belus or Bel Quoted by Baldwin.. 201. " Bel boweth down. etc. and we Sin shall see that there is further evidence that this was the case. i. 113."* It is true that both Sin and Nebo are sometimes represented as sons of Hea. coupled with Bel." mentioned " on the Izdubar generally recognised to be the Babylonian and Phoenician god " TarriTnuz. as the god of wisdom and teacher of mankind. Nebo stoopeth... the god of war and hunting. p. the father of the gods. " the relationships are often confused and even contradictory. the moon god. The Lord of Understanding " and " Teacher of Mankind. Nebo. was another aspect of Hea and Nebo. 208. 5 * pi^Q Great Monarchies. 42. 43." s This is what might ^ be expected among a people who adopted the gods of another people. 59. 638." "Sin. refer to " Duniuzi. when they did not fully recognise the identity of gods like Sin also and Nebo. p. but. are the gods ordinarily invoked as the two principal gods by the Assyrian kings. Ibid. or the first Belus. i. should regard them as sons We tablets. ^ Lenormant. viz. pp. and being known as the father of the gods.." for whom yearly lamentations were made. For although Hea is invoked in the incantations in the old Chaldean language.30 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD These characteristics of the elder Belus." Nebo appears to have taken the place of the Babylonian Hea in the Assyrian Pantheon." titles which were peculiar to Hea. The name might be written Tummuz. Cush. ^ pp." " The all-wise Belus." was Cush. as Professor Rawlinson remarks. GhaXdean Magic. who says that " Babylon was built by Babilon Now. requires a brief notice. . He is called " The King of the gods." " God of gods." and this was the particular attribute of Hea. 637. distinguish him from the second Belus. which can only apply to the first Belus or Cush. his father. may of Hea. Prehistoric Nations. Sin is also called " Lord of spirits. 158. who was Cronus or Saturn. p. who was always appealed to as the ruler of the spirits good and evil. is also stated to have been the first divine monarch who had reigned upon earth." the moon god of the Assyrians. it is clear that " the first Belus or Hea.. it was natural that the Assyrians.^ This is also implied by the passage in Isaiah xlvi. Eawlinson's Herod.3 This would imply that Sin. who in this case must be Bel Merodach. vol. vol. and they appear to be alluded to by Stephanus of Byzantium. He was the husband of Ishtar.

chap. " The Intelligence." and with Bel Merodach. p." " The Lord of understanding and instructor of mankind. or Bar. or Thoth. 599-602. pp. therefore. EGYPT. ii.' which also tends to identify him with Nin. by Hodges. iii. 10. were a Cushite race their religion who at a very early period introduced I and gods into Egypt. 3. i. p." The legends refer to his having suffered a tragic death to the sorrow of his wife Ishtar. 21.. xiii. viii. In short. is identical with " The all-wise Belus. Nimrod. science and intellect. for concluding instructor of that Thoth. 7 Moreover. . and we shall show later on that the Egyptians. first vindicated from the ignorance of the lower classes and the heads of . * 7 Eawlinson's Herod. 9. famous for his wisdom. was " The god of all Celestial Knowledge." Hea. GREECE. "The Supreme Intelligence" and the god of writing and science." who was also the god of writing. ETC. 637. the god of intellect and the first men in religion and science. Hermes. 26. Wilkinson says." lamentations.. i. 168. the people. which was always represented as being lamented by the goddess." ^ He is described as " The Thrice Great Hermes. vol.GODS OF BABYLON. "Wilkinson's Egyptians. p. SanchoniatJionh History. and he represented the abstract idea of intellect. pp. geometry and astronomy. as distinguished from the Mizraimites or descendants of We Mizraim. I ' shall refer to him again later on. who arranged in order and in a scientific manner those things which belong to religion and the worship of the gods. famous for his wisdom. it suggests the identity of the gods Hea and Nebo with the Egyptian " Thoth " or " Hermes. who first discovered numbers and the art of reckoning. p. . 31 and and this. the inventor of letters and arithmetic " ^ " the god of writing and science. and the games of chess and of hazard " s " Thoth. " The First-born of the gods. vol. besides being celebrated in every nation by annual He was also known by the title of "The Only Son. vol." ^ who. ' As * 3 in the case of the Israelitish women weeping for Tammuz (Ezekiel Wilkinson's Egyptians. This being the case." or " Eldest Son. p. . The intimate relation of the gods and religion of Babylon and Egypt is generally recognised." and with the prophet Nebo. Cory's Fragments. Hislop. WUkinson's Egyptians. Gensenius ideutities Hermes with the Babylonian Nebo as the prophetic god. 5 vol. " Bawlinsoij's Herod. and the great teacher of mankind. by Birch. " The Son. was the fate of the younger god. was " The god of Letters and Learning the means by which all mental gifts were imparted to men. or Hermes. vol." ^ There seems strong grounds. Nebo was represented by the planet Mercury^ and Hermes was the Greek name of Mercury. as we shall see. v. 14).

i. Fab. " born of Hermes. B. son of and Vocab. the Chaldee ^eres/i. would mean that Mercury. App. p.e. lib. which are confirmed by other relationships referred to later. On these grounds. as in Athothes. 143." ^ and the Greeks." and called " Hermogenes. 26. he was the ringleader in that enterThis is also prise. of Ham. ' Ms or Mes." 3 Now Hyginus says. vol. p. 4)." Eameses. Bunsen. " to divide. 470. was Cush the son of Ham.." ^ i. 25." or was the " cause of the confusion of tongues and subsequent " scattering abroad " " which followed the building of the or distribution of the nations Tower of Babel that. note. knowing Hermes as " the interpreter of the gods." both meaning " the burnt one. 114 . as pointed out by Mr Hislop.s for the last place chosen for such a refuge. cap. 540.. p. 4. but." i. Herodotus. ^ Hislop. in short. ^ 3 xi. — •» Hyginus.32 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD Again Hermes means " the son of Her. Hieroglyphic Signs. he would seem to have been. correctly rendered. " . Jove without cities ' . and the consequent cause of discord or confusion." substituted the word "interpreted" for the word "divided. Genesis p." was pronounced by the Egyptians and Greeks in the same way as the Chaldee peres." Thus the tradition. " divided the speeches of men. 26." 4 There is an evident contradiction here in saying that Mercury interpreted the speeches of men when they were all of one language. H. This tower was not intended. " the son of Thoth. as described by Herodotu. or worship of the gods. or I Hermes (that is Cush). for " Her " is synonymous with " Ham. worship of the gods. and all speaking one language. But after Mercury interpreted the speeches of men (whence an interpreter is called Hermeneutes ') the same individual distributed the nations. "the seems to be omitted in who by Eratosthenes is m" certain cases. " to bring forth. . p.. p. " For many ages men lived under the government ol and without laws. " lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth. but as a I central temple for the worship of the gods in order to keep the |numan race together and under the influence of these gods. " the son of Ra. App. As a place of refuge the tower would only have accommodated a few hundred persons. or be born 43. to be a place of refuge in case of a second Deluge. i." or Thoth." The " Thus Thothmes. we may conclude that Thoth or Hermes was the Egyptian form of the Babylonian Hea and Nebo. and the low-lying plains of Babylon would have been the It was. meaning "to interpret. as some have supposed. in order to " reach unto heaven " (Genesis xi. Hislop. not only the teacher of mankind and originator of the ancient idolatry. Then discord began.e. 181-182. If then Cush was Hermes or Mercury. Thoth.. i. but also the ringleader in the enter- prise undertaken to build the Tower of Babel." ^ and the first Belus or Hea.

in the case of Ihid. accordto the usual symbolism of Paganism. p. " Bel " came to signify " the conf ounder. Saturn. chap." or god of I seers.^' ' Gregory Turonensis. lib." or without the digamma " Khaos " or " Ghaos. i ." and Khus in pronunciation becomes " Khawos.. s iii. p. lib. leader in that apostasy/ ETC. Macrobius." an allusion to his character as " all-seeingi Janus." for. note." ^ This also is." 5 On the reverse of an Etruscan medal of Janus ^ a club is shown. " The ancients called me Chaos. "Bel Athri. iii." Hephaitz becoming in Greek " Hephaist. Bryant. p. confirmed by Gregory Turonensis. no doubt. " Bel is confounded. Bryant. ii. Hislop. 104 . ' "> From As Sir William Betham's Etrusc. i. == 3 54 . or seers. he was " The father of the gods." As Gronus. who was which has a similar signification to the club of Janus." ^ implying. H . 120. 82 . Hislop. " The god of all celestial knowledge. back to back. ii. the " Lord of understanding. p. or Saturn.^ Now. 33 who represents Gush as the ring- It would appear also that. It seemed highly probable." the " sh " in Ghaldee frequently passing into " s. looking in all directions. etc.^ This is also the character of Hea. that Janus was the cause of Iing the human race being " scattered abroad. Hislop. and the name of a club in Ghaldee is derived from the word which signifies to " break in pieces " or " scatter abroad. Col." which might be paraphrased " The confounder is confounded. Another form of the " father of the gods " was Vulcan." also points to its Babylonian origin. ii. 403. 27." The title on the medal.'' ^ Hence the significance of the passage in Jeremiah 1." and the father of the gods was also known as " Janus. p. " The prophetic god. vol. as the cause of discord." who was called " The god of gods. whatever the original meaning of the word. his name became synonymous with "confusion. " to scatter abroad." and Nebo. 9 Mestraim for Mitzraim." for Gush is also written " Khus. 26. the called " Hephaistos. as suggested by Mr Hislop. pp." Hermes. 404. Fasti." * and " Ghaos " was the Greek god of confusion. EGYPT. vol. vol. C . Its meaning is " Lord of spies." In one of his deified aspects he was also known as " the god of confusion.GODS OF BABYLON. that the very word " chaos " is a form of the name " Gush. ver. and Ant. GREECE. 2." for which reason he is represented on the medal by two heads. ix. 2. 19.. p. 27. p. * Ovid. 26. Ovid makes Janus say of himself. note. plate ** vol. for it is derived from Hephaitz.. pp." from whom the gods had their origin. Hislop. note. 26. p. Lit. De Rerum Franc. Hislop. 27.

p. 32 and note. his time for eaters of . x." ^ priest of Bel " Cannibalism appears to have been initiated by Cronus. • 3 * 7 Hislop. this was In fact." or the first who built towers. chap. s Ivi. was the chief of the Cyclops. — . ii. 232 and note." ^ To both Moloch and Baal human sacrifices were ofiered. p." from klmky king. and " to revive the rites of the Cyclops " meant to revive the custom of eating human flesh." or " Molk.^ This tends to identify Vulcan with Moloch. vii.e. and this him with Cronus and Bel. 232 and note." signifies "king.^ who are called " the inventors of tower building. " Cannibal " is said by some to be derived from Carih. Hislop. is probably derived from Cahna bal. 32. For we are told by Sanchoniathon that Cronus was the "It was the custom among the originator of human sacrifices: This is still part of the religious rites of many of the . or Hephaistus. meaning that or " scatterer abroad. hands of Vulcan." although the Greeks. lib." 34 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD in the " meaning of the hammer shown he was " the breaker in pieces and Phoenicia. and as the word " Cyclops (Greek. for eaters of human flesh.. Metam. 171. * Ihid.." nor is there the slightest evidence that such a forced and unlikely corruption ever took place." and gheber. were said to be cannibals. " a priest. But the derivation is very forced and unnatural. "king. the Cyclops. p." and it seems probable that "Mulkiber. p. p. " Moloch. of whom talso the custom of the Pagan priests. the god oifire. note. and iobh. Again. 229. Cronus was king. 1 Cor. Hislop. the name of the people of the Caribbean Islands. hammer mean that Vulcan was simply a forger of further identifies Vulcan. is derived from the Chaldee Molk. 132 Hislop. Ovid. to whom children were sacrificed by burning. 229. " the Cahna being the emphatic form of Gahn. 93.3 " thus implying that. it would mean " kings of flame. flame. Vulcan was the god of fire. xv. supposed the metals. i. and it I fcWas the universal custom for the priests to partake of the sacrifice 'offered. vol ' Pliny. mighty. pp.^ Hamitic races of Mr Hislop also remarks that the word " cannibal. as in the case of other gods adopted by them from Babylon being ignorant to of their original characteristics. and as the West Indies had only been discovered ninety to a hundred years before. for the former was also king of the Cyclops. Saturn or Cush." our term Africa. and the name "Carib" was not known until much later. in the rites of the heathen gods. 33.. 17-21.^ thus identifying them and their king with the builders of Babylon and the Tower of Babel." the Roman name of Vulcan. Shakespeare used "cannibal" as a well-recognised term in human flesh. it could hardly have been corrupted into " cannibal. Kuldops) is probably of Chaldean origin. p. as in the case of the Jewish ritual to which the Apostle Paul fc*efers.

The name Zoroaster is also found as Zeroastes. ' * — .. It has . like Nimrod the Fire god. vol. Fragment. had. note. in order to prevent the ruin of for the rulers of the city or nation to sacrifice to the avenging cities the most beloved of their children as the price of their f edemption. 440. Wilson's Parsee Religimi. ^ his own children. 59. torn ii. p.GODS OF BABYLON." ^ was not. all. for Saturn is represented as devouring mystically. x. meaning " fire-born. p. * 194 Hislop. purifier. fire in Tammuz.- From this we may conclude that Cush was the originator of human sacrifices and of cannibalism. Johannes Clericus. an only son. . note. the Bactrian of that name who lived in the time of Darius Hystaspes. Lempriere. was regarded by the Pagans as the greaj^gmritua! from which arose the practice of passing children through the rites of Moloch in order to purify them. Euseb. note. Zero passes naturally into Zoro. Miiller. 16. 5 Hislop. Evan. on that account. 18 and 59." Hist.^ We have seen that Nimrod would seem to be identical with Tammuz." and ashta " fire. 35 ancients in times of great calamity. and Vaux. means the ' from tarn. when king. i. Prcep. and who after which bears his name (Saturn). 8. and invested this son with the emblems of royalty and sacrificed him. They who were devoted for that purpose were offered II. 1133 ." Tammuz and muz. and identical with Vulcan. ii De Chaldcds. GREECE. 3 Johannes Clericus. lib. 199. sect. p. But this Zoroaster.. . and " perfecting fire. EGYPT. . perfect. like Vulcan. p. c. ETC. tom. " seed. p. Hislop." from Zero. to have been worshipped as the " god of fire. I . p. Satumus. i. and adopted the title. iv. 17. by a nymph of the country called Anobret. Fire called also " Baal Tammuz. " to make i. xvii. i. called also Zeroastes. been said that the characters of " the Father of the Gods " and his son constantly blend. of Sanchoniathon. was styled leoud. Cory's Fragments. for so the Phoenicians call an only son and when great dangers from war beset the land he adorned the altar." was. who." It would also appear that he partook of the sacrifice thus offered. the chief of the cannibal Cyclops. of the name Zerubbabel. tom. lib. his death whom the Phoenicians call was deified and installed in the planet . p. c. p. ii. for Cronus. and Nimrod also appears.^ This identifies Nimrod with " Zoroaster'' the head of the fire-worshippers. but the Chaldean Zoroaster who is stated by Suidas to have been the founder of the Babylonish idolatry. pp. Suidas. 68. 59. c." Nimrod is stated to be thei first who initiated the worship of fire ^ and Apollodorus says that Ninus was the first who taught the Assyrians to worship fire. as in the case pp. which in the Greek Septuagint is Zorobabel. 398. as pointed out by Mr Hislop.

xii. a distinctive title of Nin.*" i. p. and concerning whom he says. was the first who bred dogs and leopards for hunting " ^ a reference which.e. The name "Nimrod. . p.5 Nimrod also appears to have been the human original of the Egyptian " Osiris. with the Egyptian god Osiris." called also " Adon " (the lord). 400 Hislop. who to the Greeks was a simple Syrian hunter. the father of Tahmurs. Damascius. Jerome. and The intimate therefore Nimrod. one. p. 454 Bunsen. of the East." THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD or " to burn." and Moumis." ^ Again. who lived in Palestine where the rites of Tammuz were still celebrated.. i. xiii. and the lamentations for Tammuz (Ezek.36 " fire. v. vol. p." who was the son of the elder Belus. " This famous personage. 47. was while Bel Merodach. iii." ^ and this was likewise the distinctive title of Tammuz. Osiris. vol. was. or Hermes. viii. p. ii. the hunter. See ante. 443. p. like Nimr. which tends to identify Osiris with Nimrod." tends to further identify that monarch with the younger Babylonian god. 3 and cliap. who was the father of Ninus. p." So also Moumis is called " the only son. as " the counsellor " of Osiris. 219. 245. De Dea Syria. in a Persian legend it is stated that "Hoshang." Osiris was the son of Saturn. or Hea. " the eldest son. and his will father with Egypt be shown connection of Nimrod " Tammuz is also the same as Adonis the hunter. or spotted one. . Hislop. who built Babylon.9 of Egypt. . the Sun god himself. For one of the names of the son of the Babylonian goddess was " Moumis. to the Phoenicians. of the first Belus. Hist. 318." hereafter. 31. or Bel Nimrud the greater. as stated in his commentary on Ezekiel by Jerome. Cory's Fragrnents. p. is called "the first-born. 314. 218. was the original of " Adonis. 14) were also the same as those for Adonis and. .^ These rites were the same as those of Osiris. p. Lenormant's Anc. who is universally known Again." ^ thus identifying the Babylonian Tammuz." Osiris. vol. vol. ^ ^ Sir W. Thoth. note. king of Egypt. p. * 9 '° ^ Lempritire." ' ^° 3 s 7 Hislop. the god-king is stated by Plato to be "the counsellor" of "Thamus. the mighty hunter. identifies Nimrod himself with Tammuz. Lucian. means " the spotted . p." whom Lenormant identifies with the Sun god " Baal Tammuz. vol. vol. 45. pp. 353 Hislop. or Bar (the Son). although it makes the father of Nimrod the great hunter. . 10. Wilkinson's Egyptians. p. Thus it would appear that " Nimrod." which means " the subduer of the leopard." 3 Again. ii. who was also the son of Hea. Jones's works.

This further identifies Bacchus and Osiris with Nimrod.^ the history will be dealt of with hereafter.'^ which must. for the branch in his left hand is a con- ventional one. * Vaux. 291 . as in the case of the bas - relief portraying the exploits of Nin. p. appears to have been the usual symbol of the deified monarch. 233 . lib. who were always representatives of the god." from hakkha. and hence symbolic of " the Son." and in the rites of Bacchus a spotted fawn was torn in pieces in commemoration of the death of the god. p. the emblem Nimrod. the Assyrian Hercules. while the spotted fawn with horns further god with the mighty hunter. or. Hislop. with spotted fawn skins.GODS OF BABYLON. i. viii. when these could not be obtained. 317. 56. where the fawn shown at the feet of the god is Assyrian God. p. pars." the distinctive aspect under which Nimrod was identifies the deified. p. which death that he was '^the first who wore a crown. GREECE. while his priests. Z7 iThe rites of " Bacchus " were also identical with those of Tammuz.^ The name of the spotted fawn in Greece is also significant. Nineveh and Persepolis. were clothed with leopard skins. Pliuy also states of Bacchus what is said of Cronus." and the name by which Nimrod was known in Greece was " Nebrod. evidently introduced for the purpose of identifying him. therefore. We have seen that the latter's name means " the leopard subduer." The spotted fawn was in fact a symbol of the god as "the subduer of the spotted one. viz. 46." and in the rites of Bacchus leopards were trained to draw his car. " Among ' 3 Hislop. ETC. ^which implies that Bacchus was another title of the deified monarch Nimrod. " to lament. chap.. It was " Nebros. Photius. be regarded as a representation of Nimrod is . Pliny. Adonis and Osiris. EGYPT. The name " Bacchus " is of Chaldean origin and means " the lamented one." ^ of The spotted fawn." or " Nin. Lexicon. This is also the case with the Assyrian god in the accompanying woodcut. xvi. and the usual symbol for a son or child. and Herodotus always speaks of Osiris as Bacchus. p." and Hesychius says.

that. « ." and Chu&y a common formof "Cush.'' Bacchus was worshipped in Rome under the name of the " Eternal Boy. same god. 21." by the "Pyrisporus" and "Ignigena. By the Greeks. i." ' ." and a branch is the recognised symbol for a son. Ovid. (see figure). i. however. p. and Bacchus was portrayed as a boy clothed with a spotted robe. p."3 Now Dionysius.. p. one of the names of Bacchus. 208. as in the case of Tammuz. p." from Bar.^ which further identities Bacchus with Nimrod.38 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD the Phoenicians Bacchos means weeping. note.e." ^ while Epiphanius calls Nimrod " the son of Gush. 17. Chronicon. p.. Hislop. lib. is called " JEthiopais. vol. and that while "the lamented one " was its outward or exoteric meaning. p.." ^ of Hesychius. p. 48." for the Ghaldee for " cup " is Ixhus. Adonis and of the Osiris." meaning " Fire-born. p. i. ' 3 5 Euseb. " Zoroaster. p. 48. the Ethiop. Hislop. "son. Bacchus was regarded merely as the god of wine and revelry. iv. the son of iEthiops." i. On the principle universally followed by the priesthood paganism of using symbols which could have a double construction. . " is he from whom and " the Ethiopians came." ^ Lamentations for the god were a principal feature of his worship. this meant to the initiated. 109." 5 The identity of Nimrod with Bacchus admits of still further proof. 296 See ante.^ "The Son" was one deified aspects of Bacchus. titles Fire - born." says Eusebius. most important Nimrod. 179 Hislop. "the Son of Gush. 7. p. Bacchus is also connected with the " the Ghaldean Zoroaster. 18 . vol. Anacreon. " Gush. Hislop.. the lamented one " is evidently another form Again. 73. 35. and with a cup in one hand and a branch in the other. Diet. 59." and Hislop. p. symbolic of Nimrod. a form of " Gush. and the reason that he was so regarded is doubtless due to those symbolic representations of the god which they obbut could tained from Ghaldea of the not correctly interpret. From Smith's Class. •* * ' Epiphanius. Metam. the name Bacchus had a twofold signification. It is possible.. in accordance with the mystery used by the Pagan priesthood by means of the double meaning of words. its secret or esoteric meaning to the initiated was "the son of Cush.

(Wilkinson. the people of Chusistan. " ^schylus also land of Gush Kissinos. EGYPT. says. and the King himself adopted it ^ when engaged (as High Pontiff) in the same duties. vol. plate xxxiii. by Birch. v'vl. or Bacchus. v. . " the Susians are Kissioi. and was sacred to him. p. the people of Kissos.' ) GODS OF BABYLON. 39 The relationship of Bacchus to Gush is further shown by one of names of the former." - Leopard's skins were the insignia of the god. xv. Hialop. or land of Gush. p. 361." that calls the is. " Leopard skins. while the ' i Strabo. " Kissos. and that the lamentations for each were the same as those for the High Peiest of (Wilkinson. 691 . iii. is represented as clothed with a leopard's skin (see figure). p." Kissos is the Greek for ivy. 16. iv. lib. Like the priests of Bacchus. whose identity with Osiris and with Nimrod has already been pointed out. ^ "Wilkinson's Egyptians. the Egyptian High Priest of Osiris had to be clothed in a leopard's skin (see figure). p." We have said that the rites of Bacchus and Osiris were identical. Now Strabo. " were worn by the High Priest at all the most important solemnities.. and Osiris himself. Babylonian Tammuz. like Bacchus.) Osieis. vol. speaking of the inhabitants of Susa.." says Wilkinson. Osieis. GREECE. 49. . Pers. the ETC. and ivy in consequence was always present in the worship of Bacchus. iEschylus. 341.

the "leopard subduer" and "spotted one. which is The what we might between " expect from the distinction Misraimites " made ^^ in the historical records Egypt or -^gypt was not the original name of the land of Misraim. xii. i. cap. was similarly clothed. s • ^ ' Herod. the latter being the son of Saturn. and Plutarch records the tradition that Osiris was black.e." Ethiopians. 46. s.. -i. by Birch.^ ^lian also says that at Hermonthis the Egyptians worship a black bull. by Birch. . 86-91. vol. i. or Osiris. xii. "The " and Egyptians. pp. by Birch. " Infra. cap." ^ and Onuphis.e. which they call " Onuphis. ^gyptus must be Nimrod. pp. " Wilkinson.s Apis especially was worshipped as Osiris himself. is described by him as Asar. . given by Wilkinson.40 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD calf. 359. 21.- Bacchus. 23).. xiii. say that the Egyptians are a colony Osiris. but was given to it after " . who is the same as Belus. p. and particularly remarked the thickness of the skulls (a negro charsignifies black. iii.^ The land of Egypt was called Khemi or Khami and Khami implied by the prophet Jeremiah." acteristic) of those who fell in battle against the Persians. vol. by Birch. vol. Thalia. lib. Ibid. Nat. See figure of the Apis from copy made by French Institute of Cairo Hislop. iii. Herodotus always speaks of the Egyptians as black. " his skin" (Jer.' with Nimrod. 69.." The figure of Osiris. An. Gush. iii. the Greek Osiris. Wilkinson. ii. 198. p." drawn out ' of them by .^ Macrobius calls the sacred bull of Hermonthis "Bacchis. '" p. 307.4 and both were sacred to Osiris. vol." '3 Now as Belus was Gush. and that the laws. '^ Lempri^re. vol. 35 Wilkinson.. vol. Diodorus. " Herod. was a title of Osiris.." monuments show that there were two races in Egypt. JEgyptus. 70. ^ Hamilton Smith from the De Iside et Osiride. xxviii. lib. iii. the Cushites. the son of Belus. p. Wilkinson. son of Seb. religious Col. the Saturn of the Greeks.. pp. . was the son of ^Ethiops. In short. iv. chap. whom he identifies with Cronus. iii. 59-62. iii. according to Plutarch. iii. " '> De ^lian. 11. Diodorus Siculus states. Iside. customs.^gyptus. The sacred bulls Apis and Mnevis are also stated to have had black hair." which further tends to connect Osiris with Bacchus. the father of the gods.^ and therefore an Ethiopian or Gushite. evidently those of a negro. identifies Osiris This further the father of Nimrod. or bull symbolic of the god. or Osiris. sacred Apis. the black colour being peculiar to the Gushite race as Gan the ^Ethopian (Gushite) change The features of Osiris in the woodcut are.

ii. when he had been deified as . who was regarded as the planet Mars." seems to be likewise identified with Nimrod." When. or Belus. the Babylonian god of war and of hunting. Lemprifere. Ham. the original of Osiris was a human king. is stated to be the son of Saturn. their ancestors. the circumstantial account of his conquests that. will be more fully or Dionusus. Gush." " Heaven Father. we know. EGYPT. seems to have been peculiar to Aryan nations. and the intimate relation of the early history of Egypt and Babylon. and to vEgyptus and to Hercules." or "Ares. Prehistoric Nations.— GODS OF BABYLON. and visited the streams of the Ister (Danube) and the remotest shores of the ocean. ^ Faber." ^ ETC. An is also said to have done the same. " Jupiter. is stated to have conquered all Asia. or Belus.e. Jupiter was also identified with Bacchus. Osiris." ^ Osiris. which may account for Cush. like Nimrod. etc. like -^gyptus. worshipped as gods. who. inscription found on certain ancient monuments reads as follows " Saturn. the son of Saturn. Osiris. 292. the youngest of all the gods. Shem." called " Diespiter. to the Indian " demonstrated in Ghapter IV." s The god " Mars. the Cushite idolatry was introduced among them they appear to have called the chief divinity of that idolatry by the name of their god and regarded him as the son of Saturn. Moreover. as Ninus. Egypt. Osiris : i. who conducted a large and numerous army as far as the deserts of India and travelled over the greater part of the world. Finally the same expedition and conquests are attributed to Bacchus Beonaush " (who we shall see is identical with the Greek Dionusus). is the strongest evidence although afterwards deified and identified with the Sun. however. as we have seen. of the name of their ancestor Japetus. Here diffusing benevolence to all the inhabitants of the earth. Ham and Japhet were. 41 observances and letters of the ancient Egyptians closely resembled " the Colony still observing the customs of Ninus. being called the youngest of the gods. The identity of Osiris with Ninus or Nimrod. 276. which would make him the same." which is regarded as the original etymology of the name. was deified under the title of " Pra Japeti. vol. the Greek Osiris. I am Osiris. For we have seen that Nergal. GREECE. pp. both having the surname of " Sabavius. and part of Europe. is my father. those of the Ethiopians. was probably a the ' ' Diodorus. Bel Merodach. the descendants of Japhet. and identified him with the planet Jupiter. therefore. p. 275. and to have been the name of their god. or adaptation.. quoted by Baldwin. The name may also possibly be a corruption.

must be a deified form of the same monarch.42 deified THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD Nimrod the form of Nimrod. The Greek god " Pan " appears to be a deified form of Gush. Anu was also called " Dis." or " causer of rebellion " and the name of the Babylonian god " Bel Merodach " appears to have the same meaning. etc. 97.^ Anu Therefore as Osiris has been shown to be Nimrod. 44. Tammuz." a name which lamenter of Bel " (from Bel and ohnah. with " Apis" the sacred bull by which Osiris was represented. as his wife..) was yearly lamented. "Ana " at Babylon appears to be another deified form of Nimrod. with Anu. 593. 87 — woodcut 519 of Osiris as Asarapis.3 and as Beltis and Ishtar are forms of the same goddess who was the wife of the two Bel Nimruds. etc. * 5 *' by Birch. p. to which connects Mars with the second Belus. Ibid. vol. the Sun. Adonis. 'Lempri^re. the great Sarapis". their death. who was by numerous Greek inscriptions the Egyptian god of the dead. Wilkinson. iii. and Beltis." ^ and of is was the Lord associated with Pluto is identified with Osiris. and Bel Merodach. Bacchus. the temple of Anu at Urka.. viz. known by the Oscans of Italy was . who have also been shown to be deified forms of the same king. is confirmed by the name given to the wife of Mars. note. p. Pan was the chief of the Satyrs (Greek " Saturs "). signifies " ' and their wives are specially represented as lamenting lament). or Bilta Niprut. which are dedicated " To Pluto. which is derived or Pluto '' ' ' Hislop. . to rebel). Tammuz. or greater. " Bel. i. Pinto. p. the city of the dead. Sargon IL also associates Ishtar. 592." the Greek god of the dead. Lemprifere. the wife of Mars was " Bellona. Eawlinson's Herod. or Nimrod. we may conclude that Anu is a form of one or other of those gods. and his identity with the younger Belus.^ Sarapis being a combination of " Asar. who was called by the Greeks " Dis. vol. the rebel " (from Mered.^ which was probably given him as the champion of the gods against their opponents. who is the Now the same as The name also by which Mars was " Maimers" which signifies " the rebel. and the evidence seems to show that he must be the younger god. or Astarte. and these lamentations were the principal feature in Nimrod was their worship. him as the Lady of Bit Ana. - Ibid. " The god of the dead " worshipped under the name of "Anu " or Osiris. pp.. Pan. The death of the gods under whose names Bel deified (Osiris." which identifies him with "Pluto. Anu Urka." a name of Osiris.

p. Fragments. by Birch. GREECE." the sacred bull of Memphis. '° Eawlinson's Herod. which represented as the " life restorer. ' Lemprifere. '> iii. Sanchoniathon's History j Cory... 186. 73. 88. iii. '' Diodorus. like Mercury or Hermes.e." and that " the goat of Mendes was the living spirit of the Sun. according to the the emblem of Generation. as pointed out. may more or less be identified with both the Babylonian gods. EGYPT. 46. by Bii'ch. 43 whence the name " Saturn. the god of Generation.5 while Diodorus states that the goat was chosen as Birch says that. vol." one of the names of Bel Nimrud the lesser.^ inscriptions. - Wilkinson. Wilkinson. 232. iii.^ ^sculapius. by Birch. from the Chaldean " Satur. p.* Egyptian god " Mendes. i. 406. or fecundity. which obtains a new " " was thus supposed to constantly renew its life. also the god of generation." who.. Pan was the same as the tion. Wilkinson." or Heya. vol. *Faber. s." The etymology of the name skin every year. and was represented under the form of a goat. him The symbol of ^sculapius was a snake. vol. the ram and the bull were all emblems of the principle of Generation. De hide. 599. another form of Cush. Mendes was represented " with the head of a sheep." " i. who. and ." He was also represented under the form of a ram and as ram-headed. sometimes blend into one. note by Birch. p.^ Now Hea." '° and the god was represented by a serpent." ETC. he says. the generator. p. the life of Ra. book ii. was also represented with the head and legs of a goat. Pan..GODS OF BABYLON. 186 . the prince of young women. chaps. therefore." because the snake. the original male power of the gods. 18. i." who must be Pan is the chief of Satyrs and therefore identical with Pan.3 Wilkinson dissents to this because he can find but this fact does not no monuments of this god thus represented invalidate the more ancient testimony of Herodotus. Pan is further identified with Saturn by the Orphic poet. The goat. and that Pan and a goat were both called Mendes in Egypt. and identical with Pan and Mercury. " Lenormant. conclude that he was a form of Khem. Saturn." the Egyptian god of GeneraAccording to Herodotus. 3 Herod. is the Arabic word for both "life" and " serpent. ed.7 We must. so that the evidence in support of Wilkinson's objection 5 ^ is wholly negative. 187." the god of Medicine.' Wilkinson identifies Pan with " Khem. Chaldean Magic. . '^ Plutarch says the Mendesian goat had the name of "Apis. who calls him " the Universal father and the Horned Zeus or Cronus. p. p. p. or goat. 42. Apparently no representation at all of Mendes has been discovered. ii. vol. vol.

xv. p. Apollo. lesser. means " the man instructing serpent.." 7 and under his name " Hea. or Bel Nimrud the of " the lesser Fish. like yEsculapius." Thoth. Metam. " man." for " Aish shkul ape " (which would be written " Aishkulape. Chaldean Magic.. Babylon and Nineveh. Hea.sAA:u^. however. pp. The characteristics. 114. ^ Ante. 201. The Greek myth of the birth of iEsculapius is also identical with that of Bacchus. seems to be the human original also Bagonl' the Fish god of the Babylonians and Canaanites. Hislop. and Hislop. ii. Lenormant. 236.. 115. His mother was consumed by lightning and he was rescued from the lightning which destroyed her. 22. Chaldean Magic.^ fish's head over his own head. 3 ^Lempri^re . vii. Lenormant also Berosus. or Hermes. 215 p. . etc. mentions several forms of Oannes.^ This identifies him with Nimrod rather than with his father. and a in a similar way. Berosus Cory. 23.^ -<:Esculapius also is said to have died a violent death. M. One of the titles of Bel was "Dagon. note. who were sea monsters with the reason and speech of men. "serpent. ' 769-773." Bel Nimrud Gush. or their supposed reincarnations as Horus. the prophet Nebo. lib. 736-745. Oannes is represented a^ teaching the Babylonians science and religion. He is stated to have been killed by lightning for raising the dead. p. 157. 11. 14. but with a ' Hislop. pp. and Appendix I. " the all-wise Belus.3 44 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD ^sculapius tends to further identify bim with " Hea. p. and is described as is who having a legs. he is " The Life-giver. confusing father and son. just as Bacchus was rescued from the flames which consumed his mother. Hislop. lib. the violent death of the former constituting a most important feature in the Pagan mythology. and it is probable that the Greeks."* like Osiris and other Sun gods."' Similarly " Hea. p. pp.. 29. of -^sculapius and the etymology of his name tend to associate him more especially with Bel Ni'mrud the lesser."" etc.'° behind his. applied some of the traditions of the latter to the former." and "iEsculapius " in Greek). and. 343 '° Lenormant. viz." . Fragtiients. 364-365 Rawlinson's Five Great Monarchies." ^the serpent god. 278." from ais/i." " The Intelligent This tends to connect Hea with another Fish god. is called " The Teacher of Mankind. the Lord of ^Understanding." But ^sculapius is represented as the child of the Sun. ^JEneid. p. p. 236. vol..^ fish's tail Dagon was represented identifies Hea with Oannes. p. in his history. . etc." is called " The God of the Great Deep. " to instruct. . * . "Ovid." and wpe or ap/ie. ' Layard. 11. " Oannes" regarded as identical with Dagon. p.

Bel Nimrud the lesser. by the deity to write the history of things. to compile laws." ^ Genesis. " another having the same complicated form between a fish and a man. Faber. which have a similar appearance of fable. Cory. of course. from Pohjhistor. |were found after the Deluge. 30-33. of the appearance of found as we proceed that many of the mythological traditions of the ancients. and great teacher of the primitive first sight. 378i . earliest history of things all and with the served in other nations. very similar in form to the first. he says. ^These ten kings correspond with the ten generations mentioned in which has been prewhich describe ten kings. These writings. but it will be . in ' his character of Bacchus. pp. EGYPT. Cory. who were said to be teachers of a certain knowledge to mankind. because he also was Nebo. for the present. and finally. concealed indeed beneath allegorical language. from Polyhistor. ii." and that their names were probably given to Hea. include the knowledge obtained from the various sea daemons.GODS OF BABYLON. "four double-shaped personages' appeared. whose escape from the Deluge he describes very similarly to the account in Genesis. idolatry. the false prophet. or is Dagon p. but the meaning of which is plain when compared with other traditions and known historial facts. he says. at Sippara. or generations. at more than fanciful fable. fish's ETC." ^ whose name was " Odacon. or Noah. the point to be noticed is that these sea daemons. little This story of the sea dsemons has." which is equivalent to " O'Dagon "— " the Dagon" or "the Fish. that is to say. Berosus further says that Xisuthrus was directed before the Deluge. can be shown to be a record of real events. was also called '' Ichthys" ' 3 * Berosus. from Apollodorus and Ahydenus . vol." Following him appeared a second. of whom the last was Xisuthrus. however. 27-29. 23. or Gush. is described as occurring during the reign of ten kings previous to the ' Deluge. upon which " they built cities • and erected temples." and after this one. and to bury it at the City of the Sun at Sippara. We shall have to refer to the above statements of Berosus again but. and explained to them the principles of geometrical knowledge. Nimrod. The first of these beings." and " taught the Babylonians to construct cities. whom he calls a " sea dsemon. Dag the Chaldee for fish . Berosus." 3 All this. which would. to found temples. were the original " Cannes " and " Dagon. and Babylon was inhabited again. 22. 45 head above a man's head and a fish's tail behind a man's legs. p. Cory. GREECE. and often encrusted with fabulous additions. Berosus. pp. " appeared out of the Erythraean Sea where it borders on Babylonia.

iii. lib. vol. pp. Bacchus.46 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD "the Fish. but in with Noah.^ The reason why Bacchus and Osiris were thus identified with similar story is A told of Osiris.. Iside. and to have remained there. pp. 21. vol. and the enemy of the god who compassed his death was called "Typhon."' but he was so called for a different reason from that which gave to his father the titles of Cannes and Dagon. Eiad.7 day yearly commemorated in almost every nation under the The latter event had also a particular bearing on the origin of Paganism. chap. to associate his worship with the memory of the Deluge which had so solemn and profound an effect on the postdiluvians. firstly. . Bacchus is therefore represented as plunging beneath the waves of the ocean in order to escape from his enemies. when he and his father were worshipped as gods. He was venerated by them under the name " Amon." at Thebes. 114." or "Amen.. . 16. who received Bacchus. which will be duly noticed hereafter. xiv. 360-371. 'i. p. the identified Noah was. vol. so Bacchus is called " Thehe genus. 114 Hislop. ii. iii.the day on which the Deluge commenced. It does not appear that "Ham." the latter being the word used for the ark of the Deluge by Moses. Ibid. ^ cap. and the enemy of the god was thus identified with the ocean. iii. 133 Bryant's Mythology. Hislop." and is represented with a ram's head surmounted by the to this ' ' Hesychius. p. 265-267. chap. v. See ante. among the Egyptians. 57 ." or "AmTnon. Homer. p.. He was identified with the Sun as " Amenra. book i. ii. 336. .^ which in Scripture is called " No Amon. His death was the great event commemorated in the later form of idolatry. as did Noah." " Bar is." and his heart was supposed to be carried in a box called " the ark " at his festivals. v. born again in a new world out of the ark. Ihid. of the evil principle. The ocean which destroyed the human race at the Deluge was also called Typhon.^ and just as Noah was. He is represented as being shut up in his coffin and set afloat on the waters of the ocean on the seventeenth day of the second month of the Egyptian year. p. for exactly one year.^ The coffin or ship in which he was preserved was called " Argo.4 Thetis also." the name. as it were. vol. iv." was worshipped as a god except by the Egyptians. from whom he was rescued by Thetis. D . De i. vi.^ Hence his name is " Ichthys." or the abode of Amon. as we have seen." " Arkborn. it is father of the sun. p." and " Theba. is shown by Faber to be identified with the ark. to obtain for the god the veneration in which the human race was held.e. Apollodorus. " Ante." 1^ this case the god Egyptian Bacchus. 3 Plutarch. p. » 5 ^ Faber. that. 142. and secondly.

3. 26. GREECE. p. note by Birch.^ fChem was also regarded as the generating influence of the Sun. '"Ibid. p. ^ Ibid. pi. Ibid. 10.^ and by the Romans was known as Jupiter Amon Cnoubis. like Vulcan. as the god of Generation.." whom Wilkinson identifies with the Greek god Pan. ^Ibid. ''Ibid. 186. p. ^ him '"the Spirit. ^Ihid. and self-sufiicient. p. 2. Cush does not appear to have been otherwise worshipped in Egypt. 13.7 Cnouphis /likewise represents the Creative spirit in Nature. when Osiris had in short. Ammon.. . Amen. like Amenra. "Kham. with a ram's head. was He was represented by the Scarabaius /the father of the gods. Ibid. and with Osiris. and Phthah. 9 — pi. and was identified by the Greeks with Vulcan.. like the Mercury and Pan of the Greeks. 8. the Sun. is evident that the difierent gods " blend into each other. p. xix.. '^Ibid. and therefore the same god as Amen in a difierent aspect. Ibid. 62. p. 47 power of the Sun. the supposed author of natural life and generation. 2.. iii. 7 note by Birch. and Khem. 25. and woodcut p. or Cnouphis. and identical with Saturn. as " Jupiter ' Wilkinson.. and that of Thoth.s Birch says that the hymns of the eighteenth dynasty represent Amenra as the creator of men.GODS OF BABYLON. the father of the gods. or Hermes. EGYPT. the son of Saturn." ^Ibid. xix." and must therefore be Cush." was ultimately identified with and therefore with Osiris. all of whom represented the generative principle. self-acting." and " Khem." or Osiris. as ^^ Wilkinson says. take each other's characters and attributes.. pp. xviii. was also the father of the gods. and ally him in all respects with the Sun. and Ham seems to have taken his place under the forms of Kneph. but with these exceptions. and in one of the hieroglyphic legends is called the Sun.3 Cnoubis is also represented. vol." " CnoubiB. But it to symbolise the generative this aspect he is identified Sun with " . p. disk of the ETC. p. 17." or " Cnouphis.. or. and he is represented by exactly the same figure as Amen. while in the time of Darius he is identified both with Ra.. and in Manetho's Dynasty of Gods Ammon is classed as merely a demi-god..^ is the Egyptian name of Ham. animals and plants that they identify him with Khem." Ammon. by Birch. '^ " Ibid. p.^ beetle. compare pi. ing Wilkinson here tries to idealise the character of Cnouphis by callbut the ram's head and other characteristics given to him shows that he was the Phallic god.. 15. 9.^ The god " Phtliah " also represented the Creative power. which was an emblem of the Sun as being " the type of the Creative power. p. Jupiter." " " 8eh" like Phthah. p. showing that he had lost his position in later times.' Under Khem.

.48 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD identified become the chief god of the Egyptians and was Sun..." s that is of truth in the Pagan sense." and therefore the same as Saturn or Cush. Phthah was the "father of the gods. Pluto. . Hermes and Mercury. " ' Wilkinson. he is represented as holding the " caduceus. Ihid." ^ i. p. and they are practiSee Manetlio's " Dynasty of the Gods Wilkinson. p. He is also the god of the dead like Mercury. Wilkinson makes another god out of Hermes Trismegistus because he is found with the additional title of " Lord of Pantnouphis. Mercwry. vol. or Hermes. i7_ 7 Wilkinson. the reason has little weight as compared with the great unlikelihood of two gods being given exactly the same name." or " Thrice Great Hermes. 159 Anubis. * 6 p. and he represented the abstract idea of intellect. and that " Bel " is the Chaldee for " heart. p. the Lord of Truth. and Anubis being the conductors of the dead. while Pluto. as god of the dead. the means by which all mental gifts were imparted to men. iii. by Birch.e. p. celestial knowledge according to the Pagan idea of it. would seem to connect him with the Babylonian god But the two deities were of the dead Anu. Osiris. G7 . 168." ^ Now the Egyptians regarded the heart as the seat of intellect.. p. which well accords with the character of Gush as the teacher of mankind and the originator of Pagan idolatry. 168." ^ membered that Hermes has been identified with Belus. and was called " Hermes Trismegistus. vol. Mercury.^ In the rites of Osiris. or Hermes. Ibid. xbij.e. 169. who is called " Intellect.i with the have seen that the Egyptian Thoth. or Bel. Ibid. These characteristics also tend to identify Thoth with Phthah. Dis. Thoth is represented as his scribe and counsellor. by Birch.^ His office. and Horapollo describes the Egyptian Hermes as "the president of the The significance of this will be evident when it is reheart.9 We tions of Osiris There are one or two other gods who were regarded as re-incarnaand other forms of the same god. like Mercury. and therefore with Gush. iii. 94. * 3 s Ibid. " Cory. vol." ^ The god "Anuhis " appears to be especially identified with Thoth.." Thoth is called by Jamblicus " the God of all Celestial Knowledge. iii. etc." in his hand. Apuleius speaks of him as the interpreter of the gods. Nimrod). Lempriere. In short. by Birch. gods of the dead in different ways. p. while.. like Mercury or Hermes. were judges of the dead. Osiris.^^ p." But considei'ing the variety of titles given to the gods and kings of Egypt. p. " . 15. . 324.. was " the God of letters and learning. p. 160. or Pluto (i.


cally identical with him.



Osiris himself was recognised as the Sun "Horus" and "Apollo" are represented as sous of the Sun and as the Sun himself for when the god, as Osiris, was identified with the Sun, the incarnation of himself became both the Sun and the son of the Sun. Thus " Isis," the goddess mother and wife of Osiris,

god, and both


and mother of Horus,


represented as saying,


mortal hath
the Sun."







have brought forth

his father,

Cupid," another incarnation of the god, is similarly identified with but he is the son of the god and goddess from a different

point of view.

the identity of so

He is represented to be, as might be expected from many gods and goddesses, the son of many of them,

and this also accounts for the various genealogies given in Greek mythology to the different gods. Cupid, however, is more especially the son of Venus, in whose arms he is represented, just as Horus, under the name of " Harpocrates," is represented in the arms of Isis.^ Cupid is also portrayed with a heart in his hands, or else with the heart-shaped fruit of the Persea,^ which caused the Greeks to regard him as the god of the heart, or god of love, just as the representation of Bacchus caused them to regard him as the god of wine. But in both cases the real significance of the symbol was misunderstood. For the Chaldee for " heart " is " Bel," * which, on the principle of the double signification of words adopted by the Pagan priesthood to conceal the true meaning from the uninitiated, denoted that the child was the son of Bel, or Cush while he is further identified with " the mighty hunter " by the bow and arrows. For the same reason the heart contained in an ark was carried by .1

|4he priests in procession at the festivals of Bacchus,^ to identify him

'with the Babylonian god. The Roman youths also used to wear a heart-shaped amulet suspended round their necks, called the " Bulla," ^ which had evidently the same significance. Cupid, known also as " Eros," was lamented by the Egyptians, like Osiris and Tammuz, under the name of " Maneros," who, they said, was " the only son of
their first king."





shall see,

was Thoth,

or the

elder Belus,


also identifies Maneros, or Cupid, with Osiris, or



Harpocrates means, as shown by Bunsen, "Horus the child"
Pompeii, vol.
Jul. Firm.,


p. 190.
lib. v.



^ 5






Error., prof,

Hislop, p. 189. rel., pp. 14, 15



Arnob., Adv. Gent.,


* ^

p. 265.

Kenneth's Atiquities, pp. 300, 301

Hislop, pp. 189, 190.

cap. Ixxix.




Nimrod. Now Osiris was worshipped by the Greeks as Bacchus, and Herodotus states that he was greatly surprised at the fact that the dirge which they used in lamenting Maneros was exactly the same as the dirge of Linus, who was identical with Bacchus/
In spite of this necessarily brief examination, the consentient
evidence of so


ancient writers


practically conclusive of the

fact that the originals of the gods of Babylon, Egypt, Greece and Rome were human beings, the first great monarchs of the world,

Nimrod, the founders of the Babylonian empire. by the very names of some of the gods; by their characteristics; by their having been the originators of by their history as fire worship and the first teachers of idolatry human kings, as in the case of Osiris, Bacchus and Ninus, which so exactly agree with that of Nimrod by the fact that they are represented as reigning both in Babylon and Egypt by the claim of the

Gush and

his son


also confirmed




kings of those countries to be their descendants;

by various inde-

pendent and undesigned references to them and by the accumulative evidence of the identity of the various gods with each other. This evidence will be found to be still more accumulative when we come
to speak of the gods of other nations, and of the relations of the great goddess in her various forms to the different gods.


The latter evidence is also confirmed by the testimony of ancient and modern writers to the intimate connection of the religious systems of each country, and to the fact that Egypt, Phcenicia, Greece and



obtained their religion



from Babylon and

Assyria, or from each other.

The intimate connection of these religious systems is also shewn by the fact that the Grecian mythology speaks of half a dozen or more Cupids, and various ApoUos, Mercurys, etc. This, on the face of it, would be inexplicable, for we cannot suppose that they invented so many gods of the same name, and all with similar attributes. But it is at once explained when it is considered that the Greeks obtained For their religion from Babylon through Phoenicia, and Egypt.

would necessarily follow from this, that each Cupid or Apollo would be represented to them as the son of various gods and goddesses, and not recognising that the latter were merely the deified attributes of one original God and Goddess, they would naturally suppose that the sons of each god and goddess were different persons, although of the same

Herod., and Hislop,

p. 22, note.


Wilkinson, speaking of the gods of Egypt, says,
" I


have stated

Amunre and

other gods took the form of different deities which,


appears at

sight to present





readily accounted for
figures or

when we

consider that each of those whose

emblems were adopted, was only an emanation or deified same great Being, to whom they ascribed various characters according to the several offices he was supposed to
attribute of the









we think


justified in concluding that the two series of gods

and that

in the great

pair of gods

were originally these attributes were
already been

concentrated, from the development of which, in various personifications, that

mythological system sprang which

we have


Owing to
" Bel,"

the fact of the same names, such as


Belus," or

being given to both father and son to the fact that both were regarded as gods of fire, and taught or enforced the worship of fire and


also to the fact that both

had a claim

to be founders of

city, which were the beginning of was commenced at the same time (Gen, xi. 5, 8), Babylon, which Nimrod completed, the distinction between the two has often been lost sight of. But the distinction is of great importance, and in spite of a trifling confusion at times, due to the above causes, may be readily recognised. Thus we have seen that the elder " Cronus," the elder " Belus," or Saturn, who was the father of Ninus, Osiris and ^gyptus, was " Cush the iEthiop," the father of Bacchus and that he is more especially identified with " Vulcan," " Hephaestus," " Chaos," " Janus," " Pan," the Egyptian " Phthah," and " Seb," as the "father of tJte gods " ; and that


because Babel (the design of Cush), and the




represented as the ringleader, or principal actor, in the building

The Prophet Nebo," Hermes," " Taautus " (the counsellor both of " Osiris " and " Tammuz "), " Mercury," " Dagon," he " Cannes " and " Anubis," " -^sculapius," appears to have been the teacher of mankind and initiator of the Pagan
of the


of Babel


while under the names of


Hea, the Lord of Understanding,"





iSimilarly, Nin, or Ninus, the younger " Cronus," and the younger Belus," or " Bel," or " Bel Nimrud the greater," Bel Merodach, etc., is

Nimrod the Great King and Conqueror, who
' ,


especially identi-


Wilkinson's Egyptians, vol. iv. Bunsen's Egypt, vol. i. p. 418.

p. 245.



with " Hercules," the giant hunter " Orion," Baal Tammuz," " Osiris," " ^gyptus," " Bacchus," " Anu," " Dis," " Pluto," etc.




" Jupiter," "

It is to be observed, however, that although the distinction between the two sets of gods is more or less clear, all were regarded by the ancients as the Sun, which was a consequence of the intimate relation to each other of the two sets of gods, viz., the relation of father to son, and the tendency of the one to blend into the other. Mr Faber quotes a number of ancient mythologists who assert the identity of the different gods with the Sun.^ Thus Saturn, or Cronus, is declared to be the Sun by Macrobius and Nonnus. Jupiter is declared to be the Sun by Macrobius, Nonnus, and the Orphic poet. Pluto, or Aidoneus, is said to be the Sun by the Orphic poet.

Bacchus, or Dionusus,


said to be the

Sun by

Virgil, Ausonius,

Macrobius, Sophocles and the Orphic poet.



said to be the

poet, Ovid,


said to be the

Sun by the Orphic poet. Sun by Macrobius, Nonnus, the Orphic

and by


oracular responses.



said to be the

Pan, or Phanes,

Sun by Macrobius. said to be the Sun by Macrobius and the Sun by Nonnus and Macrobius. said to be the Sun by the Orphic

Orphic poet. Hercules


said to be the

Vulcan, or Hephaestus,



said to be the



said to be the

Sun by Macrobius. Sun by Macrobius.

Siculus, Macrobius,

Horus, Serapis, are each said to be the Sun by Diodorus an ancient oracle of Apollo, and the Horapolline
said to be the




Adonis, or Attys,

said to be the

Sun by Nonnus. Sun by Macrobius.



Vishnu is the Sun at night Brahma is the Sun in the morning and in the east and that Siva is the Sun from noon to evening.^ Mr Faber gives the names of other gods who were regarded as
in like manner, assert that in the west

The Hindus,



the Sun, but the above are sufficient to
' '

show the general character



Idolatry^ vol.





Moor's Hivdu Pantheon, pp.

6, 9, 13,

33, 277,

pp. 206-214. 294 ; Asiat. Res., vol.





vol. V. p. 254.

of the





and the subject

will be


fully considered

in future chapters.^

this in ancient times

Thus, although these gods can be identified with human orioriuals, was known only to the priesthood and to the

common people the gods were merely beino-s powers and characteristics, whose material manifestations were the sun and certain planets, and whose spirits were supposed to inhabit certain images and temples. The truth only became gradually known as the influence of, and veneration bestowed on, idolatry began to decay, and our present knowledo-e is due to the facts thus revealed by ancient authors, and to the careful comparison by modern students of ancient myths and

while to the

possessed of


In conclusion

we may refer

to the legend of " Izdiibar," translated

by Mr George Smith from the Assyrian
be an indubitable evidence that the
lonian gods were

Tablets, as



originals of the

would seem to Baby-

Nimrod and Gush.
Izdubar with Nimrod.
strong in war.

Izdubar, like Nimrod, Like Nimrod, he is called " the mighty giant." Like Nimrod, he is a mighty hunter who slays by sheer strength the most formidable wild animals. In his time the whole of the Euphrates Valley was divided into petty kingdoms, and Izdubar, like Nimrod, establishes his dominion over them, the centre of his dominion being in the region of Shinar at Babylon, Accad, Ereck and Nippur, exactly corresponding with that of Nimrod.^ Moreover, Izdubar speaks of Noah as his father, a term of relationship which would be equally applied to one who was his grandfather For Hasisadra,^ his father, is the person who, or great-grandfather.

Mr Smith


a mighty leader, a


in the Chaldean Tablets of the Deluge, is preserved with various

sends forth a dove and a raven to see

an ark, and who at its termination if the waters had abated.'* His relationship, therefore, to Noah, together with his characteristics and
animals and beasts of the
field in
x., " Sun, Serpent, Phallic and Tree Worship." Chaldean Acc(junt of Gen-isis, pp. 174 and 203, II. 44, 45. 3 Ha Sisadra is evidently the Noah of Berosus's History of the Deluge, the name being translated by the Greeks, "Xisuthrus" or "Sisithrus." The Greeks constantly substituted " th " f or " d," as in "Theos"for "Deus," and always gave a Greek termination to names. Ha Sisadra would therefore become " Ha Sisathrus," or without the pretix, " Sisathrus." ^ See Izdubar legend, Chaldean Account of Genesis.

See cbap.




makes it impossible to doubt that the legend is a romance founded on the history of Nimrod. But although Izdubar is undoubtedly Nimrod, he is, as shown by M. Lenormant, the god of fire, and the personification or incarnation of the Sun, while the twelve tablets on which his enterprises are recorded appear to symbolise the Sun god passing through the twelve signs of the Zodiac, and is probably the origin of the twelve labours of Hercules/ In short, just as Nin, the Assyrian Hercules, was the husband of the Assyrian goddess Bilta, or Beltis, so Izdubar is the lover and husband of Ishtar, another form of the same goddess.^ We have also seen that the two Pagan gods are associated together in the respective characters of king and counsellor, hero and sage, warrior and prophet, as in the case of Thoth and Osiris, Thoth and Tammuz, Bel and Nebo, Ninus and Cannes, Nin and Hea. In like manner, Izdubar is associated with a wonderful sage named " Heabani," "fanned for his wisdora in all things and his knowledge of all that is visible and concealed," and whose name and characteristics therefore exactly correspond with those of Hea. The suffix bani signifies " to make," ^ and as one signification of the name " flea " is " life," 4 ^ea-6am would signify "life-maker," or " life-giver," which was the particular attribute of Hea, ^sculapius, etc. Again Hea-bani helps Izdubar in his exploits and the two are represented on a Babylonian cylinder (see woodcut) in exactly the

Izdubar and Hea-bani.

Lenormant, Chaldean Magic, pp. 188, 189. 3 CJialdean Account Izdubar Tablets. of Genesis, p. 185. 4 Eawlinson's Herod., vol i. p. 600. Hea was " the life-giver " Lenormant, Chaldean Magic, pp. 114, 115. 5 Copied from The Chaldean Account of Genesis, by the permission of Messrs. Sampson, Low, Marston & Co.






style and manner as the Assyrian Nin, or Hercules,' while the fawn, the particular symbol of Nimrod, at the feet of Izdubar also identifies Izdubar with Nin, and both with Nimrod. M. Lenormant also identifies Izdubar with the god Bar or Nin.-

M. Lenormant speaks of the legend as


a god transformed in epic

Mr Smith would have him considered." ^ But it is clear that Mr Smith is correct and that the legend is a romance founded on the history of the great king and giant hunter Nimrod, who was afterwards deified and eventually transformed into the Sun and Fire god of the Babypoetry into a terrestrial hero, and not an historical king as
It is the story of a terrestrial hero

transformed into a god,

and not the story of a god transformed into a hero. The legend, in short, is a further and conclusive evidence that the originals of the Babylonian gods, and of the gods of other nations who received their religion from Babylonia and Assyria, were the two first kings of the first great empire of the world, Nimrod and For while it is clear that Izdubar is Nimrod, it his father Cush. is equally clear that he is the Babylonian Sun god, and Nin the Assyrian Hercules and god of war and hunting, and that his friend and counsellor Hea-bani is the god Hea. Mr Smith gives a portrait of Izdubar from a Khorsabad sculpture " In all these cases and in every {see woodcut,) * and he remarks other instance where Izdubar is represented he is indicated as a man with masses of curls over his head, and a large curly beard. So marked is this and different in cast to the usual Babylonian type

that I cannot help the impression of


and probably Ethiopian type.

being a representation of a But the Cushite type is not

only displayed in the crisped hair.

It is seen also in the flattened

and distended nostrils, and in the it is just what we might expect to
or negro race.

thick, turned-out sensual lips,


find in the progenitor of the black This portrait, therefore, also tends to identify Izdubar with the Cushite monarch, and the sculpture is probably a fair likeness of the giant hunter Nimrod. It will be seen that he is represented as not only strangling a lion,

but as carrying in his right hand a dead serpent. This, as will be pointed out in another chapter, was the peculiar characteristic of the

Compare ante woodcut,
Chaldean Magic,
Ibid., p. 188.
p. 189.

p. 24.


Copied from The Chaldean Account of Sampson, Low, Marston. & Co. ' Chaldean Account of Oenesis, p. 194.


by the permission

of Messrs


Nimrod was

various forms of the god under which


were represented as the slayer of the serpent.

IzDUBAK STRANGLING A LiON (from Khorsabad Sculpture),





uncertainty regarding the phonetic value of the

George Smith has translated by the name Izdubar or Isdubar.^ M. Lenormant has pointed out that "har'^ signifies fire, and considers the name " Izdubar " to mean " mass of fire " but " bar " is also the Semitic for " son," which is such a prominent feature in the titles of the younger Babylonian god. Again, the symbols for " s " and " sh " are often the same in Egyptian hieroglyphics, and this is also the case with those of Babylon, in which case the first syllable of the name might perchance be read as " Ish," or " Isha," signifying
signs which




woman," the root of the name " Ishtar." It may also be remarked d " and " t " are generally interchangeable, as in the case of Dumuz," who was generally known as " Tammuz." Is it not possible,

name may be a combination of the name of the Babylonian goddess Ishtar with the term "bar," or "son," added, signifying " the son of Ishtar," which would represent Izdubar to be both the son and the lover, or husband, of the goddess ?
therefore, that the

This, as already pointed out, was the particular relationship of the younger god to the goddess. He was called " the son and husband of the mother," and considering the evident identity of Izdubar with the god Nin, or Bar, there seems to be a possibility at least that this may be the correct meaning of the name.
Later writers have translated the name as " Gilgames," but can as yet be placed on the interpretation.



' This is also testified to by Eusebius and Africanus in their dynasties There was a second Semiramis who lived about of Assyrian kings.CHAPTER now III THE GREAT GODDESS It is necessary to point out briefly the identity of the principal goddesses with each other and with the Babylonian Queen. his wife Semiramis succeeded him on the throne of Babylon. Rawlinson has found the the time of the records of this later queen at Babylon. 58 . 615 . 70. etc. Castor. and she is more generally represented as the wife of the younger god. or the second Bel Nimrod. and the goddess would therefore seem to have been the wife of Gush and the mother of Nimrod." the wife and queen of Ninus. 71. in it is a further evidence that the originals of the various gods were only two persons bearing the relation to each other of father and son. The usual title of the goddess in Babylonia. Ishtar.. Assyria. But. but with' Justin. after the death of Ninus. and that as he was the human original of the younger god. who are clearly different aspects of the same goddess. of the monuments. she was not only the wife of the former." but she is represented as being both the mother and wife of the gods. must have been the wife of Nimrod. and the Ninus of history. but both the mother and the wife of the latter. Beltis. and that. p. as we shall see. Both Justin and Castor state that Ninus was the second king of Babylon and the son and successor of Belus. As it seems clear that Nimrod is the Nin. so was she the human original of the great goddess. and as it is the uniform testimony of the ancients that the various goddesses were all one and the same person. 65. Bilta Niprut. and on this ground. These two originals we have seen to be Gush and his son Nimrod. it follows that " Semirmnis. Egypt and classical mythology is " The Great Goddess Mother " or " The Mother of the Gods. Cory's Fragments^ p. pp.^ Trojan war. ^ Cory. and Sir. Historia. H.

" " the great goddess mother. Athenagoras. 7 Bunsen's Egypt. Paschal Chronicle. viz. fab. . i. was king of the Cyclops. 29. and we shall see that there are grounds for concluding that Semiramis was the wife of the father the glory of a celebrated predecessor. ^ Ovid. sub. essay '' .'^ This is equally ascribed by Megasthenes to Belus. Justin and others. Hislop. had commenced. iii. p. lib. p." is represented with a turreted crown. 4. ii. and she was even more famous as a builder than her husband. * See figure '^ from Kitto's Commentary. the elder Belus. 1. vol. i. ' p. or crown of towers. which may have been the of primary reason of the the Mother. Hesychius. " Ammas. pp. 5 Megasthenes. i. p.s but. ii." " the • Diodorus Sicuhis. 65. 178. as we shall see. 219-221 Hislop.. vol.. We are also told by both Diodorus Siculus and Athenagoras that Semiramis after her death was worshipped by the Babylonians and throughout the East as " Rhea." is also represented. Ivi. Semiramis finished what the second Belus. 46. Babylon also was surrounded by a wall with towers at intervals. op.. 45. 625. p. It was in consequence of this that so many of the goddesses are represented wearing a mural crown. vol vol. vii. 205 . pp. "Diana. "the mother. . Rhea is usually represented as the wife of Saturn. i. lib." 7 title given to the latter." 9 The title " Despoina " is the Greek for " the lady " and " Domina." ^ which is the Hellenic form of the Chaldee Ama. according to Ovid. 480. ii. ^ before she became the wife of the son. with a turreted crown.THE GREA T GODDESS out sufficient reason. voce. and. or Cush. Fasti. iv. p. note. 626. Thus Rhea. " The Husband Like Rhea. 30. 76 . or Cybele. Cronus. pp. who are called " the inventors of tower building." ^ which further identifies her with Semiramis. opera Metam. rather than the wife of Nimrod. . it was Semiramis who surrounded Babylon with a wall. and Ovid says that the reason why she wore this crown was because " she was the first who erected towers in cities. pp. 59 the first has questioned the existence of Nothing was more common than for later sovereigns to take the name and endeavour to surround themselves with some of Semiramis. vol." Ovid. and Rawlinson's Herod. cap. Cory. p. iv. vol. 179 •> . 58. Belus." ^ the first tower being that of Babel. p. 439. vol. lib. 438. x.e.. 177 Hislop." This certainly could not apply to the later Semiramis. Layard's Nineveh." She was also known in Greece as " Ariimas. 308. or Nimrod.^ and a scholiast on the Periergesis of Dionysius makes Semiramis the same as the goddess " Artemis Despoina. known also as " Cybele. Pliny. Legatio." or ^'Artemis. v.

" THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD " Bilta. xiv. as seems evident.. p. 14. vol.^ while Diana was called from tor. cap. . p. 308. speaking of the temple of Vulcan at Athens." Sanchoniathon. Hislop. surround. iv.^ whose name " Astarte. sj^llable." derived from the Hebrew round. or poleo. ii. Athenagoras. cxcix. 157. 179 ." " Under the name of " Mylitta^'' virgins were prostituted to her in Babylon. Lucian. ^HJslop." and Astarte and Ashtoreth are the Phoenician and Hebrew forms of the Babj'lonian goddess Ishtar. 340 Hislop. 307." was the common title of Rhea or Cybele in Rome/ as was or " Beltis. this is the meaning of the names " Ashtart " and " Ashtoreth. 307. sub voce No." '^ with the planet Venus. Attica." like " Asha."^ for " Isha. pp. and also Gensenius). ii. 382 ." alluding to her surrounding cities with walls and towers. p. both from the etymology and the turreted crown. Leg. 9 Sanchoniathon. . according to Aphrodite. p. " Ashtart. ii. p. * Rawlinson's Five Great Monarchies. 620. 30. like Diana and Rhea.. " who defends from attacks. is depicted with a turreted crown." of " to o-o Hislop remarks that it the Phoenician is generally admitted that the last is " . i. under the title of '' Beel Samen. " Pausanias. i. i. was the Babylonian Astarte. 138. 308. and the same was done in Cyprus in of honour of Venus. 1. lib." or " surround with towers or fortifications.^ and the Syrian goddess has been shown by Layard to be the Phoenician Astarte. p. lib. '° Rawlinson. vol. vol. vol. cap. p. '° Pausanias also. tr. 456. p. or Venus. and Ishtar was identified by the Babylonians standing on a lion. " turn round. p." of the goddess in Babylon. . Hence as " Asha" is woman. vol. and the Phoenicians who inhabited the city of Ascalon in Palestine.6o lady. p. Semiramis is also identified by Athenagoras and Lucian with the Syrian goddess." the goddess of war." or " Ashtart. 139." was called "The Lord - Ovid. De Dea Syria." signifies "woman. iii. 3 p. Ashtart and Ashtoreth would mean "the woman who encompasses.^ This is further confirmed by the fact that Astarte." was in Hebrew " Ashtoreth." we may conclude that it is also the meaning of " Ishtor." " The Lady. p. by the Paphians of Cyprus. » Layard. Cory. Nineveh and Its Remains. i." ^ If. " Tauropolos. " Herod. " Near this is the temple of the celestial Venus who was first worshipped by the Assyrians and. Herod." and pol. vol."* Mr " tart. ^ Layard. Fasti. or encompass the masculine tor being used for a border or 11. ^ Hislop. Five Great Monarchies. 456. " a tower. 619. lib. Nineveh." Bel.. after them. says. pp. row of jewels round the head (Parkhurst. vol. Hislop.

^ Jeremiah. Hislop. iii." 9 " the mother of the The Minerva of the Egyptians was also the mother of Apollo. 461-464 . note. speaking of local names in the district of Laodicea. Fasti. vol." "Ishtar.'° who was the same as Horus. p. for they have ' Hislop." all more or less identified with Semiramis and the Babylonian goddess." " Cybele. . p. Isis to Osiris. p. vol. and " Hebrew Athon. 21 ." » This identifies " Minerva" whose name in Athens was " Athena. in the Attic dialect. 915 Apud Bryant. pp. 6 Hislop." which. and Ovid uses the title for Venus with Juno. p. 103." "Isis" and " Ceres." or " Athan. which. 402." or " Cybele." ^ Thus we have " Rhea. 20. pp." " The Lord. '° Wilkinson. and was called gods. still further confirms this identity. which shows that Minerva. 403 •» . Hislop. " Ovid." Minerva was the " Neith" of the who was the Greek Adonis. Eustathius states that " Athan is God. whose name also signifies "The Lady. lib." was a name given to Venus. 285 Lempriere. 304. or Neith." " Diana. in fact. his." in Adon with the points is pronounced Now." Egyptians." while Beltis. 264. without the article." while Julius Firmicus also identifies He says." and " Astarte." " Diune. the goddess of Sais. " The Assyrians and part of the Africans air ' to have the supremacy of the elements. 113. Hehreiv Lexicon.. Hislop.. vol. and the relationship of Rhea to Saturn. Isis and others. and therefore with Beltis. wish the ' the Babylonian Venus. nid^ Eustathius. iv.5 as were those of " Rhea. the Greek with the moon. iv. ii. Lemprifere. 140. was identical with Isis. . Isis is." Ishtar was called " The Mistress of Heaven." or " Ashtoreth. iii." "The Lord. pp. of Venus to Adonis." or " Dione. 18 ." as does " Adon. Lempriere.THE GREAT GODDESS ' 6i Heaven. . viz. Ishtar. 21. Horus. 165. note." ^ " in later Egyptian who mythology was identified the Egyptian Isis. etc. Minerva. Neith." "Venus. vii. Hislop. ^ 5 ^ ^ "^ p." " Astarte. as was Osiris form of Isha." 3 Isis also is the same as " Geres" 4 and the rites of Isis and Ceres were similar. is "Athena" which signifies " The Lady." with the sun." 7 The feminine of Athan is " Athana." or " Aphrodite. Parkhurst. becomes " June " or " Juno. or Tammuz. We have seen that BaalTammuz was also called " Adon. under the name of " Melkat Ashemin. " the woman. and with each other." was known to the Babylonians This was also the title of and Jews as "The Queen of Heaven. p. the mother of like Rhea." with the wife of Adon. The name of the goddess "Juno" is derived from the Chaldee DIune. p. Periergesis of Dionjsius. p.

9. and there can be little doubt." being derived from Se. Be Errore. Semiramis.' 62 consecrated THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD the same under the name of Juno. pp." ^ Doves were sacred to Juno. 5 ^ Hesychius.5 and." or "Ninus. therefore. 78. cap. Rhea and Venus. a term for children the name was therefore given to the deified queen as "The Mother. * ^ Hislop. while the " leopard subduer. while on the reverse there is a dove bearing an olive branch in its mouth. Bbtant. he was deified under the title of " The Son. Bryant. p. p. p." " the It is not to be supposed. 84. that " Semiramis " was the original name of the Babylonian queen. Nineveh and Babylon. when. 250. p. both representations symbolising the goddess as " the branch bearer " (see woodcuts). or Bearer of The Son. " the " emir." " the branch bearer. ' Jul." The Son.' 'amit. In another case the goddess Cybele. or the virgin Venus. that Semiramis was a name or form of the Pagan goddess. iv. iii. Firm. however. for reasons which will be noticed hereafter. " branch." could not have been given him until after he had name "Nin. ramis with Juno. 79. 79.*" This further tends to identify Semi- Diune in a •* Latabd. signalised himself as a great hunter. to this day. Even the very name " Nimrod.." She had also a similar name given to her in Babylon as the wife of . "bearer. Layard." the word in its Greek form becoming Semiramis . . Hislop. and medal given by Layard 3 the Babylonian goddess is represented with two doves on her head. Now the name " Semiramis " signifies " the branch bearer. is represented with a conventional branch in her hand." and olive branches in particular are. Semiramis was the name given by the Greeks to wild pigeons or doves. any more than " Ninus " was the original name of the Babylonian king." could not have been given him until after his death. vol. or Rhea." is the Chaldee for " dove. according to Hesychius." The branch is the recognised symbol of " a son." So also with the name " Semiramis.

pp. which should be sought from the language of Chaldea. the Venus of Egypt. It is evidently taken from the incident in the history of the Deluge. "to subdue." the word having the same derivation as kronos. Hislop. like other Greek explanations of the characters of their gods. and. 537-539." He also identifies her with "Anaitis. the .'* She was Venus Urania." from Zero." and hanit." and radah. 630. the parent of acres. Hence she was called " Aphrodite" the " wrath subduer. Isis and Athor." and hence said that Venus was born from the foam of the sea. The symbol." and rutza. upon whose altars no bloody were allowed to be ofFered." etc. the first of ' Eawlinson's Herod." " the Mediatrix " " Arnarusia. and. The Moon.' THE OREA T GODDESS 63 Bel Merodach. Dea. whence called Astoreth Karnaim. " Zerbanit. Rawlinson's Herod. the symbol of the dove bearing an olive branch had a double meaning. speaking of the Great their connection with each other.. and to show Rawlinson. note. signified that she was not only the mother of the seed. the olive branch was the symbol of peace throughout the ancient world. the Phoenician Tanith. vol. like Athor. is based on ignorance of the original meaning. Rhea." radite. Diana. Minerv^a and the Egyptian Neith. is sufficient Juno. said by Pausanias to have been chiefly honoured by the Assyrians. ' 158. " horned. or Cybele. with Ceres.3 Other forms of the goddess might be mentioned." from ama. i." from ajyh. as applied to the goddess. " wrath. being the feminine emphatic. therefore.. but the goddess of peace and mercy." sacrifices " the good goddess. their word aphros. mistress of all the elements. the events of which. Lucina. essay i. " I am nature. but the above to identify the deified queen of Babylon with the principal goddesses of the great nations of antiquity. 3) who is even said by Sanchoniathon to have had a cow's head. queen of the manes.. as before remarked." 5 Apuleius. " Bona. " seed. " Goddess Mother." signifying " The Mother of the Seed. viz. The Greeks supposed the name to be derived from "foam." In accordance with the genius of Paganism. 3 Ibid. active participle of retza. " mother. Gods. ii. p. . She was Astarte in Phoenicia ( Cic nat Deorv/m. when he was revealed herself to initiated into the mysteries.^ So also she was " Mylitta.. ^ ' Karnaim. says that Isis him in the following words. p. but such a derivation is unmeaning. as is well known. p." " the mother of gracious acceptance. says. with The Queen of Heaven. all things. " genetrix. " to accept graciously " . are so intimately interwoven with every ancient mythology. the beginning of Sovereign of the vol.

Stygian the arrow-armed Cretans. The objection which has been raised against the history of Ctesias.3 the great god and goddess were a human king and queen. Paphian Venus the Cecropian Minerva the Sicilians. uniform in itself. Diana Dictyana ' ' . is the same objection which Wilkinson has raised to the fact of Osiris having had a human But the consentient evidence. that Ninus and Semiramis can be clearly identified with the Babylonian god and goddess. 99." which could not was universally worshipped under the name of Diana. others. heavenly beings my divinity. because he can be identified with various Pagan gods. or that the sons of the patriarch Noah.' call me Pessimuntca. and in ' Wilkinson.' Hecate.! . of these objections considered. p. who were of largely composed idolatry. 'Ancient Ceres ' ' . Appendix A. various rites and different names. mother goddess the people of Cyprus. of Bacchus and of Osiris are those of a human king. and race. .. renowned for ancient ceremonies. is honoured under numerous forms. but that it was recognised that she was the same goddess who was worshipped under a variety of names. Queen Isis " ^ ' ! Egyptians. never existed The worship of ancestors and deification of heroes have been characteristic of mankind in all ages. 3 See by Birch. why so many forms of the great goddess are represented with a mural or turreted crown. and the actions ascribed to the gods are essentially those of human beings. and called in consequence " Bea Myrionymus" " the goddess l( with ten thousand names.' ' ' Bellona. showing that the originals of original. iii. The Phrygians the Athenians. where the nature ^ Acts is xix. and cannot be set aside. Juno. ' ' ' ' . well say that there was no such king as Nimrod. and explains." The history of Ninus and Semiramis by Ctesias corroborates been deduced from other sources. call It is me with due me by my ' worthy of of note that this revelation especially speaks of the Ethiopians. t the same the true centres the ancient This revelation is also in accordance where Diana : is ^ said to be " She whom mean with a passage in the Acts. Autochthones. * Proserpine ' ' . viz. among J much that has * other things. 64 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD . the Eleusinians. all Asia and the world that she worshippeth. 27. while the conquests of Ninus.' ' Rhammusia . is conWe might as clusive. ' * ' . because they were deified. or Cushites. but the sun-illumined Ethiopians and the real lore. worshipping name. It also throws some light on other points which have to be referred to hereafter. or explained away. vol. the as Egyptians.

but associates that original with the first builders of fortified cities. without a shadow of reason for so doing.. than that. attributed by Ctesias to Semiramis. p. is 65 of Ctesias. iv. Hist. implies not only a human original. who were subsequently identified with the sun. in short. was kept. vol. that they first erected towers in cities. Anc.3 The objection is made to his history that appellations. . " Neitocris. Bel Nimrud. 47). Nimrod and his queen. In short. etc. we must conclude that the goddess associated with him was his queen. Eawlinson's Five Great Monarchies. he invented it. the victorious). as in is the case of Eratosthenes' of Egyptian kings. to two queens. from those archives. composed of Greek appellations. viz. vol. 3 Lenormant. of East vol i. It seems clear that Herodotus confused the original Semiramis with the later queen of that name..Eratosthenes translates being the Neith of the Greeks (Wilkinson's Egyptians. Ctesias was physician of Artaxerxes Memnon. the fact that so many of the goddesses are represented with turreted crowns. Egyptian and Greek But nothing was more common among fication of the ancient writers names. lib. had been in the charge of the Chaldean priesthood." by " Minerva the victorious. . 369. i.. It is said. caps. p. (Neith. and the reason given for this. For the same reason we may be sure that the Chaldean priesthood would not have revealed to Herodotus the secret but it is significant that they ascribe some of the principal works of Babylon." Minerva . to translate them into their list when they understood the signiown language. i. Finally. which. and had therefore access to the Babylonian archives. indeed. note. and against that evidence nothing can be offered except the mere assertion that the originals of the Babylonian gods could not have been a human king and queen.THE GREAT GODDESS exact accordance with those of Nimrod. p. The history rest of in strict keeping with the the evidence and corroboratory of it. Assyrian monuments make no mention of Ninus and Semiramis as a human king and queen but considering the secrecy with which the human origin of the gods. if the human original of the Pagan god known as Ninus. Semitic. 165. it would have been a wonder if anything had been thus openly recorded which would have betrayed it. hitherto kept secret. Semiramis and Neitocris ^ that the .^ the in names respectively of the deified queen Babylon and in Egypt. and it is far more probable that he obtained the story. This which is largely no more evidence of forgery ' Herod. clxxxiv-clxxxviii."* it is composed of Arian. E . according to custom. was Nimrod. moon and stars and the powers of nature.

Had M. there would be every reason to believe that it was founded upon fact. no doubt." Ctesias. vol. Lenormant. was the tradition of a people living in such close contiguity to Babylonia. M. like himself. sometimes did this. leaving at other times the Semitic Assyrian names but it is far more probable that the Greek transcribers are responsible for the Hellenic names. although. But the Persians. cap. Lenormant and others recognised the accumulative force of the evidence which proves that the originals of the great god and goddess of Paganism were a human king and queen. therefore. the son of Belus. Moreover. of the East.e.. which might be expected from the fact that he had to interpret the Babylonian records without the aid of the Chaldean priesthood. rise and subsequent development of the ancient idolatry. and this history is exact. and all that we have hitherto deduced.^ and therefore Ninus was neither an invention of Ctesias nor of the Persians. p. Hist. . Ctesias may have made mistakes. to his history have no real weight.. the Greeks had heard of " Ninus. truth of his history. i. they would hardly have questioned the general truth of the history of Ctesias." the first king of Babylon before the time of Ctesias. detailed and circumThe fact that it was questioned by Aristotle. i. who opposed stantial. ^ Herod. 368. The objections. the Greeks having always been the chief offenders in this respect. especially in his dates. vii. Lenormant has suggested that Ctesias obtained his history from the Persians and that it is a Persian tradition. i. will be remarkably confirmed when we come to consider the origin. were no historians. as remarked by M. who. is an evidence that its authenticity could not be shaken at the time. was jealous of the power of the Babylonians. the people who • Anc. everything connected with mythology and was yet generally accepted as true by the Greeks.^ There is nothing to support this and no trace of if it it in Persian records. lib. but it does not invalidate the general .66 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD English writers as than the fact that translate " into English the soubriquets of foreign kings — such Charles the Bold. But both the history of Ctesias. while the fact that Ninus and Semiramis can be identified with the god and goddess of Babylon is only in accordance with the evidence which shows that Nimrod and his queen were the human originals of those deities and it is the strongest proof of the authenticity of his history. Ctesias represents Ninus as first attacking and subduing the people of Babylonia with the aid of an Arab chieftain.

24. " an exceeding great city of three . or Nimrod. 3 Smith. with their families and This accords with the fact that at the time their flocks and herds. . Hence it was capable of containing everything necessary for the lengthened support of the army and people of Ninus. . "Nineveh. i. Thence he marched on Assyria. and its circumference would thus be fifty-six miles. and description of its it simply an enclosed tract of country for defensive dimensions. or Ninus. having terrified the inhabitants by the sack of some towns.^ making have been at first purposes. Nin-neveh.^ Similarly Ctesias describes it as eighteen miles long by ten miles in breadth. took the king prisoner and crucified him. In this war he met with wife of Oannes. ' Ninus attacked Bactria. which is the name Semiramis. " the habitation of Nin.THE GREAT GODDESS then occupied Babylonia.000 children who knew not their right hand from their left (representing a population of about 600. p. compelled them to submit. accord with the in the Bible. After these conquests (" being made strong " it '^) he built Nineveh and called it by it surrounding the capital of his dominions and with a wall and towers of vast extent. vol. and also much cattle " which shows that it was even then more of the character of an enclosed track of land than a closely- days' journey " (that miles." The chief part of are called "Nimrod" to this day (Layard's Nineveh. as given by Ctesias. Ninus took Semiramis After this. It will be seen that the history so far strictly accords with the scriptural history of Nimrod. Diet. is round it) a day's journey being twenty which would make it about sixty miles in circumference. Shortly afterwards he died and her sole mistress of the empire. p. It appears to his name. viz. and in seventeen years made himself master of the countries between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indus. Thence he marched on Media.000)." ' = its ruins . Now " Oannes " was a name given to Cush as the great teacher. built city. of the prophet Jonah it contained " 120. took his This is in exact accordance with the father's wife and married her. left « See ante. 67 who were probably Medes. ^ * from her husband and married her. and.. governor of Syria. the by which the ancients spoke of Assyria. of the B-'hle. Ninus is said to have taken the king of Babylonia and his children and put them to death. and it would appear from this that Ninus. 7). or people of Turanian origin.

. In the midst of these occupations It is well known that I have found time for pleasure and love. we have seen. vol. quired. who had revolted. Mars was Bel Merodach. Lenormant. Other traditions." . Recorded by Polyfenus. Before me no Assyrian had seen a sea I have seen four that no one had approached. p. to be noticed later. making roads and canals for the supply of cities.^ Alexander the Great found her name inscribed on the frontiers of Scythia with the inscription reaches eastward to the River : — " I ruled the Empire of Ninus. 367. which (Indus). so far were they distant. of East." ^ Semiramis was famous for her beauty and immorality. or complete. She is also represented as subduing Egypt and Ethiopia. although this was really the act of her husband. in which she was completely defeated with the total loss of her army. as story of Vulcan and his wife Venus.^ who was taken from him by Vulcan was Cush.68 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD For. Persian of the time the at existence were in then made an expedition against the Medes. impassable rocks. Finally she made an expedition against India. after which she devoted herself to the completion of her great building works. and Venus was Semiramis. southward to the land of incense and myrrh (Arabia). have invented. Hinaman ' Lemprifere. vol. Hist. Ctesias also in order to form a tunnel beneath the bed of the river. Mars. With iron tools I made roads across I built impregnable fortresses. I opened roads for my chariots where the very wild beasts had been unable to pass. the building of Babylon. The history also gives a detailed account of the vast both there and in Persia constructed various vast works. and was a fitting original for the goddess " Venus Aphrodite. and the account proceeds to give the well-known dimensions of the city. with its walls and The first works within the city. 364. i. confirm this conclusion. Vulcan. he should. Lenormant discredits this statement of Polysenus. M. 367. the tunnel of end either closed which bronze of gates two that says Semiramis conquest. Anc. describing the method of architecture. and his statement is therefore ' 3 the strongest confirmation of the history of Ctesias. and the temporary diversion of the River Euphrates which flowed through it. but to accuse every ancient author of deliberate and motiveless falsehood when his statements do not agree with the author's own Polysenus states as a fact what it is inconceivable theories is wholly unjustifiable. thing that Semiramis did on the death of Ninus was to build. or Nimrod. i. northward to the Saces and Sogdians. pp. and towers. Lenormant. I compelled the rivers to run where I wished and directed them to places where they were reI made barren lands fertile by watering them with my rivers. without object or reason.

roads and bridges. vol. cisterns for water. being changed into a dove (the symbol of Juno). chaps. and iii. and disappeared. lib. which he describes as much larger than Babylon. Many other works of Semiramis besides those at Babylon are extant in almost every part of the continent. and that Semiramis built the latter city. as. for example.THE GREAT GODDESS The history concludes 69 in by saying that Semiramis abdicated favour of her son." he says. ii. canals communicating with rivers and lakes. who says that Ninus built Nineveh. iii. . xvi. and walls and fortresses with subterranean passages. " were masters of Asia. roads to facilitate the ascent of mountains. artificial mounds which are called the mounds of Semiramis. and was worshipped as a goddess. These accounts are confirmed by Strabo. " These sovereigns." ^ ' Strabo.

the Lord of Understanding and Teacher of Mankind. of which the Phallus was the manifesta." "The God of Intellect. which implies that he must have been the first originator of idolatry. On the night of his death all the images assembled from the — ' Herod. a huge figure of the Phallus being carried in the processions made in their honour ^ from which it would appear that Nimrod was the first propagator of this worship. Bacchus and other forms of the . was the chief propagator of this idolatry. lib. moon and stars. ii. We have seen that Cush. It would also appear that his son Nimrod. or gods of generation. Maimonides. one of the forms of the deified king. and was intimately connected with Phallic worship. . but was " Hea. who was deeply read in the learning of the Chaldeans. Speaking of Tammuz. the sun being regarded as the great creative power and source of life and generation. says. 70 ." " The All-wise Belus. . He seems also to have been the first propagator of the Sabsean worship.— CHAPTER IV THE GOD KINGS OF EGYPT AND BABYLON We now propose to show more fully the identity of the God Kings of Egypt and Babylon. or Thoth. xlviii." who " first arranged in order and in a scientific manner those things which belong to religion and the worship of the gods. One of the chief features of the subsequent idolatry was the J obscene Phallic worship. that king ordered him to be put to a terrible death. inasmuch as he and his son were not then deified but it appears to have been the same in substance. who conquered the habitable world. cap." Hermes. " The God of all Celestial KnoAvledge. This idolatry difiered indeed from its subsequent form. " When the false prophet named Thammuz preached to a certain king that he should worship the seven stars and the twelve signs of the zodiac. the first Belus or Cronus. and the intimate relations of the early history of the two countries. tion in the animal world. was not only the father of the gods. which consisted of the worship of the sun.. and Osiris." etc. deified king were pre-eminently Phallic gods.

and so did all the images around it." see also Hale's Chron. xii. Ethiopia. 426. Smith's Bict. of course. to the east of the Euphrates. The images wept and lamented all night long." and "the ^Ethiopian" is translated " ^Ethiopia " is in "the Cushite. each to his own temple again to the ends of the earth. of the Bible. and " Dedan. and its also Susiana. which were regarded as the origin of the powers of nature. 3 See infra. 354. on the first day of the month Thammuz. moon and stars. But in Gen. And hence arose the custom every year. 739. " The Death of the Pagan God. Southern and Eastern name was also the land of Cush. chap. p. and the memory of it formed the chief feature in the subsequent Pagan worship. The Ethiopia there referred to must. as Havilah and " Seba" two of the sons of Cush. point out the original home of the Cushite race. however. article " have been in Asia.. That they were the originators of these superstitions is confirmed by other traditions but before referring to them it is necessary to • . and which received the name of " Accadian from " Accad." Pagan mythology This. included Arabia implies." one of the first cities built by the Cushite monarch. and then in the morning they flew away. one of which was the Euphrates and another the Tigris. vol. " " ' More Nevocliim. or Cush. to the great golden image of the sun. pp.3 The names.. It would seem also that they were the originators of the ancient magic and necromancy which was one of the principal features of " the ancient Paganism.^ '' The account. That image prostrated itself in the midst of the temple. is the allegorical account of but the violent death of Thammuz. implies that the religion originated by i»Cush and propagated by Nimrod consisted of the worship of the sun. were the names respectively of portions of Northern. and other forms of the deified monarch. Bacchus. . The land of Cush. is amply attested." his grandson. " Eden " . is said to be encompassed by one of the four rivers which branched off" from each other at the site of the Garden of Eden. which. and the word which the original in the Old Testament " Cush. which was suspended between heaven and earth. THE GOD KINGS OF EGYPT AND BABYLON yi end of the earth unto the temple of Babylon. is therefore.' . was ^Ethiopia. Ninus. ii. while it related to them all that had happened to Thammuz. to mourn and weep for Thammuz. and as shown by the author of the Eden " in Smith's Dictionary of the Bible. or Chusistan. i." Now it is supposed by many people that Ethiopia was only the country of that name in Africa. Osirus. or ^thiops.

" adding that who dwelt near must not be allowed to interfere with the meaning of the ancients. an old race called " Aribah.5 The language was still extant a century or two before Christ. that A remarkable inscription written It in this language has been deciphered. 4 Ibid. and that " the -Ethiopians were the first ^ who introduced the worship of the gods and established law." was beyond the is. implying therefore that Arabia was the home of the The reason why the African ^Ethiopia is best known to us is that the Asiatic -Ethiopia was absorbed in the Babylonian Empire. The language of the old race has been discovered.. p."^ Again he says." who. or -Ethiopias. of the descendants of Ishmael. 62." from whence Arabia received its name. or " The other sub dwipa. Baldwin's Prehistoric Nations. ' and other inscriptions Professor Baldwin of that time have been found and is says." 3 The old Sanskrit geographers also speak of two lands of Gush. ii. Upper Egypt. inhabitants of the latter. chap. 3 5 ^ Strabo. was found in the tomb of a Himyaric queen. .. Cusha dwipa without. Strabo says that the ancient Greeks called the whole of the Southern nations toward the Indian Ocean " ^Ethiopia. were grafted on to the original stock by a marriage of Ishmael with a princess of the Cushite race. or divisions of the world. book i. and were divided by the Arabian Gulf. and is called " Himyaric. which was not the case with African ^Ethiopia and the Cushite race. 64. which they called " Cusha dwipa within " and " Cusha dwipa without.. Strabo. viz. to this day.e. or Eed Sea. the best representatives of the once great Cushite race. pp. and Arab the name." The first extended from the shores of the Mediterranean and mouths of the Nile to Serhind on the borders of India. chap. make it one of the seven great dwipas. book i. to be of the time of the great famine during the governorship of Joseph in the land of Egypt. it was the kingdom of Nimrod).'* Arabia is generally considered the home. " It found also in the ruins ii. § 28. See text of inscription given by Saville. Truth of tlie Bible. p." ^ So also Stephanus of Byzantium says that " J^thiopia was the first established country on earth " {i. according to tradition. " The -Ethiopians were considered as occupying all the south coasts of both Asia and Africa. and probably many of those of the interior of Africa. 61. But Professor Baldwin has pointed out that there were two races in Arabia. or African ^Ethiopia." Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb. 270 §§ 22-26. are. and those of Mahomet's race called " Moustaribes. . and proves deciphered. into Eastern and Western. and they " if the moderns have confined the term to those this Egypt j^ . Asiatic and African.72 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD first Arabia.

. which is the language found in the ruins of Chaldea. ' < 5 ^ ' Baldwin. But we shall retain the name " Accadian " as being better known." or descendants of Mizraini. records of Babylonia are written in a language.THE GOD KINGS OF EGYPT AND BABYLON and throughout most of Chaldea." Modern writers have proposed to language " Sumerian. Sir H. or Northern Babylonia. ^ The languages known as " Dravidian " belong to Lower and Central India. where it is Asia. Cushite. and the "Egyptians. . was still used by them for magical incantations. chap.' ' It cannot properly be classed with the Arabic. by the group of languages called Dravidian. that of the Accadians. such as the Mahra of Arabia. Rawlinson's Five Great Monarchies. p. He further says that the most ancient viz. and believed to be Cushite." ^ It appears therefore to have been the same as that known as " Accadian." who we shall see were Cushites. Nations. 75. vol." or ancient Chaldean. which are the chief seats of the Phallic worship. and which was that of the primitive inhabitants of Babylonia. the Wolaitsa of Abyssinia." and that " its closest analogies are with the Ethiopian dialects. 2. being regarded as a sacred tongue and of divine efiicacy. in a corrupted form. and that it is more Hamitic than Semitic. p. as will be pointed out. {See chap. vol i. but is closely related to the old Egyptian. and because.^ This language. p.^ In the ' terminology of linguistic science this language is called iEthiopic. He says that the Himyaric or language is closely allied to the Ethiopian. The ancient Egyptian would therefore be closely related to the Cushite language. Rawlinson confirms is this. v. Rawlinson's Herod. although a dead language in the time of the later Assyrian Monarchy. i. p.^ Canon Rawlinson says that "this language is predominantly Cushite in its vocabulary. Cushite. note 655-660. while the language of the people of Accad. it was probably the original language both of Accad and call this Sumer. in remote antiquity 73 it seems to have been spoken also in Hindustan." Lenormant. and sometimes Hamitic. the origin of which can be clearly traced to the first Cushites. " The Accadians and Nimrod. or Southern Babylonia.. i." because in later times it was confined to the people of Sumer. 646.) There were two races in Egypt.'' which It implies that the Accadians were the originators of that magic. 61. and Western of probably represented at the present time. See Appendix D. the " Mizraimites. ^ and the ancient language of Egypt. which presents an aflanity to the dialects of Africa. had then become Semitic. Chaldean Magic. Prehist. and where also exist those Cyclopean temples or other buildings which were so characteristic of that people.

who. Lenormant. the ancient Cushite inhabitants of Arabia. and as the Israelites were told to destroy the Amalekites. Djourhoum. These ancient Cushites of the Arabian peninsula originally conAd. Jasm. represent the Adites. Nations. " Old as Ad " is a term used in Arabia for remote antiquity . Sheddad Ben Ad (the son of Ad). Amlik (Amalek). Djadis. " quoted as authentic by all Mahommedan writers on Arabia. 5 Baldwin. 5. It may also be remarked that Ad is an Accadian word meaning " father. rich and powerful . p. p. - 3 . 108. 6 and Smith's Diet." s All this accords with the character of the Cushite or Ethiopian race. by all traditions. 300. 72. "Amalekites". p. ii. the father of this old race was a sisted — king called " Adl' who built a great city that became rich and powerful. Oumayim. ." 3 which would be just the name which would be given to the progenitor of these Cushites. Chaldean Magic. and declare that they finally disappeared from the earth under the curse of heaven for their pride and temporaries as enterprising. were of the same race as the ancient Accadians. of the Bible. but not to meddle with the Edomites. of the Amalekites as quite distinct . 4 Arabian account quoted by Col. p. as " wonderful builders. From this it would appear that the Amalekites who occupied the country to the extreme north of Arabia and the south of Palestine were of this race. 7 ' Amalek was also the name of one of the sons of Esau. p. " These traditions. Thamoud (probably so named after of twelve tribes Thamus or Tammuz). and that their king. arrogant idolatry. Antem and Hashem. are represented to be the founders of the this primitive idolatry. vol.) xxiii. To in the interior of Arabia. Tasm. This exactly accords with the reigned over the whole worldA character of Nimrod. Howard Vyse Pyramids of Ghizeh. Wabar. we must conclude that the Amalekites were the Cushites of that name. who was himself a giant. Abil. 135. ii." says Professor Baldwin. Thamoudites and their con- cities that they had great and wonderful magnificence..2 implying therefore that he was the first of the race and probably Cush himself. but it was destroyed on account of the unbelieving wickedness of the people. Baldwin." a characteristic peculiar to the Cushite founders of the but as the Bible speaks from the Edomites. App.. or Aribah. Another account speaks of these Adites as very powerful. and it further tends to identify them with the Accadians. note. (See Deut. .74 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD would seem also that the Aribah. Prehistoric Nations. day the ruins of mighty cities are found and Professor Baldwin says that the Arab mighty cities of traditions speak of the Adites. that they were giants. 104.^ According to the Arabian tradition. Prehist.

or Cushite." The Iranian tradition speaks of the reign of Djemschid. was conquered by an Arabian. and. that he started when he from '' started on his conquests. the country. was a son of Cush (Gen. received it from the ancient Aribah. Karnac and Luxor and those Salsette. when there was a tendency " to build large cities and to organise religious worship with a tendency to naturalDjemschid is also stated to have established ism. must be identified with the Cushite race. 7). or Seba. previous to the arrival of the Semitic Arabs. Hist. race." or nature worship. idolatry. the colossal temples of 75 in of Upper Egypt. as we have seen. 78.' The Cushite race.e. This accords also " Immediately after Bactrians. x. 22. conqueror called Zohak. Ellora. we may presume. it is said that Ninus was accompanied by an It Arab. were the original founders of the sciences of mathematics and astronomy. lying midway between African and Hence in Asiatic -Ethiopia. ii. and the wisdom of the It is also well known that Chaldees was of world-wide renown. much of our knowledge of these sciences has been derived from the Arabians.. of East.e. a corrupter of manners. Iran. an Aribah. a^d that Arabia. the ancient inhabitants of the Arabian peninsula. i. the original seat of the and other races conquered by Nimrod. as we have seen. 80-84.^ Baldwin. i.THE GOD KINGS OF EGYPT AND BABYLON Babylon and Nineveh. this. the account of Ctesias. p. therefore. Such buildings are spoken of as "Cyclopean. the chief seat of the Cushite Egyptians. and a teacher of a monstrous and obscene religion (Phallic worship) involving ' human sacrifices. etc.. Saba. Pre/mt. vol. was the first home of the Cushite race. who is described as a sanguinary tyrant. Anc. Aribah. and the ruins of an ancient city of that name has of these cities been discovered in the interior of Yemen. chieftain (probably one of the other sons of Cush). called the country " Saha" and the people " Sahceans" and the Sabsean idolatry was instituted by the Cushite race. and the description." the Cyclops being regarded as the great builders of antiquity. in India. . and the architecture of the ruins of some The Greeks is identical with that of ancient Egypt.e. would perfectly apply to Cush. > would therefore appear that the Aribah or Adites. These traditions also speak of the Aribah as having magnificent cities and sumptuous palaces. or Cushite. Natiom.. with the Arab and Iranian traditions of Djemschid" and Zohak. or Cushite. pp.. which also implies Arabia. i. who. ^ Lenormant. Medes. were the Cushite founders of the first Babylonian Empire.

which was equally the boundary of the conquests of Ninus. pp. they issued from Arabia and conquered the whole of Western Asia. 67. Lenormant considers sacrifices. that the tradition refers to the conquests of Nimrod. or Nimrod. It seems clear. xiv.e. in short." and Taz is said to have been the father of the Tasis. and Zohak must therefore have been an Adite or his father. therefore. including the peoples innearly exactly the period assigned by Berosus to the his successors ruled the empire for a period of habiting the Tigris and Euphrates valleys. It appears to be equally clear that these Cushites were the same people as the Accadians or ancient Chaldeans. 10). p. Cush.. Cannes. necromancy and sorcery which formed the principal feature of the worship of the gods. 68. i." Baldwin's Prehistoric Nations. was the originator of the magic. 109.4 Making allowances for the slight inaccuracies and misrepresentations which are involved in all traditions of long standing.^ This first Chaldean kingdom. They say that his conquests extended eastward from Arabia. " Clironicle of Tabiri. there seems to be little doubt that these traditions refer to the history of Nimrod and that he was the Aribah or Adite king Zohak. and that Djemschid was Cush. Accad." which is the plural of Taz.3 It is also stated that he dethroned Djemschid and married his sister. or Cush. the name in later times being extended to a considerable district of country. of course. was that founded by Nimrod. or Nimrod. is 260 years. and the fact that the forms of this magic and sorcery were carefully preserved - Baldwin. pp. they say that he and The Arabs have a similar tradition of Zohak. •• See ante.7^ THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD All this exactly agrees with the character of Ninus. was one of the cities founded by Nimrod at the beginning of his kingdom (Gen. Zohak is called " the Tasi. to the borders of Hindustan. Moreover. which. 108. who who originated human Cushite. was one of the Adite tribes. chap. that Arabia was the first seat of the Cushite race and that they were the ancient Adites or Aribah from whom Arabia received its name. Everything also points to the fact that Hea. . 2 ^ See chap. crucified his prisoners. and that under Nimrod. and was the propagator of the religion of M. and Semiramis. the home of the Cushite race.^ Now " Tasm. iii. who appears to be the same as Shedad-ben-ad and Zohak. a stor}^ which has the appearance of being a slightly altered version of the account given by Ctesias of the relations of Ninus. X. 108.

and signified " proceeding from God " (an evidently Ka ra.^ The term " Ra. the distinctive sign of the cuneiform writing. Henry Rawlinson and other resemblance of the gods of Egypt to those of Babylon.e. which was the language of the ancient Cushites of the Accadian of the originator." In as previously ' pointed out. " The Accadians and Nimrod.^ We Sir now proceed to point out the intimate connection of the writers have noticed the close Cushites with the early history of Egypt. and the general voice of antiquity attributes the origin of Paganism and the worship of the gods. . while some even go so far as to deny that there was ever a Cushite conquest of Babylonia and Assyria. equivalent of the Semitic of " II" God. pp. Hea. Cushite. The First Bible. God. to the Cushite race traces and to Babylon. the beginning of Nimrod's empire. The facts. which archaeology to the Accadians. however." was the ordinary suffix to the titles of the Egyptian kings. on which it is these conclusions are based are capable of a very different explana- and as the question will is of some importance more fully con- sidered in an appendix. and the symbol of both these gods was the wedge or arrow-head. but of Turanian race.THE GOD KINGS OF EGYPT AND BABYLON in yy language implies that it was the language Moreover. the ancient Accadian or Cushite - Appendix D. and the Accadian or Cushite term. " i. and the fact that the origin of letters and writing is attributed to each. The cuneiform writing of the ancient Accadians or Cushites of Babylonia was used all over and Colonel Conder has shown strong reasons for concluding that it was even used by the Israelites at the time of their Exodus from Egypt. 93 et seq. was an essentially Accadian deity. Arabia." was also the name God in Egypt. " born of " or " son of the Sun god. the Accadians must have been Cushites.." B. in his deified forms as Hea and Nebo. there are those who assert that the Accadians were not Cushites.^' Conder.. But although on these grounds we must conclude that the ancient Accadians were the people of Cush and Nimrod. or similar. in fact. and hence short. indicat- ing that Cush was the inventor of that writing. tion. was the god of writ- ing and science. and as this writing is universally admitted to have been of Accadian origin. the similarity of their alphabets and vocabularies." " gate of cognate meaning). who in that country was especially identified " with the Sun.C. this language was the same. 5. Cush also. to the Himyaric. Western Asia and in Egypt before 1500 the ancient Chaldean.

therefore. although reprealso.78 lano-uage THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD was closely allied Ethiopian dialects of Africa/ the ancient Chaldean remains. p." the early Egyptian and to the It is also worthy of note that among to which in Egyptian sculptures is always shown in the hands of gods and kings as a symbol of their authority. 473. Herod. ii. Egyptus is stated to have been " the first king of Belus. is the same as the hlaxik Osiris. an Ethiopian " This. but Bacchus is the same as Osiris.. So also it is " the Egyptians were an Ethiopian that Siculus stated by Diodorus Osiris (who was also the son of by there (Cushite) colony brought customs and religious observlaws. and therefore Nimrod. p. or of Cushite race. i. " (Ham).^ a further confirmation of the evidence which Thoth was the Egyptian form of the Babylonian or Hermes shows that " All. 276. .. Cush. their viz."^ Ante. 73. quoted by Baldwin.. civ. the father of the Ethiopians. and that the name from " ^gyptus" ances of the ancient Egyptians resembled those of the Cushites. colonised the country.^ We have also seen that Osiris was black. 275.. ii. that Egyptus. ^ that the dove was hlack they show that she was Egyptian.e. i. and Hermes. vol." There were two races in Egypt. p. have been found holding in their hands the crux ansata. the latter receiving the son of Belus. There can be little doubt. the elder first king of Babylon and father of Ninus or Nimrod. which confirms the statement of Diodorus that Osiris was a Cushite. 48 . and Herodotus speaks of this was the characteristic of the Egyptians. the Mizraimites who first and the black Egyptians..e. he says.. Saturn or Belus). and in speaking " But in saying of a certain woman who was called a dove. . is (or Cushite). Chron. Faber. 3 4 5 Rawlinson's Five Great Monarchies. i. the counsellor of Osiris. who led the Egyptians into Egypt. and that " he reigned in Egypt Kham So likewise Belus. was really his father. figures. "^ p. Cush. caps. apparently of priests wearing " a mitre. 106. Prehistoric Nations. therefore. and also shows that Thoth. the colony still retaining the customs of their ancestors " also that " the Egyinian letters were called by ancient writers Ethiopian letters. vol. and who was also the son of Moreover. Ivii. pp. the Egyptians generally as black and woolly haired. We have also seen that Bacchus was the son of ^Ethiops or Cush. Diodorus Siculus.wise Belus. the son of Saturn or Belus.. the father of the black Egyptians and son of Belus. lib. Pasch." who was Cush the or Nimrod Bel Hea. the father of Egyptus. or Thoth.

i. * 5 Josephus.^ In fact. . he crossed the Bosphorus and subdued the . where the third king is also called Sesostris and the same conquests attributed to him.THE GOD KINGS OF EGYPT AND BABYLON sented as the 79 first king of Babylon. . and as marching over countries where Egyptian armies had never been seen. passing into Asia Minor. of the Memphite kings of Lower Egypt and had not then obtained the power which they afterwards acquired in the eighteenth and following djmasties. i. Lenormant remarks that it represents Bameses as conquering Ethiopia. Lenormant. so that when him. xiv. It is stated in the traditions of Sesostris that his father ordered aU the children in his dominions to be trained for war with his son. pp. Contr. the latter came of age he had a band of warriors devoted to He then divided Egypt into thirty nomes and marched at the head of a numerous army to the conquest of the world. For Egyptus was the same as Sesostris. 246 compare the Armenian and lists of Manetho's eighteenth dynasty Cory.. 142. contemporary history shows that such a conqueror could not have . Lenormant. speaking of Barneses. which was already subject to Egypt. Lenormant has shown how mistaken the Greeks were iuj attributing the name and actions of Sesostris to Barneses II. 246-247 . subdued Syria. " with the usual self-glorification of the Egyptian kings. is stated to have been TciTig of which we shall see was the case. vol. Thracians. Egyptus. who incorrectly attributed the deeds of Sesostris to Barneses II. p. the conquests of Sesostris are precisely the Lemprifere. and the Greeks. Appion. xv.. who. He then subdued the Scythians as far as the Tanais. Sesostris. existed.^ M. Hist. vol. Persia. He then invaded Asia. who was also called -^gyptus. But if -i^Egyptus was the same as Osiris or Nimrod. Assyria. or in that of the twelfth dynasty of Theban kings. vol. although the Theban kings at that period were only vassals. lib. probably' adopted the name of that great conqueror.. Bactria and India. called him both Sesostris and Africa also. of East. On ' ^ the other hand. Aiw. p. p. but M. says. then the famous conqueror " Sesostris " was also Osiris or Nimrod. or viceroys. whom he calls The country of Egypt took its name from Sethosis (Sesostris). 247. and established the colony of Colchis in the country between the Black and Caspian Seas then.. . Syncellus ^ Lenormant. Hist. Anc. either in the time of the Bameses.: Sethosis. chaps. i.4 All this was attributed by the Greeks to Bameses II. i. a corruption of Sesostris. Mesopotamia.^ Egyptus. Lempri^re. Ethiopia was the first country he conquered. of East.^ while Josephus.

across the extended sacred Egyptian characters engraved. and Herodotus speaks of seeing some of these pillars of Sesostris in It is clear from the account of Herodotus. cap. lib. p. Wilkinson regards Sesostris and Osiris as the same. not only because they had similar customs. ' Sayee. the colony established by Sesostris. 69. Herodotus also says that the Colchians. meaning.^ are Hi^tite and concludes therefore that Herodotus was in error in saying that the writing he saw was Egypt ian.^ In short."* which implies that. lib. Phallic pillars. "I acquired this region by my own shoulders. cap. vol. ^ From Rawlinson's Herod. p. pp. 474. vol. but because they were black and curly headed. Again Herodotus says that he had seen two images of this king carved on rocks in Ionia. and attained its greatest perfection under them.. Sesostris. p.^ This statement of Herodotus is therefore a further proof that Sesostris and his followers who founded the Colchian colony were Osiris and his Ethiopians. Nimrod and the Cushites. Anxi. Lenormant. having the M. 67. this figure. which shows that they were Cushites. vol. is said to have erected pillars in the countries he conquered to commemorate his conquests.^ If it had. . Mr Sayce has also breast. and that from one shoulder to the other. ii. same and Dionusus/ and. ^ i. Hist. that the characters of a rock in the Pass of Karabel. p. p. like the Arabian king Zohak.. by the side which is these figures (see woodcut). that these were Scythia. Ibid. just as Hercules did. 174.. that they both represented a man four and a half cubits high with an equipment partly Egyptian and partly Ethiopian. ^ Ante. cvi.8o THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD as those of Ninus.3 and the whole evidence confirms this conclusion. Faber. however. ^ ii. ii. cap. in number of youths being trained for war with him during his youth is precisely the same as the story of Ninus. he particular.. i. Wilkinsou's Egyptians. cvi. whereas the sacred Egyptian characters seen by Herodotus were " across the ' Ante. 25. of East. for Egyptian art and sculpture began with the Pyramid builders. note. . Fresh Lights from Ancient Monuments. moreover. i. Hercules. we might confidently conclude that it was not a product of the time of Osiris . Herod.^ But the characters referred to by Mr Sayce are hy the side of the figure. p. ii..e. remarked with regard to of a sculpture on the face supposed to be one of characters. 247. Osiris. the story of a was the institutor of the Phallic worship. 41. 66. vol. were evidently Egyptian. civ. t 5 7 Herod. 90.."^ and has of these images that it he has seen one that Lenormant says no appearance of Egyptian art.

- See Colonel Conder. Babylonian monarch. . two and a half metres nearly. or four and a half Egyptian cubits of twenty-one inches. which is an additional proof that these figures were those of the Reek Scuiittare at NliifLncBr Smyrna. The First Bible. pp. Moreover.. or by design. The figure is of the same height as that described by Herodotus. viz.' It may also be remarked that the Hittites used the cuneiform writing of the Cushite Accadians and that their language was closely allied to the Accadian. 148-150 is aud note. vol..THE GOD KINGS OF EGYPT AND BABYLON breast" and 8i may have since been obliterated by time. 70-72. so that the supposed Hittite characters may really be Cushite in its earliest and rudest form. Mr Eawlinson remarks that the portion about the shoulders much weatherworn.^ ' Eawlinson's Herod. pp. the mode of engraving inscriptions across the body of a figure is essentially Babylonian. ii. and the Hittite characters added.

who is also described as a giant of about four and a half cubits. and this. which appears to have been the Egyptian name Herodotus records many of the great Cushite conqueror Nimrod . may also be concluded on other grounds. See Cory. Manetho's Dynasties. Armenian. 111. that they give to Sesostris of the twelfth dynasty. These figures may therefore be regarded as one of the few existing records of the time of Sesostris. " Sesochris " and " Sesostris. 22. Mr Rawlinson says. . fables generally believed in his time.." which is probably more nearly the correct form of the name. therefore. call him " Sesochris. Now we know that Nimrod. His history bears the impress of being a truthful and exact record of the things he saw himself. three palms. and that his strength lay in his shoulders. yet fully records it is evident that he truthto him. or Osiris. was a giant whose strength was so vast that he is represented as slaying a bull and a lion unarmed. " The frequent habit of putting a double S as a prefix to the Egyptian names makes it probable that Sesochris. p. them just as they were told and in simple statements of fact he may be relied upon. viz. who confounds Rameses II. told with an almost childlike simplicity. with the same hero. to doubt the statement of Herodotus that these figures really were erected by the great Egyptian conqueror Sesostris." of double S beginning it. or He'siris. two fingers. or heard from others." or the fourth dynasty is another form of the same name. 3 Rawlinson's Herod.^ These striking points of similarity indicate that they are one and the same individual. whose name is found with the sign signifying a ' ' " Sesoris. forty-eight years. or his Greek transcribers. and Josephus." ^ He also thinks that the name " Soris. as we shall see. the original of the Assyrian Hercules and of Orion the Hunter. ii. 342-361. and the words across their shoulders imply that he by his own personal strength had subdued the country. while Orion In boasted that no creature on earth could cope with him.' Manetho's second dynasty there is also a giant like that one mentioned by Herodotus.. pp.82 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD There is no reason. p. 2 Four cubits." and give him the same length of reign. calls him " Sethosis. Sesorthus and Sesostris are all forms of O'siris. " Sethosis " ' is probably a corruption of " Sethothes." which would Ante. three cubits across the shoulders. vol. who is stated to be five cubits high and Manetho. These names." are the Greek forms of the original name.

would Osiris himself. therefore. as Osiris was only recognised as a god by the make Sesostris the first mortal king of Egypt. 110. Goliath of Gath was six cubits and a span. Nimrod." which Eratosthenes says signifies " Hermogenes." or the termination of signifying " " of." signifies " the great." i." and Sesochris might thus very well be a corruption of " Se. that both Sesochris and Sesostris are the same individual. The height described by Herodotus. which agrees with the description of the giant of Canaan by the prophet. list of Sesostris ' was also the most famous king in the Egyptian annals. he would be about thirteen and a half feet high while the bed of Og.e." or " Thoth." signifying " the great incarnate seed. and as the powers would not have been striking in a god. would be eight feet nine inches. that they both refer to the giant hero or Osiris. . In short. Africanus states of the Sesostris of the twelfth dynasty that " the Egyptians say that he is the first after Osiris.THE GOD KINGS OF EGYPT AND BABYLON naturally pass into " Seihoses. " The Similarly Se Thothes would mean " The Great Son " of Thoth." ^ Nimrod Egyptians." and " would appear to be the Greek genitive proceeding from. and as the Hebrew cubit was twenty-five inches. and four cubits broad." of Thoth. and he was strong as the ^ . king of Bashan. the giant Sesochris or Nimrod. " whose height was like the height of the cedars." or " the illustrious. Cory." " Soto." is 83 Now the prefix " 8e " before the name and merely an emphatic substituted for the " article " O. measured by the Egyptian cubit of twenty-one inches." Sethothes or " proceeding from." Son Hermes." meaning " impersonation " or " incarnation. makes it probable that his actual muscular strength may have been superior to theirs." or in other words." or " the well-known. 9). or fifteen feet nine inches by seven feet wide.. " born of. and considerably inferior to some of the giants of Canaan ^ but the proportionate breadth across the shoulders of three feet." as in the case of " Athothes. whose strength lay in his shoulders. i. oaks " (Amos ii. and it tends to identify him with the original of the imao-es of ." The termination "dtris" of Sesochris would be the Hellenised form of the Egyptian " chre. or which. It was not to be expected that the Egyptian priests would altogether ignore the vast human powers of their hero god. and as no such conqueror as Sesostris existed since Osiris. was nine cubits " of a man " long.. p." which is one of the principal aspects of the younger Pagan god. There is reason to conclude. they introduced him into the their mortal kings." and " chre. implying a man of from fourteen to fifteen feet high .e." or " He.

Bacchus. represented to Herodotus that Sesostris managed to escape the death also be may corresponds with that of Osiris. ii. ii. Osiris. like Ninus. the counsellor of both the Egyptian Osiris and the Babylonian Tammuz. athon.. is expeditions. leader of the Cushite Egj^ptians and the same as the Cushite monarch Ninus or Nimrod. and he must therefore be the second Cronus or Nimrod. cap. prepared for him.^ Who then could this great conqueror have been whose conquests exactly correspond with those of Ninus. We Belus. etc. — but Nimrod.. and the father of the Cushite Egyptians. is represented as king of Africa also. while the latter was absent on his expeditions. admitted the force of the objection. is the same as and therefore the father of Sesostris.. " he gave all Egypt to the god Taautus (the Phoenician name of Thoth or Hermes) to be his kingdom. i. to have visited all its habitable parts. the priest of Vulcan refused to allow him to do so. the brother of Osiris. the same as the Cushite Osiris.^ It seems clear. great as had been his conquests. and on his return captured him and put him to death. — history. they were inferior to those of Sesostris and Darius.e. the founder of the first great empire of the world It ? remarked that the story told of Sesostris.84 so that THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD when the Persian conqueror Darius wished to place his statue before the statues of Sesostris in front of the temple of Vulcan. have also seen that Hermes or Thoth. etc. ex. and Herod. Sanchoniathon' s History. who after establishing ' Herod. * ^ Compare Lempri^re. Cory. and on his return captured him with the intention of putting him to The only difference in the two stories is that the priests death. and. cap. it is said. Now. Osiris. the son of Belus and into Egypt. and this is confirmed by the history of SanchoniSanchoniathon represents Cronus as the ruler of the world. represented as having conspired against Osiris. Belus." 3 Exactly the same action is related of Osiris. therefore. that Sesostris. lib. cvii. He says of him. lib. the son of Belus or Cush. of conquests there is no record in later Egyptian and contemporaneous . exactly Both are said to have first established the government and laws of Egypt before departing on their Moreover. that while on his expeditions. 16. Nimrod. so the brother of Sesostris is represented as having conspired against Sesostris while he was absent on his expeditions. although the first king of Babylon. the son of is Belus. . or ^gyptus. p. just as Typhon... Osiris. or Osiris. because.

Both in Manetho's dynasties and on the monumental lists. i. " instituted the worship of the was the originator of idolatry. Nimrod.He adds that in the temple of Amun Ra. But who was Menes ? Menes has.. But the evidence that both Nimrod and were the first kings of both Babylon and Egypt admits of still more decisive proof. is said to have Taautus. laws and constitution of the kingdom.e.' It would thus appear that both Nimrod and his father Cush were kings of Egypt. 31. and the first actual ruler. Cronus. i." " it is is said gods —that to say. or Hermes. xlv.. " Menes. In further evidence that these two monarchs were the first two kings of Egypt as well as of Babylon. cap. into a corruption of But by no ingenuity can Menes be made Mizraim." or "Athothes... for having changed the original simple manners of the Egyptians.^ But it was Thoth. See ante. xxxvii. against Menes. absence.e. ^ Diod. p. Belus. cap. so in i. the father of Bocchoris the Wise...e. his father was king in his In all probability. the Egyptian priest. i. is succeeded by Osiris and being the Egyptian name of the his father goddess queen of Babylon. i. has not been taken into consideration by them. and who bowed down before the wisdom of the father and the military fame and abnormal strength of the son. he a curse was inscribed by Diodorus. Isis the throne of Babylon.. and that while Nimrod was the establisher of the left Hermes.e. at Thebes. in charge of the kinordom. Osiris. Cush." are always first two human kings of Egypt. indeed. we find that just as Belus was succeeded by Ninus and Semiramis on of Isis. Manetho's list the god kings of Egypt. ' ^ Ibid." ^ So also it was Hermes Trismegistus whom Manetho. calls our forefathei i. the Cushite occupation of the country of Mizraim was not so much the result of conquest as of peaceful submission on the part of a people closely related to the Cushites." because the latter was the represented as the father of the Mestraoi. he from whom the Cushite Egyptians were descended who " wrote the sacred books which were translated from the writings which were deposited — — ' Lempri^re. 85 and before proceeding on his expeditions.THE GOD KINGS OF EGYPT AND BABYLON his rule in Egypt. appointed king over Egypt by Nimrod.e. and the early conquest of the country by the Cushite Egyptians. been supposed by writers both ancient and modern to be " Mizraim. by Tnephachtus. "Mena" (written by the Greeks Menes) and "Athoth. Sic. under Osiris. the original people of the country. who " first arranged those things which belonged to religion and the worship of the gods. .

pp. 133. s. with whom the moon was the male deity." the Moon god of the Assyrians. 11. by Birch. according to Clemens sacrifice. and both were the forefathers from whom the Egyptian kings claimed descent.." or "mind" and to the " men " given to the human race as distinguishing them from the . represents both i and a. Chaldean Magic. pp. Clem. If. or the power of thought and ^calculation JKnowledge. pp. 152. vol. were treated by the Egyptians with the most profound ." Now Hermes was worshipped in Egypt as "the Lord Moon. vol. * Mallet. 24." " The God of Letters and 168. 322. . 153 PI. 0." ^ of Alexandria.^ But it was evidently given to him also because he was " the inventor of letters and arithmetic.^ Hermes and Menes were both the first instructors of the Egyptians in religion and the worship of the gods. v. astronomy. 1 . which being communicated by him to his priests. and carried in their religious processions. Meni is the Chaldee for " numberer " (Hebrew Mene). ' Hislop. iii. Alex. 323. ii. geometry and then. xiii. The symbol used on the monuments for the last vowel of the name. lib. i. because the moon numbers the months. famous for his wisdom. vol. respect. note. p. chap.'' and it was said to be given to Hermes as the Lord Moon. p. . authorised them to inscribe their commentaries with the name of Hermes " and that " he taught men the proper mode of approaching the Deity with prayer and The principal books of this Hermes. ' 3 Wilkinson's Egyptians." " who Jirst discovered numbers and the art of reckoning." term Meni is a cognate term to the Latin "Mens. pp. 166. The very name " Mena " confirms this. 9. p. and the name may properly read " Meni. 43) remarks that the Egyptians regarded the moon as both male and female. pp. it is clear that they were one and the same person. Strom. p. animals by the possession of mind. 169. vol." " the Egyptian Hermes was the god of all celestial knowledge. . and supplement to Ida Pfefler's Iceland. and hence Plutarch {De Iside. Egyptian Pantheon. p. 165. vol. vi. pp. 214-219 Hislop. Manetho.86 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD ' So also Jamblicus says that by the first Hermes in the land of Siriad. iii.." and Hermes or Cush was "The God of all Celestial " Thoth. was a form of the first Belus or Cush who has been identified with Hermes. Cory's Fragments. s Lenormant. he was called in the Edda "Mane" and in the Voluspa "Mani"^ This is a further evidence that " Sin. ^ Wilkinson. Champollion. 30a Wilkiiuon. 94." ^ and "Meni" or "Men" was the name given to the Moon god throughout Asia Minor s and by the ancient Saxons also. In later times the Egyptians identified Isis with the moon. 209.

For the words translated " troop " and " number " should be respectively Gad " and " Meni " (see margin)." In short. 196. Thoth.. which is simply the Greek genitive of the first declension of Athoth. 94 and note. 11 in conjunction with Gad. or Meni. of the god. that Fan. in accordance with the interpretawould read " the Numberer is God hath numbered thy kingdom tion of the prophet. — is.e. vol. iv.." " Hea. But all doubt of the identity of Menes and Hermes or Thoth must cease when we consider the name of the son and successor of Menes."* Meni is also referred to in Isa. 1. xlvi. [as the two gods to whom the Israelites paid idolatrous worship. Hea." As Belus. 31 - Faber. that is either Nergal or Bel Merodach. • Wilkinson. or Cush. the Lord Moon." " number. the means by which all mental gifts were imparted to man. the father of the gods. and the names " Gad " and " Meni " would thus be the two Babylonian gods who are generally coupled together in Scripture. and according to Proclus. one or other of the gods." Hermes has also been identified with "The All-wise Belus." the "Lord of Understanding " and " Teacher of Mankind. " Mind " or " Mens " is the same as Saturn. the first human king Hermes. and called by his name. 3 ^ Wilkinson." or " mind." THE GOD KINGS OF EGYPT AND BABYLON ' 87 Learning. or Belus. viz. Hislop. " Bel boweth down. i. although identified by the Greeks with Kham. 13." of Egypt. Saturn or Cush. or Meni. Ixv. the monumental name of the king. vol. p. was likewise considered by them to be Menes. " Mena. the prediction numbered " that and finished it.e. The name " Gad " means " the J' assaulter.. and Athothes thus means " proceeding from. etc. being both the representative and high priest was identified with him." s and would represent the god of war.) then Meni was one of the names of the father of the gods in Babylon..^ while Wilkinson remarks that some considered " Number " to be the father of the gods and men." i. Nebo stoopeth (Isa. Cush was deified as the father of the gods. iii. and with " Meni. The king. chap. Saturn.3 Wilkinson also mentions the fact. ii. another form of the father of the gods. and he represented the abstract idea of intellect. Cronus. Mene " in the handwriting which appeared on the wall at the feast of If '' Belshazzar." the father of the gods. p. " born of. 172. p. who constantly took the name of Hence. as iu the similar case of the kings of Egypt. . p. It is thus quite evident that was identical with ' Ante. by Birch. ii. p. it would explain the true meaning of the duplicated Mene. vol. as Daniel said. Athothes. as in the case of the passage.

the son of Menes. which must have been some years later. that both Manetho and Eratosthenes give MeneSj like Belus.3 Belus is represented as the first king of Babylon. therefore. 76. who must be the same as Ninus. of Hermes. is given a reign of fifty -seven years by the former and fifty-nine years by the latter. are therefore one and the same person. in his canon of the kings of Egypt. and the first founder of the city of Babylon. which was commenced at the same time (Gen. Cory. 94. Menes or Hermes.e.e. Cory. called Rhea. and of atrocities.' is called by interpretation " Hermogenes. pp. Nimrod. the son of i. . and Athothes. and it is probable.. It follows i. Gush. 84. a reign of sixty -two years. * ^ Egyptian Dynasties. on account of her manifold ^ In accordance with this.e. Scaliger." Semiramis. born and Menes and Hermes.. and its overthrow was accompanied by the death of Nimrod and the flight of Gush.. p. This first Gushite dominion in Egypt was of short duration. is Osiris or yEgyptus. first Nimrod were both the kings of Egypt.THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD Eratosthenes. says that Athothes. 84. speaking of the Babylonian kings." i. and not from the beginning of Nimrod's empire. the circumstances connected with which will be fully list considered in another chapter. forty-two years. and that Gush and two kings of Babylon and the first two It is also to be observed that Scaliger. Eratosthenes. from this that Athothes. xi. Ninus fifty-two years. p. Cory. or Thoth. we find in the Egyptian kings. because he was the originator of the Tower of Babel. says that " Belus reigned sixty-two years. that his sixty-two years date from that period. 5-8).

oj Hast. Making allowance for this. who were presumably Aryans. and that Stratobatis. This also seems to be referred to in the Iranian tradition of Zohak. and rejected much of the Cushite idolatry. vol. the influence of the Cushite We have said that Nimrod was overthrown. 89 ' . would be more pronounced. of Ctesiasy Lenormant.CHAPTER V THE GODS OF INDIA In any consideration of the gods of those nations more or less removed by distance and intercourse from the original sources of idolatry in Babylon and Egypt. of Bast. Persia and India seem to have escaped. but is the name given by the ancients to the countries north of the Indus. p. therefore continued the Cushite empire. In India. and with their human originals. who headed a revolt against him. a purer religion at one time prevailed. which at times exists between the various gods identified with Cush or Nimrod. It is also added that he was succeeded by a grandson of Djemshid. however. referred to does not mean Hindustan.^ But it would appear that the Aryan races eventually recovered their independence.^ are evidences of the strongest hostility on the part of the inhabitants of that country. commemoration of his overthrow and death were special features in the Pagan worship. i. M. The Aryan races of Bactria. 367. or to have thrown off in no small degree. and that the idolatry. and the fact that Semiramis was defeated in her attempt to conquer India after the death of Nimrod. who. vol.. if Djemshid was Cush. India here Hist. the Medes and Persians of later times being the most determined opponents of that idolatry. it is to be expected that the confusion. Anc. Hist. p. the bulk of whose inhabitants are of Aryan origin. threatened to crucify her if he was victorious. which states that he was overthrown by a blacksmith named Caveh. it will be found that there is ample data to identify the gods of other nations with those of Babylon. ii. to the Cushites. the king. Lenormant quotes the Vedas ' to show that the Aryans of Anc. Egypt. 22. etc. Hist.

^ Nevertheless. as originals of the we have seen. p. 113 Hislop. Faber. pp. 503. ii. in his re-incarnation Horus. 79. common appellations." The " Lingam " was his symbol." " Sama " and " Cama. . the surname of Bacchus.. vol." ^ Iswara also. We " Isi " find in India " Isis " under the names of for just as Osiris. the Egyptian Bacchus. Kennedy." is 4 He also identified who. Anc. or god of the " Phallus. but i. and the name " Laut" given to his image in the temple of Sumnaut. See ante. and who is with Dionusus.go THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD India had primarily a belief in a one and only God. 365. vol. like Osiris. vi. is a synonym of the Chaldee " Lat " and " Satur " or " Saturn. p. 224. p. and the worship of the Phallus one of the most important in their rites. Nightingale's Religions and Ceremonies. See p." both Lat and Satur meanino." or " LingaTn. 365. the purer religion was subsequently darkened by a debasing polytheism." or Isiris. were " Osiris. note. ii. 11. Siva wears a tiger's skin. the Greek who made is similar conquests. note. Shem and Ham. 270. and " Iswara. Res. vol. the first human Hindu triad — Brahma. like Osiris. like Moloch. 17.s which was one of his most and is worshipped with bloody rites. i." " represented as a babe at the . " Osiris evidently identical by Mr Faber with the Indian " Deonaush. Baal and Saturn." eventually Japhet. '° Nightingale's Religions and Ceremonies.. Iswara shown at the breast of " Isi " and just as Osiris is called the son and husband of the mother. while he himself was worshipped under the breast of Isis. and in his hand holds a small spotted deer or fawn^ in the same way as the figure of the Babylonian god given by Vaux. so is the child " Iswara " stated to be the husband of " Isi. * 9 Borrow's Gypsies in Spain or Zincali. ii.^° • 3 "< Lenormant. xlviii." the hidden one. Tod's Rajasth. . displaced by the influence of the Cushite gods. as the Phallic god '' —Herod. ' See ante. the account by Herodotus cap. p. Pra-Japetus. vol. Hindu Hist. as admitted by him." ^ Like Bacchus and Osiris. p. 49. from Pococke's India in Greece. was the Phallic god. 338. p. Asiat. 18. p. just as Osiris and Bacchus were Phallic gods. so is " title of "Ek Linga. subdued the world. however. vol.e. so the identical worship of the "Linga" or "Lingam" was followed in Siva " identical with Iswara. p.'^ and as " in the same relation is . Vishnu and Siva — were not the " Cushite kings of Babylon.^ Moreover. although. Col.. and was on his altars when they burned incense to him. Osiris. 37.'' He is the god of destruction the rites of Siva or Shiva. of and p. Mytlwl. 5 7 lib.^ and These." and Bacchus. p. p.. 274. ii..

" implies. Now Nimrod and his father were not deified under their numerous appellations until long after their death.. See a7ite. another form of the rest. this would naturally be the worship of their ancestor. So The Great Iswara. that the bulk of the Aryan population of India did not arrive there until after the Cushite race established themselves in that country. is little worshipped. however. as the greatest of the gods. i. however. 18. and not until they had been But the worship of deified could this revolution have taken place. as Siva. instead of Ham. points to a revolution in religion at some time and also to the fact that. vol ii. 135." an ark for one in shut up " also. moreover voyage during the Deluge on the ship ArgJia? called " Baghis" * which is probably the Indian form of " Bacchus. eventually became." yet he is identified with "Brahma" and "Vishnu" "as Creator" and "Preserver." "The man of while "Indra. that he is superior to Vishnu and Brahma. 229. 229. vol. p. . Faber. same god." with whom were associated Sama or Vishnu." or " Maha Ishwara. 230. 292." " The Father. is also called "Ishnu. * Ibid." the god of rain. " Great God. . and Brahma. if" so. 17. as his title " Maha deva. 88-90." Siva. like Osiris. like Jupiter in Greece and Rome. 181. Siva is represented as making a He is. for we are told that Osiris built a temple in Egypt to his grandfather Ham. Vishnu is really the Sanskrit form of the Chaldee.e.. who was fabled to be year. pp. of idolatry propagated by ancestors seems to have been a part the Nimrod. and. had firmly Professor Kawlinson says that ' " linguistic research shows that a Cushite or Ethiopian race ." i.'' and Cama or Siva." or "The man Noah " 3 ." — Hislop. pp.. But Vishnu. in short.^ was subsequently identified ." Ham sons of the Patriarch. It would seem. pp. Japhet. 5 Wilkins' Hindu MythoL. ii. pp. would naturally be identified with Shem.^ The fact that the claims of Brahma and Vishnu were eventually overshadowed by those of Siva. other sons of the Patriarch. but he is also identified with Iswara or Osiris by the titles " Iswara " and " Mahe shwara. who would be to them " Brahma. as one of the triad. 182.. he is " the Destroyer. In the case of the Aryans who came under his influence.THE GODS OF INDIA Thus Siva. ^ Ibid. and that the latter was identified with Osiris or Nimrod. p. p. "Ishmuh. 235. he would inculcate a similar worship on the peoples he conquered. the and although. chap. the worship of the dead was a recognised part of religion. before that revolution. who is Pra Japeti. although originally identified with 91 as one of the with his more famous grandson Nimrod or Osiris for not only were the bull and lingam his symbols.Wilkins' Hindu Mythol." 5 It is taught.

221. Colonel Forbes " It will not be disputed that the primitive Cyclopean : — monuments of the Dekkan were erected prior to the arrival of the Hindus. Professor Baldwin further quotes General Briggs and Professor Benfey. pp. 227. and the Dasyus as hlack i. is also the only god worshipped at Ellora. Ibid.. p. previous to Hindus and Brahmins). vol. 3 '• Ibid.^ Signor Gorrisco. show that the Aryan immigration and Brahminism were subsequent to that of a Cushite race more or less hostile to them and to their religion. 221. Raksharas.^ and this eminently characteristic of the Cushite race. 220. Ibid. pp.^ Professor serpents. that they Ethiopians occupied all had religion. dragons. that the Lingayats. The Aryans called the old inhabitants demons and monsters. the Phallic god.. and lascivious wretches who make a god of the Sisna" . 233.92 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD . quoted bj^ Professor Baldwin. " the inventors of tower building." whose king " Cyclops " Leslie writes has been identified with Cronus or Cush. or Phallic worshippers. — . wherever they went. Stevenson similarly states that neither Siva. Ellora and Elephanta. and that the Brahmins call them " " Pakhundi " or Dasyus. and the Lingam and Yoni appear everywhere in its internal recesses. left stupendous buildings and " temples as memorials.e.. and Siva. the latter name suggesting some intimate connection with Elephantine in Upper Egypt. who.e. p. and that the cities on the Northern shore of the Persian Gulf are shown by brick inscriptions to belong to this race. Cushite they call them " demons and devil worshippers. have a bitter hatred to the Brahmins. exteuded along the shores of the Southern Ocean from Abyssinia to India that the whole of India was peopled by this race previous to the Aryans {i.. - Ibid..^ We find Aryan traditions speaking of themselves as white. but adopted by the Brahmins. i." " heretics. who consider it certain that a nation of high civilisation preceded the is Sanskrit race in India." " The above extracts. were Aryan. Now there are no rock temples to Brahma and Vishnu the temple of Salsette is a temple of Siva. He also states that Siva was not a Vedic god. s * . Prehistoric Nations. says that the Antesanskrit people of Southern India were of a Hamitic origin. the stronghold of the Cushite Egyptians. ' From Baldwin's Ihid. which have received the name of " Cyclopean from the Cyclops. nor the Phallic worship. 228." Such are the famous rock temples at Salsette." ' Euphorus likewise states that the the Southern Coasts of both Asia and Africa. the translator of the Ramayana. 222. p. p.. and other symbols peculiar to the Cushite and Siva was their principal god." " fiendish creatures. 219..

e. " There is every day stronger reason to believe that the worship of the Bull. corresponding as they do with the traditions of Ninus. since Osiris. Osiris and Bacchus. pared with those of Mahadeva. i.. All these accounts.e..e. 224. is the same as the Phallic worship of Egypt. king of Cusha dwipa within" (i. Linga. plainly refer to the establishment of the great empire of the world by Nimrod. and Yoni. emblematic of Baal and the Suq. and led his armies through all known countries. Siva or Iswara.^ sovereignty of the three worlds. was supreme ruler of Cusha dwipa.. that he became a heroic warrior.' The translator of Ferishta's MahomIndia says.e. and as having conquered the seven dwipas. districts of who had a son called " Capeyanas. and as that of the call and pillar. Abundant proof exists of the antiquity of Tauric and Phallic worship over that of idolatry and demi-god heroes. and that the emblems are the . Ishnuh or Noah) of Meru. 249. All the temples of the latter are modern comtypes of fructification (generation). would thus appear that the Sun and Phallic worship taught by Nimrod was immigration. vol. 282.^ which is probably the mythical way of saying that he became a god worshipped under the form of a serpent. Asiatic Ethiopia). the special symbol of the is was king Pagan god. pp. Siva. p. 287. ^ ^ . 291. Ibid. and made his empire Another legend represents him as having attained the universal. p. Ibid.THE GODS OF INDIA i... and the Arabian and the Iranian first account of Zohak." king of Cusha dwipa within. whose worship was nevertheless firmly established at the time of the ' Hindu invasion. and with it the first form of idolatry It at a period long anterior to the Aryan immigration to India. as reigning over the Western Asia from the ^Mediterranean to the Indus. and made great conquests and ruled a vast kingdom with great glory." ^ i. The Sanskrit books also speak of " Divodesa. Similarly Deva-Nahusha or Deonaush (Diouusus) mentioned as living at a time when Indra (i. 93 Tiiedan Lingam or Phallus. 225. Baldwin's Prehistoric Nations. by the nations surrounding the Israelites that this worship was founded on Sabaism. ' Ihid." who had a passion for arms and hunting. firmly established in India previous to the Aryan Moreover. Belus and the other gods were not worshipj3ed until long after the death of their human originals this must have been equally the case with the Phallic god of India.. pp.. 281. Another tradition speaks of " Charvanayanas. but that intoxicated by pride he became arrogant to the Brahmins and was changed into a serpent. 248.

where Saivas prevail. just as "i^a" is the Sun in Egypt. according Baldwin. chap." But. 165. so Rama. The consequent diminution of their numbers in Chaldea would partly account for the later predominance of the Semitic language in that country. and " Seba would therefore easily pass into "Sova. temple in the Marathi country. and that " Rama and "Sova" are "Raamah" and "Seba." 94 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD On the other hand. It is therefore evident that the arrival of the Cushite race in India was subsequent to this. quoted by Professor Buddhism. but modern Brahmanism. Prehist. in the South and South-East. or the Sun." so Colonel Tod. pp. as the case of the Persians.' an intimate connection between the mythology of Moreover. Siva worship has its chief seats in those places where the Sanskrit has been weakest. For " v " and " 6 " are interchangeable letters. ^ Baldwin." the two sons of Cush " (Gen. and that the same is the case in the Dekkan. Nations. just as the Sun god Osiris displaced the Sun god Ham and became the chief god of Egypt. " From Rama all the tribes named the Surya Vausa. means " the Son of Ra. He says that the worship of Siva was an aboriginal superstition. but that the amalgamation is He also states that no Brahman oflSciates in a linga not perfect. 7).. is Stevenson. claim descent. 183. speaking of India. p. 259. The fact of the Cushite race having been in India previous to the Hindu invasion explains the reason of the strange mixture of Aryan and Cushite in ideas in the religion of India. 258. xiv. . that a large number of them afterwards left Chaldea and emigrated to India and spread southwards over the whole peninsula. where the worshippers of Siva greatly exceed a combination of Brahmanism. that the genealogy has been confused. p. as the chief Sun god of India. Pococke. was regarded as the father of the Sun. chap. and " Rameses'' the name of several Egyptian kings. or race find also We Eo^ypt and that of India. The former. i Ibid. carrying with them the religion of their ancestors. namely. those of Vishnu. were to Sun and Fire worshippers. X. observes. and that the Brahmans adopted it to gain influence with the old race. while a few years later Semiramis received a severe check from tlie king of that country. the Indian conquests of Nimrod did not extend farther than the Indus. however. and the ante-Brahman or Cushite religion. ^ He also says that Rama was chief of the Suryas and that his two sons were Cush and Sova? It seems probable. xiii." of the Surya race. Lidia in Oreece. beyond which it was supposed there were deserts.

'" Lenormant's Anc. 142. according to the sacred books. althouo-h not mentioned in the Veilas. " Salutation to thee. 7. was represented as old and deformed. vol. so also was Agni. and.* The Hindus also have a tradition that their four sacred books were taken to Egypt. Dynasties. Mythol.. the " Juggernaut " is god of lightning. and " Agni. iii." p. Cory. like him. to thee who may thy With regard to other Indian gods. the Pharaohs adopted the Indian title of " Rameses. rii p. required human victims. like Vulcan. p. p. although Saturn was the father of the gods in Greece and Rome. scintillate.7 Fire also in other forms of the Cushite idolatry. 260. who devoted themselves on the funeral pyres of their husbinds. Ibid." the god of fire. were considered to become pure by burning. 220. pp. 26. 315. p.3 and Max Miiller says that these gods were not represented by idols. the god of fire.^ and a worshipper is represented. ^ Asdat. who came to Egypt at the latter part of the eighteenth dynasty. pp." the Indian Moloch. p. although partly due to the Ethiopians of Upper Egypt. Wilkins' Hindu.'* He is identified with Agni.THE GODS OF INDIA 95 of the Cushite ^ It would seem also that the ultimate development idolatry in Egypt. king of the Cyclops. 12. however. 16. Colebrooke's "Religious Ceremonies of Hindus" in Asiatic Retearchet. he was said to be the son of " Coelus " and " Terra. p. as addressing the fire.. Hist." who is the same as Agni. 23. Res. ." 9 who dost seize oblation. be auspicious to us. 27. the Roman god of fire.. "Siva. they were more or less identified with the Cushite gods. Ibid. p." and the worship of Osiris was substituted for that of Set." the god of rain. Ibid. for the first time. p. 75. vol. " Surya. as drawn by a chariot and horses.. is by the Puranas declared to be " Rudra. 221. vol.. Ibid. by Syncellus ' . when. is identical with Jupiter. who was also called " Diespiter. " ^ ' s - « Moor's Pantheon. was represented to be an eater of human flesh. the purifier. Ultimately.5 and just as Vulcan. it is evident that " Dyauspiter " (" Heaven Father").^ Siva.." while Cronus was similarly represented to be the son of the Egypt. dost auspicious flame burn our foes. . like the Sun god in Greece. of East. was recognised as having the same purifying eflBcacy as The Suttees. to thee who dost shine. Surya is represented. O Fire.^ The principal gods of the Vedas were " Indra. and the latter. 43 Hislop. the god of lightning. Ao-ain. ii." the Sun. mayest thou." " Heaven " and " Earth. received a wave of influence from the Ethiopians of India.

. 372 vol. the strong bull. ' kings as the equal of the gods. 31. " Ouranos " and " Ge. as in the case of Venus. 370. and with the dove called " Capoteswari. She derived her surname from the giant " Dvorgu. harp. Hist. "Luksmi. . pp. in the temple of Luxor.' 'The pontiffs." Similarly the Indian "Dyaus''' and " Prithivi" "Heaven" and "Earth. is the destroyer of the serpent. the Sun god among the living. and. was identified with him. p. p. symbols and the same symbol existed in Egypt in the Apis and Mnevis.^ Parvati Dv9rgu " is the Indian Minerva. . who. as the god of desire." worshipped with the " Lingam. 372." are said to be the parents of all the gods. 4 fhid. is invoked by brides and bridegrooms. " is an archer like Apollo. is represented as taking the same part in the ultimate He is a herdsman development of idolatry as Horus and Apollo. like Apollo." He is " king of Upper and Lower Egypt. Ibid. and with his arrows creates desire. iii. who rules by the sword and destroys all barbarians. ' Lenormant remarks.47ic. and. 294. and. Thus in a dedicatory inscription." ^ as in the case of Juno and Semiramis. the " Yoni. the symbols of Osiris or Horus. and the symbol.. p. 32.. i.^ deva " is a youth like Cupid. 10. of East. we know. from the froth of the sea. He is represented as sitting on a deer to " Gama show his swiftness. The gigantic bulls of of their great god.' " He also quotes Diodorus Siculus as saying." whom she slew. for as one inscription says. vol. The king is the image of Ea.' they identified themselves with the great deity Horus."* " Luksini " is the Indian Venus. Good God. is the son of the Indian Venus. Nightingale's Religions and Ceremonies. like Venus.? it is said. He is represented with a flute. and. no bloody sacrifices are allowed on her altars. Wilkins' ' 3 Hindu Mythol.." is evidently derived from her name. chap. x. i. " I am Horus. Nightingale. as we shall see later on. " The Egyptians respect and adore their ^ Faber. Apollo. 375. 5 and Lemprifere. like Venus. vol. She is identified with the ship Argha (the Ark)." Like Cupid. She springs. he carries a bow and arrows.^ " Yuni " is the Indian Juno or June. as vice-regent of the god. p. "The Egyptian monarchs were more than sovereign They styled themselves 'The Great God."— . x. and. chap. to Amen- hotep III. forms of the bulls Babylon and Assyria were. as Apollo is with a like Apollo. while. they were real deities. p. her beauty is so great that all the gods are enamoured of her. 373. p.' " Krishna " is the Indian Apollo or Horus. just as Minerva obtained the name of " Pallas " from the giant " Pallas " whom she slew.96 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD their same parents by Greek appellations. like Cupid. p.

but." '° just as Osiris was lamented ' Lenormant. 375 . The wife of Siva is also known as " Uma. Anc. sibid. against the gods. Osiris... 408. Nin. overcomes Typhon. " Cali" is a form of the goddess " Parvati Dvorgu. Hind. who says that the elder Horus. and shut up in the ocean for one year. in Greece. ^ p. has " two dogs is to guard the road to his abode. like Pluto. where he is discovered by his wife " Reti.. * Cama was Faber. Ham. the sacred bull Nanda was similarly the symbol of the god His altar is attached to all the shrines of Iswara and of in India. and is lamented by " Rett. ii." who. "/tic?. originally Kham or p. was the god " Caimis" and that his wife was " Rhytia." " ^ 97 " Like the sacred bull Apis " in Egypt..s in the is represented as slaying the giants This episode. Ind. and weighs their good actions against their bad actions." 3 the Indian Minerva. " Yama" seems to be another form of Osiris. 225. " who. in order to decide their fate. 408. and by his aid his mother. Pococke. vol. ^Ihid.e. of East. i. who rebelled many traditions mythology and which are in very exact correspond- ence with the similar traditions of Egypt and Greece.Y>V. as in other cases. 237. the evil spirit of the Egyptians.'' The Indian Cupid. Pag. ii.. the Great Goddess Mother. p. of which there are of India. vol.^ Doorga is also known as Maha Maia. pp. and put into a box and cast into the ocean. 247-250. and who brought him up until he acquired strength to destroy the demon. He is also the Indian Pluto. pp. like Osiris. 408-411. Myth. Idol." Doorga " or " Durgu. » Wilkins. i. when he comes to life again as Horus. is the goddess of Wisdom." who was also his mother. 3 Faber.. like Minerva. like Minerva. will be more fully noticed hereafter. was ultimately identified '^ with his grandson Nimrod." ^ who are manifestly the same as Cama and Reti. Hist. "> Faber. pp. another form of Osiris. Isis. The identity of Cama^ with Horus and Osiris is additionally confirmed by a remark of Plutarch. G . Wilkins.7 In like manner Osiris was killed by Typhon. 407. or Dis. dies and is shut up in the ship Argha. 240. and. p. i. 257-264. p..THE GODS OF INDIA absolute master. pp. etc. Gama" represented as having been seized by a demon.67-74. the king of Hades. Myth. Like the he is the judge of the dead. who is also his wife. Sambara. " Siva. 224.^ The wife of Siva. son of the Sun. vol. Hind. The Indian latter. vol. So also Cama..

Cama with Osiris From these remarks it is clear that the mythology and gods of India are practically identical with the mythology and gods of Babylon. which further emphasises the and Horus. .98 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD identity of by Isis. Egypt. and must have been derived from the same oripfinal source. Greece and Rome.

was a reformer." But " Buddha " is a title which g Muni. 99 . although the latter point is doubtful. His moral teaching included some excellent precepts of kindness to men and animals.C. like them. idols. opposed to ritual observances." or a state of placid indiflference to everything.CHAPTER Buddhism VI THE GODS OF EASTERN ASIA The and the religion of the nations of Eastern Asia is its followers are said to known number nearly five as Buddhism. wine and animal food. . with the exception of abstaining from taking any form of animal life." and meant " The Omniscient " or " All Wise " and the old . It was a title of the Supreme God. together with others which were false and extravagant but. it The principal representatives of this religion are the Chinese its requires particular notice. similar to such titles as " The Almighty. as some assert. and people of Thibet. it has orders of priesthood. and. gods and goddesses. sacrifices." " The SelfI Existent. not only those which are unlawful. He taught a severe asceticism and the necessity of subduing I Ipvery natural desire. etc. was in existence before it was applied to him. In most of its salient features it is similar to other systems of Paganism. on the other hand. who is supposed to have But whatever influence Sakya Muni may have had upon the religion of these countries. with an elaborate ritual. and because it has certain features which distinguish it from the religions of other Pagan nations. but those which are lawful. requiring his followers to abstain from marriage. Sakya Muni. . it is quite clear that he did not originate it. worship of the dead. priestly castes. For this reason. his moral principles have had very little influence on his professed followers. Sakya Muni is called " Buddha. and." or " lived about 500 B." a Brahmin of India. hundred millions of human race. and to relinquish all their worldly goods the ultimate object being the attainment of "Nirvana. which was supposed to be accompanied by certain magical powers. and founder is generally spoken of as " Sakya Gautama. to the worship of the gods.

" which is considered to be the oldest life of Sakya Muni. 'Lillie. who. Cunningham. 12. Lillie.e. he is represented as repudiating his human parentage and claiming to be descended from the prophets. is represented to have become " Buddha. p. of one and the same supreme Buddha. p. the seven sacred trees and thrones of the seven Buddhas are portrayed. witness the beatified Buddhas that exist. . 40." or incarnations. 65.4 In the Chinese ritual the worshipper says.". or disperse them. and to upon " Brahma Prajapati. "The Buddha Bhagavat" (that is. or had become as God.C. ^ 20.. after a long course of asceticism. and. 'Rhys Davis. in the " Lalita Vistara. by Gen. Buddhas of " and in the Ceylon ritual. BuddJia and Early Buddhism. or incarnations of the supreme Buddha. have ordered " while in another passage he " calls to . is represented in " The White Lotus ofDharma " as acknowledging these other Buddhas. all when he is attacked hy demon ^ creatures. The Supreme ' Lillie. 21. the Buddhas. and in the final one. host. takes him in his arms. and says. being possessed of the five classes of transcendental knowledge. Davis. Beal's Catena of the Buddhist Scriptures. 28. Buddha is represented with seven heads. in another passage.lOO THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD Nanda Bandhya. ^Rid. p. I worship continually worship the Buddhas AllI Pitiful. being constructed in the time of King Asoka." or " enlightened." the Buddhas of the ages that are past. pp. 5. 108.^J It would appear that all these Buddhas are regarded as " Avatars. lord of the Buddhas that live at the ten horizons to he calls Finally. he had attained to the wisdom of God." ^ Buddhist. Bvddhism. it is pretended that an aged rishi (saint) called Asita." "Buddhas. 27. and in a statue in South Kensington Museum. Amirta in esoteric Sakya Muni. Stupa of BluirhxU.. * Rhys Lillie. 128. pp. 409." i.e. A. in short." of old. he promises to appear before them when he has attained complete " Nirvana " . "All the ten quarters ! hail.. pp." ' Again. p. s p. on the birth of Sakya Muni. with a knowledge of good and evil.2 He is represented to be one only of the seven mortal Buddhas. says that " He will execute what those sages. recognises that the child is Buddha." ^ Sakya Muni himself. Thus. ^ Pattimokkha. his various temptations which he has to go through before he attains " Nirvana the " are described.3 while in the " Stupa of Bharhut. Avatars.. p. 250 B. i. 7 ." the oldest monument of Buddhism in existence. p. told Mr Hodgson that the name Buddhism always meant " God. 108.

s Asiat. 4.. vol. vol. Res. 3 Lillie. vol. 328. 116. was a blow to the influence of the Brahminical priesthood and accordingly Sakya Muni. M. 284. vii. p. 76. or rather denied. ii. in becoming an ascetic. p. i. 56 .^ The Chinese traveller Fa Hian. 122. yet there is one who is God of the gods.D. 55." 3 This was just what Sakya Muni did. This god is Brahma. p. and the universal soul. 328. and — . fasting. refused to acknowledge Sakya Muni." and declared to be the same as the triple god BrahmaVishnu-Mahesa (Siva). U." or "enlightened. near Savrasti.4 But he did what the Rishis of Vedaism did not do he opposed. only reverenced the three previous Buddhas. M. but it is evident that the ancient doctrine of the Vedas made Brahma the one Supreme God. and we see him acknowledgino^ iBrahma The Cingalese priests say there is a as the Supreme God. 4 Jbid.^ the Brahmins acknowledge a Buddha. a knowledge of the universal self. is to this day looked upon as a heretic.. Faber. p.' Sakja Muni was born a Brahmin." or seekers after Brahma. his followers as infidels. chastity who sought to subdue their lower -natures by and asceticism. 'Statement of Cingalese Priests. This. and asserted that a person could attain " Nirvana" by his own efforts. vol. merely followed I the example of the Rishis of Vedaism.. who is represented to be an Avatar of Vishnu. and as the Muni Nevertheless. pp. 5. also states that some of the Buddhist sects of India. Supreme Being above all others.. Lillie. . and then declares that the child will be Buddha.. 532. without their aid. 181. ^Ibid. vol. pp. and although there are many gods. p. Faber." or " A. or asceticism." In short. the utility of a ritual and priesthood.^ This is the teaching of modern Buddhism in Ceylon..THE GODS OF EASTERN ASIA Buddha) " loi comes to the world only after many kalpas " (ages). Sakya Muni. viii. their object being by these means to obtain " a knowledge of Brahma. instead of being regarded as Buddha by Brahminism. and in an ancient inscription at Buddha Gaya he is invoked by the sacred name " O. . ii. who lived in the fourth century A. pp. of course. claiming to be followers oi^'DevaDatta. ^Rhye Davis. p. but that when a Buddha was upon earth he became the Supreme God. he called his followers "Brahmanas. and what he thought he attained when he became "a Buddha. 533 pp. with the result that a great hostility exists between the Brahmins and those Buddhists who acknowledge Sakya Supreme God. 285 . Lillie. vigils."-^ The ' religion of Guatama was introduced into China subsequent Lalita Vistara.

14. In the Chinese liturgy he is addressed. ix. . In Thibet. this Buddha is " Amitahha. pp. vol. and ." "Amida" in Sanskrit denotes " immeasurable ". p. ^Beal. 403 . Res. . He is said to be " without beginning. the goddess mother. 374 ."5 Edkins says that the name of " Amitabha is is " is constantly on the lips of the Chinese and Thibetan priests. the great father. ii. Faber. i. 3 ii. 13. and in Thibet. Lillie. present. He is the creator of all the Buddhas. . 41 ." whom we . the omnipotence of Amitabha is dwelt on in some gathas " He sits on the Lotus throne in the centre of heaven. the to the Christian era. revealed in the form of flame or light. on the borders of Thibet. and Kwanyin." or "A7nida Buddha" called also "Adi Buddha. ^Edkins' Chinese Buddhism. ii. " I adore Tathagata Mr Amitabha. vi. In " The White Lotus of Dharma" one of the most important » Buddhist works obtained by Mr Hodgson from the Buddhist Amirta B Manda Bandhya. and this Fo is shown by Sir William Jones to be identical with the primitive Buddha of Hindustan. now come amongst us. by Karanda Vyiiha and Nama Sangiti. 171.^ From these facts it is abundantly plain that there was a Buddha and Buddhism distinct from the worship of Sakya Muni.. would that our teacher Sakya Muni. ^ From old Sanskrit works . reciting these Here Sakya Muni is clearly distinguished from Amitabha. p. 170 . vol ii. in Thibet p. p. Lillie.. . He is Iswara. 14.' but previous to this ^Infinite. 1. shall refer later. Res. " O. vol. Ceylon. pp. vol. he is omniof wisdom and absolute truth. p. ^ he is the Buddha * of Buddhas. Asiat. Hail. Faber. 5 Schlagintweit. and May the omnipotent and omniscient be present with us. and again. 342. 343. Buddhism. Catena of Buddhist Scriptures. the essence I He knows all the past. and the Northern Buddhists. 342. Amitabha Lokafit of the world respectfully we invoke thee. and quite distinct from Sakya Muni. quoted by the Buddhist Amirta Nanda Bandhya to Mr Hodgson Lillie. although unknown Burmah. and : — ' Asiat. the constant chant of the Llamas is. "One in spirit. p." 4 etc.^ seen everywhere painted on walls and carved on stone. p. vol. 242. . p. 15. 'Faber. to Kwanyin (the goddess) ^ . pp. and that he worshipped assiduously by in Siam. p." 102 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD " " they had worshipped a of their national beginning from the Buddha under the name of Fo " " existence. who dwells in the Buddha region Devachan. divine sentences. 13. vol. . 262 . and our merciful father Amitabha would descend to this sacred precinct. . In Nepaul.

in Nanking. i. 348. vol. vol." ^ Mr Edkins gives some of the curious changes of pronunciation. 220 . . p. 261 ." who is the Buddha to come. as follows " Fuh." » " man " being probably the same as mens. Edkins." " The Great Lord " ^ as " Datta. 170 . pp. vi. Faber." is pronounced " Po. pp. 284. "Put". vol. or intelligence. Asiat. 240. . 350. ix. ii. vi.. ix. pp. vol. Pag. 263. . ii." or "Father Buto. "Pout." who is the Buddha of the Eastern Paradise." and in Siam. viz. 246. 128." or " Pot. 268 p." This male Kwanyin is called " Chin Fo. p. 350. vol." is In China. 285 Faber. 59. ^ Faber. " Pout. ." and " Beva Twashta " 7 as " Mahi-man." which is exactly the character given to Buddha. pp. "But.." the instructor of " Sakya Muni in a former " Kalpa. p. vol. vol." " the ruling Buddha. in addition to Amita. Lillie. . 212. vol. in Cochin. Adi Buddha. mind. and "Ah buto." or " Men Nuh. 413. or Omito. and Kwanyin. Faber. Res. vol. Faber. Ibid. . Buddha is called " Budso. in Peking "Fo"'^ In Japan." or "Leva Bod" (the Divine Bod). and " Milo Fo." " '° Professor Baldwin says. x." " Amita Fo." while in the vernacular of Siam. Ihid."9 There are other Buddhas represented in the Chinese temples. Hesa. the Sanskrit " called " " Omito Fo" and the " o " in his Maya" is called Moyo" both cases being substituted for the " a. and is a saint and not a god. Then there is the ancient Buddha " Jang ten." or age. 483 vol. the Buddha ' ' of the Ceylonese records. Buddha is called " But" " Put" " Pot" " Pout" and "Poto". 9 •° i." " The Great Hesa.. " Yo shi Fo.. 3 342. vol. ii. * 7 8 Asiat." the " t being quiescent as in the French. vol. Sakya Muni. V. 129. vol. 215 Ihid. '^ p. 195. p." " Toka Daihod. mother." " Mahi-man " would thus mean " the great Mind. Edkins.. p. 349. ii. 260 ." " Deva Tat. iii.. as in " Menu. pp. 201." the male deity corresponding to the goddess " Kwanyin. vol. p. Res.. Buddhism was much older than Gautama. pp. 261." although Sakya Muni Buddha is regarded as the Buddha reigning in " the present age or or Kalpa. "Fuh"-." THE GODS OF EASTERN ASIA guides the destinies of mortals." or "Pooden. He was only Lotus. or Amitabha. p."5 Buddha is also known as " Heri Maha. ." and " Lord : — ." or " Maitreya Buddha." while Sakya 103 " Muni occupies ^ a subordinate position. ii." old sound " But " in Amoy. He is also known as " Ma Hesa " and " Ear Esa. Idol." It should also be noted that in Boutan and Thibet. In China the "p " is aspirated and becomes "PAo" ot"Fo"^ In the Tamulic dialect the name is pronounced " Poden. 266. p. p. pp.

therefore. in China. China. is because the Brahmins regard Sakya Muni as a heretic. pp.' one of their predecessors. . pays him religious homage. and by the Brahmins of India. or mortal predecessors of Gautama. acknowledging him as his ' ecclesiastical superior and great ' Edkins. claiming that the Buddhists themselves followed him before Gautama appeared. vol. shows that in China. Le Compte. . where Amitabha Buddha is unknown. p. . for they more or less acknowledge the Vedic gods. although they place them in a subordinate position Brahma. Res. Sakya is recognised as a great teacher and an Avatar.104 'I'HE its WORSHIP OF THE DEAD A passage in the Raja Taringini. p. It is plain also that the Buddhists of the south sprang out of Brahminism. as disciples of of Sakya Muni has led the latter to elevate their prophet above the Vedic gods in retaliation for the charge of heresy. 214. and also in China. and call him God. Pag. where it has all the aspect of a perfected system. Idol. seems to point to the fact that the seat of the worship of the original. vi. history of Kashmir. translated by Mr Turnour. 483. but that throughout the north. Burmah and the south. and the consequent hostility between them and the followers of the temples. This is further corroborated by the fact that the Chinese recognise and reverence the Grand Llama of Thibet. Rites and pp. or chief ecclesiastic. vol. Buddha Amitabha was in the north.C. 207-220 448 443. Sakya Muni is recognised as the chief god. pp. 255. Thibet. 484 Prehistoric Nations. six Arhatas. especially in Thibet. 341. and the fact explains why the various Buddhist sects have differed and disputed so much concerning the date of his appearance.^ This. Amitabha is the supreme deity. or Buddha. . as their great prophet. celebrate Kasyapa. . pp. 215. no doubt. Its system of doctrine and practice was completely developed before his time. ii." which "varies from 2470 B. are recognised. The more remote Tartars regard him as the Deity. 332 Faber. Nepaul. It although in Thibet and China. Everything. i. in Thibet. vol. to 453 " B. 254. and even the Emperor of China.C. or incarnation. the Everlasting Father of Heaven. of Buddha. 3 Nightingale. or mythological. and Nepaul. religious * Buddhism was the growth of many ages preceding that in which Sakya Muni appeared. China. pp. Vishnu and Siva being represented in — some Sakya Muni. and where the magical powers of the priesthood are most famous. and this accords with the fact that the Jainas." Again he says. Asiat. Ceremonies. who is Pontifex Maximus. a religious one of prophets. who claims to be the living incarnation of Fo.." ' would thus appear that in Ceylon. whose system originated in Buddhism.

Dharma. and dispensed with the assistance and the worship of the gods involving the ritual and priesthood to which known as Belus. " complete measure" or "attain- ment. It is clear. in consequence of the doctrines of Sakya Muni. Tammuz. or incarnation." 4 Hodgson. as in the case of Asoka. . expresses his faith in Buddha. they were regarded as personal deities and worshipped as such. p. who hast perfected wondrous merit. "I salute Buddhanath.. the religious system of the great Buddhist China and Thibet. Bel Nimrud the goddess mother " with ten and their son. thousand names " Ninus. who is Prajna Paramita (Prajna. p. the goddess Dharma. however. The Buddhist Trinity is usually expressed as " Buddha. seen. that in the earliest times. aud their and these are represented by numerous idols to whom its followers^pray. 142. we have antiquity. Dharma and Sangha as personal deities. and art possessed of great mercy." or Buddha. The Trinity consists of Amitabha Buddha. ^ 3 Edkins. 56. who lived about 250 B. and Sangha." who in Northern Buddhism is "Amitabha. known as Bel Nimrud the Greater etc." the goddess "Dharma. As before remarked. Sakya Muni was opposed. leading them into the path of perfect wisdom." " perfection. wisdom)."^ In later times in the South the personality of Dharma and Sangha were ignored. Horus. which made salvation and the attainment of Nirvana to depend entirely upon a person's own subjugation of his natural passions and desires. which. and must be supposed to have a similar origin and It has its Great Father. Apollo.3 the latter occupyinoprecisely the same position as in other Pagan systems. resembles that of other forms of Paganism. its Goddess Mother. p. and their son. Saturn. 40.' countries. Osiris. duced all things. consists of the father of the gods. etc.. Bacchus. 60. 5. or the living representative of his 105 " own god Fo. and at the initiation of the Buddhist novice he recites the following text. Cronus. . . Son.3 pointing out the way of perfect tranquillity to all mortals. the lesser. "Paramita" appears to mean Ibid.C. " nearly emancipated). And thou ever present • Lillie. who is the testimony of the sages prothe mother of all the Bodhisatwas " (holy who by men (Baptismal Service in Katal)A Kwan Shi Yin Bodhisatwa (our mother)." King Asoka. or Kwanyin. and entreat them to bestow on me the Pravrajya. pp." and " Sangha. Janus. The following prayers to Dharma are given by Mr Lillie " I : salute Dharma.— THE GODS OF EASTERN ASIA spiritual Father.

also given the title mother She is called the earth. The Queen of Heaven." " that is to Kwanyin." cation). or Ritual of Confession).e. 6. and identical with But modern Buddhism has substituted for this personal source of wisdom and knowledge. viz. 85. is is a personal deity the goddess of wisdom." 9 He is called also " The Voice of the Dragon. and great wisdom." (Cingalese Version of the Pattimokkha.. May Dharma forgive me my sin. p. throuo-hout the universe for the defence and protection of and who (Chinese " leadest us to the attainment of boundless wisdom. that the merciful Kwanyin would receive our vows of amendment.. wisdom and knowledge itself. it is clear that Dharma. .^ "Hail. pp. mother of the seven Kotis of Buddha. or Prajna. From the Scriptures of Nepaul. 4 ^ 7 Beal." and " matter. he created the world. " of the goddess in other Pagan systems. Beal. and is called " The Lord of the World. p. Lillie." {Pancha Vinsati Sahasrikay Matra in the Sanskrit means " mother. Idqj^ enough. p. as taught by Sakya Muni. and Dharma has become a name for " Canon " The original character of the ^. Thou art all good. like Minerva.^ the teaching of Sakya Muni. Oh. 86. 9 '° ^ Beal. Hodgson.e. is identified with matter. p. i. or the mother." (Termina" tion of a Chinese General Confession^ "I bow my head to the ground and worship Dharma. i. 403. of Amitabha Buddha. Catena. p. p." (Ashta Sahasrikay " Upon a lotos of precious stones sustaining a moon crescent sits (Bhadra Kalpa Vadana)? " The external and internal diversities belonging to all animate nature are produced by her. Dickson's translation. 413 Lillie. chap. — ' Beal. p. 88. Max Miiller.. Jhid." ^ and like them is addressed by the title of " Our Lady." Hitherto we have gone astray but now we return. 412." the son of Amitabha.'^ (Chinese Invo- From the above. Hodgson.e. LiturgyY Those Buddhas who are merciful and the teachers of the world. . versal Mother. 408.. Buddha Matra. and "Prajna. p. 22. 22. but the and of Buddha. "the earth." As " Padmapani." Prajna Paramita." etc." " Sangha is said to be born from the union of Upaya" a name of God. 5 3 fbid. p. Catena.io6 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD in virtue of thine infinite who power and wisdom art manifested all creatures. She is not only the goddess of plain however." i. Catena. and the uniall such Buddhas are thy children. p. Catena. 21. 263 . goddess is.

The symbols of Sangha were the Sun and the Elephant. by His words and life as man. was " the voice " or " expression " of the dragon. with whom. which was regarded as the Great Father. as Buddha himself in mortal form. and." i. while the goddess was the Earth. the Dharma become absurd when these ritual. p. 25. as manifested to man. the generator of all life. as in the Ceylon the following prayers occur : which " May Sangha (congregation) forgive me my sin. . he is called " Congregation. and was therefore Hence it was fabled of Sakya Muni.— THE GODS OF EASTERN ASIA 107 say. and. or matter. and is practically a mystical aspect of Buddha himself. in terms are substituted for their names. Dharma and Sangha may thus be regarded as refuge " I the original or mythological Trinity of Buddhism. indeed.. pp. moreover. he became the supreme god to the exclusion of other deities. Therefore.. the passive Their son. Sakya Muni was recognised as Buddha. pp.' both of which are also the particular symbols of Buddha. Lillie. as Mr Lillie remarks." bow my head to the ground and worship Dharma (canon law).e. 22. therefore." ^ Amitabha Buddha. 3-5 . "I have no other Dharma (canon law) is my refuge. that the Sun in the form of a white Elephant (the particular symbol of the Sun) entered also regarded as the Sun. p. in Southern Buddhism. or serpent. as the incarnation of the supreme god and goddess. the Pagan " father of the gods " was identified. one of the seven great prophets or Buddhas. in order to get rid of him as a personal deity. he was naturally incorporated into the system and recognised as the son of the supreme god and goddess. which knew nothing of the original or mythological Buddha Amitabha." ^ Sangha in Northern Buddhism is thus the incarnation of the supreme god. All the Pagan gods. were identified with the Sun. and." prayers addressed to him and But. takes the position of a false Christ. 3 ' Ibid. ' Lillie. " the expression " or " manifestation " of God. or incarnation. When. so Sangha. source of generation." " May Dharma (canon law) forgive me my sin. 24. after he had been worshipped as Buddha. was the human expression of the Father." . Sangha is. just as Christ is said to be " The Word of God. as in other Pagan systems. but in Southern Buddhism he represents " The body of dead and living regarded as saints. as we have seen. Pattimokkha. Sakya Muni is the best refuge. while in Southern Buddhism Sangha represents all the saints of Buddhism. 23. as we shall see.

in short. 46. "Dragon Standard. iv. [Hnto his mother Maya's side. pp. p.{| %i in ancient times. and? f indicated everything ' sacred. the Ia power/ f litime of the winter solstice. pp. on the eighth day of the second month. The name Hea also means " sergpnt. would be Dec. in China. lib. pp. Chaldean Magic. ^ Dragon was.' that the ray jewel crest. " Natalis invicti Solis. . x. vol. 25th Lillie. Kawlinson.^ and^ ^ it was an especial object of worship by the Babylonians. ." and this deity is identified by Sir Henry Rawlinson with the star " Draco. and as the instructor of men. 600 Lenormant." 3 Sakya Muni thus took the place of Sangha in his aspect as the great prophet or teacher. Eccles. and the Dragon god of Greece and the Dragon|^ mous (L The Dragon standard wasl. 159. on the worship of the Sun and the Serpent. the incarnation of the Sun. p.. liv. the banner of the Empire." * The terms "dragon" and "serjpent" were practically synony. p. and as "the Voice of the Dragon. Beal. was regarded both as the source of life. and also of wisdom and knowledge.^ standards I m adopted by the Emperor of Constantinople from the Assyrians. De Idol. as the Great Father. 73. when the sun first begins to regain its This was the birthday of all the Sun gods. Lillie. He was born. p. * Vossius. 17th. as in Rome and Babylon." Stukeley's Ahury. vol. like the Sun.^ which was also regarded.. the " Lord of Understanding " and " Teacher of Mankind. 232. ^ . The great Chinese. 7 —Bel and the Dragon. ." or " the dragon. note. according to the fable. which. p. 233. as the first day of the Hindu year was Nov. of Rome are really serpents. Hist." Mr Beal says that. ^ 3 Gieseler. and was celebrated ^in Pagan Rome as In short." both of whom are represented by serpents. iii. "The ordinary representation of Buddha is the rising sun. and frontispiece. chap. His jewelled crest is called the 'rasmi culamani. and was a symbol of the Sun. 56. is. cap. ** " In that same place was a great dragon which they of Babylon worshipped." All the Pagan gods were eventually identified with the Serpent.^ Just also as the serpent was th^ See account. The Serpent. and the result was the birth of Sakya Hence also his birthday was said to be on December 25th.. 71. i. p.io8 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD 'jMuni. 71-73. 42.^ It was^ ^ also -worshipped both in China and Japan. Buddhist Lit. 14. See also infra. citing Codinus Deane's Serpent Worship. and the Ceylonese figures of him are generally provided with his crown of triple rays." " the birthday of the un- ^ l^conquered Sun. Herod. as in the case of -^sculapius and the Babylonian Hea.." Elliot's Horoe Apocalypta. 5 See PI.

in exactly the same way as the " Caduceus " of Hermes or Mercury. Phallic god. " the three is called " which Buddhism." writes Cambry. i. 69. 70. or the prophet Nebo. p. and is sculptured in all " The Chinese. 207. x."5 thus occupying. Phallic and Tree Worship. Vide infra. = 3 Cambry." 3 He is called the " Dragon King. Therefore." ^ and high places. Celtiques. so the dragon was " the stamp and symbol of royalty in China. Lillie. symbolic of the sun and moon. It occupies being symbolic of the Phallus. . They call him the Father of Happiness. p." where a figure of the " Caduceus " is given." and the incarnation of Amitabha. as we have seen. the male and female serpents." ^ " The dragon. p. are symbols of generation. Deane. He is called »"the King of the Serpents. or manifestation. yet it is plain that he occupies a similar position. 26." and ' prayers are regularly offered to him. 163 . and forming a circle and a crescent. pp. vol. "Sun.4 THE GODS OF EASTERN ASIA insignia of royalty 109 and dominion in Egypt. Monuments Lillie. of the dragon. the only Caduceus being that the stafi" is Mercury was the below the serpents. Serpent. Nor is this the only thing connecting Buddha with the Babylonian Hea. ' Maurice. which had a similar symbolism.. 210. or Adi Buddha. and Sangha being at once " the voice. although the dragon is not actually identified with Amitabha. ^ Edkins. is identified with the For the " TriEgyptian Hermes or Mercury. and the whole emblem. apparently the same position as the I I Babylonian Hea. This also is the case with Sakya Muni when he takes the place of the mythological Sangha." " the Tree of Knowledge and the Sun. who. Hind. or difference in the placed Tki-Ratna.. and the Sun god and Moon goddess. because there lives the dragon upon whom their good fortune depends. the same position as the centre stroke in the letter $. Ratna of precious symbols of the faith. 31. the staff. as Buddha. p." says Mr Lillie. p. " delight in mountains temples. "represents the Indian cobra as a symbol in China for the supreme god. an intimate connection between the two is implied. Hist." consisted of two serpents twining round a staff (see sketch). ^ tree.' To this dragon they erect temples shaded with groves. chap. ^ ^ Lalita Vistara.

must have applied originally to I" May Buddha forgive lAmitabha. the daily prayer throughout China. 212 . and. 211. who. the attributes of Amitabha. the supreme Buddha. This was only "The Omniscient. as it did in India and China it must have earliest ages. pp. and Sakya Muni was regarded as his incarnation for. and received many. vol . show that and in Thibet." ' . 4 Layard. 453 . Grecian Antiq. lother." if a mythological Buddha with these attributes already existed. and other features of natural. From the fact that the ecclesiastical superiority of the Grand Llama of Thibet is recognised by the Chinese. ' Ihid. 474 note.j of the Divinity on earth. as High Priest of the nation. Eeligions and Ceremonies. and even by the Emperor himself. 68 . and pp. ii. 472. Nitieveh and Its Remains.. and that when Sakya throughout the world. chap. 384. ii. See LempriJbre. similar to that of the Babylonian Fish god DagQpl fc'he Emperor of China. Potter and Boyd." " King of These. and the priesthoods of Pagan Greece and Rome.^ 'iJfish-headed mitre. 208. . Gaussen on Daniel.s There is also in Thibet ^and China an established priesthood with regular orders. if not all. iii. p. 25. 343. whatever was said of the one would be said of the Kings. v." "The Self -existent. vol. and as representative They were addressed as " Your Holiness. he blesses Cthe people once a year wears the same mitre. The Llama also wears tl I'^and their fee^ kissed by thek subjpcts. i. both being Buddhas. vol. They were always the King. bk. Wilkinson's Egyptians. such as " Heavenly Father. Nightingale. p. when. viz. it seems evident that the religious system of Thibet is of the greatest antiquity. were regarded as divine. he became incorporated into the system. but would also be ^applied to Sakya Muni when he was recognised as Buddha. vol.^ The priesthood of Buddhism is also distinguished by the " tonsure" which was the particular symbol in other Pagan nations of the sins." ^ "^^ my ' 3 See Lillie. like the priests of Isis in Egypt. p.. . pp. like the Grand Llama. vowed to celibacy." " God of Gods. for instance. or Chief Priest of the hierarchies of Babylon. Isis and Osiris. p. living apart from the rest of the community. 114 see also Hislop. p.. . The Grand Llama occupies precisely the same position as the Pontifex Maximus. like those of the other Pagan nations. Layard's Babylon and Nineveh^ p. p. or Emperor. 5 ^ Bryant. It is also the most elaborate and complete. from the Muni had been acknowledged as Buddha. Egypt and Rome. 118. THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD existed in Sun and Serpent worship. as. 209. or Omito Fo. ii.

^ Lemprifere. • ^ Carmina. . 616 vol. that is called " The Sublime Sun Buddha whose widespread rays all things. xiv. p. p. shaving it round th^ I Is cut. and directed nis disciples to do so in obedience to a command of Vishnu. *^ Leviticus xix.'' " The Arabians. was founded on Sun worship. / shown by the commands given It may be noticed Kwanyin and other deities to the Israelites forbidding it. " The shaved heads. like other Pagan systems. 237. 27." brighten and illumine said that and that he reported to have bowing to the East (the usual act of adoration to the Sun god) was " the paramita of charity.^" it is very evident that the ancient Buddhism. 193. . Isis and Isiaca. 245. the Queen o£| jteeaven. vii." ^ Considering then that the Sun he is Buddha's special emblem. and they say their hair is cut in the same way as Bacchust Now they cut it in a circular form. 87. iii. l*Dryden. i. priests of Isis likewise shaved their heads. It was placed round the heads of the images of the gods and heroes in Rome and Greece. to whom divine honours were paid after death. Tertullian. ^ Kennedy. ||emples. lib. and that the ' ' Maurice. cap. . Hindu Myth. by the "aureole." . iii. Virgil.. pp. vol. 264 1. cap.— THE GODS OF EASTERN ASIA priesthoods of the in tonsure. . 851. 246 vol." says Herodotus4 acknowledge no other gods but Bacchus and Urania..." The author and says of it is Pompeii notices it in a painting of Circe and Ulysses. p. book xii.5 Sakya Muni is said to have shaved his head. It was regarded as the token of the divinity of the person represented. pp. 1105. Macrobius.^ Hence The antiquity of the custom is -Ijtheir title. p." says Sun god. Antiq. Buddha in . " To mark his lineage from the god of day. 775 Hislop. lib. 'On ^leid. 222. 1106. 28 Deut. ver. pp.^ so did those of Osiris 3 so did '* those Pagan Rome.^ Buddha." that is. 221. p. vol. . and also round the heads of the Roman Emperors. pp. l7id." which was also a particular symbol of the Sun god in other nations. Herod. as implied by the are surrounded lines : also that the heads of all the images of " Twelve golden beams around his temples play. Hislop." or " halo. who of in their tonsures represented the solar disk. i. 165 Hislop. ii. defined by Servius as " the luminous fluid which is encircles the heads of the gods. that is to say. xxiii.." Sun god The . the perfection of righteousness. 263. of his being a son of the Sun god. ii. " The ceremony of Maurice/ " was an old practice of the priests of Mithra (the of Persia). p. lib. viii. . '"Lillie.

as was constantly the case in Paganism. Mr Edwin Long's picture "Anno Domini. and other forms of the Kwanyin is always one of mercy. The male Kwanyin was really a form of Buddha The ancient liturgies clearly address Kwanyin as a goddess. 150 . everything was done i to identify the Pagan god with the promised "seed of the woman." and this is the attribute especially applied to her in the Chinese liturgy.^ See Prayer. Davies. Hislop. for.4 and in China the Holy Mother. " The Ceres in Rome. Crabb's Mythology. ante. as we shall see. whose attributes were given to Pagan gods. of the goddess " Kwanyin " also corresponds with that of the goddess in other systems. Dr Edkins seems to think that Kwanyin was once a male deity." the She is The Wrath Subduer. The character " The Mediatrix. she is the goddess of wisdom. and it is more probable that. p.112 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD like the other original or mythological Buddha." Aphrodite." so was the goddess called " Queen of Heaven. is represented in the same way. the character of called " the shi yin. and that his sex has been changed. carried in a long procession of priests from an Egyptian 'temple. In Egypt. /See p. p. p. Just also as the god was called " Lord of Heaven. was equally the title of Kwanyin. she was represented as Isis with the child Osiris or Horus in her arms. was yet one and the same deity." ^ and these were the principal aspects of the god and goddess throughout Paganism. Sakya Muni. pp. known by many names indicative of her various attributes. " matter. as Fortuna and the boy Jupiter. It is Ithe meeting of the true and false Christs." and Like this. " Shing Moo. Edkins. or as Irene with the boy Plutus. ii. In Greece as Ceres with a babe at her breast." so is Kwanyin. 56 . In Rome. In Hislop." there is a golden figure of Isis ^with Horus in her arms." Bona Dea.'' . and » 5 called Chin Fo.^ Like Venus Mylitta." who is probably a form of Kwanyin. \ * tec. But this is unlikely. 106. In India.^ Now this peculiar mode of representing the goddess and her son was common throughout Paganism. a Sun god. who. Just as Buddha is " the Sun. as we have seen. Edkins." 3 Finally Kwanyin is represented with a child in her arms. China. the latter being the feminine counterpart of the former and ' 3 possessing similar attributes. p. 385. -Ibid. and in Buddhism " no person holds so large a place in saving mankind as Kwan great goddess. there was a god and goddess of the same name. or aspects." or " the earth. In Asia. vol. woodcuts of goddess and child from Babylon and India. Minerva. as Isa and Iswara. 21 and note. pp. was. 19. 242. as Cybele and Deoius. goddess of mercy. 382. while in the foreground is the infant Jesus with Maiy and Joseph. " title of Good Goddess.

43. General Cunningham quotes Quintus Curtius as saying that the companions of Alexander the Great noticed the fact that " the Indians reputed as God whatever they held in reverence. there are a multitude of Bodhisat was. many other the seventeenth day of the seventh month.^ which therefore nearly exactly corresponds with the date on which the festival of the dead was held in nations. 383. by Gen. Cunningham. in which. is as characteristic of Buddhism as it was of Western Paganism. the fifteenth day of/ their seventh month. THE GODS OF EASTERN ASIA But while the period this indicates the intimate connection of it is 113 Buddhism with Chinese other Pagan systems at some previous period. which it was death to injure. especially trees. Tree worship. however. v. 161 Lillie. 109. 113-116. vol." It is possible that Sun worship and the distinctive features of Western Paganism were never fully received by Eastern Asia. were prominent features.' . yet evident that must have been very remote. 106. There are. i. x.See Edkins. chap. see ante. and the same homage was paid to the tree as to • Buddha himself. 45. viz. or holy men. ' . ' Wilkinson's Egyptians. 384.^ There are also prayers for the dead as in Egypt. and the Stiipa of Bharhut represents the Bodhi trees of the seven Buddhas. for instance. who were illustrious men. pp. the distinguishing feature in Western Paganism. and the worship of certain. In short. ^ Gen." ^ The worship of the dead was. the *' saint worship. besides the Buddhas and goddesses.. veneration to the^ Holy Fig-tree is strongly inculcated. H . where large sums were paid for the celebration of prayers and sacrifices for the dead ." J heads of the Cingalese monasteries assert that their main rites areti. p. many points of identity between the two systems. 268.^ Buddha is represented aS| sitting under a tree. in which the Grove worship. whose images are also worshipped after their death. 27. In the edicts of King Asoka. pp. iStupa of Bharhut. pp. 94 . 4 5 Edkins. so constantly referred to in the Old Testament. infra. 4 There is also a special day set apart for the* worship of their ancestors by the Chinese." It is still more characteristic of Buddhism. p. viii. chap. sacred trees. as we have seen. real for the have child altogether lost the significance of the mother and Kwanyin being now simply regarded as " the giver of sons. viz. This was not merely the case in the worship of the greater gods. .. ii. p. p. iVTphebm's Sacred and Historical Booh of Ceylon. each being worshipped. 383. vol. and called " hero gods. and were probably in part derived from the mythology of India. but also in the worship of minor deities. .

249. 1205. 5 Arnobius." This is expressed by the to his due punishment J from the * phrase " Shu tsui. ^ Edkins. ^save the sins. Phcedrus. 57. 239. and especially that of Assyria and Egypt.^ Sraddha " for the repose of was the idea among the Pagans that dead went to a purgatory which Plato describes as a subterranean "place of judgment. . 55. Lillie. ii. as. . vol. after a confession and a baptism of water. the god they represented entered into them and "* dwelt there.. ^ Asiat." But the feature in which Buddhism most closely resembles the Paganism of the West. ii.' !/the In India the service of the It . 385. xx. '' Journ. Soc. the In ^initiate was supposed to be ^reborn' and forgiven all his sins." The Pagans of the West consecrated their images and believed that. 1204. 245. p. is supposed to animate it. pp. lib. 536 Plato. 39. book vi. . to defeat the actions of evil ' Plato." " redeem from guilt. \oh i.'^ ceremony called " Buddhism ^ the initiate is also baptised after a confession of his sins *and certain vows. 240. 879. pp. ." and directly the crystal eyes are put into an image the spirit of the god. cuneiform inscriptions of Western Asia a number of incantations and spells used by the Chaldean priesthood. v. 11. and xvii. Res. pp. . 172. the change being called " the white birth. similar to that of " The Lesser Mysteries " in Egypt feind Greece. Asiat. p. p. 252 ^TertuUian. WORSHIP OF THE DEAD sacrifice and as where the greatest and most expensive " was ^he mysterious sacrifice called " Telete" ofi'ered for the sins of the living ^nd the dead. or departed saint. and entitles The baptism 9 that rescues from life and confers salvation. vol. where they underwent various sufferings until they •were cleansed from their sins. by which. 995-1012 vol. p. vol. caps. pp. Gregory Nazianzen.the dead was equally costly. ** Lillie. by which they invoked the aid of a multitude of beneficent spirits." " A sutra of Sakya Muni Buddha death. ix. Suidas. is M. 4 Edkins. p.^ There are other minor points of resemblance. 3Dryden's Virgil. pp. p. 364. for instance. the 'rite of initiation.114 I^HE in Greece. Lenormant has collected from the its demonology and ynagic. p. De Baptisjno. mediation to " redeem the deceased person their and by soul. by so doing. 365 vii. Opera. ii. vol. 5 The Buddhist idols are also consecrated by a opening to the light. |Similar services called " Kungte" (merit) are performed by the They profess to have the power to k Buddhist priests for the dead. 386.^ and these sufferings were supposed to Ibe shortened by the prayers and services held by the priesthood. and it is ^ considered regenerated.

" the Buddhist rites and the Buddhist liturgy all seem based on this one idea. Ihid. medicine and magic practised by the Buddhists of China that he made the king eagerly desire to visit that land of marvels. When Yung Shin. occupy themselves with writing charms for driving and with reading prayers for the removal of The Tanist magician " will undertake to drive calamities. pp. xxiv."^ Hence "a portion of the relics of Buddha was a sine qua non in each of its temples. 257." says Mr Lillie. They work a sort of magical effect. " because the people believe These powers were in the magical efficacy of Buddhist prayers. the Chinese the King of Oudeyana he gave such a flattering monarch of the divination. which was thought gave them greater efficacy. fortune-telling." out a demon from the body of a madman. and in front of many statues of Buddha there is a table in China on which an apparatus picture to that ' Lenormant. and in that state exhibits the various marvels of clairvoyance." 3 The Tanists. "It was plainly. 115 and dispel The extreme antiquity the effects of sorcery. sits another holy man who periodically gets obsessed by the dead saint. 381. p. misfortune. containing charms." or under a tree. supposed magical powers of the priests." 5 Mr Edkins remarks certainly does not rest that the present popularity of Buddhism but on the on the doctrines of the faith. or They are not prayers in our special books.THE GODS OF EASTERN ASIA spirits. alchemy. 382. . To this day the Buddhist temple is the home of marvels. ^ Lillie. or portion. p. Ibid.. 47. " an elaborate apparatus to nullify the Even the liturgical action of evil spirits by the aid of good spirits. 380. 47. Mr Edkins says. that a whole. " They are chanted by the priests... 37. and under this tree. of a dead body was necessary. So with Buddhism. This was plainly for magical pilgrim." and " consist of extracts from sutras." says Mr Lillie. p." ^ prayers of the Buddhists are incantations. Chaldean Magic. and to bring rain in time of Buddhist sect. 47. of the chief aiding spirit. chap. disease. Edkins. drought." ^ " due to " necromancy. p.^ " The Buddhist temple." etc.. to cure the sick by magic. visited purposes. 5 ' Ibid. 3 * 6 « Ibid. by-and-by. and is buried in a tumulus. Lillie. etc' of these incantations is shown by the fact it that they are expressed in the ancient Accadian language. or portion of the corpse.4 " demons out of houses." The aid of beneficent spirits was sought through the instrumentality of the corpse. and from a haunted house. a sense. pp. " A saint dies.

He represents to himself in thought another body created from this material body. or a serpent issuing from a basket in which purified it is confined." or " Shramanas." etc. the creation of the Manas. By the power V)f the Manas he is able to read the most secret thoughts of others. Quoted by p. for This planchette has been I . The Lotus. known many hundred years. to rain I I down water and then fire He had to rise from his body. 190 . when and perfected. enlarges upon the exact object of the ascetic. 39. * 3 295 . to make . 89. He acquires the power of hearing the sounds of the unseen of will. It is the fruit In this transitory body of the union of his father and his mother." ^ The magical powers exercised by the Buddhist priest are attributed to asceticism. He finds — — ." - The Samanna Fhala Sutra. / p. The ascetic therefore directs his mind to his intelligence is confined. Lillie. Appendix. in ' Beal. " has a body composed of the four elements. which. 270. Messrs Hue and Gabet report that they saw a Bokte rip open his own stomach in the Great Court of the Lamaserai of Rache Tchurin. and when they are again reborn. 38. p. 476 . is like the sword and the scabbard.ii6 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD is similar to a planchette used for ghostly communications. 45. ramparts and he is able to throw his phantasmal appearance into many places at once he can walk upon the surface of the water. Lillie. p." a word meaning "quieting of the passions. Lillie. " Mr Lillie remarks. that body expand and then grow indefinitely small the sixth exploit was to disappear in the heavens and return to earth and then rise once more aloft. " Six supernatural faculties were expected of the ascetic before he could claim the grade of Arhat. himself able to pass through material obstacles walls. pp. pp. ' Then he detects the secrets of the universe. Buddhist Pilgrims.' and he sees all that men do on earth and after they die. vol." ^ the object of asceticism being the complete subjugation of every natural desire as a means to the attainment of these supernatural powers. in relation to the material body. The marvels of the Shaman are so well known to readers of travels in Buddhist countries that they need not be dwelt on here. p. ^Then comes the faculty of divine vision. Edkins. world as distinctly as those of the phenomenal world." he says. . » ii. 45. Then the ascetic. commences to practise supernatural faculties. I into the air. note. "Man. is said to have been written by Sakya Muni. 46. This body. and Another faculty is now conquered by the force fly through the air. Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio. p.^ The name given to these ascetics was " Shamanas.

These horrible ceremonies. who are adepts in such surprising arts. the of the Egyptian priests. by their enchantments. and the idolaters. ii. causing them to pass in whatever direction they please. "What has moved you to be baptised and take up the faith of Christ? What powers or miracles have you witnessed on His part ? " You know that the idolaters here say that their wonders are performed by the Well.THE GODS OF EASTERN ASIA Tartary. whilst. 339. . whilst you see the idolaters can do anything they please. and I drink from them. ^ why does he not attach himself to it and become a Christian ? Well. whose wisdom was as famous as that similar powers. the Bokte closed and healed the wound with a single pass of his hand. But if I were to turn to the faith of Christ and become a Christian. 117 After a copious flow of blood had deluged the court. inasmuch that when I sit at table the cups from the middle of the hall come to me full of wine. are of frequent occurrence in the Great Lamaserais of Tartary and Thibet. without being touched by anybody. " Since he holds ' ' . 47. then my barons and others who are not converted would say. The Khan is described as favourably disposed to Christianity. — ' These powers. or other liquor. and we do not believe there is any trick or deception about them for from all we have seen and heard we are persuaded that the devil has a great deal to do with the matter. p. would easily compass my death. They control storms. and when they sometimes took upon them to speak to him about the faith of Christ. - Eamusis' edition of Marco Polo . were able to imitate. i. the miracles performed by Moses and Aaron in the presence of Pharaoh. vol. as you know. and we may presume that the Chaldean priesthood.' " In Yule's Marco Polo there is also reference to the magical powers of the Buddhist priesthood in Tartary. Yule's Marco Polo . bk. he said How would you have me to become a Christian ? You see that the Christians of these parts are so ignorant that they achieve nothing.' say the good fathers. who. did not exceed those of the and magicians of Egypt. if they were real. and it is added. and do many other marvels. this is the reason that he gave to Messer Nicolo and Messer MafFeo when he sent them as his envoys to the Pope." ^ the Christian faith to be best. vi. up to a certain point. so they would only be confirmed in their errors. had knowledge sorcerers > Lillie. p. answer to make. chap. their idols speak and give them predictions on whatever subjects they choose. I should not know what sanctity and power of their idols.

are one To day the ministrations ' in the East. wizards. Edkins. will be more fully considered in another chapter. and supplementary to. This. and to the magic.' the mesmeric fluid. that by asceticism and intense selfit is possible to attain a mental abhinna" and ten supernatural powers called " Iddhi. which is supposed to be a proof of superior holiness.. this " The Buddhists are of the great adepts of ? mesmerism. and other methods used by the Greeks for consulting the gods.4 The knowledge and powers. 140. xviii. or "Jhanas. obtained by means of mesmerism were distinct from. those possessed by the ascetic himself." of this self -induced mystic ecstasy before the perfect state is attained. 204. however. chaps. chap. or extasia. sorcerers and I magicians of the Canaanitish nations. 174. book ii. -xviii. viii.*" The ' ^ Ehys 4 * Davis. * It is clear that the magic and sorcery used by the priests of Buddhism are similar to those made use of by the priesthoods of Chaldea and Egypt. and the devotees of Brahminism." are acquired and there .ii8 ^of * THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD attaining which had been is handed down from the ancient Accadians. and of which there have been well-authenticated instances. for abstaining from meat is that flesh " prevents charms and other magical devices from taking effect.are four stages.^ Similar states of extasia and mesmeric trance were customary with the Greek prophets and diviners. The Buddhist state doctrine absorption and mystic meditation. the conditions for acquiring which were celibacy and abstinence from wine and meat. Greek Ant. Greek . and the spirit of God. in which the spirits of the gods were supposed to enter into the person and speak by him.." or self-induced mesmeric trance. and Boyd. however. In addition to this.^ by which six kinds of supernatural wisdom called " . p. Ant. there is the state of " Samadhi. 3 s Lillie. viii." ^ Mesmerism was equally used by the Egyptian priesthood to produce a state of trance. divination. pp. I Mr Lillie says. These are more fully described in chap. combined with solitude and self-absorption. 175. vii. according to the teaching of Sakya Muni. Buddhism. chap. See Potter ii. The reason given. and by the necromancers. book See infra. / i Buddhist monks outside the Viharas are almost exclusively confined to this magnetic healing. Akasa. See also Potter and Boyd." s and we may presume that the other forms of abstinence were considered to be equally necessary. p.

p. xiv.3 and by which. which they regarded as •cantations. Lenormant has also pointed out the intimate relation of the Accadian language to that of the Turanian. were at some remote period intimately . lib.. xviii. to all who believe in an intercourse with the ^ M. were known. the primitive Cushite inhabitants of the Euphrates and Tigris valleys. Appendix D.. 263. xv. Strabo. Lenormant." ^ the name given by Strabo and Porphyry to the Buddhists of India.. lib. chaps. and chap. lib. : . 23.. vol. de Ahstin. xv. ' — remark that in the Chaldean demonology was called in the Accadian language " Llamma" and in Assyrian "Lamas'' meaning ''giant. 712-714 Porph. 265.. 133 Clera. pp. which are the principal features of Northern Buddhism. i. This is the name now given by also called " |German philosophers spirit world. p. Pag. pp. exist in countries where Sakya Muni is unknown. Alex. 24. together with other points of identity between Buddhism and the religious systems of Western Asia. Lenormant has pointed out that the -Turanian and Mongolian races use the same magic. of special efficacy for their charms and in- Moreover. as is clear from the fact that the 1 later Chaldeans used the Accadian language as a sacred tongue. Strom. and *and that a similar magic existed among the people of Media. and which would be equally applied to those who claimed either descent from them." ^ the name by which the Nephilim and Nephilim races. Chaldean Magic.. as 1 1 shown by M. ^ 'origin * of the name " Considering therefore the connection of we have probably here the LamaSy" who are the Buddhist priests and ' magicians of Thibet. 305. of which we shall speak hereafter. chaps. is to be traced to the Accadian race. the Accadian and Mongolian languages. Taking these things into consideration and the fact that Shamanas and Shamanism. p. ii. pp.. : Faber. • 5 ii. one of which possession of their powers. M. it is clear that the religion of Northern Buddhism and of the Turanian or Ural-Altaic races must have been ' 3 Chaldean Magic. cliap. iv. or the It is also worthy of there were two classes of deTni-gods. the followers lof Sakya Muni were called. Opera. p. as we have seen.associated with the Accadians. and that the Ugric and Altaic tribes have their " Shamanas" like the Buddhists. .9 THE GODS OF EA S TERN A SIA . Thibet and China. or Ugric Altaic races. Idol. lib.. 35]. The Accadians. ii. xxiii. 17 Cyril. ^ See Chaldean Magic. 353. implying therefore that the Mongolian people of Northern Buddhist 'countries.original source of this magic. xviii.' It may also be remarked that the priesthoods of Persia and Bactria are I Samaneans.

and his gigantic teeth (probably the fossil teeth of a mammoth or mastodon) which are treasured as sistent relics. and as to trying to be good. JJ. are probably the same now as when first derived from the ancient Accadians." ^ natural and legitimate desire. The same may be said of the gigantic impression of Buddha's foot which is shown in various places. 8. or almost never. while the moral teaching of Sakya Muni is not only withi. . were originally representative of the mythological Buddha. Egypt. the impression is I l^f whose gigantic foot ([|Mecca.. ^ Edkins. consent any form will of retaliation on those who injure them. 304. read in the liturgical services. If so. p. but that having separated from the peoples of those countries at an early period. vol. Its priesthood and ritual. pp. out effect upon the people of these countries but. have also a god. chap.120 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD derived from the same source as that of Babylon. beyond being recognised as an Avatar of Buddha. 381.^ It would appear that Sakya Muni. who are not Buddhists.. Tyr. even to Sakya Muni. Res. the Buddhists (of China) do not evince much indication that this aim is Asceticism. and those by which he is shown as a triple deity. . treasured as a sacred object in the Caaba of as the great father call They worship him t^Ares." and they also him and call him " Theuth" Wudd. They are quite incon- l with the character of an ascetic and teacher. We may also presume that the colossal images by which Buddha is represented. or indeed to forego any race. the books containing his teaching " are never. vol. etc. pp. M. p. 374 ii." or " Thoth-Ares. nor will a barbarous and cruel race. does not appeal to the majority of mankind. iii. and are evidently the rude expression of a belief in a being of abnormal power. has had little or no influence on the religion of Northern Buddhism. 305. as Mr Ed kins remarks. like the Buddha of Brahminism. as taught by a few who ' Maxim." or " Budd" «^and no doubt he is the primitive mythological Buddha. 390. ii. we must look for the origin of the primitive or mythological Buddha from the same source. and which appear to be quite incongruous with the character of the teacher and reformer Sakya Muni. it had only partially adopted their later and more complicated mythological developments. who is the mysterious A. although they were subsequently identified with Sakya Muni. or the denial of every vital and vigorous among them. xxxviii. vol. its magic and sorcery. It is only even undertake the self-denial required to enable them to attain those magical powers which are believed to be associated the extent of forgiving criminals. Asiat... The Arabs. Dissert. p. Faber. 9 .. Phoenicia.

when supposed to be attained. taught by Sakya Muni are a travesty and exaggeration of that of Christianity.. it is the morality which the back happiness.2 But that teaching. God. p. . the promise of : — ' salvation to those gods. Moreover. Sakya Muni was not the originator of the methods for attaining these magical powers. Sakya Muni. because it might seem to be inconsistent with the supposed high morality of his teaching." priesthoods of Paganism have taught in all ages. the law of causation will give me In other words. the . 1-3). should have believed in.THE GODS OF EASTERN ASIA 121 with it. * Khys Davis. (daimonia). which clearly existed ' Edkins. or righteousness. who support the priesthood and temples of the * Mr Rhys Davis rather deprecates the idea that his hero. 381. in spirit diametrically opposed make man the author of his own salvation. and commanding to abstain from meats " teaching " which. while the asceticism he enjoined tion. to it. Nor can that result be altered merely because self -righteousness is condemned and humility enjoined. or. If I give money to gild sacred images. in other words the law of moral retribution which Buddhism teaches. identical with that of the apostasy from Christianity foretold by[ St Paul. iii. and condemned by it. although for it appears to certain is of its features are not unlike the precepts of Christianity. and for the support of innumerable priests. viz. certain features of this morality. is which. Buddhism^ p. 177." " It is on these accounts that What that morality is he explains money flows into the Buddhist treasury for the erection and repair of temples and pagodas. the authors of which are described as coudemninof marriage. magic. Apostle says. and it may be safely asserted that the teaching of Sakya Muni would have had little or no influence had it been without the promise Mr Edkins says that Buddhism (not the teachof those powers. and which powers are not of is that " of seducing spirits It — (1 Tim. while the. Without doubt. ing of Sakya Muni) is believed in by the people because they " believe in the magical efficacy of Buddhist prayers and in moral causation. adulation and worship which these supposed holy men receive from' their followers cannot fail to conduce to the same result. and doctrines of devils "l would seem indeed that this abstinence' is a necessary qualification for attaining those powers wielded by the priesthood and magicians of Paganism. can only exalt the pride and self-confidence which is so opposed to the spirit of Christ. The humility in such cases will only be afiectathe pride that apes it. and advocated.

but it is impossible to believe that he could have if he had made no claim to them. etc." ^ sion of ten thousand perfections. 62. images. The latter was a Brahmin born in the kingdom of Magadha in Central India. the battle-axe of Thor in Scandinavian inscriptions." or " wan. we may presume that his reported association with these occult and magical powers is of the latter. . then. Buddha in is evidence of the existence of an occult doctrine from the moral teaching of Sakya Muni. the devotees of which followed a similar asceticism. but there not only no evidence that he ever opposed them. we may presume. sacred trees. In Sanskrit it is called " Svastika.122 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD is before his time." " It was the monogram of Vishnu and Shiva. and laid claim to similar magical He acknowledged the Vedic gods and advocated the worship of the Chaityas. correct. quoting from a Japanese Encyclopaedia. 63. p. 108 109. and which. 3 Chaityas. and that." Mr Edkins says that the symbol of this esoteric principle communicated orally attained the influence he has had. but as Sakya Muni could never have had the influence he has had by his moral teaching only." It contains within it the whole mind of Buddha.'' and implies the posses- It is usually placed on the heart of images and pictures of that divinity.^ and we must presume that his teaching ' Quoted by Edkins. ^ Edkins. Remusat. when he seems certain. " Buddha (Sakya Muni) before his death committed the secret of his mysteries to his disciple Maha Kashiapa. and shown by the " Svastika " to be connected with the mysteries of other Pagan nations. that such occult teaching concerning magical powers was attributed to the primitive Buddha. Sakya Muni was a product powers. it was afterwards attributed It was recognised as Buddha." " heart's seat. To him was entrusted the deposit of the esoteric doctrine called Chen fa yen tsang' the pure secret of the eye of right doctrine. like other characteristics to Sakya Muni. of Brahminism. ' ^ without books is r-p " man. an ornament on the crowns of the Bonpa deities of Thibet. . as we shall see. distinct are the real source of its influence. was the secret of attaining the magical powers which constitute the chief feature of Buddhism. says that. It is probable that this secret doctrine was originally that of the primitive mythological Buddha. See Stupa of Bharhut. pp. and Here. It is sometimes called " Sinyin. and a favourite symbol with the Peruvians. pp. 62.

which sprang out of Brahminism. was acknowledged and honoured by the Brahmins. M. Vishnu and Siva. however. and that it has remained unchanged for the last 3000 years. and known by the sacred and mysterious name A. which.THE GODS OF EASTERN ASIA 123 and asceticism were the product of his religious environment. who was manifested • 3 Ante. and that their origin must therefore be sought for in . Fo.e. 445. 3 and the fact that the name of their Pontifex and priesthood." called also " Fo Hi.^ Professor Baldwin quotes Eugene Boumouf as saying that. as we shall see.. is viz. Emperor. 329. ''Lamas'' who wield such remarkable magical the same as that of the demi-gods of the Accadians. The question is Can we identify and ascertain the origin of the primitive and mythological Buddha ? The Buddhists of Thibet insist that their religion has existed from the beginning." i. and his followers excommunicated. immediately after that great division of time which was produced by the Deluge " that " he carefully bred first . Mother and Son is similar to their Trinities that the principal features of the religion of Northern Buddhism are identical with those of other Pagan systems. both are found to have originated from the same source. a remote antiquity. Pagan nations that the Buddhist Trinity of Father. " he found it difficult to understand the intimate connection that existed But the difficulty is between Buddhism and Siva worship. vol. Faber. 343 ' . as we have seen. Sakya Muni's influence is paramount in Southern Buddhism. because his teaching was anathematised the Brahmins. that Buddha and Buddhism existed before Sakya Muni that the characteristics of the supreme. ii. p. or mythological. pp. which led them by to repudiate the Vedic gods and exalt Sakya Muni to the position of the supreme God. . of Brahminism and the Northern Buddhism of Nepaul and Thibet. the originators of magic. p. the is stated to be on the mountains of Chin. Buddha being regarded by them as identical with the triple deity Brahma. . " " common origin of both. . Buddha are similar to those of the sun and serpent gods of other It is clear. " Fo. 255." of the Chinese. p."^ removed when.. In Southern Buddhism he holds the position that Amitabha holds in Northern Buddhism. — powers. 101. Nightingale. and Ceremonies. and the reason of this is. and were recognised therefore by the Brahmins as merely different aspects of the same religious system. no doubt. suggests the The Buddha the Victim. Rites Prehistoric Nations.. viz. U.

'* which is a symbol of the Ark. like Fo Hi. . incorporated into the mythologies of all the Pagan nations. and the preservation of Menu with seven saints in an Ark sent by Brahma in the form of a great fish. So also Buddha is called " Narayana. i. just as Noah was shut up in the Ark for that period. Bunsen. ^ ii. while their gods. pp.' or " Buddha dwelling in the waters. Asiat."^ Menu (Men Null. vol." and that he was " born of a Here he is evidently identified with Noah. 480 .. i. vol. . 379." tends to identify him with Brahma. so to speak. Res. p. vol. in his character as Vishnu. 343. translated by Sir William Jones from the Bhagavat. s ^ p. Btnd. the Victim. ^ So also the mother of Buddha was called "Maha Maya. Sist. 251." ^ sacrifice is clearly — . and his an allusion to the sacrifice by Noah of the different kinds of clean animals which he took into the Ark by sevens. of course. Res. who was identified with the Ark. Hind. v. and with Osiris. 479." " The rainbow. 211. born again in a new world. .5 124 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD seven different kinds of animals which he used to sacrifice to the Great Spirit of heaven and earth. the man or mind Nu. The title " Fo. 223. ii. who was likewise decapitated. Asiat. vol. 709 Faber. Faber. the death of each being represented as having been undergone for the good of mankind. p. pp. who was fabled to have slept a year on the deep. the search for whose head was yearly commemorated. 234 vol. or Nuh. pp. 507. and is represented issuing from the mouth of a fish. 210. she is the same as the goddess mother of Paganism. 230. i." who was decapitated. vol. was called Maya. while the rainbow is an allusion to the covenant made by God with Noah and his descendants. Noah and Vishnu. is the same person." and is called by the Hindus ''Machodar Nath" or " The Sovereign Prince in the belly of the Fish.. were primarily identified with Noah. The events of the Deluge were. is. 117. 252 Moor. 344. — ' Faber. p. who is the same as Ish-Nu. and the great fish which saved Menu and out of which.^ In the story of Menu Satya Vrata. there is the account of the great Deluge. Panth. and Maya is said to be the Mother of Universal Nature and of all the inferior gods that is to say. . vol. as shown by Mr Faber. pp. vol. Apud. pp. pp. vol.. vi." The Mother of the gods and men is constantly identified with the Ark. Faber. i. 386 . p. as that out of which they were. pp. i.. ii. or " the mind Nuh "). and also with Belus. Faber. 102 3 Berosus. vol. he was born. vii. called "Maya. though subsequently identified with Gush and Nimrod. Asiat. Res. 116. . Maurice. 491-495. vol.. 113. also called " the Victim. as in the case of Osiris.

and that he married Ila. Res. as in a Buddhist temple at Pekin wherein is shown — . like the Abbuto of the Japanese.." " King of Justice. Vishnu. 483 . " The Divine Datta " ^ and Buddha is known also by this title in China. 347. Twashta. 3 pp. 353." which. 103. p. worship Buddha under the name of Deva Datta.. Res. pp. Egypt and India) was " Ahoudad. vii. ii. fourteen Avatars of this Mahabad. ii. and his name " Mahabad " is evidently " The of Iran ' Asiat. "Father Boud Dat. vol. in their Zend A vesta. and Ila was also both the daughter and wife of Menu.THE GODS OF EASTERN AS/A 125 Great Maya. 482. 101. and he identifies him indisputably with Menu. » Faber. as we have seen." or " Datta. but it tends to show that it was similar to theirs." who has been identified with Osiris. the mother of Siva. Faber. and has been identified with Buddha. The author of Amaracosha says that Buddha was the son of the Lunar god." The name." This was also the name of Parvati." and that there were. the priesthood of " Buddha —and — according to the Dabestan of monarch Mohsan. ii. ' Ante. is also identified with the triple deity Brahma. Asiat.' Both Buddha and Menu are also called " Dharma Rajah. We have seen that some of the Buddhists of India who refuse to acknowledge Sakya JIuni. . Siva and is especially called " Iswara. or would be. this does not reveal the real human original of Buddha. vol. The name also of their second Man -bull was " Taschta. and of the foot of Datta." which is plainly a form of another title of Buddha. viz." and it is thus clear that Buddha and Menu are regarded as different aspects of the same god in Indian mythology. who also was supposed to have fourteen Avatars.3 it is called the impression We have also seen that the sacerdotal orders of the Persians and Bactrians were entitled " Samaneans " the general name given to Samaneans " must therefore be another name for the Persian " Magi. vol. they held that the first and of the whole world was " Mahabad. Sir William Jones remarks that " Mahabad " is Sanskrit. of the first sacred Man-bull (which was a representative of the Pagan god in Babylon. This identifies Mahabad with Buddha. vol. and that their character as Noah is the same as that of the Chinese Fo Hi.." the " d " and " t " being interchangeable. is glumly Ab-boud dad. Buddha. As many of the gods of Western Paganism were at first more or less identified with Noah. p.^ So likewise. the impression of the foot of Buddha.

-^ It is true that in later times Buddha was regarded as a Solar deity. just as the impression of Buddha's foot is shown in . such as the Kalmuck Tartars." ^ The Chief Bad " or " Bud. See infra. The former was represented by the nations of Western Asia the Assyrians. and constituted the two great dynasties in that country. Phoenicians. .. and are noticed by Strabo and Porphyry. 454. chap. Datta. etc. who represented the more civilised nations of ancient times. p. Nebo. or Solar dynasty. the Surya Vansa. xiv. viz.. These two sects existed together in India. 14. They were called the Solar and Lunar races. There were two great sects among the Pagan nations of the West. 429.. 58.. 437 . iTidia in Greece. 3 This would represent Buddha. through his association with the Vedic gods but in the more distant Buddhist races. and the other with whom the Moon was a male deity and their chief god. ii. viz. Rhys Davis. or Datta. and the Chandra Vansa or Lunar Dynasty Rama being regarded as the great head of the Solar race. and Deva Tat. and Buddha of the Lunar race. 3 Cory. vii. pp. de reb. and the name given to Buddha." the name given by Manetho to the son of Hermes. or Tatta. Hihern. p. or Budd. and son so constantly blend that they are often confused together. 4 Pococke. and have the impression of his foot in the Caaba of Mecca." ^ Now. Hermes. Res. chap. 161 " . ii. Fragments. 197. vol. Apvd Collect. 160. p.s and there seems to be little doubt that the Woden of the ancient Germans and AngloSaxons (with whom the moon was the chief diety) is identical with Poden or Buddha. pp. and by the Egyptians. pp. vol.^ The Arabs also worshipped a god called Wudd. who was always the earthly representative of the Pagan Great Bad. iv. vol. chap. the Celts and characteristics of father — — by the Arabians. Hea. and with the various forms of the father of the gods whose human original was Cush. Asiat. one of whom regarded the Sun as their chief god and the Moon as the o-oddess. and included the country called " Iran. Mercury. 354. Buddha was believed to live in the moon. ." is evidently the same as " Tat. Faber. 183." this would make Maha Bad to be Nimrod. 173. 353. ii. and the latter by the ancient Germans. ' 2 Faber. 5 xiii. vol. . pp. p. 60 Vallancey's Vindie. and we shall see that there is strong evidence to identify Buddha with the gods known as Thoth." or god. as Nimrod's was the first great empire of the world. or "The Divine Tat. No. Bud. to have been Nimrod but the is called " . Greeks and Romans.126 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD " The head also of the priesthood in Persia and Bactria.

iii. 562 p. p. 446 . Ranuxyv/a^ bk. together with the Celtic Gauls. p. ^ Asiat.^ Mercury was represented by a conical black stone Buddha — — : is likewise represented by similar black stones. . Pharsal. ii. 31 . p. lib. vol. Lucan. Ind.. " Mercury's day " by the Celtic nations. Res. as it is now by the French " Mercredi. 444. 359.THE GODS OF EASTERN ASIA Buddhist countries/ chief god. ^ Ibid. note. vol. or Maia. 119. The Lord Moon. Dutch. in his character as Naravahana. 361. ' Asiat. 299. Anglic. pp. 162 5 — . or Budd. vol. viz. vol. pp. Hist. vol. vol. i. ii. Faber. or Thoth. one of the names of Buddha." ^ The star Mercury is also called " Buddha " by the Hindus.^" Again. " Tuisto " and " Teut. Res.. sect.^ This conclusion is confirmed by other evidence. Ant.4 and this was also the name of the The fourth day of the week was called mother of Buddha. p. .. p.. ^ Maurice. 360." 3 In Buddhist nations the same day is called " Boodwar. ii." or " Buddha's day. conwhom the Moon was a male deity and their But it has been shown that Hermes. 173 '° . iii. the sacred symbol of Buddha. while his name among the Anglo-Saxons was Mane or Mani. So also Buddha. vol i. p. 5. Hind.. Instit. vol. and that he was worshipped in Egypt and throughout Asia Minor as Meni.^ Mercury was the conductor of the dead. Iceland. In short. 258 vol. ii. xxi ." and by the Gauls " Teutates " ^ names which are evidently forms of Taut or Taautus. He was thus the Moon god of the Lunar races. who is identified with him. vol. iii. English. 298.. 120. vol. ix. Hist.i9 represented as conveying the souls of the dead over the river of Hell. fol. Mercury. The mother of Hermes or Mercury was Maya. Thoth or Cush. 127 stituted those races with All these. pp. . Faber. i. Lactant. vol. ii. Wonsdctg j Swedish. is also depicted as the god of funeral obsequies. among the Arabs was Thoth-Ares. 162 7 Asiat. Faber. Lempribre. Odinsdag . ii. was the Moon crod.. the head of the Lunar race in India. Hind. the Triratna. cap. p. and it would therefore appear that Buddha.^ and Menu Satyavratta. 481. p. * p. i. would easily pass into Tuisto.. 1748." and by German nations " Wodensday " or " Wednesday. Res. one of the titles of or Hermes Buddha. 481 . Woensdag . . was the same god. lib. composed of two serpents ' ^ Ante. Maurice. . 339. ii. vers. Etymol. i. one of the names of Thoth and the name Twashta (Tuasta). 340. p. Wednesday Junii. 375 Faber. The Latin writers state that the chief god of the German and He was called by the Goths Celtic nations was Mercury or Hermes. vol.

201. ii. .. is a title of The names Buddha Narayana. who is the same as represented by a gigantic figure sixty Dagun. Dag Buddha. chap. p." from the Chaldee " Dag. p. vol." 3 and his special symbol is the " Hea. bk. p. was the great instructor and prophet.^ and he is clearly the same as the Fish god Dagon. Syme's Embassy to Ava. of instructor is the So also and his special symbol was a serpent^ " Knowof Tree The Serpents" King of the The Buddha serpent. vol. 9 '° Asiat. i. 379. .. 107-109. vol. Ace." synonymous with "prophet. Chaldean Magic. 479. Asiat. 451. vol." or "The Fish On." and this was exactly the character of Hermes." ^° and the name of Buddha in Thibet. vi. "The Understanding. appendix i." i." the name of the Now some sun." " the Mind. Faber."" further identifies Buddha with the Babylonian Dagon and Cannes. 117.e." the title of the Moon god Thoth or Hermes. Ante. v. Ibid."' and has man or celebrated for his wisdom." and it therefore the same significance as ''Mens.. 468.." "mind.' In Pegu there is is a temple of Kiaki. like Buddha." and as " Meni" " the Numberer. therefore. or " Buddha dwelling in Buddha. ' Ante. iv. He god." "intellect. and Daghope of temples the called are Buddha of temples of the DacTon. 5 6 7 8 Pococke." "teacher. ii. 43. ii.e." the " Men " of " Menu. 480." is called " "Cannes. Hamilton. " The Sovereign Prince in the belly of the Fish. the Waters. 250 Lenormant. pp. p." a fish. 413. ii. which is also two serpents forming a and a crescent. lurch. p. ii.'^ ledge.128 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD a circle and a crescent. 9 It is clear. called also "the All-Wise Belus. Dag Po. or "The Fish Buddha. and this just as Buddha is represented by a posture.. the god of science and intellect. "The Dagon. 57 ." is also identified with the Fish god Intelligent Fish. pp. Hea. who. Taber. 3 "» p. vol." " The Intelligent Fish. in a sleeping sleeping figure of nearly the same length in one of the temples of Dagun Dagun. vol. vi. Greece. p. or Dagon. "wisdom.." and Machodar Nath." has the same character. that Edkins. 108. . p. 189. Rajast. vol. pp. 451 .." "Mind" or "Intellect.. Ceylon. p. Res. Res. iii. or Hea. p." "Lord of the mankind. 44. PH. vol. p. the Babylonian form of the same great Buddha was also called " Mahi Man. p. viz. 110 Faber. " Faber. vol. The title "Buddha" signifies is "sage. Colonel Tod. vol. ii. of East Ind." 5 called by Berosus "O'dacon. 378. and " On. p.^ feet long. is making circle evidently a slightly different form of the Cadvxieus of Mercury. the great mind of the ancient Paganism. 379. India in i.

"The Intelligent Fish. ^ 3 5 p. 386. says that " should the waves disturb their foundation he would again conceal them deep in the cell. Taliesen. Faber. etc. the Fish god Cannes. p. I . vol. and Taliesen. under which form (i. These holy Scriptures are said to have been received by him from above. vol. was called Biidd." In the history of Berosus. and that Xisuthrus was directed before the Deluge to bury the records of this knowledge at the city of the Sun at Sippara. 108."' is said to have instructed the antediluvians in letters aud science. 131. and when the waters retired he recovered the holy volumes from the bottom of the ocean. " The Great Bud. Min. was also the author of the sacred writings. 150. chap. the knowledge of magic and magical incantations. by Cronus." ^ or.3 Mahabad. a holy sanctuary there ^ is upon the margin of the flood. 158. Lenormant. and after the Deluge to search for them at Sippara when they were made ' Lenormant. whom M. the British god. 59. Vishnu. therefore. or the worship of the gods. 183 and Appendix L p. or Prydain. ii. " He alone possessed the inviolable secret. p. whose assistance was always sought in times of need. and the possessor of " five holy Scriptures which give the power of knowledge and retrospection. 132. and the construction of cities and temples. ii. pp. Chaldean Magic. p. Faber. 201. and he. is also said to have received from the Creator a sacred book in heavenly language which he promulgated among men. and the means of carrying words of the mouth into effect.. the source of the Chaldean magical powers. Ibid." the first king of Iran. From * ^ Vishnu. xiii."^ Brahma is said to have lost the sacred books while he slumbered at the close of a prior world.THE GODS OF EASTERN ASIA 129 Hea was also the god of Magic..^ Hu. Res. Budivas and Menu . Apud Davies. Lenormant identifies with Hea. pp. Dinbych. 1 1bid. that is during the year in which he was shut up in the Ark at the close of the antediluvian world." ^ So also Buddha was the god who was the supreme source of the magical power of the Samanean priesthood. In like manner Menu is said to have left a book of regulations or divine ordinances. in other words.. the magic word by which he could restrain the powers of the abyss. the Ark). which the Hindus hold equal to the Vedas. tirst Avatar of .e. he preserved Menu while the whole world was inundated by a Deluge. Asiat. as we shall see. ii. and the language of which they believe to be that of the gods. became incarnate in a fish. vol. the ability of accomplishing desires of hearts. Chaldean Magic. speaking of these Scriptures.

Fab. Deane.Wise Belus. the Druids called themselves "prophets and serpents. Arabic and Greek. Plagues of Egypt. Druids." ^ Hindustan. 254. of Now the serpent was deemed "symwisdom and power and creative energy. with those of Cannes. or Hermes." says Maurice. was also called " The Dragon Ruler of World" his car was drawn by serpents. called the " by Athenaeus Tripod of Truth. and of " It was the general opinion in immortality and regeneration. 343 . We of magic. 210. p. those things which is belong to religion and to the worship of the gods. .e. p. p. We . 209. 127." that the principles of that magic and sorcery to say. ix. 210." and Deane remarks that the same word which denotes magic. v. In Canaan.. Menu. 256. have seen that the particular symbol of Buddha. p. according to Hyginus and iElian. . or Budd. Writings of Manetho from SyncelliLS Chron. 211." another form of the same god of whom we are speaking.. the great teacher of mankind and god of a serpent.. the sacred writings of the first Thoth. vol. 169. 5 ' 7 •* Deane. iii." s Consequently Apollo. pp.^ and this second Hermes. 4 Maurice. also denotes " a serpent. Taliesen. the priesthood of which constituted the magicians. antediluvian.. was he who first " arranged in order. and Euseb. Var." ^ and in the rites of Uther Pendragon (the Dragon god) ^° i. .^ while the tripod of the Pythoness. Herod. pp. from Alex.. Davies. he was invoked under the name of " The Victorious Beli. p. the teacher and of Hea. 116. Hea and Thoth. 29. p. " '" cap. Mahabad. from Deane. lib." which tends to identify him with " The All. . Cory's Fragments. 140 ^lian. 27. 228.." was formed of a triple-headed serpent of brass7 the The Celtic Hu. 23.. Hist. called ''Adders.^ known Finally. p. 212. or Budd. and in a scientific manner. Polyhistor . Thus we have an exact correspondence in the characters of Buddha. Deane's Serpent Worship. chap. Hist. 122. whose human original was Cush. Hu. pp. 168. or Thoth. or Hermes. Chron. 3 Bryant. "that the serpent was of a -prophetic nature. 81 Deane.130 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD to all mankind. was worshipped under the form of a serpent. formerly uttered the oracles at " divination Parnassus. Hind. that the first Hermes was an Gory. 6 shall see. Deane. and the Dragon or serpent Python. 200 Deane." ' p. p. by which the aid of the gods was sought. and his priests were ^ In short... before the Deluge were said to be recovered by the second Hermes and deposited in the penetralia of the temples of Egypt. 40. Hu. pp. the god of the Delphic oracle. 66. i . Hyginus. ^ Berosus. ix. was bolical divine '^ " in Hebrew. pp.

pp. to be noted that is Buddha title is called " Cala.e. The primitive or mythological Buddha is. is evidently identical with Again." indicative of his prophetic character. Leips. shortly after the Deluge. Deut. 239. or Budd.. and as the symbol. i. Hea. pref. the first great empire of the world in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates. ' He i. formed of intertwined serpents. pp. therefore. the name of the sacred serpent was Auh. the great prophet and teacher of the ancient Paganism. 240 ." given to the father of the gods Cush) in Greece and Rome.^ It The is. vol. . But there is yet another reason why Buddha must be identified with those gods whose human original was Cush. while the caduceus Hermes. The evidence of ' be seen.THE GODS OF EASTERN ASIA wizards. Taautus. p. Macrobius. Cannes. ' Deane. whose human original was Cush. Oph and Op. while the fact traceable to the early Cushite inhabitants /of the Euphrates and Tigris valleys. " The All-wise Belus." " ^ which the equivalent of the (i. or Ouh. quotes Bossnan on Guinea Acta Erud. and he also worshipped in Phoenicia under the form of a serpent. identified with the prophetic god. whose son Nimrod established. Ibid. therefore. and the witch of Endor is likewise called an Ob. Res. and vol. is "The All-seeino- Janus. of those gods who represented the great prophet of Pao-anism. lib. 27.. the triratna of Buddha. whose language is so intimately this identification is.. or Accadians. Mercury. pp." or was •' Seer. of The serpent is also the especial symbol of Buddha. who I has been identified with called those gods . Hermes. accumulative.. the father of the black or Ethiopian race.. part p. PH. Hermes. p. "Cronus. ii. 265 ' Purchas. cap. 160-178. 1705. xviii. Oh. known under the name of Thoth. XX." or " Time... vol. ofwhom Cush was " the original. Faber. 11. 198. or Cush. the father of the gods. it will that the origin of mag\c is / allied ' with that of the Turanian and Mongolian races who worship Buddha. and the author of magic and sorcery of Western Paganism." or Time. Janus. who was the teacher of those magical powers. ix.e. 4 Asiat. p. 81-84. moreover. which is the word used for wizards and persons having familiar spirits in Levit. necromancers and sorcerers. 1. which to of magical marvels. 393.^ while in Africa. i. alluded to in 131 Scripture. 768 ." and the British Hu.^ It is thus plain that the serpent was regarded as the source or symbol of prophetic and magical power. etc. . the this day is the home serpent is the great object of worship and the worshippers are called Obi. leaves little doubt that he is the same as the prophetic god of the primitive Cushites. Lander's Records. ii.

463. Hea. Cush. p. teacher and magician of Paganism." ^ There is but one explanation. so that many have argued that Buddha must have been an Egyptian. the father of the black race. ^ Tree and Serpent ii. with woolly hair and negro features. and the crisped hair of an African negro. His symbol was the snake. p. vol. "who highly reverence Ethiopian. no evasions respecting the hair will account for the flat noses and thick lips of many of the ancient statues which occur in Hindustan. 464." ^ " It has ever. vol i. Oannes. and the all-wise Belus.. justly remarks. the prophet Nebo. is constantlyrepresented as hlack." he says. like that of a negro. 3 Faber. the Ethiopian. worshipped under the forms of Thoth." says Colonel Tod. are not a little offended when this resemblance to the it African race is pointed out. " been one of the puzzles of the people of Buddhism that the founder of their religion should always have been represented in sculpture with woolly hair.e." says Mr Faber." ^ " Buddha Jain. for these are clearly the well-known features of the genuine African negro. that the human original of Buddha was the same as the human original of the god who was the great prophet. or Mahiman. p. " is perpetually represented by his Oriental worshippers with the complexion. although they esteem his votaries (the Southern Buddhists) .132 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD Buddha. i. as Mr Wilford answered in the negative with abhorrence. 122. the features. with the inquiry whether was meant to represent the hair of an Abyssinian. Pococke. although the chief god of the yellow race. and his statues exactly resemble in feature those of the young Memnon." Buddha. " The representative of Buddha at the period of Chrishna. 250 . viz. or "The Brahmins. ' Rajast. When the crisped hair of their god was pointed out to them by Mr Mackenzie. 189. as heretics. Worship." says Ferguson. " was Nema Nath he is of black complexion. Hermes. . the priests But. pp..

356. 357. p. North. and the god of Magic. . like Hermes and Buddha.Bore. * 5 Manners of the Germans.-' Hence the Egyptian and Babylonian god is sometimes confused with his father. with the ex- man who escaped in his boat . ix. 19-21. and conducts them to the "* ' Edda. Tacitus. chap. pp.. 358. is represented as the author of the sacred writings. therefore. Fab. and a cow became her symbol. 3 Faber. who was Woden. pp. ii. or Bare. grandfather and even great-grandfather.CHAPTER Ancient Gemuins.. is more especially identified with his grandson Gush. Ant. Woden also. i. VII THE GODS OF OTHER NATIONS Celts. also that at that time cow begot Bore. 370.. as the incidents of the Deluge were interwoven with the Pagan mythology. vol.) are represented as having perished at the great Deluge. 371. who is called the husband of the mother and is also represented as floating on the ocean for a year in a ship called Argo. Plut. chap. 359 . 133 . though here represented to be one of the sons of the Patriarch." and " thehh " is also the word used in Scripture for the Ark of Noah.^ Now the mystic word for " cow " was " theha. 372 Faber. and we shall find that Woden. vol. and his three sons are simply the Patriarch Noah and his a great three sons born out of the Ark. Faber. . the inventor of letters. ii. was Mercury or Hermes. Vile and Ve. De hide. Faber vol. and his wife also. Mexicans and Peruvians {see In the Gothic mythology "an impious race of giants" ception of one Gen vi.s Like Mercury and Buddha. vol i. But the result of thus representing the goddess mother as the mother Ark is to make her the mother both of the Patriarch and of his sons. p. the great goddess mother was identified with the Ark. iii. he receives the souls of dead warriors. Mallet. xiii. as in the case of Osiris. just as the bull was the symbol of the great god. who begat Woden. 371. Baris and Theha. pp. and. Thus Tacitus says that the chief god of the Germans. pp.

361. " the seed. just as Osiris was slain by Typhon. . and as the B of the one dialect is the P of another dialect. » Holmboe quoted by i. the spirit of of evil. ' ^ Hislop. who are a branch of the great Scythian nation from W whom the ancient Germans sprang. chap. 93. p.. xiv. It would also appear that Woden. Faber.s Again. of the Scandinavians. Bvxldha and Early Buddhism. vol. . Fab. 312. Wilkinson's Egyptians. Bacchus. The sons of the Patriarch in the Scandinavian tradition are Odin. etc. Just also as the deaths of Osiris. Odin. Edda. the spirit of evil. Apollo and Chrishna." the war god " Odin. Professor vii. and and P are identical letters in Sanskrit. Lillie. the goddess of Hell. or Tuisto. 5 Scandirutvia.'' so " Thor. iv. Osiris. Vile and Ve. p. just as the war god Mars or Nergal was another manifestation of the younger Babylonian god. and other forms of the same Trinity. wife of Saturn the father of the gods. so it is also Woden's day. 57. 357. or Frea. a cognate term to the Greek Thouros. ii. Thammuz. who. ii.^ is evidently the same as Taautus. For he is the husband of Freya. and.134 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD mansious of the Blessed. or Taut. instead Wodensday. are lamented. Twashta. Faber. or Teut. of another people. or Bodhi. Isis and Horus. or Odin. Vile and Ve. are the Scandinavian Trinity. so is Balder lamented by his mother. ii. 357. Thor is represented as bruising the head of the serpent. 395. Freya or Frigga. that he would be restored to life if everything on earth wept for him.4 the Budd.' Just also as the fourth day of the week is called Mercury's day and Buddha's day. was another son of Thor " being probably. the Phoenician name of Thoth.3 The Tamulic pronunciation of Buddha. It is well known that Woden is the same as the Odin of the Scandinavians. 94 . or Poden. pp. one of the titles of Buddha. and Wednesday is called in Scandinavian Odinsday. in short. Moreover. instead of Woden. would just as easily pass into Tuasta. ." ^ a title particularly characteristic of the younger Pagan god. one of the titles of the German god. of one people would easily become the Wudd." who was slain by Loki. Hislop. vol. p. p. who seems to be identified with those gods of whom Gush was the human original. corresponding to the Egyptian Trinity. p. vol. 58. v. or Poden. had a son " Balder. * Faber. like Horus. p. Freya and Thor. vol. Woden is also identified with the same god in his aspect as father of the gods. who was told by Hela. Hermes or Mercury. the name ' 3 Edda.' is Mother Earth and mother of the gods. pp. as suggested by Mr Hislop. Fab. 231. is Pooden. like the Babylonian Rhea. or Woden. and the name of the Gothic god Tuisto.

chap xxi." probably from the Chaldee '' Eoi. 269.^ and with them. vol.^ Their Yule Day or " Child's Day.' pronounced " Yeol. and known by the same name. which was the representative of the great Father. and the dragon was also the symbol of the Scandinavian great Father. 356. Com. chap. the Moon and Fire. j Hialop. that their origin is attributed to Woden in the one case and to Buddha in the other. where they were in intercommunication with the Tartar races. Edkins. just as it warships." that they contain the same relics. in Eastern religions. « Deane. Hind. Serpent }yorship. 70." ^ on the 25th of December was. vol. i. The only difference between Woden and the Southern Buddha is that the former is a war god in accordance with the martial character of his worshippers. This snake in China was the dragon. and those of Buddha. Sharon Turner. and that they knew of no other deities.. We are told by Caesar that the Germans only worshipped the Sun." and came from Northern Asia. p. Anglo Saxons. 249. Cfesar. They called themselves "Asas. p. p. is constantly found in Scandinavian inscriptions. Maurice. such as the warlike Bactrians. He shows that the principle on which the Scandinavian " haughs " are constructed is precisely the same as that of the Buddhist " topes. 230. from the shores of the Euxine and Caspian. 93. . as it is of the Chinese war-junks.-^ symbol of royalty so it was the royal stamp and was the English kings. p. they are not.' "an infant" p. 213. and that the Buddhist symbols. '• 3 5 * ' Lillie. as we have seen. and was the figure-head of their In short. as the Samaneans of Buddhism. Normans and the It is easy to understand how these nations received their religion. or creative power.5 standard of the Danes. well believe that the Buddha of Northern Buddhists. 210. book vi. is represented on almost every sword and bracelet of the worshippers of Woden.THE GODS OF OTHER NATIONS Mr Lillie 135 quotes Professor Holmboe.^ while the Svastica. and also with the Bactrians and Persians." are constantly found in them. while the followers of the Southern Buddha are supposed This. according to Mr Edkins. note. races which. were more or less of the same religion similarities as the Buddhists. pp. "Yule. 235. the Moon was the male deity and the Sun female. pp.^ in China. as proving many remarkable between the worshippers of Odin. the " Svastica " and " Nandavasta. was of a very different character. i. xiv. the Magi of the Persians being evidently the same. however. and we may to be peaceable and gentle. 63. the Indian cobra. • Lillie. Eist. as with other nations who worshipped the god whose original was Cush.^ Moi'eover. therefore. or Woden..

^ p. and who. 293 Faber.. 36. 6. p. ii. vi. the Scythian races. Hesus" the Latin form of ''Hesa. like those of the Phoenicians. chap. like the German Teut. I ' i The Phoenician gods. 362. 374. says that there is which they performed sacrifices to an island near Britain (Ireland) in Ceres and Prosperine in the same It is well fashion as they did in Samo Thrace. Hist. Lenormant writes. chap. called by the Latins Hesus. was represented by a square stone. required humau victims. Faber. 4 Csesar. '' vers. Com. bk. was the Moon. It differed considerably and was more especially the religion of the Celtic nations who preceded them in their emigration to Western Europe. " These barbarous sacrifices took place every year and were frightfully multiplied on the occasion of public calamities ' 2 Sharon Turner. quoting Artemidorus. Caesar says that they also worshipped Apollo. chap. Babylon and from that the Scandinavians and ancient Germans." a title of Buddha. is evidently a form of the Egyptian Taut. xvii.^ Dionysius also says that the rites of Bacchus were celebrated in the British Islands. 3 Csesar. therefore. chap. paid great respect to sacrifices. as we have seen. . 213. Maxim. like Buddha and Mercury. i. c. who is evidently Buddha. 363. vol. Strabo.^ The of identity of the Druidical religion with that of is Phoenicia generally admitted. unlike the Germans.^ a name which. and was called Teutates.. i. " the great Hesa. They also worshipped Hesa. The Celts. the chief god of the German nations. vi. 446 is . was also the birthday of Buddha. col. and this day. viz.. and Baal Samen. pp. They kept December 24th as his birthday. Dissert. 444. were by fire and of the most bloody nature. vi. or Budd. This was also the case with the Arabs. the birthday of the Sun. p.^ which is the same as Ma Hesa. 565. Speaking of these sacrifices at Carthage. Tyr. that Woden. and had many images of their chief god. chaps.136 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD with them the birthday of the Moon. as in other Pagan nations. vol. and that this was the case also with the Arabian god Wudd.." » Csesar.^ We must conclude. M. Octav. and the human sacrifices of the Druids. Jupiter and Minerva. Baal Tliammuz. bk.. lib. 5 " ' Lucan. xvii. Pharsal. Mercury. iv. with whom the Sun was female. Mars.3 who is stated by Csesar and others to have been the same as the German god. . pp. and the Moon god Meni was the chief diety. Phil. Periergesis. Baal Zebuh. xxxviii. Stanley. ... lib. 361. .^ known that the Phoenician element was largely represented among the Celtic Irish. 1066. instead of being. xliv. bk. xvii. xxi. Baal Moloch. Hist.^ and Strabo. vol. Minucius Felix. iv. xxvi. Livy. . ii. p. lib. v. i.

" So also Ceesar. Hist." So also he says that at their funerals. . p 20-22. pp. for the life of a like the similar practice of Suttee in India. the limbs of which formed of osiers they fill with living men. caps. including living creatures. . Hislop. 115.s The remains of these rites still exist in some parts of Britain. by Hodges. who was another form of Saturn or Cronus. p. Wayside Pictures. ii. . which they suppose to have been dear to them them. vol. 1065 Scott. 116. 225 Hislop. in order that the harvest might prosperously grow. Toland's Druids. "all things.^ ' Anc. or vow that they sacrifice them. 361. . which being set on fire. battles will are engaged in and dangers. - Commentaries. Stanley's Sahcean Philosophy. on which the principal festival of that god was The Celtic Gauls off"ered their human sacrifices to celebrated. SDeakins of the Druidical religion in Gaul. for June 24th is the first of the month of Tammuz. the mind of the immortal gods cannot be propitiated. and at Midsummer on June 24th. and employ the Druids as the performers of these "They who sacrifices. either sacrifice men as victims. Similar Baal fires take place still in Ireland on June 24th. says. p.5 The day chosen for doing this also confirms the Babylonian origin of the Druidical rite. which is still known as Beltane ^ is a clear proof of the Babylonian origin of the Druidical religion. but at all critical conjunctures. 116. the men perish enveloped in the flames. p. as described by Charlotte Elizabeth. and slaves.^ Teutates and Hesa. vol. Faber. of East. and they have sacrifices of that kind ordained for national purposes. pp. 105. p. the god of fire. 113. because they think that unless the life of a man be offered man. on which occasion the peasantry pass through the flame and children are thrown across it. Mercury or Taautus. The fact that this takes place on May 1st. p. or Hesus. one has to jump through the fire.-xix. 107 ii. lib. 280. vi. ^ Sanckoniathon's History. p. 104. 3 Hislop. and dependents. the father of the gods. p. their fanaticism ^ celebrated these horrible sacrifices. . are burnt together with Toland says that the Druids offered sacrifice by fire on the 1st May. he also says that " in every place where the Phoenicians carried their trade and their arms. Cory's Fragments." of 2 when living.. to obtain a similar blessing. where men and women assemble round a fire at an ancient Druidical circle of stones after casting lots. > 5 * ' Lord John quoted by Mr Hislop. not only at fixed periods.^ that is. THE GODS OF OTHER NATIONS to appease the 137 wrath of the gods " . and who appears to have been the originator of such sacrifices. Others have figures of vast size. or Cush. xvi.

* . Baldwin.. moreover. vol. These remains are of the same character as the memorials of the of the Druidical worship are. and "/Z" the Chaldee. 240." s Professor Baldwin also remarks that among the Cushite races of Southern India.. 546. p. p. speaking of the Cyclopean excavations in mountains of rock. Cyclopean fanes. might be expected. as any remains Colonel Forbes Leslie. in the Druidical hymn to the Sun. and in those parts which were easily accessible to the Phoenician traders. as in the worship of Taramuz and Moloch. x. barrows containing human remains. vi.. Druids. 227. ' prevail. the word "mag" like the Celtic "mac" means ^ Davies. 369." ^ The " Grove worship " of the Druids is a further evidence of the Babylonian origin of their religion. cromlechs. where the Dravidian Cushite race in India. stone circles. " They celebrated the praise of the Holy One the in the presence of the purify^ which was made to ascend on high. p. vol. "they are incontestably of the same character as those of Syria and Western Europe. to which the previous Celtic inhabitants were driven by the Belgic British and other German invaders. Prehistoric Nations. so "Haul" is the Welsh for "fire. and " Ell " the Gothic for " fire." " Hil" the Maeso Gothic for the Sun. for throughout Paganism the latter emblem was the sacred symbol of their god.4 Considering that the Scythian or German ancestors of the British only recognised some of the primary features of the old idolatry. and so is their worship of the cross with which it was combined. p. ing fire Thus. 3 " The Druids in their grove worship were accustomed to select the most stately and beautiful tree as an emblem of the deity they adored. it is said." is It is worthy "' of remark. principally found at the present day in the southern and western parts of England. and together with the body presented the appearance of a huge cross. ^ See chap. and on the bark in several places was also inscribed the letter Thau " (or T). " Cushite or dialects son. that while ''El" Hebrew for God. i. 370. • 5 Maurice's Indian Antiquities. dolmens. Rawlinson's Herod. pp. and having cut off the side branches they affixed two of the largest of them to the highest part of the trunk in such a manner that the branches extended on each side like the arms of a man.138 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD It is clear also that the Druids regarded the Sun as a deity. says. and fire as having a divine efficacy. These monuments in the Dekkan are found in all the varied forms in which they are found in France and Britain." etc. Ibid. AV the Semitic. 49. i.

the symbols of Hu were the bull and serpent. Faber. Hihern.. there are more evidences of the former prevalence of the religion of Babylon and Phoenicia." and that he was the same as the Bacchus of Greece and Rome is evident from his title " Broum. that the islands of Scotland were inhabited by the gods of the natives. pp. Druids. 118. while the festival of Shamna. At this festival peasants waded into the sea to search for the head of the god. Faber. 4 ^ phit. 176." and with "Taautus. 43. p. iii." a title Buddha. 657. pp.e. pp. 449." one of the most general It titles of Buddha.' He was also known as " Tath. General Valiancy says that the ancient Irish were worshippers of Buddha. 584 . and other forms of the god." "Budher" and " Budwas. held in November. was of by the " la Tat" i." or "Buddha. ii. Tat's day. p. the Indian " Yune." who. 364. etc. " Arhan." or " Juno " . 12. may very well be synonymous with "Bud". 13." his wife. Faber.^ was also said by Demetrius. and he is called " The Bull of Flame " and " The Solar Bull. and " Sakya."^ These facts show that the Celtic religion. and other tribes of similar origin. Samano. ^ p." or " Thoth. vol. Arran." " lone.^ " there was a search for a lost portion of his body. " Ila. just as in the lamentations of Osiris. is also evidently the Irish " Saman" or " Shamma. ii. " ' Collect de reb. . No. 460. iv.." a title of Buddha. was also called Budd." ^ Like the gods also of Babylon and Egypt.' or Bud" was their god who presided over Tuarriage and was probably the phallic god like Mercury. which was the beginning of the Egyptian month of Thoth. vol. pp. " " Bod'. 568. was the god of the dead and judge of departed spirits. 363. vol. in both Ireland and the Western Isles of Scotland. 470. vol.. while clearly from the Again. at the same time as the feast of All Souls. ii. or Shony. Mythology of Brit.THE GODS OF OTHER NATIONS In Ireland also where the Celtic 139 (and probably Phoenician) population seems to have been in excess of the German Belgae. * Ibid. Now Bute." and just as we have seen that Buddha was identified with Menu." is clear from the fact that the 1st of August.. 228. 469. Skye." for both the Greek and Latin Bacchus was called ''Bromus" or "Brumus. No. 5 pp. quoted by Plutarch. so the Celtic Hu was also called " Manon" " Menu " and "Menroad. Islay. ''Tait. 365. 366.. vol. called Irish." s The Pagan Irish likewise worshipped Bacchus under the title of " Ce Bacche." or and his identity with "Tat.3 " Hu. 304-306. like Buddha. p. 116. 364. Faber. 428. Faber. De Defect Orac. 279. vol. 468. lona. ii. was a festival of the dead." the god of the Celtic nations.

pp. similar as the latter religion was to that of the Druidical. the gods of which were Baal etc. chap.. the the chief god of the Celts was Buddha. as obtain their religion wholly from the Phoenicians.140 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD original source as the other branches of Paganism.e. 24-26. in which he points out this identity of language. lib. Cush. 3 Prescott's Conquest of Mexico. especially sacred to the Pagan gods. with a winding ascent outside and resting-places. to fifty thousand a year. . p. human original of whom was The Gods of Mexico and Peru.. Balan Agal. 4 See ante. it is said." which in Chaldee is " hel" was. and holding it up as an ofiering to the Sun god.. i. The Cushite origin. book iii. xi. indicating its The Mexicans also worshipped the cross.. etc. and. Humboldt's Mexican Researches. Mercury. iv. 167 . especially in the names of its principal guds. ' Vide Kennedy's Atlantis. amounting. vi.. they sacrificed children.^ the Mighty.-^ while the features of the image of the god to whom they were sacrificed were black. It is clear also that. p.^ was Bel. so on the top of the Mexican tower was their temple.^ human sacrifices. bk. p. p. and that the Celts therefore did not. or Thoth. 213. is a further proof of the origin of the Mexican religion for the " heart. vii. 5 Herodotus." while the names of others of their gods were compounds Their bloody of Baal or Bel. we find. Turning now from the old world to the new. Tammuz. like the rest of the nations at a distance from Babylon and Egypt. iii. and the altar on which they sacrificed their victims. and. bk. chap. as we have shown.4 The Mexicans had also pyramids.'^ Spaniards found it as a sacred symbol in the Mexican temples. vi. 168.. Balan Quitze. vol. chap. yet differed same considerably. they had a god called "Hu Phoenician. Phoenician and the to Canaanitish nations. Baalzebub. i. chap. according Mr Kennedy. viz. viz. and Prescott's Conquest of Mexico. 6 Prescott. cap. bk. some have supposed. that the language of the Mexicans was largely Like the ancient British. i. ^ Ibid. iii. The remarkable custom also of the sacrificing priest tearing out the heart of the living victim who in Chaldea . chap. while just as the temple of Belus was at the top of the great tower of Babylon. not like those of Egypt. chap. 181 . 82. iv. like them. but constructed in exact conformity to the tower of Belus at Babylon. i. from the Phoenician religion. 49. p. were also in strict keeping with those of the Celts.

who was one Pagan god in Greece and Rome. p. " According to the ancient traditions collected by Bishop Francis NuJaez de la Vega. p. Mex. . p. p. p. 112. 134. pp. p. . Wodan co-operated in the construction of the great edifice . H. 495 Hislop. vol." ^ the worthy of remark also that both the god Pan.. and the goddess Maia were well known in Mexico under those very names." ^ Moreover. * 7 Julius Firmicua. vol. so tlie liead of the serpent who is the genius of spirit is Humboldt writes. p. i. vol. or devil worshippers of Koordestan. the Yezidis. p. which had been undertaken by men to reach the skies the execution of this rash project was interrupted each family received from that time a different language and the great spirit Teotl ordered Wodan ^° to go and people the country of Anahuac (Mexico). who. v. « Ibid. p. It was and in Rome to of Ceres. 133. x. 320 .. and it is still held by the people inhabiting ancient forgiven .. the Wodan of the Chiapenese (Mexicans) was the grandson of that illustrious old man. chap. De p. Res. infra. Horus. " began a solemn fast of forty days in honour of the Sun. 1204. p. of Max. Appendix. lib. just as Apollo. Kennedy's Atlantis. vol. Hislop. and Landseer's Sabaan Humboldt's Mex. . . and Pan was adored throughout Mexico and Central America. also. i. p. ' Prescott. = ' Tertullian. 404 H.. p.. 145. Researches. was saved on a raft together with his of the forms of the family. . compare .^ Again."* Egypt in honour commemorate the sorrows held in of the Sun god Osiris. it 141 was a general object of adoration/ So ' just as in the Lesser Mysteries of Paganism. the statement of Francis Nunez de la Vega clearly proves the origin of the Mexican religion. 278. part i. i. i. p. Res. throughout the Pagan world a forty days' lenten or spring fast was held. part 5 Prescott's Conq. Humboldt. at the time of the great Deluge in which the greater part of the human race perished.^ Finally. Thor and the Indian Chrishna are Assyria. 105. 70 Arnob. '° Humboldt.'' So also in Mexico " three days before the vernal equinox. 132. 228 Brasseur de Bourbourg's Introduction in Landa's Relacion.." - a baptism of water. p. Adv." says Humboldt. p. 185 ^ Layard's Babylon and Nineveh. vol.. 93. Gent.^ represented as crushing evil. Wilkinson's Egyptian Antiqtiities.THE GODS OF OTHER NATIONS as in other Pagan nations. 9 Abbe Errore. Appendix." . " The serpent crushed by the great Teotl when he takes the form of one of the subaltern deities genius of It is evil. quoted in . 405. the initiate was pronounced "regenerated and so the Mexicans baptised their children and pronounced them to be " born anew " by the rite. 465 . which consisted of all his perjuries. i. i.. 60.

but showing that the original of the god worshipped as Buddha and Woden was indeed Cush. like the Goths and Scandinavians who called Wednesday. and the form of their temple towers. vol. . were worshippers of the Sun and fire. the sacred fire. connect them more intimately with the Phoenicians and Babylonians. were bound to perpetual virginity. 3 5 See ante. The Peruvians. Wodansday. as at Rome. Vesta and Vestales . 319. Peru. bk. and. that the original of the Gothic and Scandinavian god was Cush. Wodan. consisting of a human countenance on a burnished plate of gold. like them also. Compare Lemprifere. chap. comes to us like a voice from the dead. their other gods. p. but this is no real objection.. But besides this. i. So also. studded with precious and so arranged that the rays of the rising Sun fell directly upon it and lighted up the whole temple. like the Mexicans.142 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD This tradition. Mex. so the Mexicans call it after the name of their ancestral deity. the . while their festival of the dead on November 17th ^ is more especially Egyptian. the grandson of Noah. being regarded as an emanation from the Sun god. 47. pp. 5. iii. I grandson of Noah ? But the authenticity of the tradition is placed beyond doubt by the fact that. . ritual and customs. 32. 33. 46. he was chiefly responsible for the attempt to build human the tower of Babel. chap. it evinces a knowledge which has only come to light within the last few years for how could the author have known. by vestal virgins. mirror.'* The sacred fire was tended. 41. i. and Prescott. not only corroborating the Mosaic account. in which he lived. iii. or conceived. preserved by a people separated by long ages from the people of the old world.^ It will be observed that. and the entire absence of artificiality about it obliges one to reject the idea that the author invented it nor could any reason be conceived for his doing so at the time. p. p. like those of Rome. i. and Prescott describes the magnificent temple of the Sun at Cuzco in which was a representation of the Sun.' Prescott has objected to this tradition as too much in accordance with Scripture. although their gods Hu and Wodan associate the Mexicans with the Buddhist races. and their language. Prescott. who. Res. and that. and like the Buddhists who call it Buddha's day. was kindled anew from the rays of the Sun by means of a polished metal stones. bk. were punished by being buried alive for any violation of their chastity. and under the conditions. Conquest of Peru.5 ' Ante^ pp. * ^ Humboldt. as indicated by the Greek tradition. as at Rome.

. of Cuzco.^ A yet more striking evidence of their connection with Egypt was their name for the Sun. The large islands of the Eastern Archipelago are generally Buddhist." while they called the great festival of the festival of the Sun " Ravii.THE GODS OF OTHER NATIONS The Egyptian monarchs. Moon. who were also regarded as children of the Sun/ So also. latter. the bodies of the deceased Incas were embalmed and placed in the great temple and this down to the time of Caesar. there were Augurs who professed to foretell events by examining the entrails of the sacrificial These and many minor details of their religion as collected victims. although in some cases leavened by Mahomhowever. as Mr Faber and others have done. As in Pagan Rome. 45. 144. iii. The Prescott.^ show that they must have separated from the old world at a time when the religious system of Paganism was fully established and before it had commenced to decay.. has never entirely replaced the previous system. their greater ignorance and degradation and long separation from civilisation has obliterated any intelligent remembrance among them of its meaning. p. as in the case of the Egyptian monarchs. and that they must have been especially connected with the Egyptians. p. 14. Atlantis. ' medanism. most Mahommedans being still worshippers of the Sun. were was the custom of the This was equally the custom with the Incas of Peru. chap. although. note. might be shown. . 143 as sons of the Sun. it was preceded by three days' mourning. 3 ^ pp. Otaheite and among the islands of the Pacific Ocean. namely. i." 3 As in the case also of the Egyptian Sun god Osiris. being regarded only permitted to marry their Ptolemies sisters. bk. as might be expected. so also in Peru. together with their festival of the dead on November 2nd. that clear evidences of the same religion existed in New Zealand. " Ra. * ' Ibid. " Ibid. 5. See ante. 44. Ibid. p.^ by the author of Atlantis. Peru. 8. p. It is not necessary to pursue It tlais portion of the subject further. and even among the more barbarous tribes of Africa and South America. etc.




as we have seen. or Hermes. It is true that he and his son did not establish their own worship. 55 147 ." But in all essential points it is evident that the religion which he taught during his lifetime must have been the same as that contained in the Hermetic books. For. Nergal. etc. which in after ages constituted the recognised ^ authority on all matters of religion. that the worship of the Babylonian monarch and his father was merely the stepping-stone for the re-establishment of the religion they had themselves instituted. In short. Merodach. were esteemed as gods. the history and characteribtics of Belus. the importance which has hitherto been insufficiently recognised. Moon and Stars and the powers of Nature yet. and those of the Babylonian goddess are so essentially personal and human. Hea. The teaching of Hermes has. Zeus.CHAPTER A of VIII THE TEACHING OF HERMES — MAGIC VERY interesting point in our present inquiry. and the way in which it first arose. We have seen that Cush. and the similar books attributed to the various deified forms under which he was known in other countries were equally honoured. and were regarded as their . and the rest. For although all who have studied the records of ancient Egypt and Assyria are agreed that the primitive religion of those countries consisted of the worship of the Sun. the human originals of the Pagan gods were identified with these material objects and powers. incarnations or human manifestations. Nebo. in short.. as Epiphanius says. " Epiplianius." p. and that anthropomorphic gods were not introduced until later. " It was not until a considerable time afterwards that Cronus. indeed. It would seem. This we now propose to consider. Apollo. is the true character and essential nature of the ancient Paganism. been recognised in all ages as the great authority on the nature and mysteries of Paganism. was the master mind and originator of this idolatry. His books were held in the highest estimation in Egypt. Nin. that we must conclude that they Cory's Fragments. Rhea.

Moon and Stars and the powers of spirits of Nature." or Cush. whose by means of certain arts. that we may learn the nature of the knowledge which constituted the teaching of Buddha or Hermes. and that the primitive religion of the Cushites or Accadians was simply the worship of the Sun.Wise Belus " ? Hermes is said to have " arranged in order and in a scientific manner those things which belong to religion and the worship of the gods. were carefully preserved and adopted by their successors." " the Teacher of Mankind. speak of it as " the teaching of Hermes. the texts and incantations of which. or incantations. was a man of no ordinary mental capacity. Hermes. The question is.148 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD did not come into existence until the deification of their human originals. who were the primitive Cushite inhabitants of the valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris. What was the nature of this wisdom which gave him." Here is an assumption of vast knowledge and power which. Demon and Nature worship of the Accadians. could be obtained." It is from their publications. with the magic and necromancy practised by the Shamanas or priests of Buddhism. i. the latter being represented by a multitude supposed to be possessed of various powers for good or aid.e. and the author of the far-famed wisdom of the Chaldeans. Everything points to the fact that " the thrice great Hermes. who draw their occult knowledge from the teaching of Buddhism.^ and there can be little doubt that it was identical with the Shamanism of the Ural-Altaic races. The tradition of the original Buddha is that he received " five holy Scriptures which gave knowledge of retrospection and ability of accomplishing the desires of the heart and means of carrying words into effect. Lenormant from the Assyrian tablets. We have already referred to this worship as portrayed by M." and as the oldest form of this worship was that of the Accadian people. sorceries. we may conclude that it chiefly consisted of the Magic. . i.e. might be supposed to make its possessor independent of God and of the limitations of — ' Chaldean Magic. deeply versed in the secrets of Nature. evil. In short. as " Hea." " the All. as far as this world is concerned.. Sorcery.. and with that of the Tartars and Mongols of Eastern Asia that is to say." the title of " the Lord of Understanding. in the Accadian tongue. who was the author of the first form of Paganism. the Assyrians. the votaries of Theosophy and Spiritualism. Cush. or their power controlled. It has also been shown that there are strong grounds for identifying the most ancient or mythological Buddha with Cush. therefore.

belongs to the Lesser Mysteries. not only of his own past history.s ne." ^ This " unfoldment is called the " Intuitional Memory. The very planet of which lie is the offspring is. manes of past circumstances. and possessed of a medium of memory. like himself."^ Speaking again of the soul. from Pember's Earth's Earliest Ages. that which. being historical and interpretative. Ibid. lifetime recovers the memory of " all that his soul has learnt. and he to whom the soul lends her ears and eyes may have knowledge. but of the past history of the planet as beheld in the pictures imprinted in the magnetic light of which the planet's memory consists. p. who in his . shadows on the protoplasmic mirror. and the first of these occult powers is evidently based on the belief. which held that the stars were "intelligences" and the "The ' 3 Perfect Way. 405. is the power of retrospection alluded to. and there to possess ourselves of the knowledge which in the long ages of the past the soul has) made its own. as of old." . 406. strictly in accordance with the teaching of modern Buddhism and Theosophy. " All that she has once learnt is at the service of those who duly cultivate relations with her " and again. Ibid. 9 . thus endowed. 4 Ibid. p. Buddhism professes by a course of asceticism and self-absorption. municated. these mysteries comprise two classes of ' of which one class only. "Nirvana" or perfection..) THE TEACHING OF HERMES— MAGIC human 149 nature.. Pember. " It is not his own memory alone that. It is. 3. 23. until he attains person. pp. of these past forms of existence." 4 This. a person. say the Hindu scriptures." doctrine. 8. p. " is already will a God. 13. he reads. For these are actually ghosts of events. pp. that every person has passed through a series of previous existences and will have to pass through a series of others. to enable a to recall the memory " Theosophists declare the identity of their teaching with that> which was given to the initiate in the sacred mysteries of " antiquity. the writer says. which can be evoked again. common to Brahminism and Buddhism. for those The other known be freely comas the Greater Mysteries is reserved may who in virtue of the interior ness contain within them the necessary : of the consciousness " explained as follows unfoldment of their consciousvirtues. pp. 22. then.." which is ( " The intuition then is that operation of the \ t mind whereby we are enabled to gain access to the interior and/ ' permanent region of our nature. and it be observed also that the teaching accords with the general belief of Paganism. however. Now.

as a unitive force. some Indian fakirs are able to throw themselves into a trance. I50 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD abode of the gods." He who attains to this power is called an " Adept. These are equally prescribed to the seeker for the Marriage. 406. absolute chastity and solitude.. and. 459. acts Moreover. consisting of fasting. but he can exhibit to his distant friends his spiritual soul. and quench fire. 460. it is impossible to regard it as mere fancy. Ante. on external spirits. p. powers and knowledge off"ered him by Theosophy. while if he were a disembodied spirit. and there not only read the thoughts of others. so that few perhaps are able to attain the result. 101. — — Theosophy. If so. Ibid. Daniel. That result of his is described as to " so bring his body under the control he can project his soul and spirit.. but speak to. or he can out of the surrounding multiplex atmosphere the likeness of any command physical objects to come into his This is all in exact accordance with the powers laid presence. he can.^ ' Pember. and its true significance will be considered later. that on rare occasions some dim memory of a former acquaintance with persons or places has been known to flash across the mind " and he quotes Rossetti and Mrs Hemans as expressing this.^ and is probably similar to that by which. 3 4 5 See ante. it is said. p. With regard to the next power viz. subdue ferocious beasts. He can accelerate the growth of plants. as Mr Pember remarks. 252. is not said to have done this by his own power. and. ^ . that own living on the earth. it may be remarked. pp. create physical object.. a process which must require no little resolution. by his soul-force. these distant objects y/and not only so. like Daniel. and touch. p.' which is probably the experience of many others also. that of "accomplishing the this also is explained by the teaching of desires of the heart " . Moreover. " It falls in with a common fancy. 116. Wild's Spiritual Dynamics ."* He can send his soul to a distance. The conditions imposed on the initiate into the ancient mysteries were a severe form of preparation. as well as the stimulus of a strong desire." 5 claim to by the Buddhist Shamanas. and sometimes the drinking of some powerful potion. 118. 99. pp." and his powers are thus depicted He " can consciously see the minds of others. He can act. 116. since the ^ adept by the power of his spirit.^ and to " cultivate relations with the soul " is that mental concentration and absorption by which the Buddhist ascetic attains his powers. Pember. act as : II body in the exact likeness of that of the flesh. Alcohol and Flesh are forbidden.

but on the efficacy of certain words uttered by him to set in motion certain spiritual agencies. "consists in the discovery of a certain pure is matter. up to a certain point." it As regards the last feature of this teaching. has been affirmed by a too universal and persistent to admit of denial. of course. is the well-known method of the sorcerers and wizards of old. not on his own volition." means of would imply that by the utterance of certain words. these were the powers which the sacred books of Buddha. certain results would follow. then. man reputed able to discover the divine nature." pp."^ The above. Wisdom. It is also stated that this " wisdom of Hermes. to divine essence. or incantations. in the forcible It is the obtaining a language of Asclepian dialogue. who. converts to itself proportionately all imperfect bodies it touches. how far we are to regard that claim to be worthy of sought. 68. and professed to be obtained. and that not only effect it. the attainment of which the five holy Theosophy. is the teaching of modern Buddhism and therefore be presumed to be a fair presentation of the nature of that power.THE TEACHING OF HERMES—MAGIC Mr Pember remarks be exaggerated. or Hermes. and may books of Buddha claimed to teach. from " The Computation of . at anyrate. claimed to reveal the means of acquiring. 252. This exalts any body. though the powers here mentioned may all times of the world's history of persons with abnormal faculties. the existence in testimony far and depositaries of the secrets of antiquity. to effect which the enchanter depended. is and perfects it which and perfected by art." by which these results are attained. but. p. or the presence of some "familiar spirit. initiates of the great mysteries. 3. viz. p. were able "by their enchant' Pember. that a divine element. discovered fection. as well as by the carrying words into effect. the question to be considered is. The object by these means. If. or the direction of some person's actions.." or other result. " the similar inscriptions on the monuments of ancient Egypt. This. were certain supernatural effects such as the death of an enemy at a distance. 2. ' the A Huggestive Enquiry into Hermetic Number 666. — — ^ // — credit ? reality of the Here we have the unequivocal testimony of Scripture to the powers possessed by the priesthood and magicians of Egypt. being brought by art to perlight. yet " 151 that. and is fully illustrated by the numerous Accadian incantations which have been found on the Assyrian tablets. applied to in its own kind. which.

i. the priestess. Deut. as it were. Lev. The spirits whose assistance they sought were their gods. or to fulfil the desires of those by whom divine honours and services clear that they are rendered to them. are. cvi. 36-38 Smith.^ as in the case of believed that he who was guided by a good demon. and whose religion was identical with that of Babylon and Egypt." . 23 . of Bible. literally " daiTnonia.." sat on a tripod over a chasm whence proceeded a peculiar vapour which threw her In this frenzy she uttered predictions and was into a frenzy. The veracity of the oracle was so famous that its answers came to be used as " a proverbial term for certain and infallible truth. and which afterwards was also certainly the case — was used Socrates. 20. In the case of the oracle of Delphi. diviners.152 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD " ments Moses. 307. Now Augustine quotes Hermes Trismegistus as stating " that visible and tangible images. sorcerers. xxxii. viii. who are stated in the Old Testament and by the Apostle Paul ^ to be devils. real. to denote any supernatural being.e. 17 . who was called " the Pythian Apollo. the powers of their gods." ^ This would imply that the knowledge by which Hermes or Buddha " fulfil the desires of the hearts" referred to the obtain the assistance of certain spiritual beings. idols. but by enchantments or incantations which set in motion other agencies. Psa. xvii. . unless we will tions ? overthrow all history that that oracle has told the truth for many illustrious — — ' De 2 3 Civitate Dei. to imitate the miracles performed by God at the word of It is evident that. and it is also were not produced by the personal volition of the magician. This used to means claimed to be able to with the magicians. Pember. "Demons. and which have power to inflict harm. necromancers. the effects are represented as and not as the effects of conjuring or jugglery. viz. or " the Pythoness. in this case." and Cicero argues.. wizards." after the god. and that there dwell in them certain spirits which have been invited to come in them. only the bodies of the gods. Diet. supposed to be possessed by the spirit of the god. enchanters and persons with familiar spirits who were the priesthood of the Canaanitish nations. x. 7 . spirit. " Would that oracle at Delphi have ever been so celebrated and and so loaded with such splendid gifts from all nations and kings if all ages had not had experience of the truth of its predicLet this fact remain which cannot be denied. 1 Cor." or demons a word which the Greeks used to denote those spirits of the dead who had become their gods. p.

." Croesus. " Croesus if he ages. 273. witches and it was no pretended. having interpreted Persia. for mentioned to be that of the war and thereby destroyed his own It the empire empire. De ii. entered " upon turned out. should be fulfilled." ^ 153 is to Croesus it aorain. with the result that her powers of divination. How long. and by whose agency wonders were performed." literally " a spirit of Python. p. ix. and they are told that they must "rest But it for a little season. * chap." But it does not follow that the spirits they invoked. evil for but a real intimacy with. well it when crosses the Halys will destroy a great empire. which MM. ." etc. it would appear that the Buddhists of Eastern Asia possess a full knowledge of the means of attaining these Hermetic powers. or possession by. and ' is professedly told in the language of probably has the same significance as the words Cicero." bk. were really those of the dead. but it induced that monarch to consult returned the ambiguous answer." " asleep in Jesus." etc." " rising from the dead. by a real spirit is implied Acts of the Apostles of the damsel possessed of " a spirit of divination. The dead are constantly spoken of throughout the Scripture as "asleep. So also the by the story in the That the Pythoness " was possessed Israelites were commanded to put to those possessed of familiar spirits. See ante. The resurrection is therefore spoken of as " awaking." and the righteous dead are said to be " at rest." were lost. which " brought no small gain to her masters. "Delphic Oracle.^ We have seen that the idolatry of the Pagan nations was professedly the worship of the spirits of the dead. pp. 116. are spoken of as "eating the sacrifices of the dead. indeed. for joining in which the Israelites were punished.THE TEACHING OF HERMES— MAGIC The remarkable accuracy of its answer known. until their fellow-servants also and their brethren that should be killed as they were. to be correct. state of consciousness. spirits of they were condemned." and while this does not absolutely deny a From the testimony also of Marco Polo." "sleepin or in the dust. Div. Hue and Gabet and that of which have been already quoted. 9 as crying out. " vi. showing that death wizards. it is certainly opposed to one of active existence. Lord. and the rites of the Canaanites. 117. xix." which was cast out by Paul. Potter and Boyd's Grecian Antiquities. The souls under the altar are represented in Rev..." may be remarked it that this cry of the souls under the altar occurs in a prophecy which metaphor.

See also Levit. "daimonia. both the Old Testament and the Apostle Paul say. " Why hast thou disturbed me ? " shows that his state had been one of rest " where the wicked cease from troubling and the weary are at rest" (Job explicitly denied by the statement. Deut. as in the case of the damsel out of whom Paul cast the spirit of Python. 24-28). 15. temples or other places. and these. ' 1 Cor. I I those mentioned in the New Testament. work nor for there is no The isolated case grave whither thou goest " (Eccles. cvi. " like the " Berserkers endowed the person with superhuman strength. revealed hidden things. for obtaining the desires of the heart. " the Prince of the power of theair"(Matt. 17). shrines. three present at all the shrines of It is true that over the ancient world. namely. or who. any nor wisdom. among and their chief prince.154 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD "Thy brother's blood crieth unto addressed to Cain. It is clear also that the spirits primarily invoked by Hermes or Buddha. while his reply to Saul. in the knowledge. they must have been simply the same daimonia as one. 7 . they omnipresent. man possessed of a legion of these spirits. 20. i. nor device. the name of the chief god amongst the Canaanites.^ similar to those which were cast out of many persons by Christ and the apostles. is more a portion for ever in anything that — iii. but what the people generally worshipped were certain beings clothed with certain characteristics. was identified by Christ with Satan himself. of whom he himself was If not. 17 . through their human mediums. xxxii. were not those of the persons afterwards worshipped as gods. The human originals of the Pagan individuals. &.e." me from the To suppose the living is that the dead can take an active part in the affairs of " Neither have they done under the sun. X. 2 Chron. were devils. Psa. recognised by both the Jews and Christ as Beelzebub. as in the case of the . whose spirits were supposed to inhabit certain images. that they were deified human beings. ix. All these are spoken of as evil spirits. xvii. or professed to believe." or evil spirits. the Scandinavians.xii. the priesthood believed. and in order to have been their numerous deified attributes all would have had to be omniscient and gods were. powers and attributes. 10). of the appearance of Samuel by the especial permission of God is no proof to the contrary. ground. spirits of evil who produced in those they possessed various forms of disease or insanity or who. at the most. xi. 37 . ..

These inspire the breasts of their prophets with their afflatus. is not only conceivable. as far as earthly things are concerned. the so-called " Worship of the Dead. 1876. and the piles of cattle. in the " are delivered unto I I present day. and ancient science embraced The cycle has almost run its course a new one is about to begin. direct the flight of birds. that if ancestry can be in auo-ht believed. distort their limbs. . give efficiency always mixing up falsehood with truth. Cyprian Carthage. rule the to oracles. ' ings. The only remedy from them is when their own mischief ceases nor have they any other desire than to call men away from God. vol." ' ^ Pember. 397. m e and to whomsoever I will I give them . . " and It is these powers which are sought |Christ did not deny his claim. ' The early Christian writers of testify to the same effect. "Unless we mistake the signs." he said.them on their faithful worshippers. secretly their slumbers. so that when glutted with the steam of the altars.) . They disturb their life. descending spirits have conversed with man and told him ^ secrets of the world unknown. by Benjamin Wills Newton. speaking of the Paganism of his day. says. i. Paternoster BuildIsis Unveiled. animate the fibres of the entrails. to seek for themselves companions in punishment whom they may by their misguidance make sharers in their . terrify their minds." ''All these things. crime. the day is approaching when the world will receive the proofs that only ancient were in harmony with Nature. excite diseases. to force them to the worship of themselves. they disquiet Their spirits also creeping into their bodies. and to win them from the understanding of the true religion to superand since they themselves are stition with respect to themselves under punishment. and so appear to have effected a cure. (Boulston & Sons." by which worship the ancient Pagans invoked the powers of the spirit world. by the followers of modern Theosophy. p. and be capable of bestowino. and convey full proof. but is That these may implied by Satan's remark to Christ of the world.' " religions all that can be known. for they are both deceived and they deceive." from Reflections on the Character and Spread of Spiritualism. are lots. 38 Cyprian on " The Vanity of Idols. p. "These spirits lurk under the statues and consecrated images. ^ THE TEACHING OF HERMES—MAGIC spirits kc be possessed of vast powers. they may unloose what they had bound.. Hence a recent writer says. and the future pages of history may contain full evidence. when he showed Him " all the kino-doms and the glory of them. who are reviving. break their health.

when they received " the divine inspiration. . that they knowsome things both more quickly and more perfectly (than men) for they are not retarded in their learning by the heaviness of a body. Grecian Antiquities. 25 Pember.^ In the above quotations allusion is made to the healing of diseases." of which there were many specially set apart for that purpose. who have been absolutely deprived of sight. evident. Sic." were possessed by a frenzy. They had to fast for twenty-four hours. 289. It is not wonderful therefore if they know somewhat more than men do but this is to be observed. and therefore they. Potter and Boyd. after offering sacrifices and the performance of the usual rites. false religion. p. " are thus cured after they have. "Other Grecian Oracles. p. know without delay. but were free and unconfined. according to Diodorus Siculus. as being spirits. and in which the patients had to observe certain rules and conditions. cure." bk. This was done in the Pagan "temples of health. 291. to prophesy anywhere. ii. they do not employ for the salvation of souls but for the deception of them. "Numbers." etc. what physicians attain after a long time and by much labour. swelling with rage. or disabled in and many persons any other part of the body. are restored to their previous soundness as soon as they have recourse to this goddess. foaming and gnashing with ' * 3 Reflections on the Spread of Spiritualism. or by the fumes and the cures were thus in exact accordance with the cures effected by modern mesmerism. 26. in which the mesmerised patient states the means to be used to effect the of a particular sort of incense." he appeared to the sleeper and prescribed remedies. " It is . Died. chap. '» xi. that by means of it they may indoctrinate them in the worship of says." 3 Cicero also speaks of the number sleep " of votive offerings to the shrines of the god and goddess as This " temple incontestable evidence of the reality of their powers. ." who did not require to be mesmerised. Pember. p.^ In the temple of Isis at Busiris the goddess herself. been given up by their physicians. that what they know. These. and received an answer by dreams. and abstain from wine for three days. after which they went to sleep in the temple lying upon the skin of one of the sacrificial victims. i. and without difficulty. . says. was a mesmeric trance induced by the priests.156 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD also So Clement of Alexandria.'* Besides the divination obtained through the temple sleep. through the malignancy of their diseases. there were other diviners called " Themnanteis. speaking of the Pagan oracles. and able. since they are demoniac spirits.

p. ii.' " ^ whose words. and the sign or the wonder cometh to pass whereof he spake unto thee. according to the Septuagint Version. A whence our word " ecstasy ") were cast into a trance where they lay as if dead. xii. from the notice in the Acts. Hermes. or a wonder. Some used to eat the leaves of the laurel. Ibid. p. either sleeping or waking. i. xii. actuated or inspired by him. " called Enthousiastai. "And if they say unto you. before going to sleep." etc. should not a people seek unto their God. 291. and those that speak out of the earth." Then there were the " dreamers of dreams. It is plain.' 'posThey are referred to by the prophet Isaiah. xii. It is here implied that certain individuals might possess a prophetic faculty. 290. as it was considered that no dreams which were affected by a full meal. bk. from which it was called " the prophetic plant. but only governed.. and instructed in the knowledge of what was to happen. viii.' were not possessed ' by the demon. ii. were they used to sacrifice to Mercury. 296." says Potter. ^ " One sort of the Theomanteis. bk. or a dreamer of dreams. that this was due to possession by a demon." 3 " Others." The same symptoms occurred in the case of the Pythoness of the Delphic Oracle. ^ chap. xiii " If there arise among you a prophet.. and on returning to themselves gave strange relations of what they had seen and heard. That these dreams did often foreshadow future events is implied by a notice in Deut. chap. let us go after other gods which thou hast not known. which was thought to conduce to this state. we may conclude that the Theomanteis were similarly possessed. Besides this. and let us serve them. seek unto them whose speech is in their belly. saying. that this faculty did not consist of a power inherent in themselves of foreseeing the future. These were called daiTnono-leeptoi. but of a capacity for receiving impressions. and as it is clear. or spoke out of the bellies or breasts of the possessed persons. Ibid." says Potter. those that utter vain words. Isa. are." who fasted one day and abstained from wine for three days. 3 * chap. called " Ekstatikoi " (from spirit. bk.. xii. from a prophetic. that speak out of their belly.THE TEACHING OF HERMES—MAGIC their teeth as 157 if mad.e. or undigested food. Theomancy. 19. . ii. Potter.5 : ' Potter and Bovd. ii. p. however. sessed with demons." These are evidently those spoken of in Scripture as having a familiar third sort. they ^ all the while remaining speechless. and giveth thee a sign. " were possessed with prophesying demons which lodged within them and dictated what they should answer to those who inquired of them. bk. chap.

' Hence we must conclude that prophetic dreams and tend to support. " How can an evil spirit know the future ? To this it may be replied that they cannot always know it and may often be in error. which became fully developed in the fourth and fifth ' See also 1 1 Cor. In this way they may produce the very events which they have before foretold. idolatry or other visions. 9. has exhaustively portrayed from the writings of the so-called "Fathers " of that time the characteristics of this apostasy. ' Tim. The beginnings after of this apostasy may be traced as early as the second and third centuries of the it Christian era. but was not is." 158 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD . as Cyprian says.. xiii. iv. xiv. 30. are the work of spirits of evil. It may be asked. the power producing those dreams and visions was the Spirit of God. Many of these diseases are ascribed by Scripture to the agency of evil spirits. and this we are told by the Apostle Paul was the teaching of the foretold apostasy from the Christian faith. in his Ancient Christianity. xii. and be permitted to do so by God in the case of events affecting those who worship them and seek their aid. are then able to " unloose what they had bound. and that it placed those who practised it under the control and guidance of these seducing spirits who by dreams. and that the persons concerned in this apostasy would give "heed to seducing spirits and the doctrines of devils. Isaac Christianity — that it Taylor. who. .It is thus clear that this abstinence is a necessary preparation for communicating with the spirit world. wine and meat. power outside themselves for in all the numerous cases recorded in Scripture in which persons were warned or instructed in dreams or waking visions. 1-4. So also with the diseases of which they reveal the cure." . visions or other forms of communication would be able to lead their deluded votaries into every form of error. as in the case mentioned in Deut. until the purifying effect of persecution had ceased had professed —that after Constantine and his successors became fully developed. and that this must have been the case with the dreamers of dreams among the Pagan nations who worshipped devils or demons. which evils. are abstinence from inarriage. It will be observed that the conditions required for attaining the prophetic faculty and the magical powers wielded by the Pagan to be priesthood and the Buddhist ascetics. or advocate. and so appear to have effected a cure " in order to induce men to seek their aid. But if their powers are such as are implied by Scripture they may largely influence future events.

indeed. influenced. was equally inculcated. cast out by Christ and the apostles from those possessed or afflicted by them and that the prince of these demons was Beelzebub or Satan. was the gradual re-adoption. the guidance or influence of these spirits that when calling on the supposed spirits of the dead. opinions those who experience them a belief in the reliability of other dreams. i. indeed. . so it men to believe may be with those prophetic dreams which beget in their thoughts. they were replied to and deluded by beings who were identical with the devils or demons. It would appear that the prophetic faculty or capacity for receiving mental impressions. of all the other features of the ancient Paganism. who. then. and actions are powerfully many. without any intention on their own part. 16.THE TEACHING OF HERMES— MAGIC centuries.^ is dependent on certain physical conditions which may be. when not specially bestowed on a person by God. even without Numb. who could not hear or answer them. so that the rites and ceremonies of modern • Romanism idolatry. This. either constitutional. the result of which. But it is evident that individuals. There are. under the cover of Christian names and incidents.. is the case with ' by which. 15. while at the same time the worship of the dead. or placed themselves completely under evil. are now practically identical with those of the old It is thus clear that this predicted apostasy teaching of demons or spirits of by the means spoken of. the heathen . If. as in the case of Balaam. of the saints.e. insisted 159 showing how celibacy and abstinence from meat were thenj upon as the highest form of holiness. either sleeping or waking. may happen to temporarily fulfil these conditions which seem to depend on fasting and great mental absorption. but others only tend to produce superstition and a belief in dreams and occult agencies which are not of God. from agencies external to man. We might presume that the latter were of God. as is well known. while others have proved to be remarkable warnings agaiust temporal dangers or moral evil which the person has in consequence been able to avoid. perhaps. some of which are only curious and even trivial. oracles constantly gave true replies in order to induce in them. . or self-induced by the various methods employed by the magicians and ascetics of Paganism. in order to obtain communication with the spirit world. numerous well-authenticated cases of persons having such dreams and visions. fell was effected by the through the agency of men who. xxiv. and under such circumstances may experience prophetic dreams and visions.

and was only conscious of the strange impression referred to. by fasting and the arts practised in Paganism. The author can vouch for the truth of the following A young man who some time lived alone with hardly any other companions but his books had. he thereon the theory of a past existence.. But the effect might be very different if a person. of some past existence. with the exception of one or two cases of greater interest than the rest. prophetic dreams are strongly influenced by The point. which begets in him that common impression. drive from the memory all but that faint impression of the dream which is revived by its fulfilment for how constantly the most vivid dream is completely forgotten at the moment of awaking in spite of every efibrt to recall it. is the true explanation of the common experience which Theosophy has made use of in order to build pressions from spiritual agencies during sleep. literally fulfilled. had made a stronger impression on his mind than usual. to his surprise. events take place in accordance with his dream. That this. and yet perhaps is suddenly recalled a few hours afterwards. they soon passed from his memory. several experiences of dreams coming true. perhaps. during that time. that if a person's mental and bodily conditions are at any time favourable for the reception of these im- may dream of no great importcertain events in his future life which perhaps are of Nevertheless. and he is conscious of a strange conviction that he has passed through the same circumstances before. stances related below. and. but could remember the nature and sequence of the events in the dream. the impression left by the latter is partially revived. • : for . i6o THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD of any experience ordinary dreams. and perhaps the length of time which elapses between the dream and its fulfilment. in which the memory of such dreams. In some cases he could not thus identify them. and although incredulous at first of their prophetic The events were genercharacter. His experiences ceased when his solitary condition was changed for a more active life. when the ance. who may recognise the correctbut it is clear that. not only recall the dream. however. is this. and then would recall the fact that they were the events of a dream which. found them. but in other cases he could. a short time before. and which are forgotten on awaking. would be speedily obliterated by other cares and interests. the triviality of the events. together with the bustle and cares of everyday life. ally of an unimportant and trivial character. if he ever had them.' is supported by the circum- ness of this explanation There are other persons. before alluded to. would. as a rule. and nothing else. placed himself in a state of receptivity . In the midst of ordinary events he would suddenly become conscious of this strange impression of having passed through those events before. in most cases.

At the present day it is said to iufluence a large proportion of the upper classes in this articles of furniture : and other . probably underrated the number of adherents of Spiritualism both in England and America in the year 1876. pp.— . In this country they may be The pursuit under the appropriate name of Spiritualism has been promoted by an active propaganda not only literature but art has been appealed to for the re-establishment of ancient sorcery. and of converse with spiritual beings in another state of existwhich the dreamer would be only too ready to believe were the thus revealed to him. stated to styled " amount to three millions. resembling those of departed friends. and amongst all classes is a proof that British Quarterly of 1876. the naturalist. have been visible in subdued light articulate sounds have been breathed through flexible tubes medicines. hands and figures. the same agents might produce powerful and vivid impressions of events and scenes. 5." is language of the Pentateuch. however. The earliest observers told of muffled knocks or sharp electric crackles. thus writes: is "The revival in the nineteenth century of the long-disused practices of necromancy a startling fact. have been displayed by what is said to be a disembodied spirit. Since the year 1848 the the United States who have betaken is number of persons in themselves to what. 457. i6i and earnestly sought the influence of. estimated at many thousands. pp. The development of the asserted phenomena has been more rapid in England than in America. To these. and vigorous resistance to attempted violence. musical instruments sounded in the dark. have now succeeded more direct appeals to the senses faces. ' country. THE TEACHING OF HERMES—MAGIC to. 456. in the Seeking after the dead. and second only to " evolutionist philosopher. Tables were endowed with motion. The ancient forms of necromancy and magic. Not only might the dreams produced by these spirits have a prophetic character like those of the Pagan seers. according to the teaching " realities of the past of the Hermetic philosophy. manufactured clothing. ence. Mr Wallace." The writer of the above has. tangible substances. has carefully and and collected the phenomena of ' as an examined Spiritualism. spiritual agencies." and has come to the scientifically Mr Darwin Quoted from Reflections on the Character and Spread of SpiritVMlism. L . but after the dreamer's confidence in his dreams had by this means been established. 4. it is asserted. " In modern Spiritualism we have an apparent it is revival of the its rapid progress not the mere imposture and trickery which some persons try to persuade themselves it is.

is that the phenomena of Spiritualism in their entirety do not require further confirmation. Pember. through dislike. But the principal means by which its true nature is concealed. instead of 327 and note. illustrated in the case of the Davenport brothers. and those who do so will generally be found to be either ignorant of the facts. also. They are proved quite as well as any facts are proved in other sciences. because they dread having the truth forced upon them. to reject the reality of the phenomena. are filled with anger This was well at the mere mention of supernatural phenomena. So it would be also with even many of the present votaries of modern Spiritualism. ' Interviews with these. the spirits of departed relatives or friends. therefore.' It would indeed be folly. which it might otherwise create. or else. is of such legal acumen as — — effectually allayed. and the fear and shrinking. with a suspicion of trickery about it which conceals its more sinister aspect. including a Lord Brougham. and disbelieve. and claim themselves to be. for those who shrink from admitting the evidence. the phenomena of Spiritualism were convinced of their reality. . stances of trickery which has been resorted to by persons who have pretended to exercise these powers as a financial speculation. that were not this the case. or fear of facing the conclusion to be drawn from them." quotes other learned and able "The testimony has abundant and consentaneous that either the facts must be Similarly Professor Challis writes: man men to the same effect. is so potent an influence as fear. and there are many who. these instances of trickery form a sort of refuge tests. or the possibility of certifying Mr Pember also facts by human testimony must be given up. or of celebrated persons. merely because they implied that they were assisted by supernatural agency. in face of the evidence.1 62 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD : following conclusion " My position. were it not presented to the public as a mere harmless drawing-room amusement. and enable them to dismiss the matter from their minds. they refuse to look into or listen to the There have also been. and do not affect the reality of the phenomena that have stood such Nevertheless. but these have always been exposed directly they were really tested." been so admitted to be such as are reported. if all who It may be observed. now shrink from. who. many inevidence. p. were nearly torn to pieces by the people of Liverpool. is the fact that the spirits invoked are supposed to be. as might be expected. on their first visit to this country. they would rise up against this new Nothing religion and invoke the strong hand of the law to crush it.

or my own by its becoming visible. of their delusion." he says. In this. however. from its speaking. The whole system. and this may have been the belief of the first great magician. In both cases we see the sinister wisdom of these spirits of evil. and personate the of their dead relatives. and the error was the cause. very clearly shows what was generally believed at the time they while some who had were written. but the daimonia of Scripture. The spirits invoked by the necromancers and the magicians were supposed to be the spirits of the dead. 163 would naturally be regarded with pleasure and interest. pp. 294. necromancy. The spirits who replied to their invocations were not the spirits of the dead. 295. lost some dearly-loved relations would even ardently desire renewed communication with them. 5 . It is equally clear that the spirits who reply to the deluded spirits votaries of Spiritualism. in order to bring i. the ancients were clearly mistaken. them under their Clementine Homilies. Pember. in no small degree. evil spirits. . of the soul. and if so. says that before he became a Christian he was perplexed with doubts regarding the immortality " What then." This was the character of the magic taught by Hermes Trismegistus. of the ancient Paganism was professedly the worship of the dead. but simply is immortal. who is supposed to be the person of that name mentioned by the Apostle Paul. by the art which is termed prophets of the shrines. Necromancy was regarded in a similar way by the ancient Pagans. I wished to consult it upon some ordinary is But my inquiry shall be to learn whether the soul imit mortal. p. but identical in every of the respect with the daimonia of Scripture. Hermes himself. and I shall not care to know the reply of the soul that hearing. Clement. " should I do but this. there was sufficient reason for this misrepresentation of their true character. and the teaching by which they support the imposture. is simply a means to quiet the alarms and attract the affections of ' mankind. and a passage from the Cle7nentine Homilies. are not the spirits of the dead. induce him by the offer of a large sum of money to call up a soul from Hades. the messengers or angels of the prince of the demons. as though nature. Their personation of the dead. quoted by Mr Pember. I will go to Egypt and cultivate the friendship of the hierophauts and Then I will inquire for a magician. in short. and when I have found one.' THE TEACHING OF HERMES— MAGIC creating fear. and the demon gods Pagans. vol.

it denies or explains away the leading doctrines of Christianity and advocates the salient features of the ancient For. and the general manifestation of remark- able powers and possess. be by a thin veneer of truth and righteousness. although as a rule it is necessary. Other flowers which remain. require a few observa- Sound. Speaking also unknown tongues. Spiritualism. often visible and tangible to all present. The second class is produced by means of the body of the medium who The two classes are also sometimes combined. closed rooms. or in a passive state. is remarkably in accordance with what is related of the ancient Chaldean magic. Predictions of future events. manifested by Mr Home. The " levitation. . or that several persons should jointly use the recognised methods of doing so. according to the Chaldeans. Clairvoyance. and bodies into the air. Writing and into. It is what we might expect from those seducing and their hostility to who are opposed to God. clothed with robes. is in a passive state. ditto. as among the more important manifestations of tested by Mr Wallace. but which melt away. floated out of windows. pieces of which have been cut off. It will knowledge which the medium personally does not first class of be observed that the phenomena is independent human agency. God is manifest. drawing without human agency.— i64 influence spirits THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD and power. either that a medium should be present to invoke the spirits. Moving bodies. Spiritual forms.. Playing on musical instruments hammer. Flowers. " that. Photographs of 2. Preserving from the effects of fire. sometimes in a language in the medium does not understand. Manifestations by a medium who is either in a trance. or through opaque substances. spirit forms. and which report was published in the daily papers a few years ago. The tions 1. Caelius Rhodoginus says. as in the case of Mr Home. Conveying bodies to a distance. etc. either by word of mouth or by a planchette. in which state the manifestations take place without the exercise of volition on his part — viz." He was raised into the air. out of. who seems to have been more or less an "adept. without human agency. : following." as it is called. from a delicate tick to blows like that of a sledgeRaising Altering the weight of bodies. etc. in the presence of a committee of twelve gentlemen who were of assembled to report upon the phenomena. Perceiving events at a distance. covered as their teaching may Paganism.

and who. are in reality worshippers of devils This was the case with the so-called (demons) (1 Cor. indeed almost to the head." On one occasion he "was praying in St Peter's at the tombs of the apostles {i. Jamblicus was probably an "adept. 295-297.. supposed to be spirits of the dead. which is then of itself raised above the earth. Sometimes when saying Mass he was seen with rays of glory around his head. 391 Hislop.: THE TEACHING OF HERMES— MAGIC 165 luminous rays emanating from the soul do sometimes divinely penetrate the body. Cardinal of St Cecilia. worshipping the dead). who when he prayed was raised to the height of ten cubits from the earth. and the intention for which I had said them. " ^ Antonia de Pericollis also Two years before the holy Father died. = Ihid. p. before I had said a word.. therefore. 5 Similar " Philip ceiling as he told Paul V." ' Jamblicus asserted that they had often witnessed the same miracle in the case of their master. it is remem- bered that the gods to whom the heathen prayed were daimonia. but his body became luminous. not only raised from the earth the latter of whom was when he prayed. " I reckoned Father Philip to be a saint because the first time I went to St Giralmo to confess to him. 20). he told me all my thoughts and everything that was in my mind." Neri. . x. Jamhlic\Ls. Seraphici.37. and then to descend with equal suddenness. in more recent times. vide Lempri^re. The Zoroaster here referred the Chaldean Zoroaster. the identity of modern Spiritualism with ancient magic will be evident. "a flame resting on his phenomena are reported in the case of St Philip was often seen with his whole body raised in the air among others. — " saints. 365. 158. ." says.^ Petrus a Martina. . Paulo Spondrato. Translated from the Italian by Father Faber. p. Life. 3 5 '' Ihid. and while the " disciples of that this was the case with Zoroaster. have been worshippers of the dead and of images.4 and Francis of Macerata. pp. pp. a little before his death. who." Francis of Assisi. the Apostle Paul says.^ Cassandra Raidi says. when his whole body was seen to rise suddenly into the air with his clothes gathered up as they had been when He was kneeling. • Flores. repeatedly raised into the air when he was saying Mass. 259. ' Ibid. p. not the Persian of that name. 258.. we were to is talking • Eusebe Salverte. saw him in prayer raised several spans from the ground. while p." He lived in the time of Constantino and wrote a book on the Egyptian Mysteries which is still extant. Ibid.e. The same effects have taken place with others." ^ When. He used even to tell me what prayers I had said.

i."-* the statues laughed and lamps were spontaneously Similarly." ^ These phenomena would. when the priests used their magical powers." foretell. 5 * 5 * Eunapius.^ images of the weeping foretelling the gods as of and Virgil also speak misfortune to the country " Tears shed : And by Gods our country's patrons sweat from Lares told the city's woes. kindled. 357. not only prove their possibility. Buddhist priesthood which made the Great Khan afraid to So also Salverte says." '' And again :- " The weeping statues did the wars And holy sweat from brazen idols ' - Life.' the image was seen to laugh so naturally as to fill the spectators with ' terror. the reader will recoguise their resemblance to the powers profess Christianity. spirit forms and other magical appearances. 480. i. v. in former days.. vi. pp. 537. quoted from Reflections on Spread of Spiritualism. Translated from the Latin by Father Faber. but their exact accordance with the phenomena of modern Spiritualism and Theosophy. 40. 341. and with the powers of the ancient priesthoods of Paganism. daimonia) in the air in the midst of of the gods the appearance The Theurgis Maximus a gaseous vapour disengaged from fire. " The Theurgists caused {i.. undoubtedly made use of a secret analogous to this when in the fumes of the incense which he burned before the statue of Hecate." to him. Juvenal Satires. 1. " Seeing my who the heart thus laid open before him I was overwhelmed with astonish- She also goes on to say that there was not one person affirm that he was intimate with Philip who does not secrets of the heart. Bell. 258. pp. he disclosed to my thoughts which I never mentioned ment. 365. pp. the statue of Isis shook the silver serpent on Both Lucan her forehead and nodded assent to her worshippers. Ibid. 356. 257. 57. 1. . vol. and note. fell. 41. bk. lib. 58. Hislop. Civ. pp. have been discredited by many as fables invented to glorify a saint of the Church of Rome. With regard heavy bodies of the to to other phenomena of Spiritualism. or told even in confidence to anyone.. such as causing move of themselves. Lucan.— i66 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD me some of together. p. p. Psellus on Demons. 41 . p. Georgics. p. 73. but make it exceedingly probable that they are accurately reported." 3 So also Psellus " says that." ' knew He is also said to have seen " things which happened at a distance.e.

viz. hysteria and somnambulism. manifests in various degrees the same phenoTnena ? The general belief. Certain conclusions appear to follow from this. and by means of. or spirit power. 2 vols. Isis Revelata. The medium as he is naturally. agency of the spirits yet the second which take place in. and describe accurately what is passing there. in the same manner as the spirit of Python did in the Pythoness. but of which they are otherwise Nor have they had any remembrance afterwards of totally devoid. as the word " clairvoyance " implies. foretell the The Pagans believed that it was the spirits of their gods. those in which the medium manifests a knowledge of languages. is that the spirit of the mesmerised person. but it also follows from the character of certain of the second class of phenomena. it be first class of effects which have been enumerated . what they have said or done while in that state. or philosophy. or that it can leave the body and pass in a moment of time to a distant place. those by the perceive events taking place at a distance. This might be inferred from the intimate connection of the two classes of phenomena. viz. . which he himself has no knowledge of whatever. in this state. by certain methods. published in 1836. future. 2 vols. Numerous examples are given of this duality in the same individual in the histories of persons manifesting similar phenomena under the kindred influence of catalepsy.THE TEACHING OF HERMES— MAGIC With regard observed that the are clearly done to 167 will the phenomena of Spiritualism. and by means of. how are we to regard the person who is simply mesmerised and who. are two different individuals. freed from the veil of the flesh. is able to direct class of effects. the body of a medium. It would take too lonoto quote such cases which have been collected by Mr Colquhoun in his two works upon the subject. however. It would thus appear that the medium. and invites the aid of the spirits. 8vo. who.. and the medium under the influence of the spirit trance. or of science. and work various wonders. 8vo published in 1851. perceive the past history of other persons and even. and Magic and ^Vitchcraft. more diflScult to explain on this assumption how it can. foretell the future. If the clairvoyance and prescience of the medium are derived from a spirit. his body to describe things at a distance. in some cases.. becomes for the time the habitation of one who speaks and acts through. makes himself susceptible to the power. ' .^ in which ignorant and uneducated persons have manifested a knowledge of language and science while under one or other of these states. it is well known. must also be produced by the same agency. It is.

often used to entrance the spiritualistic it was also used to produce the temple sleep by the Pagan priesthood and was one of the most ordinary practices of the ancient magicians. if even magicians produce apparitions and bring into evil repute the spirits of men who are now dead if they Tnesmerise boys to obtain an oracular response if they perform many wonders in sport by their conjuring illusions if they even send dreams by the aiding power of angels and demons who they have summoned to their assistance. note." ^ The above passage. quoted by Mr Pember. who spoke by Mesmerism is.'" See Hislop. the Babylonian and Jewish had sorcerers. . xxiii. own and for tables have been made to divine. They are all there. Apul. " satyrs." i. p. and reduced it to an art.. It was by sleeping in the temples of the deities. who were great magicians. Buddhist priesthood. cures produced by the effects of what we now call mesmerism. De Magia. clairvoyance insensibility to pain. describes similar methods " So they set to work to perform and succeeded. speaking of the Neoplatonists. as pointed out by Mr Pember. as we have seen. THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD the daimonia of Scripture. The word used by Tertullian is " seirim. gives a good idea of the methods of magicians in the age of Tertullian. .e. . ^ 3 Tertullian.4^0?. it is still used by the medium . Mr Pember also quotes a passage from Apuleius in which the practice of mesmerising boys by certain spells is spoken of as a well-known method of obtaining occult knowledge from them while in that state. in his book Alexandra and Her Schools." a word used. Pember. and in the one exception of the mesmerised person should be due to that person's own spirit the Pythoness. after due : — . more or less. for now one enters into a whole fairyland of those very phenomena which are puzzling us nowadays ecstasy. that which it does to serve the ends of others. "Satyr is evidently the same as the Chaldee 'Satur' 'hidden god. Tertullian writes " Moreover. to denote a certain order of demons. Pember. how much power be zealous to do with all its strength. and. xliii. ence also demons ' and more its will that Satanic will. of its own purposes. I suppose. practised all this as a trade for ages. and. cures and so forth. these modern puzzles. ' — p. Saturn.^ Kingsley also. brought them rapidly back to the old priestcrafts. in fact. 303. But again their ecstasies. . as it was a real spirit seems quite impossible to suppose that in the case of ancient magic and sorcery these powers should be due to the agency of daimonia. 301-303.! .. The Egyptian priests.. . who spoke in their oracles it . in those old books of the long bygone seekers for wisdom. pp. . . 269. through whose influ: .

etc. . or demons. due to superior psychical energy asserting itself over persons who are naturally wanting in that energy. by making them gaze steadily at a bright light for a certain time. How much more those of the East. although insensible to pain. and the conclusion to be drawn. as if the connection between the true spirit and its body was for the time completely severed. therefore. is. or nervous energy. ' From Pember. 299-300. but that as the sleep. so does a new state of consciousness become apparent. that until the mind and will of the person is in a state of complete subjection. if these demons and deities were so near them. It may also be observed that all the appearances of death take place in the completely mesmerised person.' — THE TEACHING OF HERMES— MAGIC ! 169 mesmeric manipulations. of the persons they act upon. and that the first one of simple sleep is not accompanied by any phenomena. The old philosophers of Greece were venerable. in comparison with whom the Greeks were children Besides. It was in this state that questions were put to the Pythoness. and finally the person. It will be observed that there are different stages in the mesmerised state. or state of unconsciousness. or spells. by which the priests and magicians obtained answers from their gods.' The old priests used to make them appear — perhaps they might do it again. or to other persons mesmerised by the Pagan magicians. becomes deeper. it is clear that the If Pagan mesmerised subject becomes the temporary habitation of a spirit. that cures were even then effected. Surely the old priests were the people to whom to go for information." then mesmerism was one of the arts. that by whatever means the natural powers are weakened. . the face taking the peculiar grey pallor of death. through the medium of a human being. It is to be observed. the person so . the alien spirit cannot so entirely take possession of the body as to use it as its own. might it not be possible to behold them? They seemed to have given up caring much for the world and its course : ' EflFugerant ady tis templisque relictes Di quibus imperium steterat. can yet speak and reply to questions. or at a disk of metal held in the hand. however. pp. or who are exhausted or weakened by illness for it is such persons who are most susceptible to the mesmeriser's influence and consequently many mesmerisers seek to exhaust the psychical force. It is popularly supposed that the mesmeriser's power is merely a natural power inherent in himself.

I/O THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD to spiritual influence." will apply to preservation. to all medical observation. spoke by him. evils also. entering into him. De Rerum Verietate. and the spirit of the god. English Malady. and lying in that position for some time. The body of man which veils from his sight the spirit world is also that which protects him from the influence of the spirit world. Colonel by composing himself on his back." ^ In other words. weakened becomes more susceptible and that the conditions prescribed for holding intercourse with the spirit world are fastinpc. or the susceptibility increased.. but from these kindred this. p. speaking more correctly. Animal Magiietism. He simply placed himself into that state of susceptibility which is the preparation for spiritual influence. . After some hours. however. note. especially that appearance. abstinence. into a trance. Pember. vol. not only from insanity.^ Cardanus also states that he could voluntarily place himself in a state of ecstatic insensibility . uttered a prophecy of the future in a hundred and sixty rhythmical lines.. solitude. xliii. 43 Colquhoun's Isis Revelata.3 and Augustine relates the same thing accurate of a priest called Restitutus. 147-149. by gazing steadfastly into the water he unconsciously did what mesmerists often require persons to do as a preparation for receiving the mesmeric influence. " Mens sana in corpore sano. vi. vol. a boy. etc. p. pp. or demon. cap. Animal Magnetism. 302. will. die at ' Apul. during which his pulse gradually sank and his breathing decreased. until both heart and lungs became absolutely motionless. In accordance with we find that persons of a certain physical constitution and susceptibility are able to throw themselves into a mesmeric trance by methods similar to those used by mesmerisers. either the psychical and mental forces are reduced. 146. Dr Cheyne also mentions who was subjected to the most Townshend could. . vol. Bernier says that voluntary somnambulism it is frequent among the Indian Brahmins and Fakirs.s With regard to some of the cases above-mentioned. and that even the means of producing are taught. Thus Apuleius relates that " when the inhabitants of Tralles were making inquiries by a magical process in regard to the issue of the Mithridatic War. p. i •* . and the doctors were convinced that he had carried the experiment too far and had actually died. - Ceremonies at Coutumes Religieusis. viii. he threw himself. life gradually returned as it had ebbed. 5 Clieyne. lib. De Civitate Dei. or fell. who was gazing upon the reflection of a statue of Mercury in the water. p. torn . i."* the case of a Colonel Towushend. i. etc. or. i. Enquiry into Animal Magnetism. and the proverb. 188. De Magia. by which. 147.

not only in cases of intermittent mania.— 1 THE TEA CHING OF HERMES— MA GIC of the Indian Fakirs. The mesmeriser. which effects its entrance by means of the action of the mesmeriser. It is asserted by those who have studied modern SpirituPaganism. it is it is by no means an easy thing to become a medium. But if so. be at once produced by the direct agency of the spirit. as is clearly the case. It is not the spirit of the mesmeriser that enters into the body and displaces the spirit of the mesmerised person. but a foreign spirit. in short. which would not be the case if they were opposed to it. in which the patient often struggles vainly against the strange desires which assault him. the state of trance may. and the person has become willingly and fully susceptible to the influence of a spirit. which spirit. if the mesmeric trance consists of nothing more or less than the temporary possession of the body of a person by a spirit. because the effects sought to be produced are wholly in accordance with his will. but to the possession by a spirit of the body of a person who has been brought alism. moreover. but really acted through. and the absorption of the mind and desires upon the end sought. seems impossible to avoid this conclusion if. seemingly gave him abnormal powers. would be wholly unconscious of this possession of himself. that into a state of susceptibility to the spirit's influence. and by him. entering into the mesmeriser himself. This is seen. and that fasting. in order to possess completely the body of that person. Hence. 1 7 who are professed followers of the ancient probable that the results obtained were largely due to those arts by which the magicians of old sought the aid of daimonia. to subject the mind and will of another It person. who takes possession of the body which is thus placed at his disposal. and that the state itself is in no way due to the agency of the mesmeriser. at any time. we may presume that where that relation has been established. — how are we to regard the power which some men seem to possess of throwing certain persons into a mesmeric trance by a few waves of the hand. are necessary before any relations with the spirits can be obtained. It would appear. the mesmeric trance is due to the temporary possession of the mesmerised person's body by a foreign spirit. and is conscious of a dual . that a state of mesmeric trance may be produced independently of the aid of a mesmeriser. the conclusion seems to be forced upon us that the mesmeric power itself was due to the agency of one of the spirits whose aid was thus sought. Since therefore mesmerism was one of the principal arts by which the magicians and necromancers of Paganism sought the aid of daimonia.

It is certain also that the mesmeric power is not by any means proportionate to the psychical or will force of the mesmeriser . but it may be noted that boys before the age of puberty and virgins were always selected as mediums of communication with the gods by the Pagan It would be interesting. as well as many of the which the human race are subject. but there are others who. marked that. fully the psychical /magicians. So also men of strong will when brought into contact with those of weaker will attain a power over the latter. a sonorous voice and histrionic talent. In all and " hypnotism " in such cases there The New Testament. may powerfully influence a multitude whose minds are awed and subjected by this display of of will power. although powerful mesmerists. whereas the effect of mesmerism is wholly physical. this is often so who recognise their inability to oppose a resolution stronger than their own and . are by no means remarkable for will or psychical able psychical energy. a word or look from the stronger person is sufiicient to reduce the weaker to But in all such cases the eflfect produced is on the mind. after long association. the force. combined with the gift of oratory. who yet are incapable of producing the mesmeric sleep. In some also of no remark- power has come quite suddenly.172 spirit THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD within him. we what is just any seeking on their part. or psychical. obedience. for not only are there persons whose natural force of will exercises a powerful Tnental influence on those with whom they are thrown. and use of other real arts. . without and to their own surprise while in other continued efforts and practice. is clear evidence of another spirit which is directly antagonistic to the person's natural character and inclinations. diseases to in fact. to consider more and physical conditions which are favourable to spiritual influence. . to the agency of it is well known that mania and the prophetic spirit were regarded by the Pagans as intimately connected. but it is " also seen in cases of " electro biology which the same struggle constantly takes place. acting as a preparation for the influence of the mesmerising spirit ? Probably none at all. which is awed or cowed into submission. and as possessed by "the spirit of the Gods. certain / I I causes ' naturally susceptible to spiritual influence. This after only obtained is it cases For while a few persons are from might expect. attributes mania. as in ' I but outside the scope of this inquiry." What part then does the mesmeriser play in producing the mesmeric trance. beyond the movement of his hands or by the daimonia. and that madmen were in consequence looked upon as divine. Men of great force and energy of character.

lust of power. like the one mentioned in Mark v. is of a malignant character. in many cases at least. and an act therefore itself. in overcome. or to his subordinate spirits to enter into them. If. whicli is perhaps startlingly foreign to his natural character." as taught spirit. position. wild-beast glare in the peculiar characteristic of madness. vanity and desire for self-assertion. dominion.THE TEACHING OF HERMES— MAGIC the case of the subjects of mania. or. would be only too willing to gratify the ambition of those who seek to follow in his footsteps. who (more especially if they are wanting in other elements of superiority) would be the first to avail themselves of a power which gave them The spirit which actuates them is that dominion over others. riches and self-exaltation. in a word. It is the expression we might expect from the presence of a spirit of ' It may be is the eye evil. malignant. 6) and who. "electro biology." 173 etc.. its attain- ment would be intimately connected with certain moral characteristics. has ever been a ruling passion human and this desire is most strongly manifested by persons of overweening pride.' Similarly. for by the Theosophists. the spirit of another person. seem to be the result of his own volition. of evil. not the result of the supposed " cultivation of the soul. may seem to be their own. but so does the superhuman strength of the maniac. or which. are simply a means by which carries out the desires of those rigid abstinence enjoined noticed that just as an unhuman. the mesmeric power is due to the agency of a spirit might be expected that. and apart from other moral and higher considerations which may actuate some mesmerisers. For the on the would-be Adept. and who who earnestly seek his aid. it however. . they will naturally seek to lead him on by flattering his pride with the idea that the powers which he wields are his own. and it is only by assiduous efforts that some are able to break through that protection and establish relations with the spirit world. and by so doing "give place " to him. iii. very spirit of pride which we are told was the condemnation of him who is " the prince of demons " (1 Tim. by which his natural inclinations and desires are weakened. but the result of the inhabitation of a familiar whose entry the Adept has prepared himself. Mesmerism is the endeavour on the part of one person to subdue. in the The of race. yet the majority of mankind are protected against that influence. we must regard the reported powers of the " Adept " to Their abnormal powers be. we may be certain. so there is often (but whether always we cannot say) a very similar appearance in the eye of the mesmeriser while exercising his art. and in every case in which " seducing spirits " give their assistance to man..

for the time being. not only without delusions they were under. instead of being. states of health may become possessed of strange and unreasonable — . to some of which he is paying no As a attention. Again." of trance. " out of their minds. as of the other. and lead is him to suppose that he their master. then it is not the will of the " Biologist " which produces the result. for he has often five or more persons performing various sets of actions at the same time.. objections to insuperable and varied continued action of the will. as in every other form of man's alliance with spirits of the latter will seek to blind their victim. and believe things opposed to the evidence of their They are not in a state senses. as is evident from the efforts made by many to resist the command of the Biologist. that " they which ask shall receive it . although we speak of the is effected. placing the person in the same state of receptivity and relation to the daimonia. their consent. To all intents and purposes they were. it is not what we mean by delusion that is to say. after the delusion he exercises no volition on the subjects of the delusion Moreover. the effects produced are not the result of People in certain the delusion of the biologised person's mind. 174 the THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD mind can be concentrated on the attainment of these occult Such a state of intense and continual desire is like earnest powers. produced as the result of delusion. Electro Biologist" which produces the result. they are wholly unconscious of what they have been doing and of the What they did was. and to him that knock eth to be his shall be opened. as he really little is. but wide awake and seemingly in full possession of their faculties." The powers thus attained by but in evil. being partially mesmerised by some method of exhausting the psychical energy. when they recover from their biologised state. with regard to the allied phenomena of so-called " Electro Biology" in which persons. that earnest prayer for spiritual gifts places the Christian with regard to God and it is doubtless true of one. Adept may seem own. The " received explanation of these phenomena is that it is the will But there are of the order produce continuous In to and this. their helpless captive with a seeming power for a very while. but opposed to their own wills. if so. and yet. at the command of the " Biologist. they which seek shall the find. prayer for the possession of these powers. are made to do various absurd actions. and which power he holds entirely on sufferance." and seemingly possessed by a spirit which was not their own. varied action there must be and. matter of effects fact. this. and would be incapable of doing so to all at once.

It is worthy of note also that even such methods of invoking the spirits as table turning and of receiving their answers by means of a Tertullian." " Biologists. violent consciousness or due to the agency of daimonia. as there can be no efiect without a cause. must be some other " spirit. wizards. etc." Mesmerisers " or of the persons on and we are therefore forced to conclude that these foreign spirits must be the same daimonia as those which the ancient Pagans invoked by similar methods. necromancers. and by which he is made to act and mind aud spirit. spirit stantly present with the hypnotised person directing his thoughts and Therefore.THE TEACHING OF HERMES—MAGIC fancies." and if asked to decribe its effects we could not do so more exactly. Electro Biology.. that the similar phenomena is it seems only reasonable to conclude of " Electro Biology " are produced by the same agency. and the effects is neither that of the it which produces the hypnotiser nor " that of the hypnotised person. The phenomena and the powers of " of Mesmerism. But in the com'pletely biologised person. to think in a manner entirely opposed to his own con- To say that it is the spirit of the hypnotiser would is be absurd. merely a form of " Electro Biology. produced by exactly the same arts as those by which the Pagan magicians. clear evidence of the presence and which can neither be those of the " Mediums. " Electro Biology " are similar to those of mesmerism and ancient magic. and in this respect the phenomena are identical with those of the mesmeric When. but these and every other delusion of the person's mind are impressed upon the consciousness and memory." the " Hypnotisers. speaks of the Pagans of his they exercise their arts. there is no memory of what he has been doing. sorcerers. therefore. whom ." Hypnotism. it is considered that the methods of trance. or concisely. in spite of the often pro- and absurd actions which he performs. for no one pretends that the spirit of the hypnotiser actions. and that the phenomena produced by the latter are confessedly longed. than by saying that they consisted of acts due to the presence of a spirit or influence in a person " Hypnotism " which was not his oivn." Mediums " and " Adepts. 175 the events of a dream but on recovery will recognise them as such. in planchette were equally methods of ancient magic. and similarly may appear vividly real and yet be recognised as absurd on awaking." are merely the reproduction of the phenomena of ancient magic. is that there is. " making time the passage before quoted. sought the assistance of the demons who they regarded as their gods and the distinctive feature in the modern phenomena . in one agency of " spirits and all.

222. in consequence. * iii. and. pp. 305." ^ of God is male and female. " It is also worthy of notice that the teaching of Spiritualism and Theosophy remarkably accords with that of ancient Paganism. p. with its Father and goddess Mother.D. Mr Pember also quotes Zalman Zebi as defending table-turning in his day. Buddha and Buddhism. also represented the Mother as herself proceeding from the Father. p.. Ammianus Marcellinus." and as Christ is spoken of by the Apostle Paul as the second Adam. 353. in by tables which two persons. p. from whom proceeded a Son who was identical with the Father. I I 5 Apuleius. "Man being made in the image truth. ^ i. ffist. 221. .. they were forced to confess. Lenormant. 1615 A. Son and Holy The ancient Spirit. sought to ascertain the successor to the reigning Emperor Valens. goddess who was ^ Isis. by Birch. note. Wilkinson. p. Paganism. had always a corresponding his " manifestation " . ii. 168. as the as in the case of deification of his various attributes." Spiritualism it is taught that s So also is in " God dual." is THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD ' and a particular instance of this divination quoted by Mr Pember from Ammianus Marcellinus. Pember. A. • - Ante. says. but being found out. 99. Mother and Son. 39." 4 present time." and concluding that Theodorus was intended they made no further inquiry. Theodorus and other persons whose names commenced in a similar way were put to death. This planchette has been known for many hundred No doubt these methods have been handed down to the years. p. 3 4 Pember.3 and Mr Lillie In China there is in front of many statues of Buddha a table on which an apparatus similar to a planchette is used for ghostly communications.176 tables to divine. the spirits proved to be correct. Hilarius and Patricius. unlike the Christian Trinity of Father. of East.Nevertheless. Anc. who proclaimed herself to be "the first of the celestials and the uniform manifestation of the gods and goddess whose sole divinity the whole orb of the earth venerated. Father and Hindu teachers obtained a golden glimpse of this impersonal In like manner it is said. in the fact that. and are merely revived by the followers of Spiritualism. its Trinity consists of a Father. the Father being regarded as Hermaphrodite. so that each separate manifestation of the god. vol. Davis's " Great Harmonia. so it is taught by Theosophy that " there is yet to be expected a second Eve who is to be the Queen of Heaven Mother. p. 308. vol. The spirits spelled " Theod. He and modern Theosophy and She." from Pember. . Theodosius was proclaimed Emperor of the East. ffist. 29 . J. or possessing within himself both male and female principles. xxix. for after the defeat of Valens bj^ the Goths.

These faculties of clairvoyance and second sight exercised by persons in full possession of sense and consciousness. at the moment of the latter's death. for instance. although due. because it is 177 race. which saw the vision of the Almighty falling into a trance. In this and other cases the future seems to have been revealed to the prophets. made use of their power for evil purposes. but this was not always and the case of Balaam. either by a vision or by the words of God heard by their They also possessed at times when he perceived the messenger of the king of Israel coming to him before he entered his house (2 Kings vi. Scripture speaks of prophecy. the son of Beor. xxiv. are illustrations of the exception. righteous men and the servants of God . Appen- dix B. to prophets who. M . or as in the case when his spirit witnessed the transaction between his servant Gehazi and Naaman.THE TEACHING OF HERMES— MAGIC and to absorb the worship of the human remarkable. although able to foresee the future. 32). perhaps thousands of miles away. if not by their bodily ears. are quite distinct from the clair' "The New Revelation" and "The Perfect Way. or the power of foretelling the future. But there are a multitude of well-authenticated cases of persons having possessed similar faculties in our own times. Kings V. and the man whose eyes are opened hath said. xiii. hath said. no doubt. pp. 15. although similar in many respects to those we have been considering. Scotland. as a gift possessed by certain persons who were generally so. 1. in which persons have seen a friend." as in the case of Elisha. " clairvoyance. are not necessarily of demoniacal origin. to some spiritual influence. 16). 380." quoted by Pember. There are also cases in which persons have received warnings of future danger by means of events or appearances. it is important to allude to a class of supernatural phenomena which." ^ This is the more well known that the goddess mother of ancient Paganism eventually absorbed the worship of the Pagan world to the practical exclusion of the god. and the allusion in Deut. and its nature may be gathered from the account of Balaam's prophecy: "Balaam. etc. He hath said which heard the words of God and knew the knowledge of the Most High. This prophetic faculty appears to have been bestowed by God on certain persons. the Syrian minds. In conclusion. 377. 26). which were of a more or less supernatural character and there are the well-known cases of " second sight " which used to be common in the Highlands of (2 .. but having his eyes open" (Num. There are the cases. and on particular occasions. or a relative.

for. in create a desire for them and produce a belief in powers independent of God. and to increase the influence of superstition and idolatry. 2 and ix. and although their object may not always be recognised. It is true that these abnormal faculties the Adepts of Buddhism and Spiritualism. Solitude and abstinence are conditions for producing this state of and these conditions are often satisfied by the people and elsewhere. their origin may be recogby the following distinctions. who have been exercised by and by the magicians and sorcerers of Paganism. and that before one of his visions he had been fasting " three full weeks " (Dan. whereas in the cases referred to above. but they were sought and obtained through magical art from the spirits or daimonia. is wholly unconscious and clearly possessed by a spirit which is not his own. however. they may also do so in the case of haunted houses. The powers and faculties bestowed by God are given unsought. the power. Other supernatural phenomena might be mentioned. But the state thus produced is equally susceptible to the influence of the spirit of God. before his visions. in the Highlands of Scotland As a rule. which have been the seat of former crimes. when a person is in the state susceptible to spiritual influence. This does not. an evil spirit might seize the opportunity. But if the daimonia personate the spirits of the dead in order to deceive their living friends and relatives. however. has always come unsought. was in this state of mental absorption. x. prove these faculties to be from God. such as apparitions and haunted houses. such as that accompanying grief and anxiety. and are supposed to he haunted by the spirits of murderers or their victims. to enter into order to him and give him these and other powers or faculties. The powers daimonical agency. or faculty. and this condition would also be fulfilled in some of the cases of clairvoyance referred to. Under these circumstances it would appear difl&cult to determine in every case whether these faculties are from God or due to susceptibility. may produce a similar state. Satan. Great mental tension and absorption. and have only served to exalt the pride and power of the recipient. or localities. nised obtained from the daimonia have been generally bestowed on their devoted worshippers. 3). unless prevented by God.178 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD voyance and other phenomena manifested by the mesmerised person. and it would appear that Daniel. they are not conducive to evil. . or they have been sought and obtained by persons of exceptional wickedness to enable them to satisfy their evil desires.

and. and I expected this car every at about this part of the road. and may be conceived to cling to the scene of their evil and be allowed by God to haunt it. like many other places in Ireland. there at Athlone for some time previously. " A curious circumstance happened to me here. yards or less. perfectly straight and level. permitted by God to haunt it. when he went out to betray our Lord. The place." and the evil spirit. I out-station to Athlone on an outside car. who dominates their minds and induces them to carry out their deeds of evil. as in the case of Judas. gates of " was returning from visiting the and had passed The Doune. and Christians are warned not to " give place to him " that is to say.— THE TEACHING OF HERMES—MAGIC . sir. was a police station. xxxv. that " Satan entered into him. and there is no expiation for the land of the blood that is shed by the blood of him that shed it " (Num. to rehearse before the eyes of the living the wicked deed. the owner refusing to live there. is " accursed. he might possess the person. While still in the open part of the road hefore reaching this spot the sergeant-major remarked." the road was dark and overhung with trees. I had occasion to visit an out-station at some land. a little time ago. not to allow and temptations to obtain a hold of the mind and affections. This is implied by the statement." which. was let for a nominal sum. before reaching the lodge The Doune. it is said. Such spirits being glory in the evil they have brought about. ' minute to turn to its proper side. but instead of that it seemed as if . such as murderers. hundred little about it at first until it was within a We were on our right side of the road. and with four men and a driver on it. as in some cases. is spoken of as the tempter. A case in illustration of this was brought to my own notice when quartered at Athlone in 1879. For a full mile before coming to " The Doune " the road was but for a hundred yards. who had been stationed About four miles out. in short. more murders have been committed than in any other part of Ireland. " For blood. and some three miles further on was a gentle- man's place called " The Doune. are possessed by an evil spirit. or so. it defileth the wholly evil.' when I saw a car at some distance driving towards us on the same side I thought very of the road. in the vicinity of which. because having thus obtained a footing. therein. of whom it is said. 179 the prince of the demons. may be regarded as a sign and a warning of God that the blood of the murdered person still cries for vengeance. a most matter-of-fact and unimaginative man. 33). but distance and was driving there accompanied by my sergeant-major." his suggestions It is thus implied that persons of exceptional wickedness.

and there was not a trace of it to be seen in any direction. but of the murderers some of whom were probably still living. that the story has all the appearance of truth. just as the other car reached us. at certain times since. murdered man. But the little circumstantial incidents of the story. and the driver's paralysed terror so unlike what would have been invented. But. but very unlikely to have told such an invention to his superior officer when it could have been easily proved to be false. when. in the case of other apparitions.i8o it THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD aside. seemingly maddened with terror. The Scripture describes the dead as "asleep in the dust. The Doune Murderers. the ' ' owner of The Doune/ having incurred the enmity of certain people. omitted for the sake of brevity. My driver's terror was due to the fact that he had heard of this apparition and recognised it." Such was the sergeant-major's story. nor could it be stopped until it pulled up streaming with perspiration I there learnt that I had seen what was called at the police station. Moreover. which disappeared just as it reached them. while there would be no reason for such terror if the apparition was the spirit of a human being." that . and was preparing to jump off the car to avoid the certain crash which appeared intended to drive right into imminent. and the narrator was not only ' the last person to invent such a story. which. different people had met with the apparition described. us. was waylaid and murdered at the dark part of the road near his house by four men who drove there on an outside car and had never been aioprehended. is said to have been produced on dumb animals. the apparition was not of the panies invention. being wholly devoid of that systematic and artificial construction which always accomIn this case. At the same instant our horse. and the apparition was not therefore produced by the The terror of the horse is also similar to that spirits of the dead. I shouted again to him without result. there would be every reason for it. ran away. " greater in power and might " than man. it completely vanished. there are nature. and yet so true to nature. but that. . which have all many well-authenticated stories of a similar the appearance of truth. which might have been done. for the driver was still in Athlone. but I was not sufficiently interested at the time to take the trouble to verify it. if the apparition was produced by a wholly malignant spirit. were so devoid of artificiality. and the people at the police station could have been questioned. I shouted to my driver to turn but he took not the slightest notice and appeared to be completely dazed. It appeared that some years before.

" See infra^ chap. not to any powers inherent in man. Faith-healing. and are due. are equally revivals of the methods used by the Pagan magicians and sorcerers. It is also evident that the allied phenomena of Hypnotism. etc. as implied by the Apostle Paul. whose teaching indeed they profess to follow. and that the beings who reply to them and show signs and wonders. it is evident that the intercourse with the dead of by the modern Theosophy is merely the revival of by Hermes. able and willing to aid the living." and we must therefore conclude that these apparitions are not the spirits of the dead. is being made at the present day to revive the Pagan belief in the powers and activity of the spirits of the dead." must also be them and under the influence of daimonia and that the spirits who reply to influence their minds and imaginations. although they. . . to introduce. . or evil spirits. but evil spirits who. and reveal to them the secrets of the unseen world.THE TEACHING OF HERMES—MAGIC i8i they " know not anything. are allowed to personate them. and thence. this would appear to be true of every worshipper of idols and the supposed spirits of the dead (1 Cor. under religious and other pleas. and their influence on human affairs. are the same daimonia.. for the reasons mentioned. or at least the votaries Spiritualism and the old Pagan worship instituted - devotees ' of that religion. compared with the testimony of Scripture. Every effort. intercourse and relationship with them. who were the real gods of the Pagans. The belief also that they are the spirits of dead friends and relatives. it would seem that the Roman Catholic. although they personate and are supposed to be the spirits of the dead. 20). neither have they any more a portion in anything that is done under the sun. however. and whose one desire is to obtain influence and control over the bodies and souls of men. But. x. are not those of the Virgin and saints. exercises a fascination upon many. believe that the beings they invoke are the spirits of " holy men. but simply and solely to the aid of the same daimonia. from an analysis of the phenomena. but spirits of evil and. 19. But if so. xvii. and in some eases perform signs and wonders in order to confirm their faith in them. like the Pagans. together with their affectation of a certain righteousness and truth.

Cory's Fragments. Cory's Fragments. Berosus. to found temples. but according to Apollodorus in that of the fourth king. 30. has left us an account of the Deluge. Berosus. therefore merely revived that teaching. In addition to the first Cannes. they instructed the people in the same knowledge. . 22. and who " related to the people whatever Cannes had informed them of. pp. and taught them " letters and science and every kind of art. Berosus. this Cannes appeared in the reign of the first king. 22. was selected to be the centre of the postdiluvian idolatry.CHAPTER IX THE NEPHILIM The next point of our inquiry is the way in which the worship of and intercourse with evil spirits. and according to his history. like the historians of other Pagan nations. He taught them to construct houses. and that Hermes. the Babylonian historian and priest of Bel. as given by Polyhistor. from Polyhistor and Apollodorus. from Polyhistor. to compile laws. on account perhaps of its antediluvian associations. Berosus mentions other Annedoti of a similar form who appeared in the reigns of other kings. 31. mentions ten kings as having reigned before the Deluge." partly human and partly fish." " the Annedotus. 23. so universal were his instructions. 182 Berosus. How was it introduced to the human race ? arose. . called " Cannes. nothing material has been added by way of improvement. and of certain features of antediluvian Allusion has already been made to his account of a being history. being close to the site of Eden." is ^ The mention here of an antediluvian Babylonia probably only for the purpose of identifying the locality which. ' ' etc. From these statements Berosus implies that the principles of idolatry were taught to mankind before the Deluge. who is supposed to have lived in the time of Alexander the Great. pp. or Cush. From that time. just as the Mosaic account describes ten generations during the same period. supposed to be spirits of the dead." ^ that is to say. and explained to them who appeared to the people of Babylonia the principles of geometrical knowledge.

pp. 32. Hephaestus. 94. or Hermes.3 Hence we may assume that Hermes and Hephaestus were one and the same. pp. or Thoths. Cory's Fragments. p. a god after his death. have suggested that the name " Cannes " was also given to Cush because he." or Vulcan. who is given a reign of 724 years. of the We Chrysor. like the other Annedoti.THE NEPHILIM In addition to 183 are these Annedoti. 168. ' 3 Sanehoniathon's History y Cory's Fragments. which Cush and his son were deified were not given them until long after their deaths. » See Manetho's Dynasties . so also the antediluvian the sixth descendant from Hermes was Hephaestus.e. was the teacher of this knowledge." ^ Now Cush. but is in striking contrast with the reigns of other god kings which are of normal length. according to Manetho. All tradition points to the fact that the idolatry established * by Berosus. from Ahydenusj Cory. is the same as Hephaestus. "the first-born. . was in one of his deified manifestations. the first Hermes. introduced by the priesthood as recognised as a god in the postdiluvian idolatry. he says. or Chrysor.. the onei^ just as the postdiluvian and the other after the Deluge. " He exercised daemons. was " Chrysor" who.^ we learn from ^ of the same quoted by before. and that Chrysor was called by these names in after ages. Adam. men worshipped him after death as a god and called him Diamichius the great inventor. Cory's Fragments.4 a period which is not only irreconcilable with the reign of any king after the Deluge. because he was the chief teacher amonothe antediluvians of the knowledge taught by the second Hermes For it must be remembered that the names under after the Deluge. who was the great teacher knowledge " himself in words and charms and divinations. like the first Cannes. and we may conclude therefore that the Hephaestus mentioned in Manetho's list is the antediluvian Hephgestus or Chrysor. Syncellus. there were two Hermes. who described as serrd- Sanehoniathon's history that the sixth descendant from " Protugonus. the antediluvian Hephaestus. list being the first human teacher of their religion." or Adam. but there seems to be no reason for identifying Chrysor with the Annedotus Cannes who. 169. wherefore after the Deluge. p. having been worshipped as we may be certain that he would be also Now Manetho's god kings of Egypt begins with an Hephaestus. But these 724 years might perfectly accord with the lifetime of an antediluvian. 8. 7." i. is described as a daemon. and.

After which " Vishnu became a fish and recovered them from the bottom of the ocean. p. that the name Seth 6 is synonymous with Shem. who is said to have flourished at the time of the Deluge. cosmogonic and prophetic. " ^ the Egyptian priest. in part. astronomical. but they were stolen from him by the demon " Hayagriva " while " he slumbered in a prior world. p. engraved them upon two columns." Seth." 4 This is simply a way of saying that they were recovered from the bottom of what had been the ocean. Manetho." who is said to have been the first monarch of Iran. Ant. who appears » to be called = Numb. as in the case of Buddha.3 Again. Egypt). which not only identified their gods with Noah. So also " Maha Bad. Thus a revival of antediluvian idolatry. Menu Satyavrata is represented as being saved with seven saints from the — The preservation of this knowledge thus methods of Paganism. antediluvian knowledge of idolatry with the knowledge. having found these writings at Sippara." Similarly. It may be remarked Sheth in jii^^^ p.i84 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD Gush and Nimrod was carefully preserved. p. "they set about building cities and erecting temples. one of brick and the other of stone.." i. Chrysor) before the Deluge in the land of the Siriad. "when the Earth poured forth the flood in order to assist him against the Assoors or five holy scriptures descended from above which gave knowgiants. in order that This is probably the foundation. " received from the Creator a sacred book in a heavenly language..e. 17. ii. Berosus says that the knowledge obtained before the Deluge was and that Xisuthrus. Brahma is said to have written the Vedas."^ This has already been referred to. chap. attributed to Noah is characteristic of the ^ 3 Cory.. xxiv. while shut up in the Ark. In other traditions the sacred writings came from heaven. i. which is recorded by the Great Pyramid. 150. Faber. and that the latter remains to this day in the land of Siriad He has probably here confused the preservation of the {i." and that after the Deluge.." " the great Buddha. of the statement of Josephus that the sons of their scientific discoveries might not be lost. ii. Josephus. ' Berosus. 149 x^^ . 33. and Babylon was again inhabited. from Ahydenus. 168. but made use of his name as the venerated father of the human race to obtain credit and respect for their religion. bk. or Noah was directed to commit everything to writing and bury the account in the city of the sun at Sippara."^ Again. claims to have based his writings on certain inscriptions " engraved on columns by the^rs^ Thoth - (i. Fragments. ledge of introspection and ability of accomplishing the desires of hearts and means of carrying words into efl'ect.e. vol.e.

as being the supreme gods of these nations and the orderers and arbiters of those events. They also speak of the sacred books of Pherylt. the chief that event. who was the first king in Babylon many years after in accordance with their religious belief. and. taking into consideration the tradition of the first Hermes. or priestly castes. They say that the Patriarch was saved with seven companions on a floating island with a strong door. or the writings of Hu. pp. But. and that they emanate from priests. or Prydain. ' Ibid. 150.discovered account of the Deluge on the Assyrian tablets that Bel. is . or communication with evil spirits. on the other hand. and the first Oannes." ^ Now one else. or. p. we find in the lately . utterly absurd to suppose that Noah. from the Greeks and Romans. as to the means of communicating with them and enlisting their powers on his behalf. have received instructions from the spirits he invoked as gods. first originated in the antediluvian world. the originator of postdiluvian idolatry. the Preserver of the Universe. We may also presume that the uniform tradition of the recovery after the Deluge of the secrets of the Pagan religion has some foundation.— THE NEPHILIM 185 Deluge by Heri. in the shape of a large fish (the Ark). the god of the Egyptians. For instance. of course. ' is represented as arranging the circumstances of the Flood ii. or any- recorded and buried the principles of Pagan idolatry previous to the Deluge in order that they might be recovered and idolatry re-established after the Deluge. vol. Osiris. as the primary teachers of idolatry. are by these writers entirely removed the events of human history. or Hephsestus. may. Faber. like the votaries of modern Spiritualism. it very probable that Cush.. 113-116 and p. it is. and after the Flood he received a book of divine ordinances in the language of the gods/ The Druids have a similar tradition. who represent them god of of Jupiter and the the Babylonians. the principles of magic and sorcery and that this was " the special revelation from the gods " said to be received by Buddha. . — It is necessary here to call attention to the fact that the traditions and histories bearing upon the subject are derived from writings dated 2000 years or more after the events of which they treat. 149. in other words. of which Taliesen says that " should the waves again disturb their foundation he would conceal them deep in the cell of the Holy d Sanctuary. it implies that the worship of the gods. and was merely revived by the Hamite descendants of Noah from the traditional I \a knowledge preserved by their father Ham. Menu and other forms of the Pagan god. Thus Bel.

their particular relationship to their human originals is sometimes misplaced. Pagan idolatry. whose histories were more or less interwoven with theirs. Moon and Stars and the Phallic or generative principle and afterwards the authors of this worship were themselves deified and identified with the demon and Nature gods they themselves had instituted. Nevertheless. at first of magic. and with the statements There ' is much antediluvian traditions of the various Called so from Mount Ida." and hence was called " Idaia Mater " (" the Mother of Knowledge " ^). the underlying truth may still be extracted from many of these myths by The Greeks. In like manner the goddess Mother was not merely Rhea. but the Ark from which the human race . and the Ark (the evil. them with each in the other. she is his mother as well. —suh voce. understand their mystical import. because Eve was formed from Adam. the worship of the Sun. mount of knowledge.. symbol of the goddess) was constructed by Noah. for the causes before mentioned. and therefore with the Sun as the Great Father and the Earth as the Great Mother. although. only in those myths which treat of the histories of the gods themselves that their true relations are revealed.i86 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD The same is as the supreme god. Cronus. etc. by making due allowance for these confusing elements. the case with Osiris and Jupiter It is when they are spoken of in relation to the events of history. in a large number of instances. p. We have also to take into consideration the dual character of It consisted. " the Mother of all living. and even Adam. who is both the daughter and wife of Menu. not merely the first rulers of Babylon and Egypt. 111. So also she was Eve. knowing failing to and carefully comparing of ancient authors. the woman through whom came the knowledge of good and Again. have completely obliterated their original significance. as we have said. Saturn. the goddess Mother is sometimes represented as the daughter as well as the wife and mother of the god." Dymock's Classical . and Belus. as the mother of the supposed reincarnation of the god. as in the case of Isis and Osiris. were therefore represented as. these things only in their allegorical form. being the Father of the Gods and of men. had been reborn. while. " the Hislop. the Earth and the Moon. Diet. that is. turned them into a multitude of fanciful fables which. demon and nature worship. So also they were identified with the progenitors of the human race. but as Noah. as in the case of Ila.

In Chaldea The legends of the Berosus enumerates ten antediluvian kings.^ and also to the nine generations before Noah. pp. 215-219. their founder. the story of which was related to Solon by the Egyptian priests. The ' Celtic Hu.y pp. who preserved their sanctity. which was destroyed hy fire. and who . . 3 " Theba " means both " cow " and " ark. i.' In India we meet with the nine Brahmadikas who. dawn of historical times. vol. The Chinese count ten before the emperors. Bergelmer. ^ Recorded by Plato. vol. p. 21. M.e. who lived on pure Homa (water of life). vol. i. The Critias. " Ymer " is represented as. from whose body (when "the fountains of the great deep were broken up ") came the Deluge and who afterwards made the ocean." whose blood Goths.^ were the gods of the Another tradition mentions the giant " Ymer. are called the ten Petris of or Fathers. partakers the divine nature." and hence a cow was the symbol of the goddess Mother as a bull was of the god Faber. Iranian race commence with the reign of 'ten Peisdadien kings.. men of ancient law. and finally. and the Arabs in the ten mythical kings of the Adites.'* destroyed all the other giants except one. * Faber. i.5 He is evidently the same as " Typhon. the Ark. of East. not to multiply instances. the Germans and Scandinavians believed in the ten ancestors of Odin. 13. In the Scriptural account of the antedi]u\aan world mention of " giants " who were the predisposing cause of the wickedness which led to the destruction of the world by the Deluge. mentioned by Sanchoniathon in his history. Hist. who escaped on board his bark."^ antediluvian Atlantis. 12. p. 133. with Brahma. who is said to have lived at the time of the Lenormant. the primordial people To this we might add the ten kings of the of their peninsula. . . i. in the first place. The Gothic legend speaks of a Jlrst world called " Muspelsheini.THE NEPHILIM nations which is 187 in : Lenormant writes " accordance with the Scriptural account. and of is made a second world in which all the families of the giants were destroyed by a flood except one who saved himself and his household in a ship. the Earth. and the evil principle of the Egyptians. His three sons born of a Cow. Anc. In the number given in the Bible for the antediluvian Patriarchs we have the first instance of a strikino- agreement with the traditions of various nations. The traditions of the Pagan nations are also in remarkable accordance with this. make ten. and to which we shall presently refer. ." the ocean. s ihid." the abode of Surtur.

is " violence the earth. vol. shut up the Titans in a central cavity of the earth. p. who.THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD Deluge. or to the satisfaction of their natural lusts and inclinations.e. ' Faber. As stated by the Mosaic account. vol. . 139-141. which says that " the fountains of the great deep were broken up." ^ It will be remarked that the above attributes the moral evil which led to the Deluge to the loss of the knowledge of God and consequent disputes about truth and falsehood.^ This is an allegorical way of saying that " the Titans. which is also in accordance with Mosaic account. Hu is evidently in the above tradition identified with Noah. but." is represented as the con- queror of the giants and "after patience in affliction became the all the tribes of the Earth. the result of which was that men fixed their looks." aspects. ' The Chinese although it does not speak of giants. i. pp." or. or the Sea. Res. It is worthy of note that speak of the earth and not the rain as the chief source of the waters of the Deluge." the name by which Noah and his descendants ' Faber. ii. the Sun. becoming thus predominant. 177. and it is said that the earth poured or Asuras. See also ' . Then the pillars of heaven were broken. in consequence of which they fixed their looks on terrestrial objects to excess. in other words. 176. pp. Faber. him against the Assoors who were giants and were the demons of Indian mythology. ii. 305. and the law of self. the earth fell to pieces and the waters enclosed within its bosom burst forth with violence and overflowed it. Neptune. surrounding them on all sides ! with the ocean. vol. the subsidence of the dry land gave vent to the subterranean waters. ii. and overwhelmed the wicked race of Phlegyse and their island beneath the sea. and father of who is also called " Noe. which. in certain forth a flood to assist represented as living at the time of the Deluge. Asiat." tradition. Noah. vol. and became like them. as in the case of Jupiter of the Aryans. 149. disputes arose about truth and falsehood which banished eternal reason. vol. 386 all these traditions Appendix 4 C. he was afterwards identified with the Babylonian god just as the latter was often identified with Noah. 306. after which "men despised the Monarch of the Universe. Moon and Stars changed their motions. the demands of righteousness would be ignored. was the source of filled all crimes. ii. wholly to earthly things. directed their attention.. It mentions first a golden age. pp. as the tradition says. Faber. Such was the source of all crimes. yet attributes the Deluge to the moral evil of the human race. is also Buddha.. p. ii. or selfishness.^ According to Hesiod.

p. '' Luke iii. 1 Cor. . . of course. vi. 177. Byzant. ii. 60 Faber. 5. The first seems to connect the Phlegyae with the antediluvian Chrysor. as Gush was not born until after the Deluge. namely that laid down by the Apostle Paul of comparing spiritual things with spiritual.. it is who are the direct creation of thus applied in the New Testament to Adam ^ and to It is also applied in a spiritual sense in the New Testament • 2 3 •» Pausan. The term " Sons of God " is only used in the Old Testament to "Sons daughters express the angels.^ The latter. Bibl. 200. introduced magic and intercourse with evil spirits. obliges us to interpret the passage in a very difierent way. Sanchoniathon' s History. mythology.) The popular interpretation of the statement is that the "sons of God" were the righteous descendants of Seth. but both traditions have a corresponding significance. The two a general recognition of the fact that this unholy was the cause of the wickedness which brought on the world the judgment of the Deluge. 176.^ while Phavorinus represents them to be Cushites. who resuscitated that traditions point. were shut up in the Ark of the Flood which destroyed the The impious Phlegyee were said by the Greeks to be descended from Mars and Chrysa.^ The second connects the Phlegyae with the Cushite race. pp. who. . 5 Job i.^ or of considering the meaning which Scripture attaches to the terms used. to after the Deluge. and the " daughters of men " were the descendants of Cain. according to Sanchoniathon. c. or people of of men. could not be the case. and the rule of Biblical interpretation. Such an interpretation cannot be supported by any valid argument. magic and intercourse therefore. Boeot. we find it stated that they were results of marriages contracted between the sons of God and the daughters of men (Gen..5 and Christ.THE NEPHILIM are spoken of in classical 189 and surrounded by the waters wicked antediluvians." in contrast to the God. p. If now we turn to the Scriptural account of " the giants" through whom it is implied that the human race became thoroughly corrupt and violence filled the earth. vol. Phavor. 6. in other passages. iii. 201. de Urh. ii.. 597 ApolL. sxxviii. or those beings God. 7.. Apud Steph. 38. See infra. But it is manifestly absurd to suppose that the result of the marriage of the righteous with the unrighteous should be a gigantic race of intercourse with evil spirits men ! Nor is there any or precedent in the Bible for calling the unrighteous. lib. pp. 13. righteous.

however illogically. but the possibility of spiritual agents. men of renown " (ver. and to fall back on the weak and inconsequent hypothesis that " the Sons of God " were merely the more pious antediluvians. but in that in the it sense was unknown " " is Old Testament. 'To attempt to combat this sceptical spirit is useless. Hypnotism. a singular hostility to the admission of the possibility of the supernatural in anything which immediately aiFects the human race and this has led them to oppose the manifest conclusion to be drawn from the Scriptural statements. is therefore as follows {i. There is. Various races of these giants are mentioned in Scripture as existing amongst the nations of Canaan. with the human race in the past and the possibility of its recurrence was the general belief of the it Jews and the early Christian Church. : — " There were Fallen Ones in the earth in those days" daughters of before the Deluge). because the result of these marriages was a race of gigantic beings.190 to those THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD who are spiritually born of God. or regenerated. which revolts against the idea of spiritual powers 'outside the knowledge and control of human power and wisdom. etc. and cannot be made Again the original word translated giants but " Hephilim. ' Josephus states as an 2 Peter ii. by natural causes which may be conIt is the old trolled by the aid of human knowledge and science. able to communicate with and influence mankind. is seen in the refusal to admit of spiritual agency in the phenomena of Spiritualism. "and also when the sons of God " (the angels) " came in unto the men and they bare children to them the same became mighty men which were of old. after that. among many. The result of this union of the human race with beings who are said to be . and men. and rather than admit the plain teaching of The same hostility Scripture. who desire to explain of these " fallen away " The intercourse ones its meaning." although it afterwards became a term to express giants. and wholly and irredeemably wicked. vi. They will accept the miracles of Christ as a fact of the past which does not affect people living now." meaning " Fallen Ones.. they shut their eyes to the evidence. disturbs their minds. such as the Nephilim. and the endeavour to explain such things. tions of others.e. and we can only point out the testimony of Scripture to those with whom that testimony has greater weight than the laboured and illogical explana" greater in power and might " ^ was a mixed race of fallen angels . 11. not " giants " statement in Gen. however. Sadducean spirit. .. and this race were of vast stature and strength. The use of to explain its use of the term. 4).

6." is stated to be the fourth king of Iran. as shall see. it is not necessary to seek further for the original source of that knowledge of the spirit world and the means of invoking the assistance of its inhabitants. it consisted of the empire conquered by Nimrod. and Ninus or Nimrod as succeeding him. But if these " fallen ones " had thus established communication with man. Zendavesta.. and it is here quoted we a record of the union of the human race with demons.. showing that the Ghemschid. took place after the Deluge. . a demon. chap. This tradition of the marriage of Gush or Nimrod with the demon will be referred to again. or Djemschid. . built a place of enormous extent in the form of a square. to by the their first estate hut left their first habitation " for this is exactly what the Nephilim were guilty of. These nearly always place Belus or Gush as the first king. which is in accordance with the various records of the dynasties of the Assyrian Empire. which has been handed down to the present day. that wonderful king of Iran. 666. Smith's Diet. The original authors of this intercourse. as well as before that event.. the beginning of the kingdom of Nimrod. 6). i. i. who " went after strange flesh. the Sons of vi.^ was also the general belief throughout the East. and as is implied in Gen. In ' ' •» 5 Antiq." 4 — and within is it was a tower or castle and also a conspicuous This clearly Babylon. 75." These fallen angels are said to be " reserved in chains of darkness unto the judgment of the great day" (Jude 5. God or fallen angels mentioned in Gen. . In the Arabian traditions Djemschid would ajDpear to be Cush. who was the fourth from Noah. The Zendavesta says that "Ghemschid. including the valley of Shinar that is to say. and the ancient Iran extended from the Caucasus to the Indus.e. of these traditions was Nimrod.^ Now "Djemschid." Com'pn. "Giants. and their sin is likened to that of the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah. p. p. iv..5 but the history and subsequent mj^thology of the two deified kings are so interwoven. ii. ^ Rid.THE NEPHILIM It 191 undoubted fact/ and Augustine speaks of the folly of doubting it. The Persian account says that the father of Ghemschid founded the cities of Babylon and Nineveh. palace. 312. and the Persians say that "Djemschid" married the daughter of a dev. of the Bible. chap." or " Ghemschid. that the one is constantly confused with the other. p. {daughter of a . vi. which. 76. Apostles Peter and Jude as " would appear to be alluded the angels which kept not . pp. 275 See ante.

and who were the real gods of the Pagans. Who was Oannes and who were the other Annedoti ? Are we to dismiss the tradition handed down by Berosus as a fable without foundation ? If so. 15. and it seems very unlikely that they had the power of taking the form of man. p. Oannes. encrusted with fable by the imagination of the Greeks. and even then depends on certain peculiar and exceptional conditions. p. we may be certain that they would have been worshipped by the idolaters under those names and characteristics as their chief gods. . ^ Pember. Hindustan. 371 . Had the Nephilim indeed lived among men as men. In modem Spiritualism the spirits have been known to take the form of some relative or friend of the person invoking them. who is made in the image of God.e.. ii. it does not follow that they were unable to take any material form in order to converse with men. is not the character of the generality of the Pagan myths when they have not been * . and only worthy of the imagination of a child and this. i. but it is temporary and evanescent. the same as the daimonia. and been known by them by distinctive names.^ The Nephilim were thus spirits of evil. as we shall see. vol. it is THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD the tradition of the Hindus that the gods (-i. they would not fail to teach men the means also of communicating with them. If.192 *fact. was seemingly the first of the Pagan gods. or as Dagon. pp. some of them had intercourse with the daughters of men. 359-368. the daimonia) |at first J became incarnate and conversed with men. and living amongst men as human beings. the beings who replied to their invocations. Hist. vol. the fable is puerile and objectless. then. and we find that Oannes was actually worshipped in after ages as one of the chief gods of Paganism under his own name. who did not understand their true significance. who was worshipped after his death. it may be remarked." which plainly implies that their presence there was abnormal. whose prince was Satan. whereas Chrysor. and therefore that Ithey were not human beings. If Satan assumed the form of a serpent in order to converse with ' Maurice. On the other hand. the Fish god. It is said these " Fallen Ones " were " in the earth in those days. and taught them arts and science and the nature of the place where they were to go The latter. Faber. Berosus speaks of Oannes and the Annedoti as " daemons" which is but another name for the Pagan gods.^ special subject of spiritualistic revelation at the present day. is the after an earthly probation. features and characteristics. but nothing is said in Scripture about their actual appearance. Now.

we might suppose. For " " is the Greek article " The. xii. there was a deeper reason than the fact of their being the human originators of idolatry for deifying them after death. If so. there would be /nothing anomalous in the assumption of a form like that of Cannes It may be asked. arising from the very nature of things. N . men of renown.. in order to deceive mankind and communicate to men the knowledge of evil. may well have been Satan himself. 9). and the tradition of Berosus is in accordance with what we expect from the statements of Scripture." or at some subsequent period. where the question is more fuUj considered. The Scriptures say that the gods of the heathen were devils (daemons). ffa Oanas. Berosus says that Oannes. and that " sons were In „ born unto them who were mighty men of old.' In short. /?rs< appeared in the reign who we shall see was Noah. and with the article Moreover. were eventually identified. when with men and a race of demon-bom beings was the result. with many. and the chief of these Annedoti. some of these Nephilim. 199-201)." accordance with this we read of certain strange races of giants in fallen angels allied themselves — . which. I by his angels. pp. his arguments would have been listened to much more readily by human beings ? In both cases the forms assumed give an air of fable and grotesqueness to the story. and. or possibly Satan himself. the Nephilim. we might well conceive that in the ages before the Deluge. of the^r«^ king. as we shall see. and why did Satan assume the form of a serpent instead of that of a man. * It will be observed that the intercourse of fallen angels and » women is said to have occurred. who in after ages was worshipped as Cannes. Nahash would become anaas or anas. or Oanes. and as h not represented by a letter in Greek. and their descendants therefore may have rightly claimed to be the children of the Sun and Serpent god. not only before the Deluge." and O'annes might be the Hellenised form of "Ha JSfahash"^ "the Serpent. for they were in very truth the incarnation of the daemon gods. but " after that. Satan is said to be him who "deceiveth the whole world" (Rev. did assume the shapes described by Berosus. why should the Nephilim have assumed these forms. {infra.. for a similar purpose. in which form. the aspect of fable and unreality is removed. if so. for the assumption of these forms./ See Appendix B.THE NEPHILIM • 193 man and withdraw him from his allegiance to God. ' . and we shall see that both Chrysor and the other human originals of the Pagan gods were probably of Nephilim descent. But there may be a deep reason. may seem to impeach its credibility." with whom the other forms of the Pagan gods. is ^ Oannes is the Greek form of the name.

" God spared not the angels who sinned. such persons being spiritually dead. ." " No mortal. Anakim and Zuzim. This receives strong corroboration from the description of the Tower of Belus at Babylon by Herodotus. or a state of hopeless spiritual death. would thus appear so also is that. and of in other ways. 1 iii." he says. conveys the general meaning. Enim. we may be certain that he would not neglect the method of inviting their companionship by means of women. 3 but the particular use of the word " Rephaim " in these passages implies that the state of the Rephaim was one of irredeemable evil.. the means of establishing intercourse with the spirit world. 17. . or from other sources. no doubt. it would indeed be a salient feature of the unholy arts of Paganism." ' He adds that the priests ' •* Smith's Diet. for their gigantic stature and strength. just as the state of the fallen angels is irreversible them. the word is translated " the dead" which.194 Palestine. and that. ii." " inclineth to the Rephaim" and in the other that " the man that wandereth out of the way of understanding shall remain in the congregation of the Rephaim. 18. it would fully account for the existence of the giant races of Canaan. as being Israelites to destroy wholly evil themselves and the source of untold evil to the rest of the human race. existence of whole races of such giants cannot be explained on and the any The word one of which " Rephaim " occurs in it is said that the path of the two other places in Scripture. and if this was the case. and forgetteth the covenant of her God. ii. Prov. " They were not Canaanites. but it would not be so if they were the result of the intercourse of " the sons of God " with the women of Canaan. separated or alienated from God." ^ In the A.e.V. 18 xxi. except one woman chosen hy the god out of the whole nation. which is not that of It men by ^ naturej however wicked they may be that of the Rephaim. This omission Gen. concerning whom " The Giants.. as there is no mention genealogies in if the writer of the article on the Bible. As implied by Peter and Jude. This also men who have allied themselves with may account for the commands given to the them utterly. i. in woman " which forsaketh the guide of her youth. 15-19."' they were descendants of Canaan in the male line. the THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD Rephaim. On the top of it was the temple of Belus in which was " a handsome couch and table of gold. " passes the night there. This of them in the would be incomprehensible would account other grounds. " Giants." ." in Smith's Dictionary of says. of the Bible. If Cush knew from antediluvian tradition. x. 16." ^ Eph.

are not only not black. as well as in other places. and fades in some degree. the two great centres of Paganism. this intercourse with daemons was openly invited. Men may become very dark from generations of exposure to a tropical sun. Nimrod is called in the Septuagint "Nimrod the giant. 3 Smith's Diet." See Lenormant's Chaldean ' < ' Magic. or daughter of a dev. 385-390. THE NEPHILIM " assert 195 that the god himself comes to the temple and reclines on the bed in the same manner as the Egyptians say happens at the temple of Thebes in Egypt." and ' Herod. and their schid's marriage The Persian colour " is entirely unafTected by climate.^ *that the Grecian mythology. even during a lifetime in a colder climate. i. 38. but this may be easily accounted for by their marriage with the former Cushite inhabitants. although livinor in the same countries. " Giants. This is not the case with the negro races. place. p. may These facts would seem to show is full of accounts of the amours be founded on something more than tradition. c. while the women are decidedly fairer than the men. says that from this marriage sprang " the black and impious race. which speaks of Djemwith the sister. The Chaldean incantations also refer to daemons who were supposed to bring men and women into their embraces during sleep. as implied ? by Scripture. even so late as the time of Herodotus and it is well known that. both in Babylon and Egypt. Moreover. as the other descendants of Noah. 23). of the Bible. for there also a woman lies in the temple of the Theban Jupiter. before alluded to." 3 The origin of the black colour of the Cushite or Ethiopian race has been long a source of conjecture." So is " also he says that the priestess of the oracle at Paterae in Lycia shut up during the night in the temple with the god. who have probably lived three or four thousand years in India. 181. among the followers of the revived mao-ic land necromancy in modern times." This shows that. but the Hindus. pp. 182. They were called "Incubus and Succubus." or "The Lilith. xiii. climate cannot account for the fact that ^thiops." 4 . or daemon (by which we ought probably to understand a Nephilim-born woman). of the Can the Ethiopian change his skin " (Jer. and under precisely the same conditions. and his descendants were black from the first. which gods with mortals. but their dark colour is of a superficial character as compared with that of the negro.' . Some lower castes of Hindus are no doubt black. spirit marriages are advocated 'and are said to take 'of the •fable. or Cush. Pember. and both are said to have no intercourse with men..

chap. and quite in keeping with a demoniacal origin. This is also the character of another form of the god. i Cumberland. should mention the birth of one woman. In connection with this subject. through her. but and names of both Cush * M . v. was represented as a giant of such vast strength that he boasted that no animal on earth could cope with him.^ and this gigantic stature and strength implies therefore his Nephilim descent. It is amongst the black or Cushite races of Africa. pp. and if she was the wife of Ham it would help to account for the transmission. at least. ii.^ with whom the magicians and necromancers of Canaan had communication and among no races do we find such habitual and fiendish cruelty as amongst the " . . and quotes Plutarch." or demon. that Obi.Nephilim intercourse. namely. Obi worshippers of Africa. N it * / was often applied to Ham. while Orion. Sanchoniathon^ s History. and one only. is most fully established and the word " Obi " is clearly cognate with " Ob.196 Osiris. We may presume that Naamah of the last generation mentioned of the descendants of Cain would be more or less influenced by the existino. and the wickedness it gave jAfrise to. in his analysis of the History of Sanchoniathon. of recording genealogies in Scripture. Now it is remarkable that Moses. although extending to all. 131. is. chap. of the occult knowledge ' See ante. which only mentions those daughters who became wives of men of some other family and we can only suppose that this mention of Naamah is because she became the wife of some person of importance. THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD Nimrod. 24. in recording the names of some of the descendants of Cain. with whom Nimrod has been identified. a suggestion of Bishop Cumberland.e. < * * . of which strange tales are told. the Assyrian Hercules. worthy of We are told that the intercourse with the Nephilim did not notice. " Ante. 107. p." and we may conclude that this unholy intercourse." the This is a departure from the usual manner sister of Tubal-Cain. while the cruelties related of Ninus to those who resisted him were inhuman.. " Naamah. worship. i. would be most fully developed among the godless descendants of Cain. take place until " men began to multiply on the earth. p. who says that " emails" which would be just the Greek the wife of Cronus was " ^ Cronus was indeed one of the Naamah." the Hebrew word for the demons. the land of Ham. is always represented as black. Zohak is represented as equally inhuman. Bishop Cumberland suggests that she was the wife of Ham. as of direct descent from Cain in the eighth generation." Hebrew the form of for the reasons before stated Nimrod. 23.

even although she herself may have been in no sense of Nephilim descent.born woman.86. i. Nimrod was himself a giant i. as we have seen. means "beautiful. was Naamah the descendant of Cain. Semiramis may have been the mother. which would not only make him of Nephilim •descent and account for his gigantic strength.e. THE NEPHILIM of the antediluvians.slop. iii. celebrated for her beauty." that they " left their first Is it possible then that Semiramis. Assyria. If both Cush and Nimrod married a Nephilim-born woman. De Dea Syria. and was taken from him byNimrod). and repeat the sin which . who was either Cush or Nimrod. invited or submitted to Nephilim intercourse. it is at least possible. and therefore regarded as a goddess or daughter of the gods and as she afterwards bcame the wife of Nirarod. and in all probability the most powerful of them all. 67. and also for the tendency — . and therefore thoroughly acquainted with the principles of Nephilim intercourse. who was first the wife of Oannes. a supposition which is supported by the fact that Semiramis was first the wife of the Syrian chief Oannes.. chap. Mars .^ which may either mean that she was the daughter of a Nephilim . tirst the wife of Vulcan {i. that she may have Mars.3 If so. Venus was {i. this would confirm the Persian tradition that Djemschid. pp. Mars. Hi. in the traditions. king of Syria. estate " and took them for wives. III. seemingly identified with both father and sou. this perhaps would account for the fact that Djemschid.. who is the Lucian. of Nimrod. who was probably Nimrod's own father.. it would make him in actual fact " The Son and Husband of the Mother. etc. but. married a woman of demon origin. But. or of a Nephilim and a woman. was the daughter of the beautiful Naamah by a Nephilim father ? Semiramis is said to be the daughter of the goddess ' " Derketo. This would imply that he was of Nephilim descent." or daemon. Cush.e." or Atergatis." and it The name "Naamah" was because "the Sons of God saw the' daughters of men that they were fair. the wife of Ham. 460. see Lempriere..from whom he took her the story beiug in exact accordance with the Grecian myth of Vulcan. 197 in her sons Cush and Canaan had brought on the world the judgment of the Deluge. was said to be the daughter of the goddess "Derketo. who married the daughter of a "dev. vol. one of those beings which were the result of these Nephilim marriages.e." Again.. p. Cush). Venus and to revive their unlawful practices. as well as the [wife.. 461 . p. Now Semiramis. ^ 3 See ante. in accordance with the often-repeated statements of mythology regarding the various gods under whose names he was deified. is. Vulcan." and Derketo was the wife of Dagon.e. if Nemaus.

the highest type of the spite of their original intellectually. may have been given to a Nephilim husband of Naamah as being of the same nature as the antediluvian daemon. but the reasons they give for such a suggestion are weak and inconclusive. a native of The portions still extant are fragmentary and disjointed. first we now turn to the history of Sanchoniathon the Phoenician.^ in which he describes the generations of the human at. "Hist. If then Nimrod and Semiramis were of Nephilim origin and the progenitors of the Cushite or Ethiopian race. that just as those Scythian races. was the result of an ordinance of God. and were probably worwho first taught mankind the principles of the Pagan religion. If human race at the present day.^ This is only a suggestion.198 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD reasons that have same as Oannes. we find much that confirms the general conclusions arrived piled his history Sanchoniathon lived a few years before the Trojan War. iSee App. or of one of those natural laws which. who were most free from the debasing idolatry of Gush and Nimrod. Some modern writers have sought to discredit this history by suggesting it to be a forgery." the wife of Dagon. and their objections are pro' bably dictated by the animus possessed by certain writers of modern times against anything which tends to confirm the human origin of the Pagan gods. most degraded. the wisdom and power. race. stamped the descendants of such an union as " children of darkness " and as the " seed of the Serpent " ? We see. characterised as they ever have been by daemon worship. the general conclusions arrived at cannot be rejected. may it not be possible that the black colour of that race. in and in their facial type. by the foreordainment of the Creator. so the Gushite descendants of Nimrod. while in the face of the mutually supporting testimony of profane and sacred history. of Sanchoniathon. but Oannes and Dagon ' ' have a distinct personality of their own. It was translated into Greek by Philo. E. shipped as the daemons in spite of their orginal barbarism. Derketo being the feminine form of Dagon. for the The name Oannes may have been applied to Gush been stated. the gods which is characteristic of mythology. Hence the name Oannes. and the facts of Spiritualism. p 264. moreover. ancestors of the Anglo-Saxons. or Dagon. and Naamah in consequence would be known in mythology as "Derketo. and comfrom the records kept in the temples of the gods in cities. but it accounts for the facts connected with the case. . have become both morally. but they are in strict accordance with the mythologies and cosmogonies of other nations ' Hislop. have become." from Cory's Fragments. and manifest the general confusion in the history and identity of various Byblus.

5. 22. which is caused 'by the Sun's rays reflected through rain. did not appear until after ithe Deluge." " Genus " or " " be- gotten has the same signification as Cain. while they confirm and explain much of the early history of the Old Testament. 21. Lihanus. This is confirmed by the fact that the rainbow. Greek equivalents of the Phoenician. fire). These begat sons of vast hidk and height. signifjnng " Night. It would appear that at first there was no rain and by generation. and the ground would not yield food except by extreme labour. " To Genus were born Phos. would simply )mean that creation was the result of the Word and Spirit of God bringing forth life out of darkness and chaos. Test. One of these first mortals was called " Protogonus. viii. and called him Beel Samen " (the Phoenician for " Lord of Heaven "). or existence. and the other. meaning would be synonymous " with " " Eve. p. was worshipped as a god whose wrath was to be deprecated." wliich is evidently a confused tradition of " age. or the mouth." Greek. for a space of time. when it is also stated that the curse on the ground /was removed. Baau or BaaiU.4 Hence the Sun. This. therefore." and the wind is the ancient metaphor for expressing the Spirit of God.' Fire and Flame '). who gave their names ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' mountains which they occupied— Cassms. 3 the consequence which would be great drought except in the neighbourhood of streams and rivers." ' ' that the earth was only watered by night dews of .e." It has been suggested that Kolpia is the Hebrew " Kol jii Yah" " the voice." From these descended " Genus and Genea. 6. and it would appear to the See note." Gen. ' The names used. " ^ Age." which " means " living" or " existence. are generally the = ^ BuUinger. who discovered the means of generating fire by rubbing together pieces of wood." " living." This must be Adam. a'luv." the Greek for " first-born. Kolpia and his wife. as the cause of great drought." which means increase These in times of great drought stretched forth their hands to heaven towards the Sun. ^ow. Critical Concordance of OreeJc Gen. Hodge's Cory. of Yah.' Pur and Phlox (meaning Light.THE NEPHILIM 199 and with the general testimony of the Pagan writers that have been quoted. wind. whom they supposed to be the only god. Antilibanus and Brathu. "^on. or Jehovah. however." ^ Eve's plucking the forbidden fruit. and taught men the use of it (i. ." This is the first mention of giants.. which was the result of the curse pronounced by ^God. He begins by saying that the first mortals were begotten by the. 4. ii. is said to have \ ( ' ) J " discovered fruit from trees.

" These begat. as shown by the shamelessness of the women. but the sons of their daughters by Nephilim fathers. 6.e. and that the Nephilim intercourse had therefore been continued or renewed. and Hodge's Cor^. and these sons again begot Hypsuranius and Usous by their own mothers. Hunter and Fisherman). for Sanchoniathon goes on to say. " who all is described as a hunter." but no farther mention is made of " Memrumus. note. : were not their sons.' The history also goes on to say that Hypsuranius had a brother " Usous. The expression " of the race " would seem to imply that they were not the sons or descendants of Hypsuranius and Usous. p. Agreus and Halieus " (i. or pillars. more especially if." The names " Hypsuranius " and (or) " Memrumus" clearly refer to the same person. "He exercised himself in words and charms and divinations. one of whom was Ghri/sor. In forsaking God. their angel husbands had met with swift punishment for leaving their " first estate. but of the same Nephilim parentage.e. 261." ' Cumberland. the women of those times without shame having intercourse with any men whom they might chance to meet. although in the generation following that of Phos. and the women. Of these were begotten two brothers. the one being Greek and the other Phoenician. from which there is no return. would probably prefer as husbands their heaven-born sons to any who were merely men." After some mention of Usous.200 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD way that they must have been in some course. Pur and Phlox. descended from the gods).. . as implied by the Apostles Peter and Jude. as they have the same signification. who is called Hephaestus. having followed the paths which lead to the Rephaim. p. wherefore he was worshipped after his death as a god. the When these were dead.. and who would thus be of Nephilim origin. the result of Nephilim interand may explain this. of the race of Hypsuranius. the race of Cain had become without moral restraint. Hypsuranius and (or) Memrumus . and celebrated feasts in honour of them every year. and worshipped stelae. and were thus defenceless against the temptations of evil spirits. those that remained consecrated to them staves of wood." This implies that these Nephilim-descended men were recognised to be something more than human." What follows is significant The explanation of this appears to be as follows The giants. namely " issue from above " (i. and in supposing the Sun to be the only god. by connection with their own mothers. history goes on to say. " In times long after there were born.

5.e. These are the three sons of Noah. with hunt dogs derive their origin.e. or Nephilim Hypsuranius and Usous. 4. 10. he is called by way of eminence the greatest of the gods." Now the principal Titans are said to be "Saturn. like Hermes and ilea. and. Of these were begotten Agrus and Agroueros. chap. "to inflame with madness or violence. ' The name " Phlegyse " seems to indicate their character. 6. Chrysor. Genus. counted as follows : 1. "or " Aletce." which probably also the characteristic of those who It is significant that it are possessed by evil spirits. and "at Byblus. ." ^ who would therefore appear to be Shem. the husbandmen. being wholly wicked. "Japetus" or Typhseus " or " Typhon." Agroueros had a wooden statue which was much venerated. or Agrotes. 2. Agroueros. filled the earth with violence. p. ii.The Giants. Phlox. It seems evident that the Greek story of the impious Phlegyse descended is from Chrysa and who were of this." " Japetus " and " Titan. with the result that the numbers of the Nephilim-begotten race rapidly increased. Protogonos. Titanes.— THE NEPHILIM and sorcerer 201 This implies that Chrysor. and " called " Titaiis..." i. Agreus and Halieus. Pur. 8. i. Phos. 9. race. was a magician skilled in the arts of invoking the spirits." ^ which would identify Titan. 7. Shem. Technites and Genus Antochthon. or Adam. was in the reign of the fourth king that Berosus says '* "Oannes" the Annedotus appeared. and the Sibyl similarly speaks of the three sons of the Patriarch as " Cronus " or " Saturn. meaning "husbandmen. Bishop Cumberland suggests. " The history proceeds husbandmen and such from Agrus and Agroueros. These invented bricks and tiling." as to say that and that they are Japheth." i. and it seems probable that he was the means whereby a general intercourse with them was established.' destroyed at the Deluge a traditional remembrance " Of his race were born Technites. Ham or Gush. or Hephaestus. 3. See ante.e. corresponds to Tubal-Cain) and Geinus Antochthon.. It is is derived from ^ irX^7w." This Agroueros belongs to the tenth generation from Protogonus. 17. Lempri^re. " the artificer " (who. Daughters of above.

or successor." says the history.e. and Sanchoniathon therefore represents Thoth as the son. the gods and god-descended men of the antediluvian world for to have done so would have condemned their own gods. but Sanchoniathon says afterwards that Cronus god Taautus or Thoth that it might Nimrod. and his history is of the this enemy By it interwoven Math that of the gods. The term " Titans. ix." and was probably given to them as being unaffected by the Nephilim intercourse. Instead of this.. that at Byblos. the Hebrew name for Egypt. and appears to have been given especially to Shem. having traced the descent of Thoth. or Mizraim. 20.202 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD which was a general term given and their immediate descendants means "earth-born. would appear that Agroueros. : ' Hodge's Cory. Noah. So also. note. the Father " of the gods. called Hypsistus (that is." Now Thoth or Gush was not the son of Misraim who was the father of the Mizraimite Egyptians." in after ages to the sons of Noah Pagan gods." invented the writing of the first letters. Agrueros is called "the greatest. is in Arabic " Misr or " From Misor. of Misor." Sanchoniathon continues. became the first or father of the gods. who is called also by the still more opprobrious name of "Typhon. and hence is sometimes identified with Saturn. The Egyptians call him ^ Thoor. and in contradistinction to those who were. as their ancestor. 9. the grandson of Noah. or." the name in Egypt given to the evil spirit as the with Typhon. because certain of the family of Ham became the originals of the Pagan gods. . and Noah is particularly described as a husbandman in Gen. was Noah. for Mizraim. " From these {i. It will be observed that Sanchoniathon. according to Pagan ideas. " descended Taautus who Misor. make no mention of the Deluge which destroyed the Nephilim. all " gave Egypt to the be his kingdom " — that is to say. and the Greeks Hermes. the Alexandrians Thoyth." Misor is clearly Mizraim. having conquered Egypt among other countries. made his father king over it. p. or the priestly chronicles from which he obtained his information. This will explain the statement of Sanchoniathon. thus superseding Misor. Agrus and Agroueros) were descended Amynus and Magus and by these were begotten Sydyk and Misor.e." i. he breaks the narration and succession and proceeds " Contemporary with these was one Elioun.. 'the Most High') and his wife . "the husbandman" the father of the Titans." Hence it was a term of contempt. whom the Pagans regarded as " heaven-born.

who was • Berith. is a surname of Jupiter. Dagon Baitulos.. of saying that they* were " born again " in the new world by " the covenant of God. 136. 18. ' Faber. for " covenant. and by reason of her beauty the earth was called by the same name. and he had a sister of the Covenant). p. xiv. (i. 18 . 18 3 Lemprifere. as distinct. and their respective descendants.e. ^ Gen. and Ouranos. Cronus. the father and mother of the Titans. "the most high. consequently called Baitulos. 5 Ante. or Oannes. ix. "from. whom same parents called Ge (Earth)." called in Latin " Cselus " and " Terra " were. but whose names are only different deified forms of the same human Thus the Sons of Ouranos are said to be Cronus or II original. viii. " the most high God. and to each of which a distinct history given.^ Dagon.^ In the subsequent history there is much confusion consequent on representing these two Noahs. p. i. vi. Hislop." Hodge's Cory. is the word translated in Gen. 375. Saturn)." Elioun. Betylus. like Agrueros. Heb. a "husbandman. or they afterwards called Ouranos (Heaven). and it is in accordance sacrifice. the earth.^ and therefore were Noah and his wife." * For throughout the Pagan world the Deluge was regarded as the regeneration of the world and the human race. vol." and by Beruth "The Covenant. as his name Epigeus. whose human originals were the three sons of Noah. pp. 9-17.^ Autocthon.. note. = It will be remembered that Euhemerus says that the name Ouranos was given to him because he was the first who honoured the heavenly gods with This is the more probable origin of the name." implies. . is It was the name of the stone which Saturn said to have swallowed in mistake for Jupiter. usual to Paganism. 10. 17. Moreover. who was the father of the Hindu gods Brahma. with the statement in Gen. 20.e." i. . 21-27. Sanchoniathon afterwards relates an incident in the history of Ouranos which is evidently the same as that in the history of Noah mentioned in Gen. Thus the Brahman claim to be "twice born" because descended from Brahm. has been Atlas is generally represented identified with Saturn." £1 Elyon. so that from him that element which is over us by reason of its excellent beauty is named Heaven.. Betylus. ix. ii. or or Siton. "The Most High." ^ Now " Ouranos " and " Ge." This is simply the mystical way. is therefore the same as Agroueros. and Atlas.s THE NEPHILIM Beruth " (or 203 " By these were begotten Epigeus. or dependent on.e. p. or Epigeus. but more especially from the number of different gods is who are introduced. Ouranos and Ge' are stated to be begotten by Elioun. Coelus. Vishnu and Siva.

was " similarly Oceanus was called by them the father of the gods. ' Ibid' — Japetus and Oceanus. which accounts for the mistake of Sanchoniathon or of The Philo. this would make Nereus to be Noah. . and Oceanus is also represented as an extremely old man. or Oceanus. and Nereus. This war which the elder Cronus made against Ouranos or ' Noah Lempriere. Astarte. and the name " Nereus. " " Pontus are also mentioned as contemporary with these. Cush." which means " watery. Pontus. the same thing. Sanchoniathon speaks of the elder Cronus as the son of Ouranos. Rhea. and of the . all the direct descendants of any important person rest of the history is principally concerning the war between Ouranos. This is due partly to the whereas he was really his grandson. his transcriber.204 T^HE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD is as a son of Japheth. Pontus.. Thoth was the counsellor of Tammuz and of Osiris.^ The countries first inhabited by the descendants of Japheth were the shores of the Pontus Euxinus and Mediterranean. which constituted " the isles. as it would seem to be the elder Cronus who is here spoken of. historian collected the stories from an who what we might expect concerning them from various sources in which the same god or " Typ)hon " and goddess was mentioned under different names. would be Japheth. their ancestor." which Japetus also became a term for is. in which Thoth is represented as the counsellor and Cronus and as stirring up the allies of Cronus to oppose Ouranos. to confuse Ham and Cush together. Nimrod. Shem. as he represented here to be the son of Ouranos. Then we have JEsculapius. i. and he is the same as Thoth." who are all different forms is said same god. are mentioned as contemporary This is just with the above and in various relations with them.^ who the father of Pontus. Jupiter-Belus " and " Apollo. mentioned as the son of Sydyk so also Hercules. Cupid. and others. or shores of the Gentiles. extreme old age. and both the latter are the same as the second Cronus..e. but." Hence the titles Oceanus and Pontus given to Japheth. tendency before alluded to. of Cronus Here there is evidently a confusion of the first and second Cronus. i. also to the custom among the ancients of speaking of as his sons. he Cronus " Cronus. was a son of Cselus and Terra. Minerva. regarded as the father of mankind. of course. If then Typhon is By the Greeks." " is probably Japheth himself.e. and Japetus. another form of the same god." is probably a name given to him in connection with the Deluge. by Sanchoniathon to have begotten three sons. As Pontus is the same as Oceanus.

in the case of the idolatrous Israelites (Ezek. 182. etc. it could only have afforded room few hundred persons. — abroad upon the earth. cap. which Noah would certainly have opposed." ' ' 3 As Herod. have seen that the elder Cronus." 3 tends to confirm this view. he endeavoured. Eph. This is further proved by its name. rather than the reason given by Sanchoniathon. that was more probably For men were the origin of his name " Ouranos. " The Prince of the power of the air. This receives support from his after history. 12 ii. " Babel" has now become a term for a " for confusion. At the most. vi. and if it had been intended for that purpose the builders would have chosen a mountain rather than the low-lying plains of Babylon. through the strength and military prowess of his son. . or Cush.). But it is also probable that they were chosen on account of the solitude and secrecy they afforded. It was. and be himself the . vi. lib. for the purpose of idolatrous worship. spiritual hosts of The professed object of the builders of Babel. or for seeking communication with the demon gods of Pao-anism. That tower was as some have supposed. and being the first who offered sacrifices to Heaven." It " meanino- is was the custom among the Pagans hill " to select " high places " every high as places of worship. but it is well known that its original hah el. 13.^ from which it and would seem that such places were supposed to possess special advantages for seeking the aid of the daimonia. was Tower of Babel. to establish their worship and bring the world under their dominion. Perhaps it was supposed that the higher regions of the atmosphere were more especially the abode of and the expression used by the Apostle Paul. he would be the representative of Heaven. and it was this. 2.' by which they thought to "reach heaven" and become immortal.THE NEPHILIM requires notice. " the wickedness in heavenly j^laces." or " Bab il" " the gate of God. when. as is evident from the description of it by Herodotus. it was thought to attract the worship of all and brincr them together but the real object of the proposer was probably to bring them under the dominion of the daimonia. i.. an attempt to erect a place of refuge We against a future Deluge. by the erection of a mighty central temple. 205 the ringleader in the building of the not." and the title given to Satan." implies that. having been foiled in his first attempt. — " lest we be scattered high priest of their religion. these spirits . The building of Babel for the purpose of idolatrous worship was an act of open rebellion against Heaven. 181." or " Heaven.

as in the case of the Brahmins. and make them seemingly independent of God. and in which war Saturn {i. in which Cush {i. it will be remembered." i. or by the priesthood who in after ages related the story. the elder Cronus).e. the elder Cronus) is said to have been the ringleader. for the building of such a tower as Babel could not have been undertaken while the Patriarch was supported by the bulk of his descendants. In the Greek story the war of Saturn and the Titans against Coelus. This may be an exaggeration of the incident related ' Lemprifere.e. against the demon worship advocated by Cush {i.e. or Ouranos.. was no doubt represented by Cronus.206 called after the THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD name of their gods. kill his children. This may very well have been the case. and Ouranos was obliged to fly from his dominions.. who confined all his children in the bowels of the earth while Sanchoniathon represents Ouranos as endeavouring to . Cronus or Saturn) was the was no doubt the origin of the war of Cronus against Heaven described by Sanchoniathon. Both Sanchoniathon and the Greek story agree in representing Cronus as mutilating Ouranos in order to prevent him having any more children. against Ouranos.. The building of Babel. who were represented by the Pagan priesthood as enemies of the Ouranos. who were the descendants of Noah. rebelled. Cronus is represented as successful. etc. Thoth.. the other descendants of Noah. who have ever adopted the method of misrepresenting and vilifying the followers of the true God. . must have protested. ringleader. or Noah. This is the colouring given to the story by the idolaters. to oppose Ouranos. and must have condemned the seeking of that occult knowledge which promised to enable men human race. to obtain the satisfaction of their natural lusts and desires. and against whom the idolaters Buddhists. is mentioned as stirring up "the allies of Cronus.' In the account given by Sanchoniathon.. Titanes and Saturnus. This war must be or Ouranos the same also as the war in Grecian mythology of the Titans. This limitation to the condi- tions of earthly existence as ordained by God. as he did in the days before the Deluge. as confining men in the bowels of the earth and endeavouring to kill them. and the name " Heaven " probably originated in the fact that Noah worshipped the god of those heavens which had poured forth the Dekige on the earth.e. and submission to Him who had destroyed the antediluvian world. is represented to have been undertaken on account of the cruelty of Coelus. as in the case of the early Christians.

Anobret " is said by some to mean "Grace." whom came Christ. " when a plague or mortality happened. " the light But the suggestions are forced and unnatural. Fragments." and that afterwards. unmentioned in Scripture and unknown to the chosen people of God. who was By Bryant the name addressed by the angel as "much graced. ^ Hodge's Cori^.' for so the Phoenicians call an only son. Micah vi. he adorned the altar and invested his son with the emblems of royalty and An example followed by the king of Moab. in times of great calamity. 24 it would appear that something was done to Noah. when he was a nymph of the country. Cory. 19. 5-7. invariably give the Greek equivalents of Phoenician names. pp." in order to identify her with the Virgin Mary. 21-24.16. Cronus offered up his only son as a sacrifice to This. The name " Anobret " would therefore appear to be derived ' Sanchoniathon. 27 .^ have been made to prove that this mystical sacrifice was done to foreshadow the death of ' ' II. . but by the expression used in ver. 2 Kings iii. and who after death was deified and which bears his name (Saturn). The terms mentioned are only found in the New Testament. the only-begotten son of God." implying thereby that while the name of the nymph " she prefigured the Virgin." ^ Great attempts. Christ." been the origin of human sacrifice. . from Porphyry. ix. in order to prevent the ruin of for the rulers of the city. as she from of the world. seems to have his father Ouranos. 17. who in Hebrew is called El. devoted for this purpose were offered mystically." " Anobret " is said to mean " fountain of light. 20. to sacrifice to the avenging deities the most beloved of their children as the price of redemption they who were For Cronus.' an only son.^ sacrificed him. and when great danger from war beset the land. or nation. whom the Phoenicians call installed in the planet ' king had by who on that account is styled leoud. pp. especially by Bryant. We must here these sacrifices: — "It refer again to Porphyry's account of the origin of was the custom among the ancients all.' called Anobret. and it supposes that the idolatrous Phoenicians had a special revelation of things to come. and were therefore unknown at that time. from whom Eusebius obtained his history of Sanchoniathon. The name " Anobret " has probably a very different signification. and it also appears that he had no more children. The next point of importance in the History of Sanchoniathon is the statement that Cronus slew two of his own children. as already pointed out. and that the act created " great amazement. Both Philo and Porphyry.THE NEPHILIM 207 in Gen.

on condition that he did not bring up any more male children. and probably in obedience to their teaching. ^ "* Ante. Paganism. of East.'or. sacrifices Saturn. letter it could be given this twofold Now " Anobret. *' Titan. " The tyrant Zoroaster.e. Cronus was king of the Cyclops. signify altered the name has been It is quite possible. or Ouranos. the daughter of the goddess Derketo Oannes (i. peculiar significance." which. in order to conceal them. Shem. Lemprifere. the origin not the human of the Phoenicians. married her on account of her beauty. must be Semiramis. possible. ate the sacrifice thus offered." likeness. 12.e." " ^pera? " means an image. p." from The word " would " Pagan gods. but of cannabalism. by the consent of his brother.2o8 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD " a^w.. governor of Syria. Anc. " heavenly. of the line of Cham (Ham). p. however." and the heavenly image in the " several transcriptions from the original author. for ^porhg is " mortal. The author of Nimrod says.^ We know that it was the universal custom for the priests to eat the sacrifices. Bactrian War. There she was seen by Ninus. and that. in order to propitiate his demon gods. 365.^ with whom the practice is said to have originated. Satumus. 18. The only of sacrifice of his son by Cronus. of the nymph is Anobret." i." the wife of Cronus or Cush. as sacrificing priest. or Anobrot. according the to Pagan daughter of a Nephilim ideas." and Anobrot would therefore be " the heavenly mortal. however. and that. was one founders of the Tower of Babel he sacrificed innumerable victims to of the ." " and " Bpirag " " or " ^poTh. In the Greek story Saturn is said to have obtained the kingdom of Coelus. who took her from himself.. 13 . Cush).e. who is said by Ctesias to have been " a foundling child " (" a nymph would signify that she was and that of the country "). the name would have a Anohrot " was the real name. Another account says that he devoured them because he had been informed by an oracle that they would avenge his cruelty on his father Ouranos. ix. he offered his sons in sacrifice to them.. Carthaginians. ' 3 Lenormant. and. thus tends to confirm the Nephilim origin of Semiramis. of the according to or the image. Hist. and took her with him when he accompanied Ninus to the . name that the was given because. " Are not they who eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar ? " 4 It would thus seem that the charge against Saturn was true. x. For Hindus. that ideas. is It father.^ Oannes and married her The name i. Mexicans and Celtic nations. 1 C. . by principle of the change of a in accordance with the meaning. and that If so. 34. he devoured them as soon as they were born.

Aiic. to surpass even his Hence we find that the sacrifice of the first-horn to the Sun god Osiris. the wife of Saturn. recognised by God as such. He was to suffer in so doing. i. who would be only too ready to make use of the knowledge to give an appearance of mystical sanctity to a sacrifice which has been the cause of such appalling suffering to millions of the human race The Greek story of Saturn devouring his children goes on to say that Rhea (i. vol. but the Greeks. of East. of 66G. siv. 146 Compn. who was to be " the seed of the woman. Nimrod. gave him a stone instead of Jupiter (i. p. ii. that the Redeemer would have to die in order to accomplish the redemption of man. substituted a stone for him. and called him. O . and this. in order to save her children. when he was born. Lenormant. This was also the origin of the Moloch. Hence the story implies that Semiramis. and priests of we may presume that the the Canaanitish nations were also fiendish character of all these sacrifices gives strong probability to the suggestion that they were the result of demon and teaching . even to men. so is probable that the former spirit teaching with regard to the sacrifice of children was mixed up with the original promise of the Redeemer. just as may be observed in the " spirit " teaching of the present day. How much more might this be known to the prince of the demons. be expected. 209 This Zoroaster " ^ and the same is recorded of Zohak. may well have suggested. p. and as the sacrifice was by burning after the child had been killed. 22. from his Xephilim origin. coupled with the institution of sacrifice for sin. him with Nimrod. and yet. Semiramis). to cannibals. like Osiris. or Diespiter. who we have seen to be Nimrod. Nimrod).3 This gives a peculiar sionijudgment of God on " all the first-born " in Egypt in a single night. bestowed the attributes and history of the chief god of the latter on Jupiter. Jupiter. fieance to the who might most notorious of the Egyptian rites. thus identifying ' = 3 Nimrod.e. was the supreme god of the Aryan nations. p. was one of the father in these bloody sacrifices. when Nimrod was born and was about to be sacrificed to his gods by Gush.. vol. 25. who subsequently adopted the religion of the Phoenicians and Egyptians. that is." For it was plain from that promise that. which makes a pretence it of righteousness quotes the Bible.^ plainly the Chaldean Zoroaster. Traiisactions Victoria Institute. . it the son of Saturn. Hist.! THE NEPHILIM the daemons is . in overcoming the enemy of the human race. p.e. vol. human sacrifices to Baal and whom The children were especially acceptable. 113..

375-377. Nimrod. or Shem. Hislop." and was a surname given to Jupiter. he made war against him and overpowered him. pp. or the priest in in is sacrifice. vol.^ The Greek story is manifestly a misrepresentation.. etc. pp. and of the means by which his life was spared. and the latter had in consequence to fly to Latium in Italy. which were the symbols of so many of the gods. in order to conceal the real truth. v. Hence also " life means which restored child. p." was worshipped in Rome as a distinct deity.^ The actual facts were. 3 5 7 pp. and Faber. lines 485.^ This stone was called in Grecian mythology " Baitulos.^ " Terminus. Titan. that in consequence of the cruelties of Nimrod and the obscene idolatry and demon worship which he forced upon the nations whom he conquered. what Rhea did. 300. and was represented by a square stone." hrother"^ In the Greek story. "» Lemprifere.^ " Betylus " was another name for this In Rome. 'J of as brother. was concealed. 249. by placing a suitably-shaped stone bound altar. Jupiter was called "Jupiter the Stone" and stone. He was called " the god of boundaries. lib.210 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD difficult to would not have been charge of the just in deceive the father. 189 note. vol." a " boundary. i. but by the ancients such relationship was spoken Lemprifere. inasmuch as it was through Nimrod that the empire of the world was obtained by the Cushites. vol. 41. ii. p. Terminus. is said to have allowed his Saturn the empire of the world on condition that he reared no more male children. lib. but that when the birth of Jupiter. Titan.e. From this it appears arose the worship of stones.s They were representations of the god. Faber. Priscian.. as we shall see. according to Hesiod." . 300. Theogonia. Saturn was really his nephew. i. ii. p. which would ' - Hesiod. swaddling clothes on the Now this. ^ and note." " Terminus " being another name for the stone which Saturn is said to have swallowed instead of Jupiter. the name Baitulos given ^ to the swaddled stone. Hislop. She presented her husband with a stone bound swaddling bands to represent a child. and that empire. did not exist before his birth.. "The Death of the Pagan God. 38. xii. p. Shem obtained the condemnation and judicial execution of Nimrod in Egypt." ^ the idea being evidently based on the mistaken signification which the Romans gave to the hands with which the stone was hound in order to represent the " swaddling bands " of a child. i. vol. vi. " Jupiter Terminalis. of which country Nimrod had made his father king. 375-377. But it would appear that the priesthood. ^ See chap. therefore.

That he obthe Deluge tained the knowledge. and that Nimrod was probably her son As in one of his deified forms he and was subsequently her husband. supposed by the idolaters to be the spirits of the dead. being wholly wicked themselves." " the All-wise Belus. or the worship of spirits of evil." etc. and he was probably himself of Nephilim descent." " Hea. Cush. corrupted the rest of mankind and filled the world with violence." the " Inventor of Letters and the Worship of the Gods. because it was in consequence of the life of Nimrod and the idolatry propagated by him that Shem obtained his condemnation. which pre- pared the way for their intercourse with the daughters of men and the consequent production of a race of giants. ascribed the action 211 taken by Nimrod was concealed or spared. and seems to have been the result.. The same idolatry was revived after the Deluge by Cush. as tradition says. the God of Understanding. so celebrated for her beauty. of which Cush was king. latter i. the sister of Tubal-Cain. rather than Nimrod. in the first case. which had before brought upon the world the awful judgment of the Deluge. strong reason for believing. who was the husband of " Rhea. was the same as Naamah. There also seems a strong pro- . This idolatry was further advanced by Chrysor. Moreover. who was the second Thoth. his mother Nemaus. there is through. The conclusions arrived follows : at may be briefly recapitulated as Idolatry. her lasciviousness and cruelty. and this w^as probably invented in order to give It is the sanctity of antiquity to his teaching. we may well conceive that Shem protested against the Nephilim intercourse instituted by Cush." the first husband of Semiramis. originated in antediluvian times. the " Thrice Great Hermes. who was the first Hephaestus. is because the overthrow of the and of idolatry was in Egypt. Tradition seems to show that the latter. Semiramis.— THE NEPHILIM have thrown discredit on their religion. The reason why Titan is represented as making war against Shem to the fact that the life of Saturn." " Meni. of the teachings of fallen angels. her talents and energy. and the rearing of a Nephilim race of beings. and that Saturn or Cush lost his kingdom. and possibly of Satan himself. who. more probable that he obtained it who. from writings buried before is absurd. and the first Thoth or Hermes. which was true in a sense.e. was of Nephilim parentage. was known as " Saturn. it seems certain that he was " Cannes." that is. and was influenced by." the father of the gods." the " Numberer.

were likewise the result of their teaching. and. and was the result of a law of God by which He stamped them as " children of darkness " and " seed of the serpent. . as implied by Solomon (Prov. 18. of blinding him to the evil of the grossest idolatry. and by which they obtained dominion of the rest of mankind.212 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD bability that the blackness of the ^Ethiopian race was due to this Nephilim parentage. The statements of Herodotus seem to show that it was a recognised custom of the Pagan priesthood to invite this Nephilim intercourse by means of especially selected women. then the obscene Phallic worship. unrestrained debauchery is the surest way of destroying all moral principle in man. and which were ofiered to the demon gods. for the name may have been given him merely because he was the father of the Ethiopians. Perhaps this was one of the conditions on which the priesthood obtained their unquestionable powers. which would otherwise be unaccountable. of which Gush and Nimrod were the originators. as being the surest way of bringing mankind under . was doubtless also the result of demon teaching. "Gush. 24-27). or " iEthiops. their dominion. If also." ^ See ante. unnatural So likewise we must conclude that the cruel and sacrifices which Gush instituted. 195. human ' Cruden. ii. as stated by the Persian tradition. and the blackness may have first showed itself in him as the son of a Nephilim-born woman. p. and a condition on which their aid was purchased." "Ethiopia.2 Nimrod was certainly black. therefore." ^ is doubtful." which means " blackness. or black race. 19 vii." This would account for its sudden appearance in the human race. That this first appeared in Gush.

' This. THE SERPENT. and the absence of all stimuli for improvement but those . supposed to be spirits of the dead. were. according to tradition.CHAPTER The X THE SUN. therefore. because this worship is found in initiated . and recorded by Plato. THE PHALLUS AND THE TREE daimonia. indeed. they inherited their religious ideas. but the possessors of the knowledge and civilisation of the antediluvian world which. and by means of which the idolaters were eventually led. instead of the experience of some sixty or seventy years. whom was most of the savage races at the present day. This is proved by numberless peculiar and arbitrary habits. The immediate descendants of Noah were not barbarous. and not invented. from whom. related by the Egyptian priests to Solon. But it is evident to who have studied the question that these barbarous races must have been emigrant offshoots of the great nations of antiquity. the worship of and intercourse with seen. with which were associated the Phallus and the Tree or Cross. Some writers have superficially concluded that the worship of the Sun is a spontaneous product of the human mind in the case of people in the state of barbarism. ! As in the story of Atlantis. Their barbarism has been the natural result of centuries of isolation from the centres of thought and civilisation. and one which gave it a yet more sinister aspect. each possessed in himself the knowledge and experiNow. by a gradual process of development. was the worship of the Sun and Serpent. must have been of a colossal character. which they have in common with those nations and by the evidence of language and tradition. this knowledge was ence of centuries their religion has been inherited . according to tradition. as we have gods of Paganism but an equally important feature of the Hermetic teaching. to worship the Prince of the demons himself. customs and religious rites. we might expect from the great longevity of antediluvian man for what decree of knowledge might not be attained if. 213 ' . the real by Hermes. in its great centres at least.

as " bringing forth " the creatures which inhabit them. pursuing with undeviating regularity the course of nature. and unaffected by moral considerations. was at its highest in the earliest period of its history. including the barbarous nations before mentioned. which. There are men now who." But the above and ^^ — . therefore. If then the earth was the great Mother. without whose heat and light.214 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD preserved by the postdiluvians. Consequently we find that civilisation. as in the case of Egypt. using sophistry to persuade others to worship the powers of nature and withdraw men from the worship of the true God. in spite of the evidences of the truth of Christianity. might not the Sun. and to propagate the belief. and in this they are so far supported by the letter of Scripture. of Hermes with regard to The cosmogonies of the various Pagan nations all speak of a male and female principle in the production of the world. which seems to quicken the dead seed. and therefore that the first origin of all life must be " The Ever Living. in the account of Creation. which is a further proof that they were The first . in like manner. that the first cause of all things is a mere law. For the better understanding of the subject give first it a short the worship of the summary of the teaching Sun and the Serpent. which the destruction of the antediluvian world produced on their minds. while on the other hand everything points to the fact that the first form of Sun worship was the product of an ingenious and atheistical mind. against the will be as well to authority of God. It is absurd to suppose. that the worship of the Sun was the result of a general and spontaneous superstition on the part of the first descendants of Noah. and Cush. and the waters. was the author of the famous wisdom of the Chaldeans. is evidenced by the fact that the record of that event is preserved even to the present day by nearly all nations. and who seek to prove. So it may have been with Cush and Nimrod. life. both animal and vegetable. unheeding. the first great rebels of the postdiluvian world. and for long afterwards. the allwise Belus. descendants of of Noah true God and the fear offshoots of the great nations of antiquity. and even to call into being innumerable forms of the lower orders of animal life might not the Sun be the great Father and origin of all life ? We know indeed that there can be no life except as generated by previous life. the great Hermes. speaks of the earth as if it were a mother bringing forth " both vegetables and animals. also possessed the knowledge of the Him. rebel against the idea of a God who is the moral governor of the world. perishes.

but esoterically it was represented to be the source of spiritual life. It would not have been possible. " growing in it. and an " esoteric " or inward meaning. and in no book is this metaphorical language more used than in the Bible.. however. This double meaning of words is characteristic of all language for spiritual and moral things are always expressed by words.SUN." " drinking in " knowledge. demands relief. the religious rites of Paganism purported to be for " the purification of sin. Hence the Apostle says that " the letter killeth but the spirit {i. a sophistry. by merely representing him to be the author of natural life. — By designedly confusing the material with the spiritual. similar arguments PHALLUS AND TREE 215 would not be without weight on those who " did not wish to keep God in their knowledge " (Rom. " digesting. in order to meet this need of the human mind." " the Sun " is used by Scripture for God. the primary meaning Thus we speak of " eating. i. The means by which men were persuaded acteristic of the to believe this is char- whole genius of Paganism. The consciousness of sin and ill desert. the The very metaphor of spiritual meaning of the words) giveth life.e.. and regarded also as an emanation from the Sun." of which relates to material things. was represented to be also the purifier of the soul from sin. arguments of which by a sudden and unrecognised change of meaning in the common weapon leads the hearer to adopt entirely false conclusions." and the Sun god was represented to be the source of evil. 28). instead of the unseen God." etc. would naturally lead men to worship the visible material Sun. Hence fire. and to regard the great planet as the Creator of all things. as the great purifier of material things. that purification. the great object of which is to teach the meaning of spiritual truth. the Pagans substituted the material for the spiritual. as in the case where Christ is called " The Sun of righteousness " but to read such passages in the letter. SERPENT. to lead men to reject the true God. and the apprehension of future which burdens in a greater or less degree the whole human race. To understand . . The Sun was exoterically the supposed source of natural life. The essential principle of its teaching was making use still of the double meaning of words. Everything with them had an " exoteric " or outward meaning. and therefore. such language in the letter is entirely to lose its meaning it is to substitute the material type for the spiritual reality. Fire is indeed used as a material type for spiritual purification throughout . Sun and Fire Worship. .

805 Hislop.2i6 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD first. is thus ' thou dost expiate a sin against the gods. as in the case of the Sun god Apollo at Delphi. a prominent feature throughout Paganism. 273 . thou dost expiate repeated sins. in order to persuade men that the material type was itself the source of In this. the ' ^ Froclus in Timceo. in order to quiet the con- sciences of men. and the Serpent was thus represented in Paganism to be the bestower of knowledge and wisdom on man. may this Thou dost expiate a sin against man thou dost expiate a sin against the Manes. thou dost expiate every sin which I have committed. . p. the Scripture. and to life fire as the emanatiou from the Sun. not on error unsupported by truth. was based. Paganism spiritual purification. 121. . p. or Great Father. whether wilfully or unintentionally. was believed to be revealed at his shrines. Hislop. In like manner the Sun as the source of natural light was represented to be the source of spiritual light and of divine wisdom and knowledge. as in others of its features. an emanation from invoked : " Fire. Among the Hindus the sacred fire. the form which the Prince of the Demons took when he persuaded Eve to eat of the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil. p. kept perpetually burning. and was regarded as divine. thou dost expiate a sin against my own soul. and other oracles. was." and that " through divine fire all the stains produced by generation would be purged away. oblation be efficacious. p." Hence the practice of passing children through the fire to Moloch." ^ The same sacred fire. as already shown. kept always burning. and as a source of spiritual regeneration. may this oblation be efficacious.. Thus in the rites of Zoroaster it was said that " he who approached to Jlre would receive a light from divinity. which. the Sun." in Asiat. It was under this aspect that the Sun was especially identified with the Serpent. and. . " Eeligious Ceremonies of Hindus. But that knowledge and wisdom related only to the things of this world. and attended by vestal virgins. life and But although this spiritual aspect was given to the Sun. from the the typical sacrifices for sin were burnt by was doubtless the general recognition of this that afforded the originators of idolatry a basis on which to work. It on the perversion of recognised truth. but on error founded fire. Colebrook. world. vol. 120. Res. the real aspect of the Sun was as the source of natural Hence the deification of the Phallus as the manifestation of that natural life and generation in the animal and natural generation. and kindled anew every year from the rays of the Sun. vii.

p. the "Sun Worship. The vernal equinox : being the time of the celebration of the festival of Hilaria. "In him (the Sun) was life. Bel. natural life and generation." SUN. Buddha. will draw all things ' with me. " All the various deities. because the tree was regarded as the manifestation of the principle of life in the vegetable kingdom. Jesus. by which the material influence of the Sun is represented as spiritual. if I be lifted up from the earth. "^t^J? The revived Hermetic teaching of the present day affords a fair illustration of its general character. just as the Phallus was regarded as the manifestation of that life in the animal kingdom."^ Again. the sermon. the knowledge of y^ prod ucing which he is represented as revealing to man. 0/666." He also says. which has given the key of Genesis and the explanation of the enigma of the destroying serpent. with the exception that the prophet of Nazareth would be delegated to his true position. and many others. the wisdom which the Apostle speaks of as " earthly. speaking of the proposed liturgies for the worship of the Sun. Chrishna. Adonis. would be varied as they now are in the churches. the author of " Sun Worship " quotes the Gospel of St John. and a few extracts from it will but the life of therefore be quoted. as we shall see. after the singing of another hymn. 15). Dupuis writes " The religion of Zoroaster. Dupuis. sensual (psychical). are but difierent names. Jupiter. 33. devilish " (demoniacal) (Jas.' This is ' modern teaching on the subject. "The second prayer should specially be an adoration of the Sun. SERPENT. Mithras. . 0/666. So again. PHALLUS AND TREE 217 knowledge by which Hermes taught men the means of attaining the natural desires of the heart. This gives the explanation of the following passage from I. and not appealed to or worshipped as God. quoted from Compn. 24. 33-35. Baal. Sun as the source ^ which the Serpent was said to be the source was. were held to be sacred as symbols of the Sun god. says. as Jehovah. and the cross as the symbol of a tree. the Sun of Spring has the power of attracting virtuous souls towards himself. p. in men. and is an illustration of the method alluded to. pp. iii. Ammon. — Similarly the Serpent was identified with the of life. or discourse. is that also which gives the explanation of the LaTnb." from Compi. and the life was the light of the sort of last author. Hercules. Finally trees. the Gospel. Horus. or the Sun triumphant over darkness. and identified with that of Christ.

called by the writer " the Divine Wisdom. of days in the Egyptian year. says. p. Lenormant remarks " One of the tablets : in the Library of Nineveh gives a list of the principal gods. They say that thou guidest four winged I - " Sun Worship."^ It will be observed that this writer identifies the cross with the Sun. which number was therefore called "the number of their Certain numbers also had often a names''^ (vide Rev.2i8 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD Sun and his various ages. 17) as regarded their gods. Rema.^' See infra." ^ phenomena and various mani- Another modern Theosophist. and they in consequence represented their gods by the numerical value of the letters composing their names. or Divine Wisdom. of Tamul. Natzir. crucified in the heaven at the vernal equinox. 25). . crucified for the salvation of Man. or cross. 304. total 360. were used by the Pagans as symbols i (xi) = 60 Mankind: Their Origin and Destiny. or with the addition of E (epsilon) = 5. 365. significance and natural symbolic relation and the letters expressing such numbers became also a symbol of the God. These numbers. of 666. . it must be remembered that the numerals of the Greeks and other nations were represented by the letters of their alphabets. . and the tree being the manifestation in |the vegetable world of the life of which the Sun was the supposed in : •source. of 666. or Sharon. which the cross was the symbol of the Sun god. p. because thou alone art in honour after the Father the centre of light. p. " Latium invokes thee. "The symbol of the Narutz or Rose was P2S (RSX) = 360 and the HP2 (XRS). speaking of the Rosy Cross of the Rosierueians." To understand what follows. 33. Sol. or with the letter e (epsilon) added. . each with his mystic number" {Chaldean Magic and Sorcery. Rosy Cross) is the Narutz. the cross being the symbol of the tree. and they affirm that thy sacred head bears a golden brightness in twelve rays. the Rose = 365. or crs. "This (the or Rose Lily. the number of the 1 Sun god. p." from Compn. xiii. denoting the real or supposed length of the solar year. of Ishuren. — h The above writer goes on to say that. This is quite in accordance with the ancient Paganism. in short the god of day. 246. pp. 303. the Padma. or the Water Rose. E (rho) = 100 S (sigma) = 200 . 226. Lotus.'^ The ode to the Sun of Martianus Capellus gives perhaps the best view of the ancient adoration. for the festations. S Compn. because thou formest the numbers of the months and that number of hours.

pp." ^ What these three letters were.SUN. because AND TREE 219 thou alone rulest the chariot of the elements." or lacchus. its numerical value should be symbolic of the Sun. 580 . 152. p. 26. sBonvfick's Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought. dispelling darkness thou revealest the shining heavens.^ The names of the Sun gods were given them so that. while the word expressed some supposed attribute of the god. or Zero. 0/666. of 666. but the B. PHALLUS steeds. which are here said to represent the mystic surname of Bacchus. S." But in using these three Their letters a double mystification seems to have been introduced. V and I were interchangeable with the Greek T (upsilon) 4 and as T = 400. is : — Osiris or Bacchus . 87. 0/666. thou true image of the gods and of thy father's face. 153. For Hence they esteem thee Phoebus (Apollo). or because thou preventest nocturnal crimes. H. This mystic name consists This number. S. The symbol has been found on coins of the Maharajah of Cashmere. surname. H = 8." ^ I (iota) stood The meaning of the above seems to be as follows for Bacchus. The letters I. Dis. and " 2 (sigma) for Zoro. or for Isiris. " had the mystic surname of Bacchus. Compn. we learn from the author of The Origin and Destiny of Man : " The Sun. appear to have been a sacred symbol in India. H (eta) stood for Helios the . three letters make to agree with the number 608. . or Mithras. 87. Thou art worshipped by different rites as Mithra. p. Thus under varied appellations the whole world worships thee. and the Adonis of Byblos. and the cruel Typhon. or incarnation of the Sun. 332. from the Cushite Barneses of which country the Egyptians seem to have obtained much of their later idolatry. also the beautiful one of the cycles. thee as Isoean Serapis. Thou art the Ammon of barren Libya. I. Origin pp. == and Destiny of Man. Thou art Atys and the fostering son of the bent plough. 333.. and Memphis as Osiris. Thus the Sun god Mithra. called also lacchus. the seed ^ thus signifying " Bacchus." "the son. 3 See ante. * Compn. and was symbolised by a Lion with a ' From Compn. Hail. 0/666. Sun . was worshipped as the Mediator. H. the discoverer of the secrets of the Egypt worships future." he says. p. and 2 = 200. quoted by the author of The Compn. p. and omen. the Egyptian form of 608. the numerical value of rH2 would be 608. of three letters the numerical value of which is 608. for 1=10. as in the case of the SP2 of the Rosicrucians. SERPENT. thou whose sacred name. actual numerical value is only 21S.

throughout the Bible. Which equals 3 + 4. 666. states that every heathen god had the name of 666.. Is symbolic of union. ^ p. or incompletion generally. 7. 666. and of death spiritual. soul and spirit. Creator. 5. 194. . numbers are used in a symbolic sense. which three aspects are united in the number name of the Antichrist. 2. and therefore of the Godhead. Is symbolic of individual completion and individual action. A short explanation of their symbolism in Scripture Is the may be sum- marised as follows 1. are respectively 360 and 365. and it is well known that. 3. and it is the number symbolic of judgment. for it is the " number of the name " of the Antichrist."^ This of course could only be the This number case by representing each by some mystic surname. 241 . the designation. 8. but natural and essential. the natural and the the regeneration. and that this number " was the name. Is symbolic of the world. to is symbolic of the primary moral rethe world. Compn. Son and Holy Spirit. p. for the Chaldee for "bee. of the threefold aspect of God to man as Father. pp. 0/666. in his Anacalypsis. or I ought rather to say. which was a number in Egypt. Is symbolic of or eternal of the . and of man himself as body. and Higgins. It is also thus sj^^mbolic of a twofold state of the world spiritual.— 220 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD its Bee in mouth to identify him with "the Divine Wisdom". is who is the destroyer of men's souls ' and bodies. Anacalypsis. of every sacred one of the planetary bodies. symbol of unity. It is the lation of God man and number symbolic of the dispensation of the Law or of Justice. and of man by nature. 34. vol. of Christ who was both God and man. ii. 666 has also a special but very different import in Scripture. sometimes written Meithras. 33. 4 + 4 and is is symbolic of the intimate union of is Christ and the Christian which salvation. the Is symbolic of imperfection. and therefore of the union of God and man." dahar. viz. sin. or renewal and resurrection. the One God. 4. and man. and thus symbolises Thus just as of the true Christ name of the Antichrist. of death natural. so the name Hislop. Which equals 4x2. 6. signified both a "bee" and "The Word. The Sun was also connected with the number 666. which sense : also is not arbitrary. and nature."^ and the numerical valued of Mithras.

23. pp. It is also 4x3. the numerical value which is 888. teeth. Illustrations of the use of numbers with the above signification may be found throughout Scripture. 236. note. 1 32 8 34 27 3 35 11 6 7 30 20 19 10 31 ' 28 16 22 9 24 17 15 21 13 18 23 14 25 26 4 12 2 29 5 33 36 136 Wilkinson's Egyptians. Is symbolic of natural perfection and completion in general. Is 12. the total of which makes 666. but it is an important number in Magic. p. . SERPENT. 60 nerves and GO " The number 6x6 = 36 was also called a sacred quaternion. and the world and man in a state of incompletion 4+5 that is without of — — God. the significance attached to them by Paganism is the more important. and its life was 60 years also that the animal itself had 60 vertebrae. It is 4 + 8.. is the sacred number of Paganism. xvi.^ and 6 lay at the root of the symbol of a god. symbolic of spiritual perfection and completion. the Saviour. 0/666. v. and seems to symbolise idolatry. in PHALLUS AND TREE 221 9. the Sun because they said that the period of the gestation of its eggs was 60 days." ^ This also gives a special significance to the worship of the Sun god. Greek is Jesus. indicating the fulness or completion of sin and death. Thus 6. but essential. In connection with this may be mentioned the remarkable magic square composed of the numbers from 1 to 36 or 6 X 6. Compn. incoug. Seldom occurs in Scripture. . and the man in intimate union with God. . especially venerated the Crocodile and regarded it as an image of their chief god. = Transactions of Victoria Institute. and the Egyptians. in consequence. or the world and or the world and it man renewed. whose symbolic number was 360. SUN. which equals 6 x 6 X 10. and becoming subject to death for the sake of man's redemption. the number of its eggs was 60. 237. they were hatched in 60 days. and as the symbolism attached sin of to them is not arbitrary. symbolic of Christ taking upon Him man. 10. the evil number of Scripture. vol. is 6 X 2. p. vol.

their first principles nature. and. and the other (humid. whether taken horizontally or vertically. Earth. deny- ing the existence of the One God. of all motion. or Moon. they named these principles (the one fiery. and that the arrangement depends on the essential properties of numbers. chap. that principle of heat expanded throughout all remained eternally buried in chaos. \ ' Maconnerie Oceulte. — It will be seen that the Hermetic teaching. a number significant of Christ. passive) Matter.' was a symbol of the Sun and was called the " Sigillum Solis. pp. and fermentation supposes on the The hierophants believed then. Heaven. The Hermetic teaching with regard to the Sun as the Creator : — is thus described by Jean Marie Ragon " It is not alone in that grand star. Their Sun is that life-giving fire. refulgent in the heavens.a : 222 It THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD . and was mystically sacred. 161. pretended to believe. among the peoples of the North in short. there is no theoof Adam and Eve amongst the Hebrews gony in which they are not clearly marked out. of all vegetation. "The ascribed creation to a male and . on Sun. and which added to 666 makes 888. which together equal 222. of 666." p. that two primitive principles had worked out the development from chaos. the Elyon and Beruth of Sanchoniathon. if we take the cross made by the two diagonals they also consist of two amounts of 111 each. male." or Solar Seal. You may recognise them under the names of Odin and Frigga. as they noticed that everything in the universe is only fire or water. amounts to Ill. female. 160. It will be observed that each of the six rows. and of Aske and Emla. 202 from Compn.^ energy and to the universe. and yet not at once apparent. could never have given The generation of bodies is the and reaction of their constituent parts. Moreover. that is comprised all that the ancients By this word hierophants and philosophers undertell us of the Sun. and the Uranus and Ge of the same author. and without which Here matter is would have the explanation of of the world single force. These are the Osiris and Isis of the Egyptians. . one upon the single allegorical formation : which we find single in the Hermetic philosophy One principle. 7 ' symbolising the fact that sin crucified by Christ is salvation mystic symbolism of the square. or at least face of it two powers. result of the action — The Phallus. She (Nature) works by fermentation. humid or warm. active) Form. the number of Christ as the Saviour from sin thus seemingly . stood the latent cause of all creation. or Sun. one life active cause.

of 666. inasmuch as the circle is but the line turning round. The Rosicrucians. father and mother and. The author of " The Perfect Way " says. regarded as both male and female. having been made by Noah. emblem was also carried in the three most sacred emblems carried in the Greek mysteries were the Phallus. universal from the of the symbols I O.^ shall see. vol. as in the case of Eve. $. in fact. and following upon itself. and yet. For. as the line of force and the circle of comprehension and multiplication. and the Lingam (its Indian name) was always found in the most holy places of the Indian Similarly the cross. will and love. or Besides the Phallus. or perpetuater. through which all things by a supposed natural evolution had — come This male principle was therefore God. i. I. 353 Compn. From this arose the worship of the Phallus. and the Serpent. . the reformer.SUN. equally sacred. and the similar worship o^ into existence. was represented as having been produced by him. so to speak. Similarly the Ark from which the human race were. " The wise of old who. although two. mysteries. 275 Compn. these two represent at once energy and space. not to recognition of her in the symbols whereby jthey denoted I Hence the first. p. in themselves. of 666. instead . as the symbol of the tree. by exalting the failed woman make deity. and the Serpent. The second denotes the passive nature or female principle. ' - Vide Lexicon of Freemasonry. The third symbol indicates the destroyer. p. the all forms and manifestations of that principle. the uniter of the two. the unit and the f cypher in the names designative of deity. born again. or of fire." ^ preserver. was a symbol of the goddess mother. together with trees as its manifestation in the vegetable of the Phallus kingdom. was. O. 336. and the female was regarded. life and substance. the Egg. they are one. the lone or Umbilicus. p. being to be adored. significance of the combination. the female " The otherwise the Phallus. Hence figures were always carried in the processions at the festivals of the Sun gods. as the distinctive emblem of generation in man. to have been produced from the male. Bacchus and Osiris. attained to full intuition of God. eternally renewing The deity was. Hargrave Jennings. or Hermajphrodite. p. as the male or active generative power. and thus the itself. SERPENT. . female principle PHALLUS AND TREE 223 the chief manifestation of the former being the Sun. as we temples. or renewer. . 75. or the element of water. The first in each case is the emblem of the Sun.

and pp. moreover. the symbol of the Serpent. as emblematic of the organs of generation. is referred to in many places in the Old Testament. . however. For. "grove.s The obscenity and vice to which this worship gave rise are well known. Yet it will be observed that the symbolism and analogies made use of are by no means false in themselves. 17. p. I O. explain the well-known salutation to Bacchus. . 7 xxiii. xvi. p. which is explained by the fact that our system of numerals was obtained from the . by which the sanction of religion was given to sexual immorality. or Meni. See JX Kings xxi.^ The Israelitish women are also mentioned as making gold and silver phalli.V. 86. as we have seen." They had. seed " for " Zero " signified in Chaldee both the seed t Arabians. but. will be referred to later. or cipher. iv. is rays cannot give ' unles s the principl e of iife from Compn. Cush.3 circle. 4-6. of astronomy and mathematics." and also " the seed. the successors of the Aribah. 108. 87. save in making the Sun the male principle in nature and ultimate origin of life. and was one of the principal recognised symbols of the Sun. Sex. - 3 The Aribah. 0/666. the god of generation." p. it was intimately connected. in "10 accordance with the principle of the double meanings attached by the Pagans to words and symbols." but it was plainly an image symbolic of the Phallus and distinct from "the groves" which. Thus "10 Bacchus " signified both " Bacchus. were symbolic of the same principle. 18. See chap." The combination of the two in $ (Phi)." 5 Ezek. and Smith's Diet. there to be "The Perfect Way. with which. the was the symbol of " the O and a circle ^ and zero is the modern term for the O. The Sun and the power of generation in the animal and vegetable king- doms its are intermediate causes of life life. . is the true Lord of hosts. pp. as in the case of the Sun. 59. the Phallic God Bacchus. the ancient Adite or Cushite father of \^r race. Hislop. the numberer. The " Asherah " of the Hebrews was also the Phallus and its worship. of Bible— '' Asherah. also represented the disk of the Sun. says the Kabbala. a further meaning." These symbols. 4 Asherah is translated in the A. and were the natural consequence of deifying these powers of nature. See margin. 72-76.— 224 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD expend ^ of continuing into the abyss to its force in vain. note. and the erection of figures and obelisks of it in the grove or tree worship. or incarnation of the Sun. the whom was The famous as the inventor O.

which was the type of the crucifying in His cross of Christ.^ '' . 225 But the chief fallacy lay in representing the natural to be also light. Where this law is supreme. self-assertion. Christianity therefore required that the lusts and affections of the flesh should be crucified. who in His own body (Rom. Sin crucified is Salvation. But the cross was. But the natural and spiritual are diametrically opposed to each other. a distinctive symbol of Paganism it was the symbol of a tree. . the Christian must die with Christ 11). and tree of life and knowledge."^ «^de^L-v^ V by which the strong prey upon the weak. etc. our sins to the cross (1 Pet. and that cross the cross of Christ. iv. Sun with the Divine wisdom. ii. own flesh the body of sin. although he alone of all things in nature has ^^4^'/i^ capacity for becoming spiritual. as implied by the hidden symbolism of the Sigillum Solis. in identifying natural life and is the material light of the natural only." the law of "the survival of the fittest. jcovetousness. and man cannot obey the demands of the spiritual law without doing violence to his natural / For the law of nature is the law of self it is the law / inclinations. and is and productive P whatever is good and desirable. nor can the natural in man become sin. must be brought to the cross. It is thus the law of. and was the original form of the letter T. and from the references made to it in Paganism it is clear that the origin of the idea was the tree . envy. 24). SERPENT.s ' SUN. dying unto sin vi. and as is equally implied by the symbol of the Serpent lifted up in the wilderness by Moses. the Greek T (" tau "). the tree of the gods. of religion or spiritual and thus giving the sanctity that which The Tree and S-ftA. in a . as we have said. — Man as born into the world is natural and a part of nature.. and the law therefore of cU^\c^t. emulation. PHALLUS AND TREE with spiritual to life. Cross. other words. placed in . |natural destruction and reproduction of which.^-JL '^'^^-w^--*^ continual struggle and warfare and consequent suffering. etc. spiritual unless he dies to those natural inclinations which are the cause of sin . without. Tim. the law of nature and of is of which the Serpent the symbol. of life in Eden. l^ts fruits are selfishness. by which "might" is "right. quickened. evil. pride.and this is what the religion of word it is the law of sin and moral Paganism sanctified. ife bore 10). anger. the •Serpent in Paganism was the symbol. but (2 it is only by one cross that the power to 'do so is obtained. spiritual. • which natural existence would be impossible. Thus among of the Buddhists the cross tlie is called " the divine tree. as we have seen.

Saturn. although it was called " the Sign of Life. the symbol of Crux Ansata the Moon. 4. p. Father of the Gods. Babylon and Nineveh. p. 1. as in figures 1. From Deane's Serpent Worship. Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians. 283. was the manifestation of that natural life and generation." fig. p. 3 » 5 Layard. vol. Mercury." * In the figures below. it was Fig. o o o o o o o Fig. fig. 148. Jupiter. the symbol of the Sun's disk. was combined with the circle. 4. and therefore of the same natural life." and was professedly a symbol of " the tree of life. 124 . on :) o Mars. v. p. 3. p. 4— Cross and Circle. the fir tree in Rome.^ which were the symbols of the gods identified with certain planets. the oak among the Druids. 2. The PhaUic God. 3. Venus. 1.. Fig. vol. or goddess Mother. 3. Res. 5. x. Fig. or in the form of the Maltese cross. Fig. the gods had certain trees which were especially sacred to them." was in reality a symbol But the erosSj ' Wilford's Asiat. the supposed source of which was the Sun. 2. Figs. . 97. as the palm tree in Egypt. 5. 2.^ The cross in form of the " Crux Ansata." ^ Hence also. was carried in the hands of the Egyptian priests and Pontiff" kings as the symbol of their authority as priests of the Sun god and was called "the Sign of Life. p. 211. Hence the cross as the symbol of the Tree. and both were united together in Paganism as the symbol of the Sun god. 200. - Hislop. throughout Paganism.226 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD the terrestriaL Paradise. as in found which is a representation of the Sun and seven planets the Royal tablets discovered at Bavian by Layard. sometimes combined with the crescent. like the Phallus. plate. Hislop.^ The Tree.

. Some have claimed natural life. The act of eatincr the forbidden fruit was an act by which our first parents cast off their allegiance to God and sought to become self-dependent."'^ through eating the fruit of which death came into the world. and* the cross. rank." and it is thus the root of all moral evil. Power. Wherever Force is in connection with matter. the cross. wherever nature's grand formative power has been at work. 228. as the symbol of natural life was the symbol therefore oft the same spiritual death. knowledge of good and evil. of the tree PHALLUS AND TREE 227 of death. of the law that " might is right. For the life of which the cross was the sign. worldly honour. that beauteous emblem of the life which proceeds from God. throughout all nations. i. / riches." and psychical pleasure. was therefore a fitting emblem of worldly power and success and it was so regarded. "the tree of knowledge of good and evil. although and good for food " as far as natural life was| concerned. life as the emanation and manifestation of the Sun it. where no destructive hand has been at work. and which His mercy has employed in the death of His Son as the only means of making us perfect. Thus the fruit of the tree of "pleasant to the eye. From the cross-headed standards of ancient Rome. position. ' This natural god. is the very principle and law of all natural life.. dominion and earthly material .SUN. or the mineral kingdoms. it is the principle of the law of self. to be in short " as gods. as the symbol of the fulness of natural life. and the cross. of 666. there you may find the cross. were therefore to be worshipped. success. . and it is not by any means clear that the cross is at the beginning and ' Compn. the wages of which is death. the vegetable. This was the very spirit of Paganism. or sin. its All therefore that conduced to became sanctified likewise. was in reality the fruit of the tree of spiritual death." But se^/-dependence. whether in the animal.i. to its use as a badge of earthly honour and merit at the present day. all that the Christian has to crucify." ^ There is a tendency here to confuse the natural and the spiritual. was sanctified by Paganism. was the natural life of which the Sun was the supposed source. both natural and spiritual. is the symbol of worldly power and and contributed to fulness. which is the antithesis of faith in God. a special fitness in the cross to be the sign of : Thus one writes " Indeed it would seem that the cross is at the beginning and end of all the great phenomena of nature. and nature's products have been undisturbed.e. p. the full indulgence of which life leads to death. SERPENT.

the cross is the emblem of that death.tUi<. . ancient and modern. or bearing the cross. which again throw and " a branch" the product of this generation. of the tree and the plant is supported by the sustenance they obtain from the death and decay of other vegetation. Many. and after a brief space. they must die to the natural. authority. the synonym for " a Son. as the symbol " honoured. of struggle." Moreover. the highest good. as a badge of worldly honour. by which the interests and happiness of each cross the interests and happiness of Even in the vegetable world this is exemplified for the life others. and this life. this world. is cross may have is a different aspect to different persons. Thus the dominion and of that priests. the cross is the fitting emblem of that life. These are they who honour the To others with whom the spiritual is the highest good. To those with whom »». and ross.fc.. or producing. generating.. For the law of natural life is the law of self. for are natural that things natural life. the one tending to the advancement and fulness of natural life." Jistinction. the law by which the life and happiness of one is supported by the death and sufferings of others. This being the law. and it is the law. all. in order to attain it. . and the only possible law of natural life. by the law of God. with its honours. crux ansata " " Egyptian may is be metaphorically. connected and the necessary consequence of all moral imperfection is this moral imperfection is the essential characteristic of all merely out. indeed. has in consequence become throughout the world. warfare and death. natural life is inseparably symbol of the death with which all the symbol of the death which. and. life. the other to its extinction. the idea of the cross is in all natural life.uY. essential law of nature death is the only. 228 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD all end of phenomena. to be carried in their hands. other cross branches. of which the cross is the emblem. of the pleasure. power. to while it actually worn by them . But the cross in its latter aspect comes sooner or later to or death. from itself cross branches. like the said. Nevertheless the tree.^«. or generate. natural life. or dominion. of the illustrations which the writer gives of his statement appear to be laboured and far-fetched. the cross. the tree is the constant manifestation of this life and generation. is equally the symbol of while the and thus the cross. the life of those who have drunk most of Death is the fate of all the fulness of existence is itself crossed. therefore. and it may be said that all natural existence is made up of either inflicting. would appear For to be a true symbol of natural life and natural generation. . Who recognise that. and therefore a thing of evil.

for Nature is God. mystically called the death of the cross. seems to have been the first who inflicted death by it. or the satisfaction of natural passions and ambitions. and thereby. These are they who endure the cross and who regard it. the* Dionysius. from Nimrod. and of that which^ has to be crucified. 37 . a Mithras. the symbol For it is the symbol of the physical death which of a double death. To those who do not it is a symbol of evil. or any other. are merely the means by which Hermes taught men to attain the desires ^of the heart. they must bow in order to attain the spiritual. p. which is their " sign of life. there is the same tendency to make the cross the symbol of spiritual life. 67. 3 Mr Vaughan." 3 In Romanism. Compn. to fancy that they could ( ( become as gods and independent of God. p. PHALLUS AND TREE 229 which. SERPENT. " The symbol* still triumph will be the cross of Jesus. by limitations of matter.' and I the salvation spoken of. of God. The religion which we profess is the law of nature which is the law of God. 0/666." ^ while the cross of Christ was that which was endiwed by him. or a Buddha. life attained. by the law all moral imperfection. him by. vol. the symbol of that which crucifies. the forms and principles of the old Paganism. as the Serpent did with Eve. These are the two aspects of the cross. is the the only life and and despise the spiritual." 1882. who overcoming. 0/666. p. in its true aspect. note. or readopted. iv.SUN. or in the name an Osiris. must befall all that is natural. and to substitute the natural for the spiritual. speaking of Salvation. p. though unperceived by them. nevertheless. is really to them." the symbol of the life they glory in. p. The one are the wearers of the material crossl* the others are the bearers of the spiritual cross. 516 . To those who live for th^| present it is the symbol of earthly good. ^ Ante. who exalt the natural life only. A modern of its Theosophist. 50. a Chrishna. as the consequence of symbol of that death which. Compn. 38. It is the recognised symbol of the power and authority " ' " The Perfect Way. have shown to man the way of salvation. Ninus. the cross. attaining the crown of eternal But life for themselves. •or Osiris. and the so-called "love" by wliich the llimitations of matter are to be overcome and eternal s. to those with whom natural their highest good. whether borne before of. and the symbol also of that spiritual and eternal death which must be the fate of those who live for this life is Nevertheless. says. which has retained. Hence another writer says. and led them. have been faithful unto death. a* love. .

are connected with Christ in such a way as to imply. ." are probably.I..N.N. viz. Herbert Junius Hardwicke.I. a young girl with a silver phallus hano-insr round her neck under which were carved the initial letters I. Jesus of Nazareth the King of the Jews. an ancient Pagan symbol. ' ansata ' over the fork of the body thus cross OH"-" and Phallus. than representations of bisexual deities.R. and simply give as in the case of Gregory's well-known them a Christian meaning. making at the same time the sign of the cross and on another occasion. in obscure parts of Italy and Spain. or other material. and. to retain as far as possible the Pagan rites. •A Even in the present day. and having the usual I. when passing a group of leprosy-stricken Arabs near the outer gate of the town of Tangiers in Morocco. in order to make Christianity palatable to the Pagans. as we have seen.. with natural life. yoni. 103. of 6Q6. " Igne Natura Renovatur Integra. couuting at the same time her beads. ..N. at first sight. whom he sent to the Pagan p. not far from Naples. ceremonies and symbols. and claimed. the symbols of natural life and generation. I met a Spanish sehora who. quoted from Compn." " By fire nature is renewed in its integrity " . the source of the life and generation of w^hich the Phallus was the symbol. of 666. commenced hurriedly to say her prayers. ivory. 70. but in reality it repre- Here the sents Him as the victim of the Phallic god. crucified b}'^ him. more or less. Compn. as of Paganism. and which she devoutly kissed on passing a cripple.. ' ^ instructions to his missioner Augustine. . that of the fire-worshippers. and phallic ones. was before of the priesthood and the one.R. above and a conspicuous crux . or actual phalli carved in gold. M. has sought. . fifth and following centuries. the dominion of the civilised world.' 230 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD it of the priesthood of that religion. that He was the Phallic god and to associate the spiritual life^ to give man which He died.R. For it was the policy of the teachers of the fourth. ^ fire. p. considering its connection with the Phallus. although the initial letters of the Latin part of the inscription " which Pilate placed at the head of the cross of Christ. at the end of which hung a well-carved androgynus Christ nailed to a cross composed of four phali. directly she perceived the lepers. silver.D. I myself saw in a village. for a time obtained. may be seen phallic amulets and charms agaiust the evil eye. being regarded by the Pagans as the male 'principle. The letters I. worn by village maidens and youths. and consisting of nothing. viz.I. : We need not therefore be surprised at the following "No images of the gods were reckoned by the ancients so sacred as the lingam. like the other.

" In the mythology of the primitive world.e. Hermes. Sanchoniathon.SUN. Thoth) first consecrated the basilisk and introduced the worship of the Serpent tribe.. PHALLUS AND TREE 231 Anglo-Saxons. to which a Christian significance is now given. which was of important religious 3 Rev. telling him to allow the latter to retain their ancient rites and customs. upon which account this animal is introduced in the sacred rites and mysteries. and of a fiery nature. in which he was followed by the Phoenicians and Egyptians. the great teacher of magic and demonology. SERPENT.." and the author of man's salvation. but that henceforth they were to do them in honour I and the saints. ' moving It has been supposed by some persons that the symbol represented the Egyptian Trinity. in effect. i." : animals effect their motion. . Seb. And in its progress it assumes a variety and darting forward with whatever degree of swiftness it pleases. moreover."^ In the later development of Paganism the Serpent was identified with the Sun. pp.^ The Serpent. as Taautus has laid down in the sacred books. but there would have been no particular object in such a symbol. — whom or Scripture speaks of as " the devil. i. XX. which was. Isis. with Christ. The worship of the Serpent appears to have been originated by Thoth. It is possible that the symbol I. to retain the old Paganism and merely call it Christian. For this animal was held by them to be the most inspirited (spiritual) of all the reptiles. It is.e. may also have been adopted in of Christ this way." says Owen. Buddha. but which is stated to have been a Pagan symbol. long-lived.H. We have seen that the Serpent was the especial symbol of the prophetic god Thoth.e. 219. and that the later Hermetic writers identify the Serpent of the Garden of Eden... inasmuch as it exhibits an incredible celerity. but receiving at the same time an augmentation of its size and strength and when it has fulfilled the appointed measure of its existence it consumes itself. or any of those external members by which other " logos." - with " the divine wisdom. Cush himself. moving by its spirit. 2. in a spiral course.. . - at p. 18. "the Serpent is of forms. it is more likely to have had the meaning given significance. and has the quality not only of putting off its old age and assuming a second youth. Horus. The primary teaching of Thoth on the subject is thus stated by the Phoenician historian Sanchoniathon "Taautus {i. 17.S. Hea. without either hands or feet. and if it was a Pagan symbol. who was Cush. as the source of spiritual light or divine wisdom. etc. from Cory's Fragmen*s.

^." of the Bunsen says. Egyptian and Mexican hieroglyphics. p. Pamph.^ Kircher says of this symbol that in the teaching of Hermes. or Sun god."^ It was also represented combined with a winged disk of the Sun. Plagues of Egypt. 200. . the disk of the Sun) represents the simple essence of God. p. " = ^ Ibid." ^ As the life and existence here referred to can only be natural. Selden on Arundel Marbles. pp. the Sun and Serpent god became the false Christ of Paganism. Deane's Serpent Worship. 51. The| Supreme Wisdom. A bol similar figure without the wings was the sym- among . which pervaded all things. This he called Love. is a disk with a serpent around it. "* From Bryant Kircher. " In Egypt one commonest symbols of the Sun. p. . 53. p. The whole emblem represented the Supreme Being as Creator and Pre* server. which will be mentioned hereafter. The Serpent emerging from the globe was the vivifying influence of God which called all things into existence* This he called The Word. p. cited by Stukeley Aburi/." from Deane's Serpent Worship. . p. . or the Deity Bryant remarks that the Serpent was " deemed symbolical of divine wisdom and creative energy and of immortality and regeneration.^ the Greeks for a daemon. . it may be remarked. 56 Deane. p.^^^ ascribes to Christ. note. and in this and other ways. symbol in the Persian. 437 vol.e. p. 399. 55.^ and this was a prominent -y Globe with Wings and Serpent. as in the figure. 3 Bunsen. "The Word" and "the Wisdom of God". The First Mind. 227. Obel. i. it is evident that the love spoken of is really that symbolised by the Phallus.."^ These.232 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD ^ universally the symbol of the Sun. are the characteristics which the Disk AND Seepent. 497. Hislop. Hieroglyphics. " The* globe {i. Druids. 7 Bryant. 133. which he indifferently called The Father. 56. The wings implied the moving penetrative power of God. ' Owen apiid Davies.

SUN. P. to measure and to animal /reproduction. cap. p. p. with a serpent twining round it. was regarded as is the divine representation of /Esculapius. = Ante. who. which can only be physical. the Logos. i. 11. ^mid. although illustrating the character of the philosophy which seeks to substitute Satan for God. lib. signified "the man-instructing Serpent. 736-745 . applying of divine creative wisdom. pp. 236." This. 39. xv. 278. Just also as the Sun was the supposed author of Life and Generation. pp. 11. The I ^ power and instinct of generation is natural. 364. jiEsculapius. ii. that the Sun was the enlightener of men in the same sense that as the Serpent was. 769. says " ^sculapius was the beneficent influence of the Sun which per- vaded the souls of man. Macrobius.. is clearly false.. also glorify both the Serpent and the cross.. worshipped with the sacred staff in Rome. was " The life restorer " ^ a belief which was no doubt based on the teaching of Hermes or Thoth regarding the supposed power of serpents of renewing their youth. Hislop. but that actually the Serpent was ^ [L -* Lord God Himself. ii. . Meiam. was spiritual.^ Thus the Sun god ^sculapius was identified with the Serpent." by H. god of healing. made iEscufrom Compn. "The Secret Doctrine. 0/666. who was the instructor of man in the knowledge of good and evil. to ^ j << ^'^ < *t "7 '^ ^ «/ men and ^ ^^ 7 ^ " iEsculapius. Corinthiaca. By this it would become the very first symbol of creative cause. to astronomy. 279..". 1888. " seek to resuscitate the Her-^jJ^ Thus one "^ ^ ^ «' The first Christians never perceived that not only was there no the ' sin in this disobedience (of Eve). ^ PHALLUS AND TREE who 233 The modern Theosophist writes : writers metic wisdom. SERPENT. as the Ophis.and the Epidaurian snake. p. and was implanted in both : to geometry. p. B." animals by the Creator. taught £ They never realised that the cross d ^ ]f -^ £ . 38. in consequence. one of the names given to the Babylonian Sun fire god. 3 Ovid. 215. speaking of the mystic doctrine of the ancients. 44. 773. . pp. Sat. 98. . and thus became the salvation of mankind. the Serpent god. . The Greeks.2 «i« ^ fj numbers. 2nd lib. vol. and not taught them by the Serpent. to exalt the natural and glorify the beginning of human sin. note.^ who. lib. implying by a confusion of the material and spiritual. 26 Virgil. and represented as holding a serpents were especially sacred to him. so ^sculapius." s This also implies that the influence of the Sun god of Paganism. Macrob. vii.. * 5 Lempriere. 23 Pausanias. cap. 365 Hislop. Hislop. * lib. n. edit. not recognising the true lapius merely the ' esoteric doctrine. . was an evolution from the tree ^and the Serpent. or the bearer < ^ mankind to be creators in their tu.

. 189. or with a serpent twining round " it. the symbols of the Phallus and Youi." were recognised in the Mysteries."^ The O being also a symbol of the seed. 190 . 0. that is to say. would signify God. 108.'"' and the serpent being the Great Father. Sayce. was likewise symbolised by an of Q. the %gg being the symbol of the goddess. 0/666. 0/666. is the root letter of the word " A/pho. the " Ajyporeta." the revelation of which This is also the teaching of the modern il|was punished by death. " by cans of the tree. p. 3 Compn. pp. which is clearly the union of the I and O. had become the salvation of mankind " and taught ]i." " shephiphon. This is represented by the symbol of the Serpent carried in the mysteries." " tzepha. who. pp. or of producing natural life." j . The letter ^ (phi)." and the Coptic " Nou. had a golden bosom as a token of his supposed spiritual his serpent placed in ^Regeneration. = Faber. 116. : which the Serpent was Supposed to have given to man was the knowledge of generation. vol.:»/don. Both the attributes of the Serpent god. p. or new life. 8-10.. and Faber. "Hermetic philosophy. and we might expect therefore that they would be adapted to each other while the Greeks obtained their letters from the Phoenicians and Eofyptians. as we have seen. 234 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD The aspect of the Serpent as " the life giver. •* . when he had passed the ordeal. for the initiate. which. or solemn secret.. p. and <|) is said not to have been an original letter but to have been added afterwards. in their full esoteric meaning the of the Sun. i. Ancient Empires of the East. boldly affirms that he Serpent of Eden was the divine logus.. I. 109 . the Hebrew " epheh. iii. viz.^ and of his initiation into the hidden lifvisdom. viz. as " the life giver " and as " the revealer of wisdom. " and " Ophe. Egg and Serpent. the Phallic Vide Hislop on the Sacred of Paganism." ' " The Serpent. $. 175-190. pp. the incarnation Egg of the Sun. he is represented as " the t'enlightener" and "the * The nature of the knowledge and life giver." a serpent. 356. life . as the Mother Gods and Men." or god of generation.^ probably to effect the symbolism for it must be remembered that Thoth or Hermes was both the inventor of letters and the originator of idolatry. or the vivifying influence which gave them life. from Compn. See also before pp." which have the same meaning.hem to be " creators " . and of the disk three symbols $. vol. note. 354.

" and Nahash. PHALLUS AND TREE — 235 These symbols also occur in the word " ooinikea." is derived from " arg." . call is Aides in winter. p. . ii. iii. p 348. pp. SERPENT." " Phoenicia. 18 Compn." and " phont. while the Orphic poet substitutes the name of Dionusus for lao in the line " One Zeus. which in its exoteric ^ meaning " is " slayer." ^ showing that the Sun god Dionusus was the same as lao. he initiated as the priest of the Serpent ." " ark. The Greek myth represents him as begotten by Jupiter in the form of a serpent. . Helius in " serpent." ^ Similarly. pp. Hence at Delphi." ' and thus means " The Serpent God. Compn. vol. in spring. 347. Zeus summer. 45 * The Great Dionysiac Myth.. which in its exoteric meaning is " slayer of Argus..Bacchus. cited by Bryant Anal. the term " slayer of the Serpent " had a double meaning. and identified with. 355."»| and it is evident that it is composed of " a>oi " and " NIKE." " priest. vol. . 70 . one Dionusus. " God. of 666. and a hymn of praise was sung to it the as the slayer of the Serpent. Cooper's Serpent Myths." Thus Mercury." " victory/k* which looks as if the name was given to the country to indicate the^ triumph of the Sun and Serpent god. and he is also identified with the Serpent. p. 450. of 666. or Deva Nahusha. Protcgomena to the Pythia of Pindar.. and to the nations of Canaan generally. the God he served. i Wilford's Asiat. and lao by the Phoenicians was identified with the Serpent. p. 44. Res. The oracle of Apollo Clarius. p. Robert Brown. 0/666.s and Deva Nahusha is clearly derived from Deva. Deo Naush. for although Apollo is represented as slaying the Python. 3 The Great Dionysiac Myth.'' So also the Indian form of Dionusus. vol. But." a title of was revealed to the and therefore as the Serpent himself for the priest was both the representative of. one Helius." declares that lao. is fabled to have become a serpent. according to the principle of Paganism. viz. 147. or Dionuses.SUN. one Aides. a name therefore peculiarljr^i suitable to that country. the spirit of the god which entered into the Pythoness who revealed the oracles at Delphi was said to be the spirit of Python. poet in the line " is identified The Sun. the highest of all the gods." and thus meant esoterically " priest of the Ark. i. woman " every seventh day. i. speaking of the diflPerent aspects of the Sun god. Faber's Mysteries of the Cahirij Compn. Mr Faber remarks that the word. while Apollo was exoterically identified with the promised " seed of Argiphontes. whom men with the Sun by the Orphic Dionusus as a surname. 452. Apollo was worshipped under the form of a python. and lao in autumn. The Sun god Apollo was identified with the Serpent Python." is in its esoteric meaning " priest.

therefore." Janus was worshipped with The Serpent. or aspirate. which was also . served to identify Janus with the Sun." and is the same as ^sculapius. essay x. who was known as " The Lord of Understanding. or geminus." The title also of Bel Nimrud the lesser. vol. on the principle of the double meaning of words. ." the number of days in which was the usual symbol of the Sun .' In Etruria he was called JDianus and was the husband of Diana. Lenorniaiit." was identified with the serpent taught who was regarded as " The Divine Wisdom " or " Logos. p."." For. There are very ' strong grounds for connecting him with the Serpent of Scripture and with the Paradisiacal tradition of the tree of knowledge and the tree of life.existence and eternity." the h." would become "Dianus. Hea. viz. which was supposed to typify self.. chajj." in which the article is combined with the word.. hence Janus or Dianus was called " The God of Day." " The Teacher of Mankind. Ha Nahash would pass Greek into "Ana'as" or "Anas." He was known " ' same as also as the star Kimmut. with the Greek article 1 or O again placed before it. the God. into Anus or Anes." and "O'anes" or " Oannes." the Dragon. the symbol of the Sun god the whole word having thus the esoteric meaning of " The Sun and Serpent god. occupied so conspicuous a place among the symbols of the gods on the black stones recording Babylonian benefactions. This." called is ^ Janus was also meaning of which ^l (I^i)> aioths (Diphues). Eawlinson's Herod. 3 By this name. " the man-instructing Serpent. according to varying dialects. But the word is made up of god 0) (phi) the symbol of the Serpent and TH2." The latter name also. and was the father of Bel Merodach Macrobius." "God. "He was figured by the great Serpent which .and the serpent was one of the principal forms of . lib. i. not being expressed by a letter. Speaking of " Hea. or Adite." would become "Tanus" or "Janus. Chaldean Magic. as in "I'siris. as already pointed out." who man the knowledge of good and evil.236 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD its tail in its in Phoenicia under the form of a serpent mouth. and " Anas." is evidently the same as the Arabic. the exoteric "twice born. 232. p. for " in " Annus" is thus mean " The God the Latin for " year. ^ ^ ." and with " Di." which means both " life " and "serpent. 600. would easily pass. which was the Draco." and the Etrurian " Dianus" would of the Year. i." or regenerated. word " Hey a. said of the initiate into the Mysteries. ix. and appears to have derived his name from " Ha Nahash. "Hea." "O'siris." Mr Rawlinson says.

ii. 160. as implied " ethnos " or " ethos." or " race of the Serpent. Wilkinson's Egyptians. xvi." i." thus identifying the Serpent with the God of Fire.4 Hence the term "Basilica. SERPENT. was his distinctive symbol. " a serpent. while a and passing diametrically from circumference to circumference. p. 46. Amraianus Marcellinus. 600. also represented the same creative power. vol. 120. egg circle. as remarked by Bryant.. . 407.^ or ophis. 5 pp.. • 3 4 « " See Donnegan. i." was regarded as " the type of dominion. 46 . 47.^ In Egypt the Serpent of the Sun.e." from " Nahash " or the Indian Naga. cap. as identified with the Serpent. and as such was identified with Amenra.. vol.. and with Khem. which was a Dragon. a collection of persons associating together "a serpent". called " Pouro. ^ Kircher. ." a serpent. iii. . where it is said." was called Agathodcemon (the goodjdsemon). called " The Basilisk. vol." meaning at once " Fire " and " The King." " " from habit."." and as such was worn on the head-dress of the Egyptian monarchs. p. the etymology of the word " Ethiopian " (Cushite) would appear to be " the race of Ophe. " In that same place was a great Dragon which they of Babylon worshipped. Eawlinson's Herod. the Sun. lib. 39 Elliot. p. or Serpent. ' iii.SUN. xii. ^ Bunsen. iv. iv. was Christian churches. who also represented the creative power. Deane." from seat of the Cushite idolatry. p. p. and the Arabians call the " Nagashi. p. chap. as identified with the Sun. 239. 457.s In Rome it eventually became the Imperial standard. who was be the son of Hermes. 601. pp. vol. plate. 14. Bryant. Manetlio from Syncellus See ante.^ Chnouphis represented the creative power in the world." The worship of the Serpent were represented to be . elevated on a pole and coloured red to represent it as a symbol of The Egyptian god Chnouphis. 206 Deane's Serpent Worship. fire. ii. p. pp. the god of generation." "a Royal Palace. the root of whose name is aphe. and was the origin of the Greek (tlieta). He in its mouth. 168. ^dip. the central by the apocryphal book of 'f Bel and the Dragon. and Bel Nimrud/ PHALLUS AND TREE 237 Thus these first idolaters in very truth " the seed of the Serpent. Horce Apocalyptic^. Wvo^. c. Anal." or " Royal Serpent." the form of which was adopted for The Sun." In short.and Ethiopians " " ophis.^ and must is therefore Osiris or represented by a serpent with an a serpent in Nimrod. . Cory.^ The Serpent. vol." serpents. Mgypt. was general in Babylon.

in In Her- wart's table of Egyptian and table." ^^^ The which hand is "Caduceus. gee ante. 155. Pausanias. was a winged wand entwined by serof pents. vol. which in modern Coptic is " Nouphion. and " Ophis. p. Onuphis. as in the case of Kham for Ham. as shown in the accompanying fig. Deane. Serpent god. by Birch. See App. * 3 4 pp. s " Nouphis " with the K or Ch prefixed. . but 5 ^ it is unsatisfactory.' It was regarded as powerful "for paralysing the mind and raisp. • The Caduceus. vol.^ All these attributes were given to Osiris in the later Egyptian mythology. 308. note. p." shown in the Anubis and Mercury. less shown to a offering adoration who was doubt- the Serpent " god Onuphis. See App. hieroglyphics. iii. as in the symbol of Mercury. 226. by Birch. so as to form a combination of the crescent. and he became the chief Sun god and god of generation." which is the same as a serpent in that language. the circle and the cross. according to Horapollo.'* In short. as says that tian city of Pausanius in the EgypOnuphis they *" worship the asp. Egyptian idolatry. A. is also the Isaic an Egyptian priest serpent.238 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD was the spirit which pervaded the universe. 307. is merely a form of Onuphis. iii.^ Now one of his titles was " Omi^phis" ^ which is plainly made up of " On" the name of the Sun at Heliopolis. A." signifies " Chnouphis. Wilkinson suggests a different etymology in order to accord with his ideal of Wilkinson.. 2. the Sun and and." the serpent. Wilkinson. quoted by Kircher . 7 Ihid.

" ^ by which they claimed descent from the Sun and Serpent god. he was worshipped. viz. that the originals of those gods were human beings. Hence. note. especially of in virtue of that descent.4 So also Augustus pretended that he was the son of Apollo. while the serpent which they wore on their foreheads was the type of the power and dominion which they equally claimed serpent." he is represented in the woodcut sented by a serpent. to be descended from the Serpent god. indeed. and the claim. ^ by Birch." i.' The name of the Egyptian Vulcan. " serpent. ii. 279.." or " Phthah. fact that '• by the was wanting.e. 365." or " " Aphra.s "Beelzebub. and then as the Renewer and Life Giver. " the Sun. Augustus Hislop. The name " Amenoph. The name " Beelzebub " signifies " the Lord of the fly. SERPENT. iv." or "Amen. vol. men who claimed to be of Nephilim descent. gives a partly different etymology.— SUN. 135. is also compounded of " Avion. i. is explained they were of the race called Egyptian." the " a and Ra. p. pp." by which some of the Theban kings were known. . but it is not so satisfactory as the above. 364. ' Deane." The divinity attached to the serpent. 139. and that the god had assumed the form of a serpent for the purpose proof.. ing PHALLUS AND TREE 239 the dead. So intimately. Wilkinson. 5 '' Suetonius. also compounded of ApJte." Phra. 44. and in so doing produce life again in another form. who were the This claim on their part is also a strong originators of this idolatry." the Sun god." being quiescent. pp. as the Destroyer." the god of the Canaanitish nations. "serpent. vol. was descent from the Serpent god associated with worldly power and dominion throughout Paganism. 217. if other evidence of giving him birth. to be begotten by Jupiter Ammon in the form of a serpent. Serpent Worship. Kitto's Illustrated Commentary. vol.e. of Cushite or Ethiopian origin ^ (the race of Ophe).." by which is probably meant mesmerising and callinoup the supposed spirits of the dead. firstly. . as " Lord of the fly." ^ and the fly for flies by their larvae represented the god in both his aspects consume dead carcases." the prefix being usually dropped." " The title of " the Egyptian kings is "Pharaoh. there was nothing to suggest such a parentage. and Ophe. . p. 280 Hislop. " Aphthah. •» Nimrod. pp. in order to give him the prestige of victory before undertaking the conquest of Asia. p. i. the TJieban kings. iii. by means of an oracle. for unless this was the case. the daimonia. 3 Vide chap. has for its root Aphe. that we find Alexander the Great claiming. 277. . was also repre- Like the Indian Siva.

p." and the rites of the gods are performed by priests. a serpent in that country been have peopled to by the descendants of the Cushite seems which Obi. or Serpent worship. In the lower compartment are shown two Sun and Serpent Gods. they emigrated in large numbers. to represent their true esoteric character. as in the other picture.^ . x." the sacred Serpent Oub and among the " Eph " were the " Canaanites. Deane. vol. 4 Hid. 172-176. p. token thereof mark their bodies with the figure of a serpent. would naturally promise them grea advantages.240 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD ^ below by the double . p. the other his real or esoteric character. Pompeii. who are being sacrificed to by a priest.. as a comparatively unoccupied country. 5 The notice in Gen.^ The two gods in the upper compartment. 105. is still the name of It is well known that throughout Africa. thus -^''claiming to be the "seed of the Serpent." Victims are daily brought ^ Ibid. "afterward were the Canaanites scattered abroad" implies that at some period of the history. " " Ob. 18." " Oph. 11 for a familiar spirit. figures of swallows pursuing flies and by serpents the one representing the exoteric aspect of the god. while the Witch of Endor is called an " Ob " or " Oub" ^ " Obion" composed of " Obi. The Lord of the Fly. pp. still exists." and in pontiff. shown by the rays around their heads to be Sun gods.." and " On. priestesses and a The priestesses call themselves " Children of God. and Africa. In Whidah and Canaanite races. A somewhat is similar double representation given in another woodcut from Pompeii. ii. jorobably after the conquest of the country by the Israelites. xviii. " serpents. ' From 3 ." the name of the Sun in Egypt. 141. are while their black faces identify them with their Cushite originals.'^ and Congo the most celebrated temple is called " the Serpent's house. and Op)h " names given to is the same word as that used in Deut. 176.

7 Purchas. Aglio. 178. . who worship a serpent which they call when he is angry nothing will appease him victim. p. pp. is constantly represented as the object of special adoration in Indian sculptures. p. the Mexican Creator. and was sculptured in temples. 270." was also represented in a similar way to -cEsculapius. and the " Naga. according to M. See also ante. A man In India.^ The Spaniards. Acta Erud. vol. "the Chinese delight in mountains and high places. which implies that their Sun god was also the Serpent god. p.'' serpent with in its mouth. p. PHALLUS AND TREE 241 to the god. 165. vol. 291 Deane.^ At Topira. 160-180. '° Deane. vi. p. * Faber. i. and Like the basilisk in Egypt. p. because there lives the great dragon upon whom their good Bosnian on Guinea. p. . 9 Moor's Hindu Pantheon. p. vide full account. 265 Deane. it was it. still warm with the blood of human victims. Leip. Hindustan. 299. 56 Maurice's Hist. like the Egyptian representation of the Serpent of the Sun. 302. Aglio. 299. in Peru. 210. say that the most acceptable offering to him is a human victim. or " giver of life. " Oboni. vol. 452. See also plates in Ferguson's Tree and Serpent Worship." also assert that The Koromantynes. p. 295.'' and. 66.. Q . as holding a staff with a serpent of a twined round it. i. and a huge figure of a dragon was placed on the summit of the pyramid temple on which human victims were sacrificed to the Sun. chap. found at Campeachy a large serpent idol.s Mexitli. and oracles required of him/ The Eboes. 22.^ Siva Mahadeva and the goddess Parvati are^ represented with serpents about their necks and waists. " the life restorer.. 8 Faber. " Stukeley's Ahury. Peter Martyr. quoted by Deane.^" indicated everything sacred in In China the great dragon was the banner of the Empire.SUN. p. i. Mexican Antiquities. there its tail was a temple with a vast image was sacrificed to it every year. all the stamp and symbol of royalty. who worship the Quana. part iv. De Orhe Novo. as in other Pagan countries." viz. 1705. on first landing. and a serpent was the sign of his worshippers. ' . p. ^ •» ." or five-headed hooded serpent. Deane. 5 M. p. 298. 3 Bernal Diaz de Castillo. Juggernaut was sometimes worshipped under the form of a seven-headed dragon. pp. SERPENT.* but a human The gods of the ancient Mexicans were also identified with the serpent. p." According to Cambry. there was scarcely a deity who was not symbolised by a dragon or serpent. p. 297. 1560 Deane.^ Buddha^ was also represented by a serpent. Deane.

Babylon. ' Davies. for soever I will give it. 3 Owen's Dictionary . had." his car is represented as drawn by serpents. Hu is and made the Prince 1 /* of the Daemons of in very truth also " The God of this World" (2Cor. pp. Hence.^ and Daemon worship were thus integral parts of the Serpent Sun. . were possessed by those kings and priesthoods who served the Pagan god and his angels. Monuments Celtiques. whom Christ identified with the Pagan god. the daimonia and they wore the cross. when the Prince of the Demons. 70. choose on God. persuaded man to which is the principle of natural life. 254. and the pride of life life." The the form of a serpent. and all that tended to exalt it and conduced to its satisfaction " the lust of " were regarded the flesh. They call him the father of happiness." the tempter " all the kingdoms of the world Him. Deane. all shall be thine " (Luke iv. The correspoudence between the " high places " and " groves " of the Chinese and those of the Canaanite "High places" were nations. and which eventually spread over the whole earth from its centre. 256. pp. 69. Nor was the claim denied and we therefore find that worldly power and dominion. The Celtic Hu was called " The Dragon Ruler of the World." ^ In the sacrificial rites of Dragon god title which invoked under the name of " Victorious Beli" a indicates its Babylonish origin.242 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD fortune depends. supposed to be especially the abode of the gods. p. and the emblem of this said to that is delivered . the fruits of which were unbridled lust and cruelty. iv. and that those who ate of its fruit would be like manner the Pagan god was the god of this natural life." the called " adders. the gods. 122. ' Cambry. . 4)."^ shaded him temples to Serpent worship was equally a distinctive feature of the Druidical religion. and to whomwill I give unto thee. Druids. his special symbol. adopted by the idolatrous Israelites. which is the principle of spiritual dependence of faith and latter. 163 Deane. 210. and his priests were " Uther Pendragon. and same system. showed Christ and the glory of them. instead self-dependence. will be noted. at the first. and erect with groves. If therefore thou wilt worship me. — — as his gifts. in and had made it appear that this self-dependence was the only " as gods'' In true life. " All these things unto me. 5-7). pp. The Sun and Serpent god Paganism was morally identical ^ 'with Him whom the Scripture calls "The God of this World. the lust of the eyes. and trees were symbolic of . constituted the substance of that Hermetic wisdom. 116. which constitute the glory and satisfaction of this life.

as a token of their allegiance. and crucifixion. 191. having an outward appearance of truth and righteousness which veiled a hidden and mystical evil. or the tree of death. That system was a system of lies. and as a murderer from the beginning (John viii. but which. he was the real author of the whole system of Paganism. therefore. i. was not only the fate of the former. Christ described Satan as a liar.' th^ other hand. . or rebels against. p. and the agouies of their parents and representative of the god/ ^ — relatives. ii. SERPENT. " who deceiveth the whole world " (Rev. also. PHALLUS AND TREE On 243 worldly glory and power. the Pagan gods were not only made by sacrifices to as in the case of those made to Moloch and Baal. in the zenith of its power. after having been examined like clean calves Plutarch says. As "the Spirit who works in the children of disobedience" (Eph. instituted by the founders of Pagan idolatry. were used to inflict death on the enemies of. who could only be appeased by their tortures. 190. and evil good a system of which the essence was mystery and deceit. Por phyry. 8). the god and his servants. or originator. For the human fire. says that three men were daily sacrificed to the Egyptian Juno. demanded and obtained hecatombs of human beings as sacrifices to its gods. for that of the tree of life. " We are informed by Manetho chosen for the altar. 53. of doctrines founded on subtle perversions of truth. of lies. and both characteristics were essential features of the Pagan system and its god. which constituted. and led them to substitute the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil. by which good was made to appear evil. it was a system of inurder. but of the latter also. but of captives taken in war. but by the cross. 44). 30).. if they rebelled.yire and the cross.'' sacrifices ' Human ^ Eawlinson's Egypt and Babylon. who was the earthly These sacrifices consisted not only of malefactors. by the shrieks of children devoted to Moloch. Thus the cross. pp. or of those who had been spared and made slaves of. appear to have been a custom in Egypt. 9). xii. became the very altar of "The Prince of this World " (John xiv. those " works of the devil " which Christ was manifested to destroy (1 John iii. and crucifixion and burning were the two forms of death throughout the Oriental world meted to ofienders against the state or ting. and the Father. the symbol of the Sun' and Serpent gods. vol. So. De Abst. 2). Porphyry. priest of Sebennytus. and of natural life. both of which were symbols of the god. which not only killed men's souls. ii.SUN. blinded men to its true character.

. so also in Mexico children were offered to the ' De Iside." and winnowing their ashes alive. Wilkinson. vol.^ Human sacrifices to the gods. 30. . . In Mexico it is said that 50. iii. iii. vol. tv>yf Seal op Egyptian Priests. 30. with which they stamped the clay affixed to the band round the neck of the animal destined for sacrifice. that the seal of the priests. were common in amongst all the principal Pagan nations and were only discontinued Pagan Rome at a late period. ' Prescott. to burn men " Typhos. Wilkinson. the great temples of the gods and principal monuments of Egypt the civilised nations of Europe. by Birch.'^ Just as new-born babies were sacrificed to Moloch. s See chap.^ period and before the remote "could only have been at a very Egyptians had become the highly-civilised nation we know them from their monuments. Nineveh by Birch. and woodcuts. was hated and his name erased from the monuments. p. Wilkinson says that Plutarch on the Wilkinson's Egyptians. 457. This was not until after the advent of the Cushite Rameses from India. giving them the name of states that it was formerly the also Diodorus through a sieve. s. pp. iii. t 6 Layard's. p. or tore out their tongues with pincers. an equally civilised nation. 352. 73 88 . The Assyrians. v. 458. = 3 Diod. v. iii. and by whom. Conquest of Mexico. p. 143. i. p. were erected.'" //' custom to sacrifice men of a red complexion to Osiris. vol. p. It is also a strong evidence of the existence of human sacrifices in Egypt. by Birch. Wilkinson. was a figure of a man with his arms bound behind him and a sacrificial knife pointed at his is throat. it is well known. p. which figure found by copy of the Wilkinson in the a ieroglyphics of sculptures relating to the sacrifice of victims. from their Wilkinson remarks that this supposed resemblance to Typhon.244 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD that they were formerly wont in the city of Idithya. 95. and Babylon. chap. vol.000 victims were sacrificed every year. flayed their prisoners alive. as in woodcut. instead of being worshipped as a god as at one time.5 under whom. authority of Castor describes the same seal.^ and the burnings and tortures of the Inquisition in Spain occurred at a period when the Spaniards were the foremost among The fact that the victims Egyptians proves that it the by were given the name of Typhos must have been at a period when Set or Typhon. p. 26." ^ But civilisation is no preventive of the cruelty which always accompanies superstition.

by a process of steady development. pp. SERPENT. has attained its fullest development. Sept. yet as all and Human it East.i These gods were Serpent gods. But all these were Pagan customs long before they were adopted by the Church of Rome. or Human Sacrifices. the history of which will be shortly described. having served their purpose as steppingstones. including the worship of the Serpent Sacrifices. The second form was that which it attained. as among the ancient Phoenicians. while a priest holds an infant in his arms as an ofFerino' their blood . ate sacred cakes like the Roman Catholic wafer which they believed to be the body of their god. and the Hamitic races of Africa at tlie present day. that the ancient idolatry had two phases or forms. were essentially similar to those of the Pagan nations of the is pretty certain that all their i-eligious customs were derived from the same source. and wherever Serpent worship has been pre-eminent. god Huitzilopochtli and eaten by the worshippers PHALLUS AND TREE 245 was mixed with the sacred cakes and in Lord Kingsborough's collection of Mexican antiquities. believed in a purgatory after death. It would appear. and the god was identified with the Prince of the Daemons. the human originals were kept out of sight of the common people. 1888. or a basis on which to build the ultimate development. and cruelty by Cush and Nimrod. worshipped the cross. His reasons for this conclusion are that the Mexicans. in the manner which will be hereafter described. The first was that instituted. and openly promulgated in all its evil. In this form Cush and Nimrod were themselves worshipped as incarnations of the Sun and Serpent god. after having been gradually and secretly resuscitated. and although Quetzalcoatl may have been a Roman Catholic. a group of Mexicans are represented adoring the cross. including flagellation and piercing the flesh with sharp thorns. It should be remembered.SUN. I ' " The Mexican Messiah. to it. inflicted penances. that when the worship of the latter had been firmly established. 242. however. had a celibate priesthood to whom the people made confession. the other customs of the Mexicans. however. etc. like the Roman Catholics. in after ages. obscenity. this system of Murder." Gentlemmn's Magazine. 243. . but which received a speedy and world-wide overthrow. The author of this article suggests that the Mexican religion was a form of Christianity introduced by a Christian who they called Quetzalcoatl. supposed their children regenerated by a water baptism.

^ It is equally difficult to perceive any relation between their names and the moral fectly arbitrary significance of the religious it system which has just been explained suggests no explanation for the arbitrary names by which they are ' known. Neither the signs of the Zodiac. Nevochim. the Twins. But these relations of them. This applies of course only to the ancient names of the stars. CHAPTER XI THE WORSHIP OF THE STARS In concluding this portion of our inquiry a few remarks may be made on the worship of the seven stars and the twelve signs of the Zodiac.. 420.. There appears to have been little moral signiJBcance in this worship. the Balance. - 246 . selves do not appear to have been the real reason of the original worship of the stars. was instituted by Tammuz. p. according to Maimonides. which.e. etc. or the period of the " precession of the equinoxes " and if this was known to the ancients.. The Pagans merely called these by one or other of the names of their gods. The Sun also passed through the signs of the Zodiac in the course of the year." have the remotest approach in form to that of the things by which they are called. Nimrod. and might therefore be regarded as having some relation to the Sun.827 years. Saturn. the signs of the Zodiac would be regarded by them as having a special relation to the Sun. and the gazing at them thought they saw in them the forms of these things is therefore inadmissible. They are persuggestion that men by names which have no relation whatever to the form of the constellations and signs themselves. such as the Scorpion. Mercury. etc.^ i. while at the same time it had a slow retrograde movement by which it retired through them in the course of 25. Jupiter.QdeTTL popvlar names have no doubt been given them on account of a certain rough resemblance to the things denoted by those names. Mars. the Virgin. More. nor the combinations of stars called "the constellations. M. beyond the fact that the planets were part of the solar system and satellites of the Sun.

and 594 is a final eclipse cycle of 5860 years which 1260 eclipses in the and of There are partial.847 solar years of |the precessional cycle is equal to 26. cxlvii. and the latter number which = I Psa. plus the 40 weeks of gestation. each eclipse will be those number of days later in each succeeding 18 years.a type of the precessional cycle. are therefore exact astronomical cycles. or 651 years in all. He names. 26. He " Lift up your eyes on high calleth them all by their names. The only inter- pretation of so exact a correspondence is that the prophetic periods are^ astronomical cycles. their names were given them by God. there are cycle of 325 years. or annular.. putting a day for a year. xl. which. equals 2300 + 2520 All these are also great cycles. The 2520 and 1260 years are multiples of 7 and 10. that bringeth out their host by numbers. when each eclipse will again take place on the X 888. the 25. that either may symbolise the history of the individual. and that this number is probably the exact number of years of the precessional cycle so that man's life.640 lunar years. 4. 70 years. in years. the first consisting of 18 years and 10 to 11 days. on account of the relation between the cycle and the life of man. in which 70 eclipses take place. and they ( = 2x1260) + 1040 years. THE WORSHIP OF THE STARS On the other hand it is 247 these stated in Scripture that " God gave number of the stars. J . is exactly 25. It has been pointed out by Mr Guinness that the allotted period of man's life. He calleth them all by their names by the greatness of His might. if measured of 651 years. then. It them had their forms exactly portrayed the things after would have been the strongest temptation to worship which they were named. the one being significant of God and Redemption. and also same day as at first . numbers which have a special significance in Scripture. Moreover. who hath created these things. the other of the world and evil^ indicating that both enter into the history of the world. is . 130 which equals 40 x 666. until a period of 325 years has passed. - Isa. and which recur in the same order in the next 18 years and 10 to 11 days. we may understand why their forms were made to have no relation to those telleth the ^ constellations their names. which are numbers expressing the completion of God's acts towards man thus 1260 years = 70 + 7x 10 + 490." and behold. There are also certain eclipse cycles. . Now." 2 If. and. and 2520 eclipses in the cycle these eclipses 666 are total. but on account of the extra days of the cycle. and this will be the case again in another 326 years. are also the numbers of the great prophetic periods.847 days.

symbolic of the temporal evil undergone by Abraham and his descendants during their sojourning in a strange and hostile country.41 Total . as was said by the ancients. or 666 x 8 lunar months. A similar period of 430 years. Other remarkable relations might be mentioned. It may also be remarked that there are various relations between the eclipse cycles and the geometrical properties of bodies. and the winds depend on arithmetical and geometrical progressions of ' The exact date of the Exodus is slightly uncertain. omitting fractions. or the etc.— 248 7 — THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD 7 people of the world and of the chosen commencement of the prophetic periods. . weight and measure God.C.. of the diagonal and side of a square.12 . or 666 X 8 lunar months. from the commencement of the building of the Ark and the X X 10 enters into the history of to the God previous preaching of 2 Noah 120 years before the Deluge. and these numbers. .' Again. The : stars in their courses are regulated by the properties of conic sections. . but according to the corrected Scripture Chronology it was about 1670 B. numbers symbolic of the growing evil and idolatry of the human race.17 29 Eclipses of the Sun . • .70 : . followed by a new state of things. from the Deluge to the Covenant with Abraham is 430 years. is and from the Exodus to the Captivity is 2 x 490 years. or the commencement of the first steps taken for the regeneration of mankind in the call of Abraham. one of which is the following The diagonal of a square exceeds its side by X 490 years. works by geometry the legislation of the material universe is necessarily delivered in the language of mathematics. but these are " All sufficient to indicate the accuracy of the following statement things are ordered by number. which form a : : — allowing for 12 : 12 + 17 29 + 41 : 70 + 99. followed by their redemption. etc.. 29 to 70s 01^ '''0 to 169. which equals 5328. expressing the relation other. . Thus. : a number which. also express the relation of the various eclipses to each Thus in the first eclipse cycle there are: Total eclipses of the Partial „ „ Moon » . intervened between the Covenant and the Exodus. to the Exodus. . omission of fractions : is to the side as series 12 to 29.

7th edit. " Those things which God before had shewed by the mouth ' of all His prophets. Analogy in Sound and Colour. . i." that they enable the astronomer to fix the date of those events exactly ." ^ To this may be added that chemical combinations are based on similar mathematical laws. harmony in sound and harmony in colour are all analogous and also based on similar laws. the date of these means to be precisely 2170 B. but that everything is the result of exact and pre-ordained design. which are in multiples of 7x12 hours. and the history of man.. that "Astronomy and General Physics with 6. heat. and that even the structure and functions of the human body exhibit similar laws. 14). and the Moon which marks the months. pp. by Professor Hay. == Natural Principles of Earntumy arid Guinness. But they are not sufficient in themselves to mark the date of events in human history. in connection with the Stars.^ that the phenomena of light. reference to Natural Theology. speaking of Christ. 0/666. 7 . Now the Apostle Peter. of the " precession of the equinoxes. but were to be also for " signs say. astronomy. and that the movements of the heavenly bodies and the events of human history have been so arranged as to have this exact relation to each other. electricity and sound depend on differentiation of force. 259. This being the case Gen. Zodiac must have a bearing on the events of human history. Approaching their Compn. we have an explanation of the statement in Sun which marks the years. Thus the Sun and Moon. and the days.C. in short." given by God to man and as God also called the Stars by their names. " But I say unto you that the very hairs of your head are numbered. 263-267. says. that is to they were to mark the cycles which correspond with the great events of human history.' THE WORSHIP OF THE STARS elasticity 249 and pressure. It is in combination with the changes which take place in the position of the constellations and signs of the Zodiac. ^ End of Age. pp. then the names of the constellations and signs of the which is known by . that harmony in form." Whewell-B'i'idgewater Treatises. as in the case of the Great Pyramid. as in the well-known case of the periodicity of vital phenomena. were not only appointed for that the these purposes. the seasons. in consequence. it is sufficient to know that these relations do exist." These things show that there is no such element as chance. natural phenomena. " (ver. Although we may not always be able to discover the significance of the exact relations which exist between geometry. are " signs. p.3 Hence the significance of Christ's remark.

the prophets of these things. " Have they not heard ? Yes. pointed to and explained these signs in the heavens as prophetic. and of the redemption of man. We may therefore presume that. for He hath visited and redeemed His people. of wisdom which is concerned with the heavenly bodies and their receive until the time of the restitution of all things. who says that " the sons of Seth who were of good dispositions lived in the land without apostasising and They were the inventors of that peculiar sort in a happy condition. concerning Christ and the restitution of all things. 68-70). 21). Whom the heaven must X which God hath " His holy prophets since the world began (Acts iii. and that their meaning was as plain as if uttered in words and by voice. by the regular and foreknown changes in their position. 18. and hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of His servant David as He spake by the mouth of His holy prophets since the world began " (Luke i. and their words unto the ends of the world " (Rom. verily their sound went into all the earth. x. Day unto day uttereth speech. in the earlier ages of the world. that the prophecy of a redeemer and of the restitution of all things had ever been preached by the signs in the heavens. so fulfilled." Thus it is plainly taught. speaking of the preaching of the Gospel to the Gentiles. In them hath He set a tabernacle for the Sun. spoken by the mouth of : .) that is to say. Their line is gone out through all the earth. The same thing is stated by Zacharias " Blessed be the Lord God of Israel. and their words to the end of the world. he quotes Psalm xix. Thus it would appear that there was a continuous stream of prophecy. So also the Apostle Paul. of the varying events in the future history of the world.250 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD He hath all Christ should suffer. Yet Peter speaks of the ultimate destruction of the world by fire. . This also seems to be hinted by Josephus. we have no record of those prophecies. and being seen all over the world there was no speech nor language where that meaning might not be recognised. which is also recognised in the various cosmogonies of the Pagan nations. as if it was a well-known thing. — . and the quotation by Jude of the prophecy of Enoch. and night unto night sheweth knowThere is no speech nor language where their voice is not ledge. from the beginning of the world but beyond the promise of the seed of the woman. heard. or by those Stars which God had called by their names. 18. to prove that these things had already been preached throughout the world. says. . in the absence of any written revelation. That Psalm is as follows: "The heavens declare the glory of God and the firmament sheweth His handiwork.

they made two pillars. It is evident that the stone one referred to here by Josephus is the Great Pyramid. And highly-civilised people who lived at that time about latitude 40°. which is also a cosmogonic and prophetic record. and he asserts that this tradition is reflected that everywhere in antiquity there constellations were already divided the constellations. leaving. This would have been about 4000 years before the Christian era. pp. both meaning " the appointed one. chap. but who were swept away by some sudden destruction. testifies to this truth. 204.." - The latter writer Paganism are nothing but imagination of has indeed argued that both Christianity and astrological superstitions produced by the ancient astrologers. that in the time of that Patriarch the V and named. was to suffer in His conflict with the Serpent. Dupuis also and other writers of the same school have collected ancient authorities abundantly proving that in all the nations the traditions always prevailed that this Divine person. ii. . " It is impossible to doubt. and that the solar and lunar Zodiacs were of a similar antiquity. i. as we shall see. . but the fallacy of such a Antiq." ^ This ancient knowledge of astronomy is further confirmed by the evidence of modern astronomers. the one of they inscribed their discoveries on brick and the other of stone them both. that in case the pillar of brick should be destroyed. as well as in all the heathen mythologies throughout the world.e. . They suppose this science to have originated with some ancient and . 251 suflBciently that their inventions might not be lost before they were known. " that astronomy was invented from the beginning of the world history. Egypt) to this day. 205. Now this remains in the land of Siriad {i. upon Adam's prediction that the world was to be destroyed at one time by the force of fire and at another time by tlie violence and quantity of water. He also asserts that in this tradition is represented in the constellations. Volney informs us was a cherished tradition of an expected conqueror of the Serpent. bk. ' Primeval Man Unveiled (Gall).THE WORSHIP OF THE STARS order. the two names being synonymous. however.. Bailly and others have asserted that astronomy must have been established when the summer solstice was in the first degree of Virgo." and Shem. but was to triumph over it at the last. was the real builder of the Great Pyramid. the pillar of stone might remain and exhibit those discoveries to mankind." says Cassini. profane as well as sacred. traces of their knowledge behind them. who was to come as a divine person born of a woman. born of a woman. Origen tells us that it was asserted in the book of Enoch. But it was not built in antediluvian but in postdiluvian times and the mistake of Josephus is probably due to his confusing Seth with Shem.

instead of regarding them as signs had revealed to man the future history of redemption. they associated them with their false gods. founded on perversions of the truth. it is necessary to consider the history of the overthrow of the primeval form of idolatry as established by Cush and Nimrod. as we have seen. when it is considered that there is no relation between the forms of the constellations and the names given to them. . make use of these recognised prophetic signs in the heavens to obtain a fictitious by which God Hence.252 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD conclusion is evident. to credit for their religion. The principle of this perversion will be more fully considered when we come to treat of the subsequent development of Paganism. Firstly. however. when perverting and arbitrary incorporating that truth into their system. and thus hid from mankind their spiritual meaning. and no reason can be discovered in Paganism for these names for while it might be natural for the Pagans to call the planets and every other known . its founders would be certain. But that religion being. there is nothing in the nature of their religion which can suggest a reason for the names given to the constellations and signs of the Zodiac. star by the names of one or other of their deities. There must be a cause for every effect.







the various traditions of the conquests of " Ninus,"
" Osiris,"

"Sesostris," "Bacchus," "Dionusus," "

Deva Nahusha," Hercules and the

Arabian, or Adite, conqueror and sanguinary tyrant " Zohak," " the teacher of a monstrous and obscene religion," it appears that Nimrod

extended his conquests and religion over the whole civilised world. The accounts limit his conquests by the Indus, beyond which were the so-called " deserts of India," and it is exceedingly improbable that, at that period, emigration had extended farther south, but that the Cushite race subsequently migrated there and formed the first inhabitants of Hindustan. To the eastward, these conquests extended to

to the north, to Thrace

and Scythia, and Herodotus speaks

of seeing


of the pillars of Sesostris in the latter country,^ while

the similar pillars of Hercules at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea seem to show that his conquests extended westward to that
point, including therefore those "shores of the Gentiles" colonised

by the Japhetic race (Gen.
established his religion in


1 -5).



also appear that



at least of these

countries, like

Mahomet, by force of arms. It is Egypt, however, which is chiefly connected with the later history of Nimrod. We have seen that he made his father king of that country, and accordingly we find both him and his father mentioned among the first of the god kings who ruled over Egypt Of these the first, " Hephcestus" whose in the lists of Manetho.^
length of reign

given as 724 years,


probably the antediluvian

Hephaestus, "Chrysor."



Ham, who
to the

"Helios the Sun," probably in early times was the Sun god of the

The second

Egyptians, and of them only.



is "

Agatho-dcdTnon," the

name given
the evil

good serpent in contradistinction to " Rakodcemon serpent. This Agatho-dgemon is plainly Nimrod, for he is
to be the son of the second Hermes,^

by Manetho




cap. cvi.



Cory's Fragments, p. 92.

Cory's Fragments,

p. 173.


follows Cronus or Saturn,


Cush, and then Osiris and


after which are the repetitions of these gods under the various other


by which






All tradition tends to prove that the


kings of Egypt were

^Ethiopian or Cushite.
represent a


true that



and features


or yellow race, with straight hair,

very different from the ^Ethiopian type

but this



what we

might expect, for the first settlers in Egypt were the descendants of Mizraim, and were therefore the people conquered by Osiris or iEgyptus while at a subsequent period, as we shall see, Egypt was for a considerable time delivered from the Ethiopian yoke "by men of a different race." Thus there were two races who alternately had the dominion, and the ancient historians, in consequence, distinguish between the kings of Mizraim origin, whom they call " Mestraoi" and those of Cushite origin, whom they call " Egyptian." We have now to consider the circumstances which led to the overthrow of the Cushite idolatry in Egypt, and in a greater or less degree throughout the world, which overthrow, although only temporary, obliged its advocates to adopt other methods for propagating their religion, and consequently gave its subsequent development an entirely new aspect. The Ninus, according to Ludovicus Vives, was torn in pieces.^ same is said to have been the case with Orpheus, who is identified with the Egyptian and Babylonian god by Bryant and Hislop, and A similar fate is recorded of is called one of the Titans by Lucian.^ Lycurgus,^ whom the Phrygians identified with Bacchus.'^ In the rites of Bacchus a spotted fawn was torn in pieces in commemoration of the death of the god, and the spotted fawn was called Nebros, and was the symbol of Nebrod, the name of Nimrod in Greece. So also Osiris was cut in pieces, and the great feature in the rites of the god was the lamentation for his death at the solemn festival called " The

disappearance of Osiris."

Julius Firmicus says that

" in

the solemn

celebration of the mysteries, all things in order


to be done,


the Youth either did or suffered at his death " ^ therefore the This is what initiates were required to cut and wound their bodies.
the priests of Baal did

when they
lib. vi.

called on their god,^

and the same

Comrmntary on Augustine,
Bryant, vol.


note, p. 139


Hislop, p. 56, note.
p. 124, note.



pp. 419-423

Hislop, pp. 46, 55

Appollodorus, Bibliotheca,
lib. x. cap.





vii., p.



also Lemprifere, Titanes,

and Hislop,


Hyginus, Fab. 132,

p. 109.

p. 17.

Julius Firmicus, p. 18

Hislop, p. 152.

^1 Kings

xviii. 28.


is still


done by the devotees of Paganism in various parts of Herodotus speaks of the Carians doing the same.^ The Egyptians who died were, in a manner, identified with Osiris, and were called by his name, and therefore their mourners also cut themselves. Hence the command to the Israelites " Ye shall make no cuttings in your flesh for the dead." 3 There is thus a singular unanimity in the traditions with reo-ard to the way in which the god met his death. Orpheus, whose name, according to Hislop, is a synonym for Bel,'^ is said by Diodorus Siculus to have introduced the rites of Paganism into Greece,^ and, like Bacchus and Osiris, to have been torn to pieces.^ But he is also said to have perished by lightning JEscvIapius is also said to have been killed by lightning for raising the dead,^ that is to say, for invoking the demons who personated
the world at the present day.'

The same death by lightning is said to have been the " Phcethon," and some other forms of the god. child the of the Sun, who can also be identified with Nimrod,'° was likewise struck by lightning, and cast from heaven to earth when, it was said, he was on the point of setting the earth on fire," the significance of which will appear later on. Centaurus, another form of the god," was likewise struck by lightning for pride and presumption, ^^ and Orion, the giant and mighty hunter, who boasted
the dead.
fate of Zoroaster,"^

that no animal could compete with him, and
identified with

who has

also been

Nimrod, is said to have been killed by a scorpion for similar pride and presumption.'-* Death by lightning is probably a metaphorical form of expressing the judgment of heaven, but the death of Bacchus, Osiris, and other manifestations of the god point to a special form of that death.

As witnessed by the author among the Malays.
Herod., ii. 61. Mr Hislop says that Bel signifies "to

' ^

Le\'it. xix. 20.


or "confound,"

and that ^'Orv"

Hebrew, which becomes " Orph " meaning Hislop, p. 124, note. similar a
in the

in Chaldee (hellenised into Orpheus), has


Bihliotheca, lib.


p. 9.
lib. vi.


Ludovicus Vives, Commentary on AvgnstiTie,



note, p. 239


Hislop, p. 56, note. 7 Pausanias, Boeotica, cap. xxx. p. 768 ; Hislop, p. 234, note. 8 Ovid, Metam., lib. xv. 11. 736-745 yEneid, lib. vii. 11. 759-773.

9 '»

Suidas, vol.

pp. 1133, 1134 Hislop, p. 317.



p. 234, note.

" Ihid.

" Scholiast in Lycophron, v. p. 1200 Bryant, vol. and 297. '3 Dymock, sub voce " Ixion " Hislop, p. 297.


p. 316,

and Hislop, pp. 42


Ovid, Fasti,

lib. v.





p. 57, note.






name under which
in Syria

the god

was more


known and lamented

and Palestine, suffered a
in the learning of

judicial death.

Thus Maimonides, deeply read

the Chaldees, writes


the false prophet,

named Tharamuz,

preached to a certain king that he should worship the seven stars and the twelve signs of the Zodiac, that king ordered him to be put to a terrible death. On the night of his death all the images from the ends of the earth assembled in the temple of Babylon to the great golden image of the Sun which was suspended between heaven and That image prostrated itself in the the midst of the temple, earth.


so did all the images around it, while it related to them all that had happened to Thammuz. The images wept and lamented all the night long, and then in the morning they flew away each to his own temple again to the ends of the earth and hence arose the custom every year on the first day of the month of Thammuz to mourn and








Osiris, the

conqueror of Egypt, the question
explained by the Egyptian account

who put him

to death



of the death of Osiris,
of their god,

which is as follows Typhon, the great enemy overcame him, " not hy force or open war, but, having entered into a conspiracy with seventy-two of the leading men of Egypt, he got him into his power and put him to death, and then cut his body into pieces and sent the different parts to so many different cities throughout the country." ^ Egypt was divided into Nomes, each with a ruler or judge over it, and these judges in later times amounted Of these thirty were the civil judges who had power to seventy-two. over life and death, and decided the punishment of those who had been guilty of crime while a further tribunal of forty-two decided whether those who had been found guilty should have burial or not.3 The story thus implies that Osiris was condemned and judicially

executed by the chief




at that time.

the dead body and sending

to different cities

The cutting up was an ancient
in the case of


of expressing both

warning and command, as

when he

cut up a yoke of oxen and sent the pieces to the twelve

tribes of Israel with the message, "

Whosoever goeth not forth with

Saul and Samuel so shall


be done to hia oxen."


it is


426 Hislop, p. 62. The nuaoes, that is, the demon gods, are here represented as lamenting the death of Tammuz, implying that it was regarded as a most severe blow to their worship. ^ Wilkinson's Egyptians, vol. iv. pp. 3.30-332. 3 Diodorus, lib. i. pp. 48-58 ; Hislop, p. 64, note. • 1 Sam. xi. 7.

More, Nevochim,





the origin of the characteristic feature in the funeral rites of the

god in which a spotted fawn was torn to pieces. Typho, or Typhon, the enemy of Osiris who accomplished his
overthrow, was the name of the evil principle among the Eo-yptians and was a word meaning pride or arrogance. Nevertheless he is said to be the brother of Osiris,' and the term was applied to him therefore as a term of reproach by the incensed idolaters. Typhon was, as we have seen, one of the principal Titans, or sons of Noah and identical with Titan or Shem. Typhon is said to be the brother of Osiris, and Titan is said to be brother of Saturn or Gush, who was
the father of Osiris but the ancients called all the parallel branches of a family " brethren," irrespective of their particular generation.

Just as Typhon overcame Osiris, so Titan is represented as making war against Saturn, i.e., Thoth, or Gush, and we have seen that Thoth was made king over Egypt by his son, the

second Gronus,


Osiris or


In perfect accordance with


are told, in the story of


Thoth, in

Typhon and Osiris, that the latter charge of the kingdom of Egypt during

and that Typhon, taking advantage of the absence of and inflamed the minds of the people against him, thus overcoming the influence of Hermes.^ It is thus clear that the war of Titan against Saturn and that of Typhon against Osiris refer to the same event, and that Typhon is simply a term of reproach given to Titan, or Shem. This is confirmed by the name by which Typhon was commonly called, viz., Set or Seth,^ which is synonymous with Shem, both meaning " The appointed one," and Shem is spoken of as Sheth in Numb. xxiv. 17. In short, exactly the same story is told of Set " Set, the brother of Osiris, rebelled against him and cut his body in pieces." s Birch says the name of the conspirator against Osiris was " Semu," ^ the root of which is the same as Shem, or " Sem," as it is in Greek and Plutarch also gives to Typhon the titles of " Seth " and " Smy," and the latter in Greek would be Smu, which is evidently the same as Semu.' The Saite or Sethro'ite Zone of Egypt, called so after Set, or
his absence,
Osiris, raised sedition


Lemprifere, Osiris


Typhon. Epiphanius, Adv. Hceres, lib.
Hislop, p. 65, note. Wilkinson, by Birch, vol.





Hialop, p. 65.

Eawlinson's Egypt and Babylon.


p. 138, note.

' Ibid. Wilkinson rejects all the traditions about Osiris and Typhon which represent them as human beings, but apparently he has no other reason for doing so except that they do not accord with his idealised view of Egyptian idolatry.

See App. A.



Seth/ was, as we shall see, especially connected with him, and hence Avaris " in that zone is said by Josephus to have been called in ancient theology a Typhonian City.^ Typhon, which was also the

which destroyed the antediluvians, was represented by a hippopotamus among the Egyptians, and we consequently find Manetho saying that Menes, i.e., Thoth, whose kingdom was, of course, overthrown at the death of Osiris, perished by a wnund from a Hippopotamus.^ Set was worshipped as a god and was long held in the highest honour in Eofvpt, which would be only natural if he delivered the Mizraim Egyptians from the Cushite yoke. Bunsen says that he was regarded as one of the most powerful of their gods until the time of Rameses II., after which he was regarded as the foe of Osiris and all the gods of Egypt,4 and was therefore given the name of Typhon, the principle of evil, and everything was done to blacken his memory The period of Rameses II. was that in which a new element of Cushite influence was received from the Cushites of India.s It may be remarked that although Set, or Sutech as he is said to have been sometimes called, was worshipped as a god, it does not follow that in all cases of his reputed worship it was Shem himself who was so worshipped. There is no doubt that he was worshipped by the idolatrous Egyptians after idolatry had been restored, just as Gush and Nimrod were worshipped. But when we are told in the " Sallier Papyrus " that Apepi, the Pharaoh under whom Joseph was ruler, changed his religion and, rejecting the Egyptian gods, chose Set only as his god, we must conclude that it was the God of Set whom he chose, by whose servant Joseph he had been warned of the coming famine, and not only been enabled to provide against it, but throuorh it had acquired unprecedented riches and power. But the

name given

to the ocean

idolatrous priesthood
their gods


recorded the fact in after ages, failing to
Set, as the

recognise the distinction, would naturally represent the opponent of

and worshipper of the god of

worshipper of

the god Set or Typhon, the great enemy of their own gods. It would have been quite impossible for Shem to have overthrown

the powerful Cushite race in the zenith of


it is

clear that he

its power, by force of might have done so in the manner



by convincing the Egyptians

of the

deadly character

' 3


See Manetho's fifteenth dynasty, from Africanus Cory, p. 114. Josephus, Contra Apionj Cory's Fragments, p. 177. • Bunsen's Egypt, vol. i. p. 456. Cory, p. 94. See dynasties of Manetho by Syncellus Cory, p. 142.


of the idolatry advocated
their influence.


by Cush and Nimrod, and thus destroying

all the Patriarchs of the antediluvian world, and with the weight and authority of centuries, and as the eye-witness of the terrible judgment that fell, as in a moment,



upon the world which had despised the warnings

of Noah, he could with startling force to the awful cataclysm that destroyed every living thing on the earth, and dwell on the cries and agonies of a perishing world when his own friends, relatives and acquaintances, with all "the kings of the earth, the great men, the rich men, and every bondman and every freedman," all who had hitherto
scoffed and derided, were swept away by the flood of waters. He could solemnly and earnestly point to the crimes on account of

which that judgment was sent, to the rejection of God, to the Nephilim intercourse and idolatry, and to the violence which,
follovring in their train, covered the earth.


could refer to the

prophecy of Enoch, which foretold that just as God had once destroyed the world by water, so yet again, in the future, he would destroy it hy fire; while to prove that the god of whom he spoke was indeed the living God who could not be mocked or despised by man with impunity, he could refer to the recent confusion of tongues at Babel, as an earnest and warning of his power. Finally, he could show that the idolatry, the Nephilim intercourse and worship, and the unbridled lust and cruelty which accompanied it, and which were advocated by Cush and Nimrod, were simply a repetition of the crimes on account of which the old world had


Choose you therefore," he may have said, " whom you will follow him under whose tyranny and you cruelty groan, and whose wickedness calls for judgment, and who is himself of this very Nephilim race which has been the cause of such untold evil, then be assured that the God of Heaven, who once destroyed the human race by water, will again take vengeance
been destroyed.
will follow.


on such wickedness in flailing fire."

That Shem did make use

of these

warnings and that the people

he addressed fully believed that had the idolaters succeeded in firmly establishing the worship of the daemon gods throughout the world, it would have been destroyed a second time by fire, is implied by the story of Phsethon, who was killed when on the point
of setting the


world on fire. an appeal to the conscience, hearers might well have roused them
of Osiris, they seized

It is quite conceivable that such

the fears and interests of his
to energetic action,

and that on the return


as compared with the power against which they were arrayed. p. Hislop. p. and as a token of her victory. Hislop.^ and a horn was the universal was and symbol of 'power. So also hoars were sacrificed to the goddess Typhon. = Ezek. consequence to the Moon (Meni or Menes) and to Bacchus. . p. Doubtless a triumph gained by means. He was said to have been slain in ancient times. inasmuch as the victory was gained by the power of truth. v. but by lightning. 100. a synonym for strength or power. 17 Hislop. . Eliaca. called a horn. note by Birch.e. 4 6 * Lemprifere. and the power and efficacy of which depends on the spirit of God. p. not by human hands. i. 297. or the judgment of heaven.e. 3 by Birch. chap. ' . vol.. vol. a victory gained by moral force over the mightiest king of the world. or power of God. Wilkinson's Egyptians. p. Ihid. Set is of words and arguments. 298.^ power through his devotion that he oppressed the devotees of the gods.^ The same idea of moral power seems to be expressed in some Hercules in later times became of the characters given to Hercules. note. i. p. Adonis.3 of evil. the power of the mouth. 19. . in order to propitiate In India likewise a hoar's face is said to have gained such her. and it would be quite in accordance with the ideas of the ancients that it who represented as overcoming should be applied to one who had overcome the great god of Paganism. 132 .. This overthrow of the god by the power of truth is mystically taught in the story of the death of Adonis or Tammuz. and Diana is generally shown with a boar's head as an accompaniment. seemingly so feeble. who had to hide themselves. Yet it must be regarded as a wonderful triumph of truth. represented as having transformed himself into a hoar in order The 'pig was therefore an emblem to destroy the eye of Horus.262 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD and condemned him to death. ' Diana.^ ' Lemprifere. v. Hislop. p. by the tusk of a hoar} A tusk in Scripture. so a horn in the mouth was a symbol of spiritual or moral power. 65. Mallet. Pausanias. 15 Wilkinson. therefore. lib. Just. where one of the names of Hercules was Sem.5 So also the continental Saxons used to offer a hoar in sacrifice to the Sun. and pigs were sacrificed in i. which is of God. iii. This indeed was the case. This appears to have been the case in Egypt. and the name was in consequence applied to others than Nimrod. p. which with them was the goddess. vol. p. gave rise to the tradition that the god was slain. 66. or Hence in the legends of Horus. xxvii. 100.^ to Thoth and is Osiris. Set.. as a horn on the head was the symbol of physical and worldly power. xii. Moor's Pantheon. note.

"Melchisedek. vii. Plutarch. bv Birch.^ that is. Be hide." which Shem. of called Sem. vol. This tends to identify Shem with Melchisedek. ' Wilkinson's Egyptians.. " Ogmius " also meaning " The Lamenter. was moral." meaning " priest.aaejDb\Bmot8e^. The name " Chon.THE DEATH OF THE PAGAN GOD i. as in the The ' read " Nuhti Set. The same figure in a sitting posi- was the usual hieroglyphic hieroglyphics. with Hercules Ogmius." and No. 1. This is but the mystical way of saying that he was the founder of Jerusalem and the ancestor of the Jews. As "priest of the Most High JtTt] God " 4 he was evidently the origin of the name ' Jerusalem. vol. and we find that Chon was also "Chon" is "The Lam enter. He was also called Citon. 1. . he fled away and begat Hierosolymus and JudsBUs.^ tion sha. Heb. it is related Just as Lot by Plutarch that when Typhon was subsequently conquered. . Ogmius. pp." also tends to identify Sem. p.. and Lemprifere. or Shem. No. " Hieros. Betham's Gasl mid Cimbri. who witnessed this renewed and who alone most fully recognised all that it threatened." ^ Wilkinson. of Bible. or Jerusalem. See Smith. p. 90-93." " The Lamenter. p. 66.A character so entirely opposed as this is to that of the Babylonian and Grecian Hercules could only apply to one whose power. Diet. bearing a strong resemblance to an ass (vide woodcut). plate xxxviii. and was probably applied to Shem by those who worshipped Set. the Egyptian Hercules. or Hierosalem. 31 Cumberland's Sanchoniathon. It was a common tradition among the Jews that Melchisedek was Shem. vi. whose name means " righteous king. 108." The latter is represented followed by multitudes with chains of gold and amber proceeding from his mouth to their ears.^ 2. vexed his righteous soul " at the iniquity of Sodom. 311. in spite of its is temporary overthrow in Egypt. and he subsequently became known as the God of Eloquence." or " Hiereus. like that of Shem. Hierosalera. S.^ The meaning might well have applied to apostasy of the all its human race." Typhon was represented in Egypt by a somewhat nondescript figure called " Sha" Set or with long truncated ears and a tufted tail. As a further proof that Typhon was Titan. " Nubti Lord ' 3 • Hislop. while in said to have " probability he lived to witness partial revival. for Set.. or the god of Set." and who was king of Salem or Jerusalem. iii. Sir W. woodcut.e. 263 Shein. or Shem. so may the righteous Shem have lamented the growing apostasy of his kinsfolk and descendants. and Judea. " woodcut below.

as z the ass was regarded of an its Nubti Set. III. while the inhabitants of Abydus. unlike that ' Wilkinson's Egyptians. vol. 300..^ The ass was also considered an appropriate emblem of Seth because was usually of a red colour. and reads " &et son of Nut.. Isis.^ In the hieroglyphics. that the Coptites were in the habit of throwing one down a precipice as a mark of their hatred. ^1? KHS)'^ Aroeris. vol. or Horus and " " Set. 143. Nubti " given to Set The title means quite The Golden. iii. a human figure in a sitting position with the head of the Sha is substituted for the Sha itself.264 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD of the Earthy It will also be seen that the figure of the god himself has a head similar to that of the Sha.. p. ." A similar figure occurs in the cartouche No. which was at least as late as the reign of Thothmes III." The figure of the other god with the double head is a combination of Hat Has. 4. and this is the way he is represented on other monuments. " Osiris. vi. plate xxxix. where Set 3 is shown instructing Thothmes * Wilkinson. 3. No." and it is clear that at the time these monuments were erected. Busiris and Lycopolis scrupled to make use of trumpets because their sound was supposed to resemble the braying of an it ass. Set. In later times. Ihid. emblem the evil deity. Nepthys. Son of Nut. and he was I identified with Typhon. the emblem of Set. by Birch.^ p. and the complexion of Seth. So great was the detestation of the ass on this account. Set was worshipped as a god and the term Typhon had not been applied to him. which reads. when a feeling of hatred had been fostered against him by the idolatrous priesthood.* probably on account of resemblance to the Sha.

12. 300. considering how completely Set became the name for the principle of evil throughout Egypt." who is shown with his mouth open. 143.* of a different race. woodcuts. In Greek mythology. was likened to " flames of fire darting from his mouth. and as being energised by the Prince of the Demons. representing different attriBut this had to be done secretly. seeing Israelites adopted the term from the Egyptians. no doubt. Lempriere. Typhosus.^ It is also worthy of note that Pagan opponents of Christianity in the Egypt represented Clirist as a man with the head of an ass.THE DEATH OF THE PAGAN GOD of the black Cushite Egyptians. to identify him with Typhon. the principle " was said to be red or ruddy. is suggested by some that Set is the origin of the Hebrew "Satan. their persecutors." This would be possible.'^ idolatry was restored. and on a similar principle they offered red oxen in their sacrifices. when the dead king and his father were subsequently deified under various names. double meanings and mystic symbols." and different animals. 143. in order. of evil. Lempriere.. t * It and ' in whose time the Exodus took place." 4 such misrepresentation was equally the weapon used by the idolatrous Jews against their own prophets s by the same Pagans against the early Christians. no doubt. 148.^ frightened that they fled Typhceus goes on to relate that the gods were so away and assumed the shapes of various This refers to the manuer in which animals for concealment. pp. Typhon. Typhon a. 5 Ibid." "an adversary. or the power of his words by which he overcame the idolatry instituted by Osiris. so he who overthrew the head of the daemons worshippers was represented as Typhon. were formerly sacrificed to Osiris. and if it could be shown that the But this is most unlikely. by Birch. 149. by the use of words with butes. from their supposed resemblance to Typhon. 265 shows that he was which For the same reason men of a red complexion. pp. just as Christ was accused of being possessed by a devil.ndi Typhosus. v 11. that Set was honoured in Egypt until the time of the Rameses." and his words to " horrid yells like the dissonant shrieks of " There is no new thing under the sun. pp. and secret rites like "The The story of ' Wilkinson. . ' Ihid. as if shouting or declaiming. .. who is also called Typhcews. Set or Typhon was also represented by a hideous deformed figure under the name of the god " J5es. was represented as a giant with a hundred heads like a dragon the force of truth.^ with the object. ^ Mat." . 30. of bringing into contempt that " power of the mouth " by which Set overthrew Osiris. In short. and by their successors in more modern times against those who exposed their errors and superstitions.

These giants are represented as having fifty heads and a hundred arms. the latter. 3 4 Lemprifere.and the story would thus Pan advice of was the by we devised this method for the secret was Gush who it imply that are told . Titans was against Coelus the representative of father of the gods. like Titan and Typhoeus. Typhoeus with a hundred heads." in order to avoid the exposure openly taught while the memory of its had exposure remained in men's minds. while. so it would be natural that his brother Titans should be similarly represented. . Typhon. was the ringleader of the Titans in this - war . but by others also. For. Typhoeus. it is said that the former was assisted by his hrother Titans.. the (i. Cush against same as the war of Cronus against Ouranos mentioned by San204-206). Jupiter represented as finally gaining against Osiris. so in the war of the giants to against the gods. with that of the giants. in the war of " the giants " against the gods. who was Noah as Heaven. fled Egypt and assumed the shape is of various animals. in both cases. at the building of Babel. Lempriere.. this Mysteries. just as Shem was represented as the giant fined to Egypt. in another story. — Pan. Although Shem was the moral power by which idolatry was overthrown in Egypt. The war of the Titans headed by Saturn or Coelus is clearly the chcniathon {ante p. Now one of the principal ways by which the worship of the dead king was introduced was by representing him under the forms of different animals as symbolic of idolatry been him. just as in the war of Typhon finally defeats This victory of the gods is merely the mystical way of saying that idolatry was finally triumphant. Accordingly we find an exact parallel of the conflict of Typhoeus against the gods. in the war of Titan against Saturn.266 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD which would have followed. Ibid. Titams. they are described as of Titan race and sons of Ccelus and Terra. and.e. Lempriere. that This was especially the case in Egypt. or of the True God and Saturn. the war of the Titans. compare Gigantes. these animals. not only by the Egyptians. when the gods fled and assumed the shapes of Their assumption of this disguise to Egypt} " " . terrified by the attack. Horus the victory . the name given to the descendants of Noah generally.3 . yet his advice was carried out. ' Ouranos or Heaven). Some have confounded another war. Gigantes. they went resuscitation of idolatry. from which we may conclude that the effect of the overthrow was by no means conHence. who were also Titans but the war of the Typhon. Just also as in the war of Typhoeus against the gods. viz. and accordingly we find. and evidently refers to the rebellion against Heaven .

through the influence of Shem. terrible aspect. now opposed the idolatry of the Cushite race.. pp. is the spirit of evil. It is very possible that the enterprise at Babel. 94. and which corresponds with the war of Titan against Saturn when ^ Titan was assisted by his brother Titans.e.e. App.THE DEATH OF THE PAGAN GOD 267 but the war of the giants was against the heathen gods aud. is said to have learned the terrible secret {i. against Saturn himself. 93." ' fire lost its energy. and abolished sacrifice. or the other descendants of Noah who in the various traditions are represented as seven in number. therefore. II. "VViikius. His father. The Egyptians shaved every part of their bodies except their heads. race are represented with flowing hair and beards.In India it is said that a giant named Durga " dethroned Indra and the other gods. The Brahmans gave up reading the Vedas. was advisedly associated with the war against the heathen gods. the second was a war of the Titans against the heathen gods. The first was a war of the Titans against Coelus or Noah. against Meni or Cush). their hair hanging loose about their shoulders and their beards suffered to grow untouched. Lenormant. 249. the empire of the Pagan gods) depended on the life of Balder. Odin or Woden {i. which was frustrated by the God of Heaven. 247. of the chief and leader of the primitive idolatry is prominent feature in the traditions of other nations... 204-207. and the terrified stars dis- 3 This is an exact parallel to the defeat of the gods in xiii. Scandinavia. like Typhon. the means of establishing relations with the daimonia) from the book of destiny.. It seems to be referred to in the Chaldean legend of the war of the seven wicked gods against the Moon {i. ^ ^ pp. who. . and considered the appearance of the smallest hair a disfio-urement. Cush). vol. pp. in which Cush sought to build a tower " whose top should reach unto Heaven. appeared. or the war against Ccelus or Heaven.e. In the Scandinavian traditions Balder was slain through the treachery of the god Loki. i. but the Patriarchs of the Semitic race and also many of the Japhetic One other feature in the They are represented as of description of the giants requires notice." has been mixed up with the as piling to reach The giants are represented Heaven.e. Mount Pelion on Ossa in order This seems to imply that the Titan war. war of the giants. Hindu Mythol.. chap. for the giants were Titans who. Chaldean Magic. while it is said that the empire of Heaven {i. in order to throw the discredit attached to the The overthrow also a former on the latter.

273.3 A third account says that Heaven was invaded by men who overcame the gods. possessions and wealth."^ So also Isis is said to have restored the gods by means of her son Horus. 247. through the influence of Set or Shem. children. mutually confirm and corroborate each other. ascetic practices and ordinGanesa. The remarkable way in which all these traditions. the death of Nimrod and flight of Gush was the over- throw of the worship of the daimonia instituted by them. 249. 272. is an incontestable proof of the reality of the event to which they refer. viz. but Vishnu formed a woman called " Maha Maya " (which is another name of Parvati). and of the stars. ' Wilkins. All these traditions of the overthrow of the gods evidently refer to one and the same event. and his father Thoth or Gush. and he advised the gods to allure men back to earth again by means of wives. Diet. Hindu MythoL. Nevertheless. was identical was created by Parvati.." overcame the gods in war and they had to wander about as beggars. that the overthrow of the great king and his father. " with It will be observed in all these traditions.. pp. lUd. and the practice of human sacrifices. we have seen. ^ Ibid." ^ Another account says that "Mahesha." son of Siva (who. in other words. Athena. the overthrow of Osiris or Nimrod. who was afterwards known as Typhon and Titan. giant Pallas in the war of the giants against the gods. and of the idolatry established by them in Egypt.268 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD Grecian mythology by the giant Typhosus or Typhon. who slew Mahesha." so the goddess " Parvati " slays the giant Durga and " the gods regained their former splendour. and those daimonia were eventually identified with the gods of which Gush and Nimrod were the human originals. pp. preserved by different nations far removed from each other and related in different forms of allegory. 249. who were the originals when of those gods. written long afterwards the worship of the Pagan gods was firmly established." Osiris). pp. the son of Osiris.. but that they refer to real events related in the allegorical language of mythology. . and the latter were forced to wander about. although at the time of the overthrow their worship had not been instituted. which. and by these means restored the gods. 250. for the invention of which there would have been no conceivable reason. was the overthrow of the worship of fire. The remainder of the story is in similar accordance for just as Minerva is represented as slaying the . ' 3 Smith's Clas. is represented as the conquest of the gods. ances ceased. king of the giants. It is an evidence also that the myths of the ancients are not mere fables. and "sacrifices.

and Manetho's dynasties. . 219. of Egypt. i. Cory. or Saites. of Egypt. vol. iii. " Nubti Set. that Timaus is a corruption of Tammuz. ^ 3 p. afterwards known as Typhon . iv. vol. " Son of the Sun. and in an inscription on a tablet of red granite made by an officer of State in the reign of Rameses II." writes Manetho. ii. p. the enemy of Osiris or Nimrod. . the story of the overthrow of the Cushite dominton and idolatry by the Shepherd kings exactly corresponds with the overthrow of Osiris by Set or Typhon. son of Nut. which was found amonothe ruins of Tanis by Mariette Bey. p. Manetho proceeds."' The name of this Shepherd king is also found together with that of King Apepi." a a peh peh " (" Set the powerful "). and the zone in which it was built to the east of the Bubastis Channel of the Nile was called the Sethroite zone. 238. was called a Typhonian city. • Lenormant. Hist. from Africanus. and it reads like the above "Nubti Set a a peh peh. pp.^ There seems to be little doubt therefore that the Shepherd king Set was the human original of the god Set or Seth. vol. and with the story of the judicial execution of Tammuz as told by Mainonides. Sanchoniathon. 359. Hist. Brugsch. ^ 5 . and had boldness enough to make an expedition into our country.. Petrie. both partially erased on one of the Shepherd sculptures. " is an evident corruption of the Greek Copyists " ^ and Bishop Cumberland has suggested. and there came in a surprising manner men of ignoble birth out of the eastern parts. Lenormant. chap. " whose name was Timaus. i. Hist.. this Shepherd king is mentioned as having built the City of Avaris and founded there the temple of In this inscription he is entitled " King of Upper and Lower Set." ^ Now these titles. who was overthrown through the influence of Set or Typhon. of East." are the exact titles given to the god Set. vol. i. built by the Shepherd king Set. p. while the City of Avaris. 33-36. Hist. Anc. " Under him it came to pass. sect. Records of the Past.e. vol. Apiori. Moreover. and vnth ease subdued it by pehuti.^ in which case the king would be Osiris or Nimrod. or Shem. of East. 177 dynasty. that God was averse to us." " This name." " " Set Nubti Set. " There was a king of ours. by the Greeks. pp. fifteenth Cumberland. called Saite." or "Set a a Nubti Set the powerful." i. Contr. 360. Egypt. with much likelihood. iii. p. 221 244 . and therefore the same as Typhon. Anc." says M.— THE DEATH OF THE PAGAN GOD But Set was the first 269 Shepherd king. " . Josephus. i. Hist. I know not how." and is done homage to as " Set a a peh peh Son of Nut. bk.

On the other hand." ^ The account goes on to say that the Shepherd king "chiefly aimed at securing the Eastern frontier. Contr. and therefore the last people who would have been likely to oppose and overthrow it. and others have sought to identifv them with the Hittites. or Nimrod. 115. Some ever. and garrisoned it with a force of 250.000 men. some they slew and led their children and wives into slavery. and his father) under their power. who had — • Ante. who overcame him." and yet apparently without the exercise of force Neverthe! less. and strongly fortified it with walls. And. p. with large flocks and herds wandering froin place to place. 175." In this statement there is an evident anomaly. The account proceeds. completely armed. " Wandering those Phoenician kings. . is that they were Shepherds who came from the East. upon the east of the Bubasite channel. Apion. who were particularly associated with Phoenicia. Cory." but through the moral influence exercised by him on the Egyptian people. xv." ^ might be expected that the idolatrous exaggerate the power which overthrew their It priesthood religion would mis- and The point to be observed. it very exactly accords with the description of the overthrow of Osiris by Typhon. and used all the inhabitants in a most barbarous manner. for he regarded with suspicion the increasing power of the Assyrians. howsubsequent action. he foresaw. . chaps.— 270 force.. 3 See Manetho's dynasties Corj. they afterwards burned down our cities and demolished the temples of the gods. The country was subdued by " force. xiv. would one day undertake an invasion of the kingdom. » Manetho. pp. but dwellers in cities and followers of the same idolatry as the Cushites. yet THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD without our hazarding a battle with them. Tammuz. have supposed that they were Philistines. were the Patriarchs of the Semitic race. i. The whole nation was ^ called Hyksos. 258. who. " So when they had gotten those who governed us (i." This was just what Set. viz. that is. from Josephus. but neither of these nations were shepherds. Fragments.e. p. a city and finding it admirably adapted to his purpose. who were especially shepherds. nay. " not by force or open war. lib. Shepherd kings.. or Palestine. . and their consequent united judicial action. he rebuilt it. observing in the Saite called Avaris zone. because both Africanus and the represent its Armenian call them " Phoenician kings " . 170. and who exactly answer the description of the Shepherds in the Armenian record of Manetho's seventeenth dynasty.

. Apian. the principle of evil. and would be regarded God of Shem. by which an army from Assyria would have to enter Egypt. captives. . " Thy servants are Shepherds " they said to Pharaoh on their arrival in Egypt (Gen. was regarded with precisely the same religious hatred as was Set.of the Babylonian Empire. the enemy and overthrower of Osiris. chap. 173.THE DEATH OF THE PAGAN GOD 271 overthrown the Cushite idolatry and put to death the kino. xvi. Cory. Contr. and of the identity of their first king with Set or Typhon. where they built the city of Jerusalem. and went to Judea. chap. Manetho says that the Shepherds were finally prevailed upon to leave Egypt."^ It is clear that he here refers to the Israelites. lib. who overthrew Tammuz or Nimrod. and Avaris. was identified with Typhon. might expect. Set. p. The hatred also of the idolaters to the memory of the Shepherds is implied by the statement in Genesis xlvi. This association by Manetho of the Shepherd kings with the Israelites is a further proof of the Semitic character of the former. xlvii. and " that this people. but they also were Shepherds. Josephus. 3). 138. history he associates and mixes up with that of the Shepherds. or Saites. in their sacred book are also styled ."" historian. as the overthrower of that idolatry and the enemy of the Egyptian gods. was situated exactly opposite the Isthmus of Suez. i. and the idolatry established by him. . Apion. p. when idolatry had been re-established and the Shepherd king. xiv.e. the synonym of Shem or Sem. Cory. 263. who is also stated to have been " the Father of In short. was Seth. lib." ^ ^ " ancestors. who are here called Shepherds. which seems at first to have been more a fortified camp than a city. Israelites whose The by the Egyptians Shem. an object of religious hatred) to the Egyptians " showing that the Shepherd Set. 34. . p. that " every shepherd is an abomination {i. the priesthood called the city built by him a Typhonian city. . which they did without molestation. Contr. the Jewish the Jews and builder of Jerusalem. The exact correspondence and mutual corroboration of these various stories make it clear therefore that the Shepherd king Set was the hated Set or Typhon who overthrew Osiris or Nimrod that the overthrow of idolatry and of King Timaus or Tammuz by the Shepherd king Set. This in itself is a clear proof that the Shepherd king Set was the human original of Set or Typhon. Josephus. ' See ante. In after ages. and the overthrow of Osiris by Typhon are one and the same event. and that Set. i. calls the Shepherds our were not only descendants of as worshippers of the ' ' Josephus.

absolutely unknown to the true Mizraite (or Egyptian) blood. the Thebanite." This was what might be expected from the servant of a God who afterwards commanded His people to " destroy the altars and of ^ break down places " of the images. and says that his son Athothes built the palace at Memphis. Set. Hist. " We have finally. the principal fragments. With one single exception. Deut. through the influence of the Shepherd king. " the graven images with the heathen. fire. of East. Lenormant adds. but not all one single work a . 220. p. and in all probability were originally part of African Ethiopia. the native kingdom of the Thebaid was re-constituted and aflTorded refuge to all the patriots who had at first ^ We have seen. . 220. of East. all the temples built prior to that event have disappeared. bearing the name of Apepi. the king whom Joseph served. i. of the age of the fled to Ethiopia. " Numbers xxxiii. are remains of sculptures. only the architectural Cairo. that those whom he calls were the real invaders. vol. personages but with a large two representing first. " Very soon after the first subjugation of the whole land by invaders. and cut down the groves. Anc- Hist. threw oflf the yoke It would thus of the Cushites and the idolatry imposed by them. Lenormant continues." M. 25. vii." from This. Lenormant. Egyptian in costume. or Abydos in the Thebaid." both Abydos and Thebes being in Upper Egypt on the borders of Ethiopia. and those whom he calls the " invaders " were the real patriots of the race of Mizraim. yet calls him "Menes. group in granite of heard and long hair. " proves the reality of the frightful devastation Shepherd the consequent on the invasion. bearing traces of a violent destruction. speaking of kings. while he makes Menes the first king of a Memphite dynasty. with angular ' and Lenormant. or " Cusha dwipa without. p.272 " THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD The study of the monuments. and nothing can be found them but scattered ruins. the natural refuge of their race and the place from which they had come. Also four large Sphinxes. the Thinite. vol. 52 . and similarly Eratosthenes calls him " Menes. Anc." says M. a race evidently Semitic. in the Museum at most perfect execution.^ M. and burn and quite pluck down all the high lest they should become a curse " to them. The sculptures of the Shepherd period represent moreover a race of radically dififerent type to that of the Egyptians. however. 3 Lenormant. who. in diorite. 5. For Manetho. i. 26." " the patriots " • Shepherds. appear that it was the Cushite invaders who fled to ^Ethiopia.

pp. i. everything tends to identify the of the Semitic race. 223. xiv. Hist." and " Set the Powerful.. 222. both from their complete conquest and dominion of Egypt. and from his title " Set Nubti. but that they were powerful Egyptian kings is clear. chap. were represented with flowing hair and beards. " Shepherd Sculptures. See also infra. who overthrew the Pagan gods. ' Anc. and it also why ihe giants." ^ Shepherd kings with the Patriarchs suggests the reason Thus." That they were the most powerful and celebrated of the Egyptian kings we hope to show in the next chapter. of East. . the high estimate in which Set was held for many ages.THE DEATH OF THE PAGAN GOD sharply - 273 cut features." vol. Much mystery has hitherto surrounded these Shepherd kings.

" " Pluto." " Cronus. It has also been shown that Semiramis." "Vulcan." the wife and queen of Ninus. Cush or Belus." race." " Tammuz. made his father and Egyptus king over it." was " Saturn. keeping his character as " Father of etc." " Dis. Menes or Mena." In other countries Cush. as distinguished It has also "Cronus" and " Seb." We have also seen that." the elder " Bel " " Nimrud." " Mars." "Janus " and also " ^Esculapius." "Mercury." " Jupiter. known kind." "' Iswara." " Bel Nimrud the greater." "Buddha " and "Woden. and ." " Hephsestus. and Athothes or Athoth." etc." the Goddess with Ten Thousand Names." etc." while Nimrod was deified as " Bacchus." and in India as " Siva. Cush was . In Babylon." " Bel Merodach. was the human " original of the great goddess known as " Dea Myrionymus." the . " Dis. viz. and founders of the great Cushite Empire. These and other names given to each being titles representing them under various aspects " and characteristics. were also the first kings of Babylon. the Lord of Understanding and Teacher of ManMoon God " Sin. Sesostris that he." Hea." and the Fish God " Cannes " or " Dagon " and Nimrod as " Nin " or " Ninus. the latter being also known in Egypt as Osiris. viz. and Nimrod or Ninus. been shown that they were afterwards deified." the elder " Cronus.." " Hercules." as " the All-wise Belus." the Prophet Nebo. although the gods were eventually 274 identi- ." " Meni the Lord Moon." " Chaos. having conquered Egypt. recapitulated as follows : The conclusions arrived at may be briefly The evidence seems of the to afibrd conclusive proof that the first kings Egyptian monarchy. Cush being worshipped in Egypt as " Thoth " or " Hermes. that they and the Cushites were the progenitors of the black or Egyptian from the descendants of Mizraim. the Gods.— CHAPTER The light XIII THE SHEPHERD KINGS AND THE PYRAMID BUILDERS evidence that has been brought forward appears to throw a new on the earlier and more obscure periods of the Egyptian and Babylonian kingdoms. and Nimrod as Osiris." " Phtath.." " Anubis." "the Father of the Gods.

there appears to be no record of them on the monuments. ^ In the extract. . " Cronus " and " Osiris. are represented as commencing the Egyptian monarchy... and the goddess with Moon and the female principle. therefore. and that Set was identical with the Semitic Patriarch Shem. But although arrived this tends to confirm the conclusions we have at. planting itself firmly on the soil of the most monumental country in the world. yet they still retained much of their human character and personality. ' Cory. " The monuments bear no record of them. and leaving behind them no ' See Manetho's dynasties . and that the record and memory of his death were carefully preserved in every Pagan nation. and we have the remarkable fact of a people. 114. like " The Old Chronicle. and the mystery which seems to surround these kings is admitted by all who have studied the subject. Finally." who we have seen to be Menes and Athothes. and made use of for promoting his worship. Cush and Nimrod. whose duration was nearly as long as the Romans. p." who overthrew these Saturn. pp." under which name he is shown by Manetho as the immediate successor of the God kings. while is We according to the Greek copies of Manetho the only record of them as a fifteenth or seventeenth dynasty. known also in mythology as " Titan. in spite of the fact that their dominion is said to have lasted 518 years. was overthrown in Egypt. 115. except the one immediately preceding them. although also called the seventeenth dynasty.SHEPHERD KINGS AND PYRAMID BUILDERS fied 275 with the Sun and the male power in nature. Mr Nash writes.. called in aftertimes by the priesthood and known in Grecian mythology as " Typhon. it afibrds no further light on their history. who were the human originals of these gods. 136. to which a duration is given of from 103 to 259 years." in which the previous dynasties. it seems to be clearly proved that the person by whose influence the Cushite power was overthrown in Egypt was " Set the Powerful. Nimrod being put to death.e. It follows. and that their human origin was fully recognised and admitted by the priesthood and the the Earth and initiated.these kings. are represented to be those of the gods. save the notice in the reign of Rameses II." the first of the Shepherd kings. that Shepherd kings must have been the immediate successors of Menes and Athothes. i. and are therefore mythical. Cronus or Cush. Cory. Yet. have further seen that the dominion of the two kings. however. from Manetho by Josephus. and this is the case with other records.

or Assyria. that they had the same customs and manners and the same official language and writing as the other Egyptians that they were patrons of art and erected statues and monuments in the same way. 172. however. that Egyptian kings of the family of Menti (or Mentha) reigned for a long time in the Eastern Delta.^ implying that until then the influence of the Shepherds must have been more or less predominant." Again. " In the period of 500 years. p. monuments important event (the Hyksos invasion) in the history of Egypt. 183. the first home of the Semitic race until Abraham was called is by God is out of Ur of the Chaldees. vol. and he is recognised to be one of the greatest of the ' 3 Nash. Apepi. 180." Again he quotes Gliddon as saying." Apepi. pp. and he represented as the last of the Shepherd kings. ^ See ante. and that they worshipped the god Set or Sutech and constructed Sphinxes in his honour. Brugsch says that " the conclusions to be drawn from the monuments are. 184. numerous monumental records of him exist. surrounded by Egyptian arts and civilisation. they must in that long period of time have become Egyptianised all history teaches us that it must have been so. pp. while Bunsen remarks that until the time of this Rameses. as " Set the Powerful. tends identify these Menti with the kings classed by Manetho as Shepherd kings." 3 These Menti or Menthu are also identified as having been inhabitants of the land of Ashur. Unlike the others." and as a great Egyptian monarch. or Apophis. 237. The latter view might result from the total absence of direct allusion to the Hyksos in the Hieroglyphics. that they had Zoan and Avaris (the city of Typhon) as capitals. i. or Apophis. or Saite zone. Hist. Pharaoh of the Exodus. different from the rest of the Shepherd kings. associated with the Menti. . is expressly mentioned on the inscription in the reign of Rameses II. Set or Saites.' 276 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD of their existence. the grottoes at Benihassen inform us. 260. and the necessity of interposing an immeasurable gap between the royal names 39 and 40 in the tablet of Abydos." Similarly Mr Kenrick writes. and what that must have been at the commencement. Brugsch. of Egypt. "It would be indifferent to me to sustain that the Hyksos once occupied Lower Egypt. to " This. therefore. " Without the testimony of Manetho we should have been wholly ignorant of this most ." Yet the first Hyksos king. or that they were never there at all. his name was engraved on four Sphinxes. and this we know was . the god Set was one of the most powerful of the Egyptian deities. was. 236. subjected to softening and civilising influences. Moreover.

of Egypt. and he became the arbiter of the destinies of all Egypt. If so. or Ra Sekenen. and the repudiation of the Pagan gods. 34). 260. This. vassal kiDg of Southern or Upper Egypt. This implies that there was a gap somewhere of at least 250 years. " Shepherds were an abomination to the Egyptians" (Gen.e." Now ' by the whole world. whereas the actual time from the first Shepherd king to the last is stated to be 511 or 518 years. xlvi. " The king Apepi chose the god Sutekh (i. on all the Egyptians. Set) as his Lord. and that the name of Shepherd had become by that time only a hated memory.^ which further confirms the fact that previous to that time the worship of the Pagan gods had been general. We also learn from the " Sallier Papyrus " that Apepi. and the word " abomination " implies that the hatred. This shows that there was a great gap between the first Shepherds and Apepi. and did not serve any other god in the whole land. A papyrus in the British Museum says. the total length of the reigns of the Shepherd kings was. that his kingdom was saved from famine. it would it Syncellus says that was a tradition. commanding bim to repudiate his gods (" Sallier Papyrus "). 239-241. In short. Apepi was the Pharaoh of that time. or Set. endeavoured to force the worship of Set." ' Bnigsch. and which god would naturally be identified in later times with the god Set for it was through the God of Joseph . of course.. but of the gods of Egypt. which would otherwise have been unmeaning. i. that is before Joseph was ruler.SHEPHERD KINGS AND PYRAMID BUILDERS 277 Egyptian monarchs. i. " received account for his rejecting idolatry in favour of the God of the shepherd Joseph. according to the highest estimate. Hist. pp. . If." that Joseph ruled the land in the reign of King Apophis or Apepi. we must conclude that the idolatry destroyed by the Shepherd kings had been restored between their time and the reign of Apepi. 3 Brugsch. we learn that in his time. just as his predecessors had been for probably ' " Sallier Papyrus. which is perfectly accounted for by the fact that Apepi was not at first a worshipper of the God of the Shepherds. Moreover. would be the consequence of the destruction of the heathen temples and gods by the Shepherd kings. only 259 years. vol. was of a religious nature. He is different also from the others in that he seems to have changed his religion. p. Letter from Apepi to Skennen ra. and Shem. after his change of religion. while some records give them only 103 years. This fact of his changing his religion distinguishes him from the rest of the Shepherd kings. then.^ and the evidence on the subject confirms this. vol.

a serpent. they mentioned them at all in connection with the overthrow of their religion. are also titles of contempt." " bond slave. p. " Staan..2/8 centuries THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD before but that." " Janias. 153. If. however. apparently. In accordance with this. Now it is very evident that we may in ' ^ Osburn. vol. vol. iii. but the notice in the reign of Rameses of " Set the powerful. of Egypt. Mr Osburn has pointed out that the names given by Manetho to these Shepherd kings are really opprobrious epithets." just as. as we shall see. not a trace or record remains. to remember the hatred with which the Shepherds were regarded in later times by the idolatrous priesthood. and of the fact that everything was done to obliterate their memory. of whom. and the other names recorded by Josephus are placed after Apophis.. in Greek mythology. 51. were in reality some of the greatest Egyptian kings. 154. by Birch. would do their best to discredit and conceal the fact of the overthrow of their religion and the death of their God king. and by so doing had earned for himself in after ages the opprobrious title of ." etc. then. viz. it would be in terms of contempt and hatred." and " Apachnas. for the reason stated. Ap. . It is important. he had repudiated idolatry and worshipped the god of Set. who were the sole recorders of their country's history. Thus we see Manetho describing them as " men of an ignoble race.^ These are the only names given in some of the copies of Manetho. while their names. to identify him with the malignant serpent Apophis slain by Osiris in his avatar as Horus." which is just the kind of epithet which would be bestowed by the idolaters on one who had overthrown their god by the force of Truth." ^ while Apophis appears to be an intentional corruption of Apepi." and the statements of Manetho. tending to create constant doubt and suspicion of the whole system. the giants who opposed the gods are described in terms of similar opprobrium. Monumental Hist. Thus " Salatis " means " many lies. It was indeed only to be expected that the priesthood. The Shepherd kings. and appear to be intimately associated with him. and custodians of its archives. and for the priesthood to have admitted that it was they who accomplished this overthrow would have been a lasting and indelible disgrace on their gods and religion. ii. and ophe. kings who had made Egypt what it was.jpp. Wilkinson." It is thus clear that Apepi must be distinguished from the other Shepherd kings. " Beon " means " filthy fellow. him " Shepherd king. There is abundant evidence of this hatred.

i. as we have seen. ii. one of the original Shepherd kings but an Egyptian Pharaoh reigning at a time when the Shepherds had become a hated memory. Plutarch. and thereby cover his memory with the opprobrium attached to them. Wilkinson also observes that the name Amunre has been substituted for some other name on many of the oldest monuments. Apepi was closely connected with the latter form of sculpture (sphinxes). on the lion found near Bagdad. p. and Apophis was probably the last Shepherd king. because it shows that ilie Shepherd kings were recognised as identical with the Typhonians. vol. as the period from the first to the last Shepherd king is said to have been over 500 years. and unless we can them by some other means it would be hopeless to discover them.^ Apepi was not. he could have had nothing to do with the overthrow of Osiris by Set or Typhon. and it was alike grottoes. although in one case the names of Set and Apepi have escaped complete erasure. 165 . . The events of his reign made him of world-wide celebrity. 238. on the life-size statue at Tel Mukkdam. and that the overthrow of Egyptian idolatry by the Shepherds was identical with the overthrow of Osiris by Typhon. 81. CnmheTland'a Sanchoniatkon. pp. 237. however.^ Now. vol. the latter name being ' * 3 Osburn. while in the same place those of the Theban kings of the twelfth dynasty are untouched. or chiselled out. or Apophis. was one of those who warred against Osiris. and the borders of the stand of the colossal Sphinxes in the Louvre. It may be remarked that Plutarch sa3'^s that Apepi. His name occurs in a vast series of tombs and of which are systematically mutilated. Brugsch. Nevertheless Plutarch's statement is of importance. There are plenty of evidences of the hatred with which the idolatrous priesthood regarded him. and it is pretty certain therefore that these obliterated names were those both of himself and the other Shepherd kings. or to ignore his change of all that the priesthood could do was to include him among the Shepherd kings. Brugsch says that the names of the Hyksos kings. it is a matter of some surprise that Apepi has been included among these Shepherd kings under the name by which he is known in the lists and on the monuments. This being the case. p. 36. S. all impossible religion . the sacrificial stone in the Museum at Boulak.SHEPHERD KINGS AND PYRAMID BUILDERS vain search the identify 279 monuments for these names. or of some of the earlier kings before them. to conceal his identity. have been carefully obliterated.

and to represent them they do appear in the lists and on the monuments as great Egyptian kings. Cush and Nimrod). we shall also know of the date of the accession testi- Now.. 126 . and some others. vol. . 142. the erased name was that of the rival god Set. and therefore the influence of the Cushite gods.e. 238. these Shepherd kings ? We may learn something about the Shepherd kings by a consideration of the period at which their conquest took place. every care will have been taken by the priesthood to dissociate these kings from the hated enemies of their god and religion. Ares or Mars. The hatred to the Shepherds is also shown by the way in which the Egyptians always represented herdsmen and shepherds as dirty. under their names as gods.^ Now it was in his reign. who overcame If then we can approximately ascertain the date Osiris or Nimrod. p. to which a similar exaggerated period is given. the total length of their years added to those of the human kings reigning 34.. consisting of eighty-six kings may be regarded as similar to the reign of the gods in Egypt. of independent Nimrod's kingdom was Firstly. or Set. vol. — being made up to be exactly 36.28o THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD erased with scrupulous care. Helius the Sun. to identify. p. The latter was composed of the human kings Menes and Athothes {i.525 years. by any means. 244. according to Syncellus. iv. iv.C. Agathodsemon. etc. memory — king who obtained the sovereignty of Egypt. and that the Cushite influence. Wilkinson's Egyptians. viz. began to gain the It would therefore appear that. is Set or Typhon.^ that the Cushites from India came to Egypt. there are a remarkable number monies proving that the beginning about the year 2232-2234 B. Nash. Horus. and ludicrous appearance. of Set. It is suflBciently evident that Saites. The question then is Is it possible. the Sun god.080 years. of that monarch's death. Cronus. and that these erasures were confined to monuments preceding those of Amenophis III.. or twenty-five Sothic ' 5 Wilkinson's Egyptians. Osiris. p.^ of These facts all tend to show that everything was done to of the If then obliterate the Shepherd kings. the first Shepherd as everything contemptible. and learn the history of. Berosus. unshaven. there is the list of kings of the Assyrian Empire given by The first of his dynasties. of the eighteenth dynasty. to which are added the antediluvian Hephaestus or Chrysor. p. as the name subupper hand. * Cory. stituted for the erased name was that of Amun. after getting the then rulers of the country into his power.

or 2400 years. the first king of the mythical dynasty of Berosus.The first dynasty must therefore be regarded as entirely mythical. . It is evident that these are equally fictitious.— SHEPHERD KINGS AND PYRAMID BUILDERS 281 cycles of 1461 years. and the remainder stand as follows : Mythical dynasty. etc. or an exact number of sari. and Comosbelus a reign of four neri and five sossi.' It is evident that the reigns of these gods are purely fictitious. or 2700 years. In like manner we find Evechius. given a reign of four neri.080 years is merely added to make a great mythical period. each consisting of 3600 years. and that the dynasty of 34. and merely added to make up this vast mythical period. to the Persian conquest.

It is evident that the period of 48 years given to the eleven kings of the latter dynasty is altogether too small and that the first figure must have been erased. proceeds. conqueror Zohak. exactly a total of 36.^ and as he represents the reigns of the ten kings of Babylon before the Deluge as exactly 120 sari^ it appears certain that. or Adite. p. essay Berosus. i.000 years. which assigns to the great empire of Western Asia founded by the Aribah. or 36.. viz.080 years.. from Ahydenus .282 erased. but it will be seen that the indicating Armenian gives ten years therefore tRore to the of that the total recognised to be the same as that given in Median dynasty. This is ten years less than 258 years. 258 years. Eusebius in the Arraenian Chronicle. who has been identified with Nimrod. * See ante. of the Chaldeans whose name ^ 3 Rawlinson's Herod. 76.^ For the particular period which Berosus uses as the basis of his chronology is a sarus consisting of 3600 years. years is corroborated by Arabian history. and that the missing figure in the margin of the Armenian is " 2. including the mythic period. THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD Brandis. Cory. Berosus probably terminated his dynasty at a slightly earlier date than that given by the Assyrian inscriptions. after enumerating the successive dynasties mentioned by Berosus to the end of the forty-five kings reigning for 526 years. 433. a period of 260 years.000 years. it may be taken as the more correct period. and as the total of their reigns amounts to 292 years. which in this Dr case could only be 10 sari. vol.^ it is pretty certain the duration of the dynasty must have been between 200 and 300 years. " After (or (Berosus) says that there ' ' last of ') whom he was a king vi. The only other point in the table which requires notice is this. p. like the Egyptian historians. as and the period given to it. Ihid. iv. is that deduced by making up.." which would make the period 248 years. chap. The correctness of this period of 258 years also receives strong first confirmation from Arabian history. 5 See Appendix D. 32. p. 434. the two dynasties was the table and as the 258 .^ It receives also some further confirmation from the marginal numbers given by the Armenian Chronicle of Eusebius to the Median and first Chaldean dynasties {see table). with the other dynasties and the mythic period of 34. . to constitute an exact number of sari. pp. The general accuracy of Berosus is proved by the fact that the Assyrian inscriptions give a list of exactly eleven kings as constituting the first Babylonian dynasty. he made the duration of the Babylonian monarchy after the Deluge. 33.

therefore. 123 . of whom — — 283 SHEPHERD KINGS AND PYRAMID BUILDERS also the historical writings of the (Pul). Hebrews make mention under the country of the name Phulus Jews " (Euseb.— was Phulus. 39). festly that Chaldean kingdom which follows the Median is maniwhich was established by Nimrod.C.) corresponds with that of Nabonassar. who was " It is contemporary with the siege of Troy. p. Concerning this date. 331 1903 " B. H.C.C. F. N. 139. Phulus or Pul was the predecessor of Tiglath Pileser/ the commencement of whose reign (749 B.. .. de Coelo. 19-29. . " Stellar observations at Babylon before that time " 480 2233 „ B. It seems evident. say invaded Chron. that the object of the Chronicle in mentioning Pul was simply to bring down the chronology of Berosus to the recognised chronology of Ptolemy. the first king of Ptolemy's canon. lib. Eawlinson's Herod. i.. " Thus : Greek era of Phoroneus .. " It was the same date also which was computed by Pliny adapting the numbers of Berosus to the conventional chronology of the Greeks.C. 423. Clinton. the second Semiramis). for the commencement of the great Chaldean Empire. ' Simplicius. Antiquity of stellar observations .C. . pp. Sir Henry Rawlinson writes: "We have here a fixed date of 2234 B. 56 . vol. i. ii. " " Thus : Date of visit of Callisthenes to Babylon . Ad Arist. : 2 Kings XV. . 3 Pliny. 1753 B. and that Pul was the last king of the last dynasty mentioned. vii. vol.C. „ 2234 B. and the date of that according to this canon is 2234 B.. Arm. and this it must be remembered is the same date as that obtained by Callisthenes from the Chaldeans at Babylon for the commencement of their stellar observations which would naturally be The first coeval with the empire.C. ' Thus p. H. 422. the who they p. which was the first paramount power in Western Asia.3 likewise probably the same which was indicated by Philo Byblius when he assigned to Babylon an antiquity of 1002 years before Semiramis (that is to say.

the date appears to be remarkably confirmed by the records of the dates and reigns of Babylonian kings discovered on the Sir Assyrian Tablets. See Appendix C. It is also strictly in accordance with the chronology of the Old Testament. pp.^ " 2234 H. many of which are indeed mere assumptions. while some go so far as to assert that the mythical reigns of the Egyptian and Babylonian gods in the histories of Manetho and Berosus. i. who ' is The details of the last vi. " „ B. calculation are given in his Notes on the Early History of Babylonia^ p.3 and as Nimrod. the reio-n of Saul.e. . are sttccessive. Manetho also gives Agathodaemon.C. but Manetho gives Athothes a reign of 57 years. and the foundation of his empire 30 to 40 years later.c. and Semiramis. as 52 years. this theory. who affirm that the creation of man must have been thousands death.. Byz. 7 et seq. 3 The chronology adopted in our Bibles.C. See . . which makes the Deluge to have been ' Steph.. vol. but it is well known that he has omitted certain periods of the time of the Judges. appears to include the whole of Samuel's judgeship to his 2348."* Finally. should be 450 years. chap. however. which represents the date of the Deluge to be about 2430.c. In his dynasty of God kings. and Eratosthenes gives him a reign of 59 years. • The tendency of scientific thought at the present day is to treat the chronology of Scripture with contempt. nor do they afibrd any logical support for their conclusions. represent periods of human history before the historical period. who is the same as Athothes. was the sixth son of Gush. will be found to be capable of a very difi'erent explanation. according to Josephus. This 450 years. and to place greater reliance on the speculations of geologists. essay is that of Usher. was during work by the Author. Rawlinson also shows that the chronology of Ctesias makes the beginning of the reign of Ninus {i. 435. which. and of this period the last eighteen years. The Great Pyramid and Its Builder. 434. But both the speculations of geologists and the arguments of archaeologists are based upon data which. or Nimrod. In support of of years before the period assigned for it in the Old Testament. according to St Paul. v.^ The uniformity of this date deduced from five different calculations seems to place its general accuracy beyond question. his birth may very well have been some 160 years after the Deluge. ." Kawlinson's Rerod.. S>ee Appendix D. upon examination. the grandson of Noah.284 " Siege of THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD Troy. modern archfeologists have assumed that the numerous dynasties of Manetho. and is implied to have been born some time after the other sons of Gush. Syncellus represents the reign of Ninus. ad voce " ^d^vXuv.. "Sacred Chronology" which makes the date of the Deluge 2432 B. B. Nimrod) 2231 B. whose reign 1229-1232 probably began a year or two before 1002 Babylon previous to this . representing a period of over 5000 years.

the Astronomer Royal of Scotland. . This Pyramid. The conjunction is recorded by the particular position and angle of inclination of the first descending passage of the Pyramid. the Pyramid could not have been commenced until that event.^ This date is some ten years before the date of the Great Pyramid built by the Khufu. Taking then 2234 B. and deducting from it the length of his reign. and it would to the commencement be in accordance with the from the commencement of those conquests. it would make the date of his accession to be 2180 B. both of which mencement would of the necessarily be a conquests of few years subsequent Nimrod.C.C.847 years. records a certain conjunction of stars which took place at midnight at the autumnal equinox 2170 B. practice of the ancients to date his reign ^ correction. 2177 It is B.C. which might be three or four years earlier. and we may therefore take the period of 57 years as the true period of the reign of Ninus or Athothes. the Suphis of Manetho's fourth dynasty. It requires a certain small which does not aflfect the conclusions drawn. a reign of exactly 56|^ years 285 and 10 days.^ of the monuments.. the Saophis of Eratosthenes. In Lower Egypt Sh was substituted for the Kh of Upper Egypt.C. and his death and the overthrow of the Cushite dominion in Egypt about 2180 b. that the period from which this date is the establishment of Nimrod's empire and the comof stellar observations at Babylon.C. - This date must be regarded as approximate only. as proved by Piazzi Smyth.c. as the commencement of the empire of Nimrod. . and if we assume that period to be only ten years. This would make the beginning of his reign about 2237-2238 B. and which conjunction only takes place once in 25. or exactly the date of the overthrow of the Cushite dominion in Egypt. the remainder will give the date of his death in Egypt : Commencement of empire Keign of Ninus or Nimrod . however. may derived be observed.C. and as that position and angle of inclination could not have been determined before the conjunction actually took place and had been carefully observed. which would count as 57 years.— SHEPHERD KINGS AND PYRAMID BUILDERS identified with Athothes. 2234 57 B. by the Shepherd king Set. and the Cheops of Herodotus. Now the Pyramid could not have been commenced by Suphis until a certain period after his accession.. or Shufu. and this portion of the plan of construction must have been designed to record it.

" i. c. sought by every means to obliterate this identity ? It would indeed seem to be proceed. and in forming the subterraneous apartments on the hill on which the Pyramid stood. who are described as " demolishing the temples of the gods. having shut up the temples. and afterwards he ordered all the Egyptians to work for himself" " Then follows the description of the building of the Great Pyramid and the preparation of the stone for it. were identical with the Shepherd who kings. their ' both in other respects and in building a Pyramid.286 But. and the evidence in support of it accumulates as we If Suphis was " Set the powerful. each party during three months. so was Khefra changed into Chephren. "Cheops.). who were consulted by Herodotus. Shufu. were more communicative. that the Pyramid builders. Suphis. or Num Cheops. 270." and he says that "twenty years were expended in erecting the Pyramid itself. was succeeded by his brother Chephren Suphis II." then the admission of Manetho. In any case. says Herodotus. he first of all forbade them to offer sacrifices.5 who followed the same practices as his predecessor. and that during two reigns.e.. could have intervened between that of the Cushite and Pyramid kings. to slavery ? * Cheops. The time during which the people were thus harassed with toil lasted ten years on the road which they constructed.e. the Egyptian name Shufu or Khufu. they worked to the number of a hundred thousand at a time. p. THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD the both the irriTnediate successors of Pyramid king Suphis and the Shepherd king Set were Nimrod or Athothes. and just as Shufu or Kuphu I. and whose rule is said to have lasted from 103 to 518 years. Cory's Fragmejits. For that." and reducing the inhabitants (i. p... ''plunged into every kind of ivickedness.^ they said. He says that. his predecessors. it is quite impossible that the Shepherds succeeded Menes and Athothes. 102. - Cheops Herod. that " he was arrogant to the gods." 3 Is not the above an exact parallel of the acts of the Shepherd kings. was hellenised into ii. the successor of Suphis I. for the reasons before mentioned... But the priests. Is it possible then. . is a corruption by the Greeks of 124. along which they drew the stone." nicknamed " Salatis. and of his father Cush or Menes. II. but that the priesthood. who were among the greatest of the Egyptian kings. 3 5 Suphis name 4 See ante. if so." ^ is as much as we could expect. amounting to 106 years. " the Egyptians suffered all See table of Egyptian dynasties . was also known by the of Shefra or Khefra. so.

to be king." ^ In other words. In exact Herodotus says. says that after they had destroyed the temples they chose one of their number (i. 3 ' Ibid. shepherd . There are the same accusations of cruelty and oppression.e. the righteous king of Salem.. it is clear. Rid. Herodotus says. On the face of the account itself this cruelty is greatly exaggerated. If they called the Pyramids after the name of a shepherd. For it was the judges or rulers of the to of have them story of different nomes who condemned and executed Osiris or Nimrod. who at that time kept his cattle in those parts. 128." But there is no mention being foreign conquerors. who. Herodotus says that he himself saw an inscription on the Pyramid of the amount expended on the food provided for the workmen. how would it enable them to avoid mentioning the names of the kings who built them ? Unless indeed they spoke of them as huilt by this accordance with this. which would be equivalent to saying that Cheops was that ' Herod. went to Egypt to warn the people against the wickedness and idolatry of their tyrant conqueror. 128. c. like the Shepherds. speaking of the Shepherd kings. "From the hatred they bear them the Egyptians are not very willing to mention their names. all idolatry was suppressed during that period. and for this length of time the temples were closed and never opened. and as to Set or Typhon. by the advice of Set or Typhon. " From the hatred they bear them (Cheops and Chephren) the Egyptians are not very willing to mention their names but call the Pyramids after Philition. This is the event. and Manetho." ^ Now from the inconsequence of this statement it looks as if there was some error. the Pyramid kings are said been "men of a different race. who the account of the idolatrous priesthood centuries after of course would do all they could to cast reproach on the enemies of their religion. who.^ Speaking of Cheops and Chephren.SHEPHERD KINGS AND PYRAMID BUILDERS 287 kinds of calamities." Thus there is the same hatred evinced towards the Pyramid builders as to the Shepherd kings. ii. and this exactly accords with the Set or Typhon. Again. by accusing them of cruelty. a shei^herd.. ii. . c. 125.. was the Shepherd prince Shem. who were not slaves. with his flocks and herds and followers. exactly. but only worked three months out of the twelve.. Saites or Set). c. There is the same overthrow of idolatry in both cases and the period of the commencement of their rule in Egypt would appear to synchronise .

.. " after Philition." ^ The fact also that Manetho describes these Pyramid kings as " of a di^erent race. and not the Pyramids themselves).19 years. . while from the notice of Herodotus. Here then we have two sets of powerful Egyptian kings. . together with a comparison of the story of Typhon and Osiris. would have forced upon our minds the . 44 years. implies that their accession was the result of some kind of revolution. both of certain that the Philition the shepherd. "Philition" is evidently a Greek meaning "a lover ^ of rectitude or right" word composed of "Philo" and "ititis. the Pyramid kings were actually called " Shepherd kings. . . both ascending the throne in consequence of a revolution both overthrowing the worship of the gods both accused of reducing the inhabitants to slavery both doing these things at apparently exactly the same period of Egyptian history both regarded with the same hatred.— 288 shepherd. 36 years and 7 months." a fit name for "the righteous king."^ which was just what the Shepherds were.e. . " Shepherd kings. a different race to the other kings. THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD But it is Pyramids were never called after and it is more probable that what the priests really said to Herodotus was. the kings who had built the Pyramids. . related to cast upon foreigners the wickedness of having overthrown the idolatrous religion supported by the is hood..e. with the founders of the Babylonian Empire." How is it possible to avoid the conclusion that the hated Pyramid kings are the same as the hated Shepherd kings. the evidences of whose identity the priestly historians have taken such care to obliterate ? If Manetho had never told us the story of the Shepherd kings yet a careful examination of dates and the recognition of the identity of the first two Egyptian kings. .. .. and explain the exact nature of the event. just what was required to make this conclusion certain. a shepherd." or. the builders of the Pyramids). p. fact that these stories related to the same events. Cory's Fragments. Menes and Athothes. "The Egyptians call them" (i. . at one time. .61 years. and that of the Pyramid builders related by Herodotus." See Manetho's dynasties. it would seem that. . 102. But the story of priest- the Shepherd kings. . they called those kings (i. The follows : reigns of the Shepherd kings are given by Josephus as Salatis Beon Apachnas Apophis ' . and of Titan and Saturn. in other words.

. and both are found in the Great Pyramid. and the length of the two reigns of Saites. Num Shufu or Suphis monumental inscriptions with the symbol significant of reigning conjointly. who suppressed idolatry. which. they would be the only two kings besides Apepi to whom the hated name of " Shepherd " would be applied. who reigned conjointly with him. viz. Sephres). was Suphis I.. 63 years. i. Hence we may presume that the third Shepherd king Apachnas.e. 279-281. Shefra (Greek. 19 years. and Suphis II. the second Shepherd king Beon must be Suphis II. T . appears as one of the kings of the fifth. vol. then. Moreover.. during which period his father may have made separate him his coadjutor at jurisdiction. and Beon.. co-regent with him at some period of his reign. If. Now are found together in the the second Suphis to represent the period it when he : reigned alone.— and Manetho gives the reigns of follows : — 289 as SHEPHERD KINGS AND PYRAMID BUILDERS Suphis and his successor Suphis Suphis . or Fourth Dynasty Pyramid kings Shepherd kings ^^'*^' . co-regent 30) Suphis Suphis II. Cheops and Chefren). . from On account of this time. is the name given to the names of Suphis or Shuf u. Suphis 33) ..^ showing that they must have been contemporary.. title being the usual custom to give a king some special Thus titles when he ascended the throne. A portion of the 66 years of the Suphis 11. 66 years. pp. dynasty of Upper Egypt. and of II. II. or Saites.. {i. must therefore be included in the reign of Suphis I.. the length of the reign given by Manetho to Suphis I. had always a separate king or viceroy.TT ^oAC^^y®^^^ II. CI u. which is only a nickname.0 _. the Shepherd king Set.. as it was only Suphis I. Beon over and above that given period may represent the previous to the a the latter's actual co-regency. for his Memphis without giving him name by which he is called on monu- ments. and that the first Suphis must have made his son. or Elephantine. 44 years. or successor. -D Beon ^^ /I/) i 14 '^ !? Lo > 63 years j 30 alone 36 years to Apachnas 36 years The extra 14 years given to Suphis II.. exactly equal 63 years. ' Osburn's Mmvmental History of Egypt.

103 years. 4 Herod. and the seventeenth. previous to years. revolution.. for we might expect that he would wait a few years before he made so great a religious Ibid. 128. the necessity of a viceroy for one was obvious. calling them the seventeenth dynasty. Pyramid builders. and of each being the point at which attack from without might be feared. but Herodotus speaks of this period as that during which the temples were closed during the reigns of Cheops and Chephren. This period of 103 or 106 years does not exactly agree with the period given to Saites. dynasty of Manetho were the Shepherd kings of the seventeenth dynasties of Josephus. both of which are also called Memphites. c. 'Cory's Fragments. There is among the first a further confirmation that the Shepherd kings were rulers of Egypt. after Memphis. is called Shepherds. the Armenian. viz. ii. while the seventeenth dynasty.e. Similarly. 115. viz.2 years. ^ * Cory . Mencheres. Beon and Apachnas. Herodotus says the successor of Cheops and Chefren. 90..'^ In the face of all this evidence it seems impossible to doubt that the Pyramid kings of the Meniphite. which follows it. the sixteenth dynasty is given a period of 190 years. compare pp. and The Old Chronicle. p. who re-opened them. and similarly The Old Chronicle places the seventeenth dynasty as immediately succeeding the sixteenth dynasty which are the mythical dynasties of gods. The Old Chronicle gives this sixteenth dynasty a period of 190 years..). during which the temples were closed and the worship of the gods suppressed. . before Nimrod's conquest.^ These Tanites appear to represent the period during which Mizraim and his descendants possessed the northern part of the country about the Delta. and given also a period of 103 of Tanites." 290 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD the distance of the two seats of government from each other. where Tanis is situated. or fourth. their seat of government. and this would naturally extend into the reign of their successor. assigned by Herodotus Suphis I. this latter period the of 106 years is exactly that to Cheops and and Suphis II.. which it calls Memphites. 99 years. 90 and 115. and that the Shepherd king " Set the Powerful was the Shepherd Philition and the Pyramid builder Suphis I. Now (i. We have seen that Josephus places them as the jir&t kings of Egypt. period of the Shepherds is also given by Eusebius as 106 showing that there was a more or less general recognition of a period of 103 to 106 years connected with the Shepherd 3 The rule. in the Armenian canon of Manetho. Chephren.

. and Manetho says that. Semiof Nimrod. It is also stated that no open idolatry was ventured upon in Babylon until the reign of Arioch. and his successor Suphis II. by Africanus and Eusebius ^ The reigns . Suphis I. ii. and who by his aid is Neitocris also." 3 is associated with him. 29. while Herodotus says it was built Nitocris is by Mencheres or Mycerinus. called Minerva by the Greeks. iu Babylon after the death ." the goddess of Sais.. . the grandson of Semiramis/ Now the restoration of idolatry in Babylon would be the signal for its restoration in Egypt also. Suphis II. 1st. 3rd. the builder of the third Pyramid. the successor of Chefren. i. compound of Neith. Eratosthenes. who was king of This clearly Egypt and had been put to death by his subjects. she was celebrated for her beauty. Semiramis is said to have quelled a rising rebellion among of the gods in Egypt. and 1st. or Zames 3rd. is Suphis. the overthrower of Ninus or Nimrod and the idolatry instituted by him in Egypt. the son of Isis.'* said by Herodotus to have been queen of Babylon and also queen of Egypt. then the reign of Mencheres in Egypt would exactly synchronise with that of Arioch in Babylon. Compendium. or Ninus. would naturally be taken both Babylon and Egypt Mencheres. to steps so. were ramis 2nd. whose name is a said to have overcome Typhon. ' name Cedreni. ii. Ibid. 100. the wife of Ninus or Osiris. like Semiramis. and is translated by Eratosthenes as " Minerva For Manetho says that she was Victris. p. — . but directly the restraining influence of these kings in was removed.^ identifies her with Isis. 5 * Herod. Egypt was probably the most powerful kingdom in the world and the idolaters would not venture on any open attempt to restore their religion during their lives. 134. and if Set. or Chefren. Under Set or Suphis. The reigns in Egypt were See Manetho's dynasties. pp. pp.^ This is a further remarkable confirmation of the fact that Set was the Pyramid king Suphis." who is the " Mencheres " of Manetho's fourth dynasty and "Menkara" of the monuments.. re-opened the temples and restored the worship of the gods. " do who is credited with having restored the worship and he is also spoken of as born of Neith. Mencheres. Arius or Arioch. 3 Cory.— SHEPHERD KINGS AND PYRAMID BUILDERS " 291 Mycerinus. 70. or Semiramis. Cory's Fragments. . who is the same as Neith. 86. 2nd. This would seem to imply that he was the human original of the god Horus. c. Ninvas. received the of Horus. 30. Dynasty of Assyrian Kings. c. and who was also a form of Isis. vol. and that she revenged her brother's death. 71.

lib. and the statements that Mencheres was born of Neith. Nitocris was placed by Manetho. iii. was also and the goddess mother is always represented by the classical writers as fair Herodotus. the earliest names have all been more or less obliterated.292 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD her subjects by her beauty on suddenly appearing before them. and we might expect that similar attempts would be made to mutilate and obliterate the names of the Pyramid kings. and mutilation of the statues and monuments of the Shepherd king Apepi. 185.4 Hence as the overthrower of the influence of the hated Set. 2 3 4 Hislop pp.3 but it Neith and Athena. Mr Hislop. c. ix. For neither Neith. Nitocris is only another name for Isis or Semiramis. 2 Hislop quotes Ovid. therefore. . after Apepi. the son of Neith" or "Isis" must have been given to Mencheres long after his death. Herod. p. at Abydos and elsewhere. Homer. being led to suppose that she I or the Greek copyists. and that the monuments thus describing him were erected by his successors in after times. This is the case. i. following the example of Cheops and Chefren. Anacreon. also built a Pryamid. the god of the Shepherds.^ ascribes many of the great works constructed by Semiramis to is evident that. cap. Mencheres. 86. that the ' Valerius Maximus. 74 and note. leaf 193. was the founder of the revived idolatry.^ Nitocris said to have been of a florid complexion with golden hair. had as yet come It is evident. . and that a statue was erected to her in Babylon to perpetuate the memory of that beauty which had so fascinated them. the two built by Cheops and Chefren (Suphis and Sephres) were early desecrated and their casing stones torn off. for in the list of kings found in the chamber at Karnak. as Mr Osburn remarks. Again. See chap xv. which was the termination of the Shepherd rule. at the end of the sixth dynasty. Nitocris. but while the Pyramid of Mencheres remained untouched until comparatively modern times. on the information of the priests. as we shall see. nor any other of the gods and goddesses afterwards worshipped. It must be remembered that these are stories told by the priests ages after the event. Reference has been made to the numerous obliterations of the names. showing. who. that the title of "Horus into existence. and that he re-opened the temples and restored the worship of the gods. like was a different queen. with yellow hair. are manifestly false. and of those who were hateful to the idolatrous priesthood. in commemoration of his having been the first to restore idolatry in Egypt. 85. etc. p.

vol. later times. sect. it would only be found on monuments of the time of Now. ii. done to prevent identification. any recognised Pharaoh ever had a prenomen which was without the ra. 78. . it is thus distinctive of every recogprenomen of Saites being without the Ra. ^ Brugsch." or the name of some other Sun god. ' Osburn. or from whom they claimed descent. part sect. it indicates that the compilers of these refused to recognise Saites as a true Egyptian king." the Num. but hardly ever into those of the Theban kings of Upper Egypt. this of itself suggests the conclusion that " Saites was one of the earliest kings of Egypt. Poole. a monument does his reign." Great Sphinx. iii.SHEPHERD KINGS AND PYRAMID BUILDERS memories ^ 293 in ancient Statues of Shefra. is "A^ufreka. 101. i. as a matter of course. iii. p. The title " Nuf reka is also singular in the fact that it is without the Ra which terminates the prenomen of every recognised Pharaoh and which follows this prenomen in nearly every other case. and not identified with one of the hated Shepherds. or prenomeu. the original seat of the Cushite power. is " Aphra " or " Phra. The mark the Serpent. and it has been observed by many. 133. then. or Noh Suphis. lists and. be added to the title of every Pharaoh recognised as such. Sun god. it is the distinguishing of that king by which he may be identi- fied. Amon and Phtah enter into the composition of the names of nearly every other Egyptian king. p. vol."^ This title enters into the composition of many of the preuomens of the earlier Memphite kings. * See List of Ahydos. or Chefren. of the first Shepherd king. with Aph. It is the Shepherds. they do not form part of those of Suphis and his successor " Ra. p. the "ra. as iJr Poole remarks. would. If. part ii. i. that while the names of the Egyptian gods Ra. or immediately subsequent to it. however. according to the Turin Papyrus and the list of Chenoboscion." the Egyptian for Pharaoh.'^ As it was the custom of the kings of Egypt to adopt titles derived from a predecessor whom they especially honoured. a record has been found of the titular name.^ In spite. 324. p. of this systematic obliteration of names. and nised Egyptian king. the title of the first king of a dynasty corresponding to Manetho's fifteenth dynasty which is that of 3 Poole's fforce ^gypticce. which is just what we might expect from the hatred bestowed on his memory in When the worship of the Sun and Serpent god had been fully re-established. have also been recently found thrown down a well in an underground building near the of Suphis and Sephres were " execrable Egypt. That name.

31. it is Hist. Osburn. and the great Pyramid king Suphis I. 23. or Suris. xv. vol.e. Nufrekara and a third king are found together. Athothes or Nimrod). 268. common to both. Osburn. and as it was the regular custom of Egyptian notabilities to call their children after the reigning king. by which the Egyptian kings claimed to be descended from the Sun god.. although not in itself conclusive. would be exactly the Hellenised form of Shura. as nearly all the Egyptian kings have been identified by their titular names. Poole. With regard dynasty. Mr Osburn mentions the following notices of Soris or Shura In one inscription he is spoken of as " Lord of festivals. p. 106-111.. or his either Athothes or Menes). and chap. Nufrehara and Num Shufu are found together.s Now. 36. This is confirmed by the (i. 278. evident that he should be Nimrod. soro. but even if they are of that period." ^ Therefore. It is very possible that these tombs are later than the fourth or fifth dynasties. and in another tomb Shura." and as this was the title especially given to the deified monarch. 26.. the successor of Num Shufu. •» 1 where the and 2). inasmuch as Mencheres reopened the temples and restored the worship of the gods. 269. This title " Nufreka " occurs in the mention of an estate of a Prince Cephrenes (75 Ghizeh). " form of suro or represents Osiris Soris would be the Hellenised the seed " or " son. and as the Greeks always put " S " for Sh " and substituted their own termination as in " Suphis " for " Shufu " Soris. in Manetho's fourth Soris.— 294 exist : THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD which records this very title " Nufreka " and it is the title of Suphis I. and Plate in Appendix. would be added to the prenomen of every recognised Pharaoh after the time of Mencheres. to the predecessor of Suphis it is I. In a tomb which is said to be of the time of the fourth or fifth dynasties the names Shura. as Hum Shufu is Suphis II. ^ 3 pp. pp. chap." ' and chief of the scribes to the Pyramid of Soris (Shura) ^ and as the Sh and Kh are interchangeable. as the title of a Pharaoh. 1. is an additional evidence. (i. Eorce Mgypticoe. with the ra. father viz. Shura would be Soris. added. The reference in the inscription is to the king " Shufu Nufreka.- we may conclude that Soris monuments. car- . of the identity of Set the Powerful.. i. and Nufrekara is the prenomen of Suphis I. touches of the above kings found on these tombs are shown (Figs. Soris (Shura) everlasting. Prince Cephrenes must have lived during the reign of Suphis II. ii." Another inscription is '* — : " The priest in the land of Sho. this exceptional title. or Chef ren. Momimental See ante. pp.e. vol. king of Upper and Lower Egypt. the ra.

p. Neither can any place of the ' name of Khokhome or that at Sakkarah there Shoshome be identified now. who head the first dynasty.. and addressed as God king mentioned in and is represented as vanHorus the divine and great. See Appendix C. p. pp. Cory. but that the kings of the latter dynasty immediately succeeded those of the former. Birch. priestly historians to conceal the identity of the Shepherd kings." first who and subdues all countries. Osburn. p. He is called God. 96. iii." 3 All this is completely in keeping with the characteristics of Osiris or Nimrod. Finally.^ ' ^ 4 5 See Manetho's dynasties. and Osiris is stated by Plutarch to have also reigned twenty-eight strikes all enemies " years in Egypt. which might be written " Sho Shome.— SHEPHERD KINGS AND PYRAMID BUILDERS probable that the Pyramid referred to 295 is that mentioned as built by Ouenephes of the first dynasty near Khokhome. of Egypt. at Abydos. vol.e. whose authority must be regarded as far superior to that of Manetho. Hist. quishing enemies. Souphis and Nufrekara (Suphis I. but it has every appearance of being a corruption of Onuphis.) and Sephuris (Sephres ?) the other names in the first three dynasties cannot be identified on It is evident that everything was done by the the monuments. the interpolation by Manetho of dynasties of relations. Shepherd and other kings between the twelfth and eighteenth dynasties is absolutely at variance with the older monumental lists of Seti and Rameses II. Soris is given a reign of twenty-eight years by Manetho. by Birch.^ This would be just the description of building erected by the king of Babylon. Plutarcb. a title of Osiris. 268-270. and some of the subsequent dynasties of Manetho are plainly repetitions of the kings of other dynasties representing them in different In short. 25. yet with the exception of Menes and Athothes. and that this is the oldest monument in Egypt. 41 . but Mr Birch says is a Pyramid built in terraces like the tower at Babylon. De hide. and may therefore very well have been the Pyramid of Soris. Wilkinson.4 It should here be remarked that. vol. Nimrod or Athothes). although the Egyptian priest places the Pyramid king Suphis in a fourth dynasty. These monumental lists show that there were Manetho no dynasties between the twelfth and eighteenth dynasties. together with the names Sethenes (Seth or Set ?). who appears to be Sesostris (i. and the mention of the giant Sesochris. S. - i." No one of the name of " Ouenephes" can be identified on the monuments. 80. It is also significant that Shura or Soris is the " the tombs of Ghizeh. .

or Cephren. are these two kings. 208. 223. vol. and Suphis II. the Egyptian form of their names. p. and Suphis II. (See Plate I. Mist. or Shuphu. Suphis I.. of East. who carefully shaved.. It seems extremely probable. by whose wisdom and influence the tyranny and Shem whom ' 3 •* Osburn. may have been a son of Mizraim. or Set.). when himself. Similarly Eratosthenes calls Suphis. but the immediate successors of Menes and Athothes. and it is quite possible that Suphis II.. of two persons with long hair and flowing beards. he might himself resign and return to Jerusalem.'* he made co-regent at an early period." This was a distinguishing characteristic of the Semitic Patriarchs and Shepherd kings. means " rnuch hair.. vol. This evidence of repetition and interpolation makes petitions of kings under one or other of the it probable. by preparing him for the sovereignty. pp. and identical with the first kings of the fourth dynasty. or grand-nephew." which is the Greek for " longhaired. and Shepherds were always represented by the Egyptians with ragged locks and unshaven. now at the Museum of Cairo. There is a feature in the names of Suphis I. while the other first executed (it is now much shattered) a faithful representation of the antediluvian Patriarch would be his son. Ihid. the sculptures of which far exceed in perfection everything which followed it. Hist. 222. which tends to further identify them with the Shepherd kings.. " Saophis Comastes. M(»i. Atic. is generally regarded as the son of Suphis I.296 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD This is in exact accordance with the evidence here brought forward which proves that the Shepherds were not subsequent to the kings of the twelfth dynasty." ^ a characteristic which distinguishes them in a radical manner from the Egyptians proper. and Suphis II. that the kings in the first three dynasties are also re- numerous titles which were assumed by the Egyptian kings. If these figures are of Suphis I.^ This question and the identity of the Tanis Sphinxes are discussed in the next chapter. stated to be of the Shepherd period. that the group in granite. or other relative. therefore. which would be equally the term given to a nephew. Lenormant. Suphis II. The group is said to be of the most perfect execution^ and this alone tends to identify it with the Pyramid era. Shufu. then one _ of them was probably. i. 275. pp. i. but Herodotus calls Chephren the brother of Cheops. The Shepherds are said to have made one of themselves king after the conquest of the country.. 209. and it is certain that he. therefore. in order that. .

a Pyramid whose theoretical proportions —a result possessed this astonishing significance their laid ' In addition to this. and one only. after which. was not only a worshipper of the One God. The Great Pyramid Professor Petrie's Measurements.! SHEPHERD KINGS AND PYRAMID BUILDERS idolatry of the Cushite invaders were overthrown. the interior galleries of the Pyramid. the precession of the equinoxes. at most. p. besides various mathematical and other laws.^ and cosmogonic significance are based on incorrect and reasonings and leave that significance entirely is The Great Pyramid a building the measurements of which symbolise the exact length of the solar year. as implied by the notice of Set or Typhon. ments. with the object of overthrowing the conclusions of Mr Piazzi Smyth. many of which seem to have no connection with each other. but the astonishing thing relation is or that these things. the length of the earth's polar axis. 263. to be possible. the character of the Great Pyramid. he went to Jerusalem/ Finally. and the knowledge of these things was not only absolutely unknown to the ancients. who have discovered this significance. there would still remain the unexplained miracle that they had discovered. the weight of the earth. and even if the measurements of Mr Piazzi Smyth and others. regarding the sacred and cosmogonic significance of its construction many its but.. his arguments against . represent exactly the length of the Jewish Ante. See by the Author. 297 would be asked by the Mizraimites to rule over them until the kingdom was established. sacred assumptions unshaken. its distance from the sun. when symbolism is interpreted in accordance with the principles down in Scripture. the Egyptologist. ^ and Its Builder. hy accident. with an Analysis oj . had been proved to be wrong. Mr Flinders Petrie. are symbolised by the relations to each other of. the length of the sacred cubit used in the construction of the Ark and the Temple. but a priest and a prophet of that God. like Set or Shem. built by Suphis I. which possesses this remarkable significance. the variation from a true circle of the earth's circuit of the sun. although Mr Petrie has given the world valuable measurements of the building. two or three simple measurewhich no human prescience could have conceived It shows that there is one form of Pyramid. has written a book on the Great Pyramid. shows that it could only have been constructed by one who.

. who was also the first king of Babylon. or Nimrod. and which Head-stone is which answers to the is the " head yet to be " brought forth I with shoutings. and the same as Egyptus and Sesostris. Moreover. then no its human wisdom or prescience could have it. towards the desert.^ Finally. and with Bel Nimrod. is identical with Osiris. and. crying grace unto it " (Zech. and "priest of the Most We may Shepherd kings being the Pyramid Firstly. the Great Pyramid.298 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD and Christian dispensations. it also answers the description of the prophet. Therefore. Suphis L and Suphis II. that Athothes. whose " top-stone " or " head corner- stone" is missing. " In that day shall there be an altar to the Lord. and that Osiris was the first Cushite conqueror of Egypt. the same time. the latter terminating in the second coming of Christ at a period in strict accordance with the termination of the great prophetical periods. the son of Meni or Thoth. Suphis." who was Shem. that the Babylonian and Egyptian kingdoms commenced at. "Set the Powerful. to the Shepherd king. made king of Egypt. the son of Belus. except of God. or about. like Moses in the construction of the Ark and Tabernacle. iv. etc. Secondly. the son of Saturn or Belus. High God. and yet on its border. that the overthrow of Osiris by Set or Seth. or Nimrod the son of Cush. and in the 6000th year of the world's history according to Scripture chronology. have received his instruc- tions from God. and the first two kings of the one were also the first two kings of the other.. Mena or Meni). 7). viz." the righteous king of Salem. and the founder of the first great empire of the world. and who in after ages was ' See T/ie Great Pyramid ai\d Its Builder. Cush. Thirdly.e. whose name is synonymous with Shem. and that Thoth is identical with the first Cronus or Belus. But designed if so. and a Pillar at the border thereof. xix. the first king of Egypt. like Moses. whom the second Cronus. 19. is the only building description of that spiritual building of which Christ corner-stone " . and identical with Nin or Ninus. must. and it shall be for a sign and a witness unto the Lord in the land of Egypt " (Isa. it has here briefly recapitulate the evidence in proof of the builders. 20). and constructor. been shown that Menes {i. in the midst of the land of Egypt. standing as it does in the midst of the land of Egypt.. is identical with Thoth or Meni. must have been a priest and prophet Such characteristics can apply to no Egyptian king.

and they are in consequence represented as the first rightful kings of Egypt. first Tenthly. like Eighthly. and the same as the conquest of Egypt by the Shepherd king. kings is the same as that given to the Shepherd kings. the Pyramid kings. the Pyramid kings were of "a different race" {i. a thing unknown in the kings of pure Egyptian . who is also identified with Typhon. by Josephus. the fact that Apepi. that the story of the Shepherd kings. is the same event as the overthrow of Saturn by Titan or Shem.. Therefore. Set or Saites. Fifthly. as shown by Herodotus. because he changed his religion and suppressed the worship of the Egyptian gods is a further powerful evidence that Suphis I.. Fourthly. who also suppressed the worship of the gods. kings.. the prenomen of the that of the first Shepherd king the same as Pyramid Eleventhly. and the respective lengths of their reigns. had been came to the throne long after the first — — accompanied by some revolution. must have been the immediate successors of Menes and Athothes.e. their overthrow of idolatry in every respect with the story of the and their supposed oppression of the people. kings. and at a time when their memory was held in abhorrence and was yet called a Shepherd king. and Suphis II. from their predecessors). like the Shepherd kings. who Shepherd kings. is seemingly identical with is two Shepherd king. and with Shem. Seventhly. Menes and Athothes. that the Shepherd kings were the immediate successors of the Cushite kings. showing that their accession. like that of the Shepherd kings. must have been also regarded as Shepherd kings. Herodotus implies that these Pyramid kings were actually Sixthly. the Evil Principle. called Shepherds. excluding the co-regency of Suphis those of the first II. the Pyramid kings were distinguished by being longhaired and bearded. while his memory was equally abhorred. says that.SHEPHERD KINGS AND PYRAMID BUILDERS identified 299 by the idolatrous priesthood with Typhon. moreover. kings Ninthly. and that the Shepherd and Pyramid must therefore be identical. the founder of Jerusalem. the period during which Egyptian idolatry was suppressed under the first two Pyramid. the date of the Great Pyramid proves that the Pyramid the Shepherd kings. although a pure Egyptian king. is identical Pyramid kings by Herodotus. were held in the same abhorrence as the Shepherd kings by the Egyptian priesthood of later times. Manetho.

the righteous king of Jerusalem. there seems to be no question that they were the Pyramid kings Suphis I. is an evidence that the builder could only have been a prophet. Twelfthly. and vfiust therefore he identical with certain of the more famous kings whose true names are known to us. inspired by God such as Shem. the sacred and cosmogonic character of the Great Pyramid built by Suphis I. but a special characteristic of the Patriarchs. and Suphis II. that the Shepherd kings can never be identified under the nicknames given to them by Manetho. would be the stern opponent of idolatry. therefore. like the Shepherd king Set and the Pyramid king Suphis.. and the profound knowledge it reveals. and that they were nevertheless some of the most powerful of the Egyptian kings. Considering. and one. who. — .300 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD Shepherds and of the Semitic race. therefore.

have been completely smashed and destroyed. during whose reigns idolatry in Egypt was wholly suppressed. the Shepherd period shown in Plate — — follows : " Life to the perfect God Amen Ra. The hieroglyphics between the supporting columns read as I. except in the case of the Shepherd and Pyramid kings. The of itself. the lower part of the forehead." The and is inscription has nothing to do with the two figures themselves. For the sculptured likeness of nearly every other king of any importance has been carefully preserved.— CHAPTER XIV THE SHEPHERD SCULPTURES evidence of the hatred of the priesthood for the Pyramid kinoSuphis or Set is probably the reason why no sculptures appear to remain of him. There is no record of such hatred. This hatred is. and to them alone. It is perfectly clear that the features of both have been wilfully and violently destroyed broken away by iron hammers for the rest of the figures are as smooth and finely chiselled as on the day they were completed and show no signs whatever of disintegration by weather. evidently an after addition. Son of Mut Lady of Asher. 301 It is a dedication to the god Amen by a king whose prenomen in the oval reads Aa Kheper Ra. King of Upper and Lower Egypt. and the nose and upper lip. the strongest evidence that the two figures in granite of were Set or Suphis and his successor Shefra. there are strong grounds for concluding that they are the figures of the first two of these kings. Aa Kheper Ra. with the exception of their lower lids. Sotep en Amen. Son of the Sun Mer Amen.. indicating a vindictive malice which nothing but religious hatred can explain. An enlarged photograph of the left-hand fio-ure is given in Plate II. and as these figures have also the long hair and beards peculiar to the Shepherd and Pyramid kings. the eyebrows and the eyes. and it will there be seen that one side of the head. .

discovered at Tanis (Plate III. weak and puerile compared to those of these Sphinxes. Aa Cher ra. and the other figures in the oval are probably a variation of his nomen " Amenhotep. Sphinxes were the particular form of sculpture associated with the Shepherd kings. The great development of bone. truly leonine in its calm dignity and massive strength. to use a phrenological term. king of Upper and Lower Egypt. It is the pre- nomen of Amenhotep II.302 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD or. in its full strength and virility. it almost certain. and were constructed in honour of Set. breadth of head and cheek-bones. or Suphis. more especially as all the features are admirably proportioned and clearly cut. The features also present a type which. of the eighteenth dynasty. there are other sculptures in good preservation which. and the features of the later Egyptian kings. whose reading is confirmed by the Greek renderings of this and other prenomens." The dedication of this sculpture to the Sun god Amen by Amenhotep. great " vitativeness " and physical stamina. and that the persons it represents were regarded as of great importance. and the is reason is why these have escaped the vindictive malice of the priesthood probably because Tanis was so far removed from the central seat of idolatry at Thebes. as delineated in their statues. if ever. Set the Powerful. the massive nose.great Shepherd and Pyramid king. the overthrower of the mighty king of Babylon. but with this exception the features of three are identical. although the features of these figures have been nearly destroyed. is seldom. indicate. while the Great Sphinx seems to be especially associated with the Great Pyramid built by Suphis. indicates that it was uninjured at that time (Set being still at that time highly honoured).). The nose of of the nearest all Sphinx is slightly broken. The sculpturing is high excellence. These are the Sphinxes or human-headed lions. and they are evidently a truthful likeness of the person they portray. . which is a further evidence that they were the famous kings whose memory was so hated by the priesthood of later times. vigorous without are coarseness. But. met with at the present day. it seems certain that they represent the features of the first great Shepherd king. It is a kingly face. bearing the expression of conscious power combined with benevolence and rectitude. jaws and chin. represent the features of the . Set the Powerful. according to Osburn. the features admirably chiselled. and as the Tanis Sphinxes are unmistakably the likeness of one particular individual.

viz. and afterwards the guardian of the Truth he had restored. and that it was therefore the first original Sphinx on the model of which the Tanis Sphinxes were This is the conclusion of all who have carefully constructed. they represent the exact features of the antediluvian Patriarch Shem. It is also remarkable. . iii. and not what we should expect to find as he first in the sculptured eflBgy of a great king.. vol. vol. there was a certain fitness. and were representative and constructed in honour of Set. as they appear to be all on one line. who says." The hieroglyphics higher up probably read ^ Belzoni's Travels. at the bottom of the breast of the left-hand Sphinx.^ The fact that Sphinxes were peculiarly characteristic of the Shepherd kings. as if appealing from earth to heaven. the Temple and the Pyramid were three erected at the same time. as in the case of Belzoni. nor is it seen in the sculp- tured figures of any other Egyptian king. are the same as the concluding portion of the title of Amenhotep II. as a lion with a human head. Wilkinson. by Birch. Colonel Howard Vyse. iii.THE SHEPHERD SCULPTURES If.^ from his name being found on it in a dedicatory inscription by Thothmes IV. This also is fitly representative is turned upward. p." but by the Spirit of God. these heads are likenesses of the great Shepherd king Set. the Great Sphinx has been supposed equal antiquity. and there of one who overcame " not by might nor by power. but the sole and fearless witness for God amidst the surrounding idolatry. note. possessed of a vitality that could endure for nigh upon a thousand years. ^ ' It may be remarked that the hieroglyphics contained in the existing part of the oval. In representing him. " The good god. ii. pp. " '» They were of) the Sun Mer Amen. vol.). 303 then. 114. on the pedestal of the two figures previously mentioned. It is also just such a face as we might expect to see in one who was not only of the mighty antediluvian stock. therefore. the overthrower of the dominion and tyranny of the powerful and merciless Cushite monarch." One is partially obliterated."^ to have represented the features of Shefra (Suphis II. and we behold in them something of the type of primeval man came from the hands of God. examined to it. "It appeared all me that the Sphinx. the form of which seems to have been generally known. "(Son probably inscribed by that king. and of In short. that the face is slightly a far-away look in the eyes. p. 115. is a feature which intimately associates them with the Pyramid kings. 405. 310. and the idea was probably borrowed from the Cherubim. For there can be little doubt that the Great Sphinx lying under the shadow of the Great Pyramid was constructed by one of the Pyramid kings. Pyramids of Ghizeh.

Now it is not a little remarkable. were originally the same as those of the Tanis Sphinxes."^ entire. the mouth. i. having completed the Pyramid. and contours round persons to suppose that .304 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD it is but in another inscription to the Great far shown to have been already in exist- ence in the reign of Shefra. as if emblematic of that Spirit of God. It has the same lion's body. Eussell's Egypt Ancient and Modern. p. the last days. for this shows how closely tradition connects the Pyramid king with the Shepherd king Seth. p. The general proportions and massive breadth of the features. and although its features are now nearly obliterated. are also identical with those of the Tanis Sphinxes. 119. they are described by ancient in those observers as having the same calm dignity as of the Tanis Sphinxes. placed like a watchful guardian by its side. then the Pyramid king Suphis and the Shepherd king Set are one and the same 'person. . . Uri's Cat.). 785 Vyse. says chat "the admirable features excited his astonishment above everything he had seen The beard has now disappeared. the great king and prophet and priest of the Most High God. vol. in whose time the Great proportions of its Sphinx was in Egypt.. p. symbolised by the Cherubim. Appendix. for a sign and a witness to the Lord of Hosts in the land of Egypt. and there is the same upturned position of the face.'' and considering its position in relation Pyramid built by Shufu (Suphis I." there was a remarkable significance in this memorial of its builder. that the Sabaeans believe the Great Pyramid to be the tomb of Beth 4 or Shem.. in altar to the I ^ ^ Brugsch. and it is just the sort of tradition which would arise if Set or Shem. in the form of a great human-headed lion. we see and Abdollatiph. it is evidently more probable that it represented the features of the latter king. But if the features of the Great Sphinx representative of Suphis I. Pyramids of Gkizeh. and the curves of the cheeks. the Great Pyramid was to be "an Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt. Caviglia. and it tends to confirm this conclusion. of Egypt. It appears to have been originally exactly similar to the Tanis Sphinxes.. and a pillar at the border thereof to the Lord. p. If again. 3 Ibid. 80. having retired to Jerusalem.3 showing that in this respect also it was similar to the Tanis Sphinxes. Hist. ii. vol. MS. which has led some it was the face of a woman but the portions found lying of its enormous beard were beneath its chin by M. 125. abdicated the throne and disappeared. 364.

precisely the same curves round the mouth.' the building was yet to preserve the secrets of its structure in their integrity until the time came for their revelation. therefore. is in every way identical with The only difference is that the conhair characteristic long of lion's Set or Suphis has been full replaced in the Tanis Sphinx by the mane. 309. This is just what Shefra or Khefra. The Sphinx was regarded by the Egyptians as emblematic of the union of intellect and power. we compare the features of the Tanis Sphinxes with I. 18. like the white raiment of Rev. every reason to conclude that they are figures two hated Shepherd kings. in spite of the violence of man and his desecration of the Great Pyramid by tearing off the polished white casing stones that covered it. There is indeed a general likeness. then the white casing stones by which it was covered. as seems to be the case. an enlarged view of which II. the same proportionate height and breadth of head. The right-hand figure. there is a There is the same broad eye and massive striking resemblance.. it given in Plate will be seen that the proportions of the face in each are identical. U . by Birch. chap.. For. If. etc... while the There full lower lip. it will be seen that. is of inferior type. cheek-bones in each. xiv.. the Great Pyramid is symbolic of the earth and man. ^ Wilhimon. eye and massive cheek-bones as in the Tanis Sphinx. nor is the jaw so massive. but the features indicate a man of weaker and less commanding we might expect if they are those of this character. while the forehead in each is of similar proportions.^ but the various forms of Sphinxes with heads of women and of rams and other animals adopted by the idolatrous Egyptians of later times shows how degraded the idea ultimately became. and if we compare them with those of king in Plate IV. such as might exist between persons of near relationship. although possessing the same broad. may be emblematic of the purity of man when first created in the image of God but which purity man himself. xix. an act which in itself may be symbolic. and the one on the right hand Num Shufu or Shefra. There of the is.THE SHEPHERD SCULPTURES 305 and of which Set was the mouthpiece and manifestation. iii. ' If. ventional which alone remains. the one on the left hand being Set or Suphis. those of the left-hand figure in Plate is now. vol. but in both the face narrows towards the lower part. The forehead is neither so high nor so broad. has torn off and desecrated. through sin. as far as their injured condition admits of comparison. iii. that of the Tanis Sphinx. p. massive cheek-bones and jaw. 8. . is the same breadth of face.

3 Eusebius quotes Artahanus. and archaeologist is a and that red or auburn hair See ante. This is certainly opposed to our usual idea of the Semitic type.). described as being men as or ruddy colour. vol. Moses. But from the incidental mention of Sarah. p 189. .^ just as. he ascertained that this was the most prevalent type among the Jews in the East. 243. Jew who of Christ. p. Wilkinson. ^ by Birch. it would appear that it was not an uncommon type amongst the as represented ancient Israelites. pp. For while persons of a dark complexion only turn darker. a residence for generations in the warmer climate has given a darker tint to their complexion." he has represented our Lord with auburn hair eyes. those of a fair complexion become red in a hot climate. and the children in modern Jerusalem have the pink and white complexions of Europeans. in a way. they expressed their hatred of shepherds. 198. like the Creole descendants of English and French parents in the United States of America. lived in the first century before a ruddy complexion with white hair Wilkinson's Egyptians. unlike the black ruddy or fair complexion. ^ Moses was Cory. by the Jews in Europe. a as stating that lib. with a nose of delicate form and nearly straight. although. and possibly the Israelites also. and are quite unlike their brethren of Europe. 244. vol. (Eusebius. and are especially represent the of red hated Typhon it or Set. Holman Hunt was x. and evinced this dislike by representing them similar in humiliating posi- tions. chap. 403. It is the Syrians strikes nose that large as the who have the ua peculiarity of Western This prominent feature was always a characteristic Israelites. iii. after the most careful obser- vation and inquiry. "The Jews day often have red hair and blue eyes. of the East to this of the Syrians.3o6 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD From the fact that the selected to human sacrifices offered to Osiris. but not of the ancient nor of the of Judea. who were regarded the Egyptians or Cushites. David and Esther as being exceptionally fair.^ in In Holman Hunt's great picture of "Christ the Temple. for the Egyptians had the same hatred and contempt for people with red hair. or Shem. This is confirmed by Sir Gardner Wilkinson. were. and blue and he did so because."4 modern Jews The authority proof that ' of this learned traveller correct.' would appear that the Shepherd king Set. It seems also that Shem must have had red or auburn hair. x. of a same race. ii. He says. p.

Finland. 85 8vo. As a consequence of this. p. and that the English and Scots are now the purest representatives of the ancient race. In short. confirmatory of the fact that it was the original Semitic type as represented by Set or Shem. - Tartar race. Denmark. Now Gibbon remarks of successive waves invaded or peopled Britain. 3 . who Gibbon. . Manners of Germans. edition in one volume. and this is remarkable. yet the principal portion of them went to England and Scotland.4 and that they told him that they had " sprung froTn the Germans " and were the foreresisted his invasion. people hair. although many of them are fair. iv. ruddy hair a distinct character. bk. as being of great stature . It is. Huns. Strabo says that in every respect they were similar in nature. whose complexion. but of the same race as the Germans. chap. pp. Sweden. 3. large bodies. red or yellow hair and great stature. who." ^ it has always been characteristic of those races. who at diflFerent periods occupied Central Europe after the departure of the bulk of the ancient Germans.THE SHEPHERD SCULPTURES 307 and blue eyes was an ordinary type among the Jews. 3 Strabo. and were the and yellow from which it is evident that they were not Kelts as commonly supposed. Norway. and may have been still more marked among the other tribes. the ancient Germans) never to have intermarried with other nations. For this type at the present day is confined to the British or Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian races. who in the days of Caesar had occupied the southern portion of Britain. chap. i. unmixed and stamped with Hence a family likeness pervades the whole. It should be remembered that. therefore. * See Cfesar. " Almost the whole of modern Germany. bk. Sarmatians. it is well known. the ancient Germans and Scandinavians. laws and customs to the Germans east of the Rhine 3 while Caesar represents them as of quite a different race to the Kelts of Gaul. are largely descended from Tartar races. Livonia.^ Strabo also describes the people of Belgica. the prevalent type in modern Germany is the broad head and moderate stature of the ' . although many of the ancient Germans remained behind. Sclavonians. This is not the case with the modern Germans. p. etc. ix. the type of the European Jew being evidently due to intermarriage with Syrian or other races. both in North Germany and Scandinavia. .. book iv." etc. manners and language denoted a common origin and preserved a striking resemblance. iv. chap. Prussia and the greater part of Poland were peopled by the various tribes of one great nation. 2. but to be a race pure. and possess its leading characteristics— fair complexion. chap. although their numbers are so great eyes stern and blue. chap.e. the "I concur in opinion with those who deem Germans {i.. v. who by Tacitus says of them. iv. i.



most of the German

who had

crossed the Rhine and dispossessed

the Kelts in Belgica/

These Belgae eventually spread over the greater part of Britain, for we find Caractacus, king of the Silures in South Wales, who fought against Suetonius, a.d. 51, recalling to his followers the fact that they were the people who had resisted Julius Csesar a hundred years before ^ and a large portion of them seem to have crossed over and conquered Ireland. The Iceni, also in Norfolk, who were defeated by Suetonius, were evidently of the same race, as their queen, Boadicea, is described as of great stature, with yellow hair.3 The

who came from Germany to Scotland, and constituted the chief portion of its population ,4 the latter giving their name, " Alban," to the country are also described as j'-ellowCaledonians and the Albanians,


clear, therefore, that

a fair complexion and red or yellow

hair were the distinguishing characteristics of those ancient


and Scandinavian races, who were the ancestors of the that it was not a Keltic characteristic; although the


fair Belgse,

because they occupied a part of Keltica, formerly inhabited by the
Gauls, are incorrectly spoken of as Kelts by Strabo, an inaccuracy on
his part

entirely denied

which has given rise to much misconception, and which is by the more accurate Csesar. The true descendants of the ancient Gauls or Kelts are the French, who are generally of a dark or sallow complexion, and the only exceptions to this are to be found among the Bretons and the people of Normandy. But the former are the descendants of a portion of the Belgic Britons, who, driven by the Saxons to the west of Cornwall, emigrated to Brittany, the ancient Armorica, which they called " Little Britain " while the latter are the people of a part of France originally occupied by the Normans, a Scandinavian race, and which for many generations was a British possession. These exceptions only emphasise the fact that the true Kelts, as represented by the bulk of the French, were of a dark complexion. They claimed to be descended from Dis or from Hercules,^ whom we have seen to be one and the same person viz., Nimrod, the son of Cush, From these traditions it would appear that


Ibid., bk.










pp. 334-336.



pp. 406-410. Davies, Welsh Triads, vol.
Ibid., vol.



of the

ii. p. 154 Celtic Researches, vol. ii. p. 204. Eleventh Century (Wilson, Archceology of Scotland, part

iv. p. 463).

Csesar, bk. vi. chap, xviii.


Toland's Druids,

p. 129.


the Kelts were of a mixed Cushite and Japhetic race, which would account for their dark complexion. It is probable, therefore, that the term " Keltic," as applied to the
different dialects called by that name, may really be a misnomer, and, as the French and Iberians are the purest descendants of the ancient Kelts, that the French and Spanish languages, although


leavened with Latin, should be regarded


more truly

representative of the ancient Keltic.

would also seem that the British may be of nearly pure Semitic and although the features of Set or Shem are more massive than any now met with, yet it is evident that they more nearly resemble the Anglo-Saxon type than that of any other race. It is clear, however, that there was a Keltic race in Britain before the arrival of the Belgic British, and that the latter may have intermarried with them, and have adopted many of their customs. Caesar speaks of a race different from the Belgic Britons as inhabiting the interior of the island, and says that they were "born in the island," i.e., that they were aborigines and it is well-known that Britain was, originally, a principal seat of the Druidical religion, which was essentially Celtic and quite distinct from that of the Germans, {^ee Caesar, bk. V. chap. xii. bk. vi. chaps, xiv.-xxi.) As the number of the Belgic British increased and they spread over the island, they seemed to have driven the Kelts to the extreme west and north of Wales the people of Auglesey defeated by Suetonius, A.D. 61, being evidently of that race, as proved by their human sacrifices, which were an essential feature of the Keltic religion, {^ee Lynam's Roinan Emperors,






Caesar, bk. vi. chap, xvi.)





We have


to consider the character of the ancient idolatry as


was resuscitated after the death which it was developed.
to ^Ethiopia, but Saturn

Nimrod, and the methods by

the death of Nimrod, his Cushite followers are said to have fled

Menes or Cush) is said to have fled to two cities, Saturnia and Janicula, mentioned by Virgil,^ attest to the fact, but Latium is also said to have received its name from " latere," " to lie hid," because Saturn was supposed to be hidden there.3 Latinus or Lateinos, the ancient king of Italy and father of the
Italy/ and not only do the ruins of the

human form of iSaturn. For Saturn hidden one," and this also is the meaning of " Latinus," which is evidently derived from " Latere," which is itself derived from the Chaldee " LatJ " the hidden one.""* ^neas represents Latinus to be the granoson of Saturn,^ but this may only be the natural
Latins, seems also to be the
signifies " the

consequence of regarding him as a


king, and, therefore, distinct

from the god Saturn, and a similar distinction between the gods and their human originals may be observed in other cases. Latinus was also deified as a son of the Sun god,*' and this, together with the fact that Saturn, Latinus and Latium have all the same signification and
that Italy

was formerly

called "

The Saturnian Land," seems


indicate that the ancient Latins were a Cushite colony founded



The seem

fact also that the Etrurians, the

most ancient people of have been of [Accai^ian _pr Cushi te origin tends to




fact that

Cush was obliged

to conceal himself implies that the

overthrow of idolatry in Egypt extended to the Japhetic people occupying the shores of the Mediterranean.
efiect of the


Lempri^re, Saturn. Ovid, Fasti, lib. vii.



lib. viii.


467-470, vol.


p. 608.


238, vol.





lib. viii.

319, etc., p. 384.

• 5 *

Hislop, p. 270, note. ACneid, lib. vii. 11. 45-49


Hislop, p. 271, note.
245, 248, vol.


Virgil, bk. xii.


p. 775.


See ante,

p. 10.



also that Titan

The statement

Shem), in his war against

Saturn, was assisted by his brother Titans,^ impHes that some of the

descendants of Japhet combined with Set, or Shem, and the descendants of Mizraim against the Cushite idolaters, and that Cush, the originator of that idolatry, was therefore in as much danger of

The complete defeat also of Semiramis by the king of India and the destruction of her army prevented any assistance from Babylon.^
his life as his son.
It is manifest, therefore, that any attempt to restore idolatry could only have been made secretly at first. We are told that the gods, when they were overthrown by Typhon, fled to Egypt, where, by the advice of Pan, that is, Cush, they assumed the shape of various animals to conceal their identity,3 which implies that the resuscitation

measure due to methods devised by Cush. due to Isis (i.e., Semiramis), with the assistance of her son Horus. On the death of Osiris she is said to have collected the various portions of her husband's body, and erected a statue to each, and then to have established a priesthood, bound to secrecy and celibacy, whom she endowed with lands to support them, to pay divine honours to him. Each body of priests was to represent the god under the form of such animal as they chose; by which we may conclude that she acted under the advice of Cush. One portion of the body, the
in a great
Its ultimate triumph, however, is represented as

of idolatry


Phallus, she failed to discover, and therefore


a wooden repre-

sentation of


and paid


special honour.4

In consequence of this

there were


burial-places of Osiris in Egypt, at each of

which a

was erected containing one
would thus appear that

of the relics, or supposed relics, of

the god.5
Isis, or Semiramis, was the founder of a priesthood for the purpose of resuscitating the fallen idolatry, and especially the Phallic worship, and that this worship was initiated in


Egypt by representing the dead monarch under the form of certain animals to which a secret homage was paid the result of which was that animal worship became the distinguishing feature of the

subsequent idolatry in that country.

Lemprifere, Titan.


Ante, p. 68.

393-404 Diod., Bihl., lib. i. p. 16 Hyg., Poet. Astron., lib. ii. cap. xxviii. Hyg., Fab. 196 Eratos., Catast., cap. xxvii. Faber, vol. ii. Lempritjre, Typhon, Pan, Qigantes. p. 406

Ovid, Fasti.,








Lemprifere, Ids, Phallica.

There were several cities burial-place of Osiris Osburn,

Middle Egypt

called "Busuris,"

meaning the

pp. 328, 329.



In Egypt the worship of the true God and the suppression of idolatry appears to have continued in full force for over a century,

and must have had a powerful effect on the minds of the people. Moreover, the worship of the Pagan gods was again suppressed in the reign of Apepi, and this, with the influence of Joseph and the Israelites, and the judgments of God at the Exodus of the latter, could not fail to have deepened the effect previously produced, and it is therefore probable that there were always a certain number of the descendants of Mizraim who clung to the purer religion. In short, it
is is

recorded that Tnepachtus, the father of Bocchoris the Wise,
called a "Saite," or follower of Set,


and who reigned as

late as

the twenty-fourth dynasty, protested against the idolatry established

by Menes,^ and was burnt


by the Cushite king Sabacon, who

appears to have dethroned him,^
gation of idolatry in

There was thus a necessity for a caution and reserve in the propaEgypt which did not exist elsewhere, and which obliged its propagators to take every means to associate it with the purer religion, and to give it an outward appearance of a righteousness which was wholly foreign to it. " Mystery " was in consequence the prominent feature of Egyptian idolatry, and it was in Egypt
that the celebrated " Mysteries," the object of which
of the

was the revelation

god to the



first instituted.

This also

accounts for

highly metaphysical character of

Egytian theology, and it was by this means and by the use of allegory, metaphor, and the double meaning of words that its true nature was concealed. The idolatry of Egypt was therefore very different to that of Babylon. Speaking of the magic, or worship of spirits in Chaldea, M. Lenormant says, " The belief in spirits is seen there in its most ancient form, without any philosophical refinements as to the divine substance, without any allusion to the vast number of mythological They (the magical legends which fill the Egyptian formulae. formulae of Chaldea) contain no mysteries, and the sacerdotal secret, if there was one, consisted in the precise knowledge of the exact forms of the incantations, sacred from their antiquity, and no doubt also from the idea that they were of divine origin." 3 For the same necessity for reserve and secrecy did not exist among the kinsfolk and descendants of the dead monarch in Babylon. They were the supporters of the idolatry established by him, and the

= Manetho's dynasties, Cory, See ante, chap. iv. p. 85. 5 Chaldean Magic and Sorcery, chap. viii. p. 109.

p. 126.



glamour produced on their minds by his vast prowess and conquests would have prepared many of them to pay homage and honour to his memory, and eventually to regard him as a god. But even with them this belief would make but little progress while the memory of his overthrow and death was still fresh, and we are told that no open idolatry was ventured upon in Babylon until the reign of Arioch, the grandson of Semiramis,^ a king who was apparently the contemporary
of Mencheres, the restorer of idolatry in Egypt.

was not Apollo and the

are also told until " long after their death that Cronus, Rhea, Zeus,


were worshipped as gods,"


although, no doubt,

the Accadian worship of spirits and Nature gods established


Nimrod and

his father continued in force


the Cushites of

It is evident, however, that the other descendants of Babylonia. Noah, who had been instrumental in overthrowing the cruel dominion and obscene idolatry established by Nimrod, would only hold him in abhorrence, and that special means would be necessary to remove the opprobrium attached to his memory. Nor could any world-wide success in resuscitating idolatry be hoped for until the true story of his judicial execution as the enemy of God had been lost sight of, and the lapse of generations had weakened the memory of the evil he had wrought. The first and principal means by which, in after generations, the abhorrence attached to his memory came to be obliterated, was by representing his death to have been voluntarily suffered for the good of mankind, and that he was none other than the promised " seed of woman." This was the foundation of the whole system, and was, no doubt, the real origin of the avatars and anthropomorphic gods of Paganism, and which suggested the idea of representing them as having become incarnate, and to have lived as men upon the


The promise of the Messiah, and of the restitution of all things through Him, had not only been " foretold by holy prophets since the world began," but, as we have seen, the heavens themselves had The prophecy of Enoch is revealed it to all ages and nations. recorded by Jude, and both this, and the statement of Job, is evidence that the promised Redeemer was recognised, not only as the seed of the woman, but as the Son of God also. " I know," says Job, " that my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day on the earth and after I shall awake, though my body shall be


Cendreni, Compendium, vol. i. pp. 29, 30 Epiphanius, Cory's Fraginents, p. 55.


Hislop, p. 69, note.

destroyed, yet in


my flesh shall I see God." Job here asserts that Redeemer is God himself, and yet that He is one who should stand as a man upon the earth in a material form, visible to the e\^es
of the flesh.

improbable that the idea of the Creator itself to the mind of man. ancient cosmogonies recognise a All the primary creator of all thino-s, but what is there in creation that could have suggested the idea that the Creator Himself should become created ? It is wholly opposed to
It is in the last degree


human form

should have suggested

every conclusion based upon the knowledge of the things which are Man was so evidently merely a higher animal, a partaker with seen. them of the same nature and instincts, that, looking only on the
material side of things, and the numberless gradations of
the more the unity of


the vegetable to man, evolution became the natural conclusion.


improbable would


with nature was recognised, the more have seemed that the Creator should become


and allied, like man, to the lowest organisms of nature. was amongst those who were essentially materialists, and regarded nature, and the life of nature, as everything, that we first find the realised idea of an incarnate God. A^ It is true that the discoveries of modern science in geology, comparative anatomy, biology, etc., show that all nature manifests if" continuous evolution of an idea ; inasmuch as the and steady the precede are prophecies of the higher organisms which lower organisms which follow them, each of the former possessing the rudiments of organs of no possible use to itself, and for the existence of which it is absolutely impossible to discover a natural cause, but which in a more perfect development are necessities to higher organisms.- From this point of view. Nature herself demands a further evolution beyond man, with all his imperfections and evil, an evolution which a race allied to man, as man is to the animals, and yet partaking of the moral perfections of the Creator, would satisfy. But geology is a science of modern growth, and the data for such a conclusion were Hence, as every therefore absolutely wanting to the ancients. efifect demands a cause, we are forced to seek a cause for their

And who






Revised rendering of Job xix. 25-27. This fact, while it emphatically implies the existence of intention in a creative power outside, and distinct from, the organism itself, is absolutely fatal to a belief For how could an organ be evolved naturally without a in natural evolution. natural cause ? The doctrine of chance might be invoked by some to account for one or two such evolutions, but not when they can be enumerated by the million


and are

all parts

of one ruling idea.













Such a

cause, according to Scripture, existed in the prophecies of

the Redeemer,

who was

to be the seed of

woman and

the Son of God,

and who was

to be the destroyer of the serpent, and to suffer in so These prophecies, known throughout the world, were just suited to the purpose of the advocates of the new idolatry, for no better method could be devised for recommending that idolatry to the world, than by representing the dead monarch to be the true seed of


woman, the hoped-for Redeemer who was
suffer in the conflict.

to destroy the serpent


was meaning signified " Fireborn," or " seed of fire," from " zerol' " seed," and " ashtal' " fire " but " ashta " also signified " woman," and the name was thus made use of in its exoteric sense to pretend that the god was the promised "seed of the woman." Zoroaster was also known as Zaradas and Zeroastes,^ and in the Parsi religion he is called Zoroadas and Zarades, signifying " the one, or only seed," ^ a title which could only apply to the promised Messiah. The great reformer in the Parsi religion is also called Zarathustra, a word of Chaldean which is equivalent to the origin meaning " the delivering seed,"
Therefore, one of the names given to the god in Babylon

Zoroaster or Zeroaster}



in its secret or esoteric





given to Phoroneus, "the emancipator." would thus appear that zar, zoro and zero are variations of a

is derived from whence is derived encompass the Chaldee " " " the Chaldean Sarus (so called by the Greeks), meaning a circle or cycle of time," and it is also clearly the origin of the Hindu word " Sari," the name of the long scarf used by Hindu women for encircling, or winding round the body.*" The Greek word " Seira," " a noose " or " encircling band," appears to be derived from the same root, and as kissos was a title of Cush,^ the chaplet of ivy called " Seira Kissos," which the worshippers of Bacchus wore, would, in its esoteric meaning, signify " the seed, or son of Cush." ^ The name also of the second person in the Phoenician Trinity, viz., " Chusorus " ^ has

word which means both
" Zer," to "

the seed " and " a circle," and

or " enclose,"^ from


Ante. p. 35,














191, 194

Hislop, p. 59, note. 3 Wilson's Parsi Religion, p. 400 ; Hislop, p. 59. ^ Hislop, p. 50, note. Wilson, p. 201 Hislop, p. 59, note. * Chambers's Dictionary, " Sari." ^ See ante, p. 39.




p. 50, note.


Wilkinson's Egyptians, vol.

iv. p.


evidently a similar signification


chus-sorus, " the seed of Cush."

Zero, the circle, also represented the disk of the sun,

which was the god, and thus, while Zoroaster appeared to be exoterically the seed of the woman, he could be revealed to the


of the


Sun and Fire god. The name " Asar" by which Osiris is designated on many of the monuments, and the title " Sarapis " or ''Asar-apis" appear to be also derived from the Chaldean Zar or Zer, and, as suggested by Mr Hislop, O'siris, or He'siris, may have the same signification, viz., the " seed," while in India Osiris was known as Esar, Iswar and Eswara, which appear to be also compounds of Sar or Zar. Hence the enemy of Osiris " the seed of the woman," was represented as Typhon, the evil principle, and Apophis, the evil serpent. The names of the god in Babylon, " Nin " or " Ninus," " the Son," and " El Bar," " the Son of God," and the titles " the eldest son," " the first-born," " the only son," and those of the Goddess Mother, " Semiramis," " the branch bearer," and " Zerbanit," " Mother of the Seed," have the same doctrinal signification.^
initiates as the

This aspect of the god, as "the Son," or promised seed of the woman, was therefore constantly kept before the minds of the worshippers, in Babylon, the

by representing him as a child in his mother's arms. Thus, image of the Goddess Mother is represented with a


In India, Indrani, the wife of Indra, is similarly In Egypt, although Horus was the son of Isis, yet being the same as Osiris, the Goddess Mother, represented with a child in her arms, were worshipped under the names of Isis and Osiris.s In Asia, mother and child were worshipped as Cybele and Deoius.^ In Rome, as Fortuna and Jupiter puer, or Jupiter the boy.^ In Greece,
child in her arms.3

as Ceres, the Great Mother, with a babe at her breast,^ or as Irene, the

goddess of peace, with the boy Plutus at her breast.'' In India to this day as Isi and Iswara,'° while in Thibet, China and Japan the Jesuit missionaries found the counterpart of the Roman Catholic Madonna in the Holy Mother, Shing Moo, with a child in her arms

and a glory round her."

Wilkinson's Egyptians, vol.

iv. p.

103, note.
iv. p.


See ante, chaps,

ii., iii.


Kitto's Elustrated Commentary, vol.




Res., vol. vi. p. 393.




pp. 433-438.

Dymocks aas. Diet., "Cybele," "Deoius." Cicero, De Divinatione, lib. ii. c. xli.
Sophocles, Antigone, v. 1133.




i. ;

Attica, cap.


Kennedy's Hindic Mythol.,
p. 150.

p. 49,


p. 338, note.

" Crabb's Mythol.,

The above are quoted from

Hislop, pp. 19-21.



the promised seed of the


woman who was to

bruise the serpent's

with Typhon, the principle head, the god, although of evil, was represented as becoming reincarnate in the person of Horus, Apollo or Chrishna, etc., in order that he might slay the serpent and restore true religion. " The evil genius," says Wilkinson,
slain in the conflict


of the adversaries of the Egyptian god Horus is frequently figured under the form of a snake, whose head he is seen piercing with a spear. The same fable occurs in the religion of India, where the malignant serpent Calyia is slain by Vishnu in his avatar of Chreeshna, and the Scandinavian Thor was said to have bruised the head of the great Chreeshna or Crishna is also represented in \v serpent with his mace." Similarly, among India crushing the head of the serpent with his heel.the Mexicans " the serpent crushed by the Great Spirit Teotl, when he

takes the form of one of the subaltern deities, is the genius of evil." 3 So also in Babylon, Eugonasis, " the Serpent Crusher," described by
the Greek poet Aratus, crushes the serpent's head with his foot,^ and Izdubar is represented with a dead serpent in his right hand.s

The Greeks

also represented their


god, Apollo, as slaying the

serpent Pytho.

In the case of Chrishna and Thor, the death of the god and the destruction of the serpent are combined, and the god is represented as The death of the god was also dying himself after the conflict.^
represented to have been voluntarily undergone for the good of mankind. Zoroaster is said to have prayed to the supreme God to take



commanded one of the gods to cut off his head, by his own command and consent, when mingled with the earth, new creatures might be formed, the first


that from the blood thus shed

Vishnu the Precreation being represented as a sort of failure.^ offered Victim, who himself as a Great the as worshipped was server
worlds were, because there was nothing else to So also it was in conflict with the serpent as the principle of offer,^ evil, that others were slain, and Osiris, Bacchus and other forms of
sacrifice before the

the god are always represented as the great benefactors of which enhanced the value of their death.


Hence, periodical lamentations for the death of the god were

Wilkinson's Egyptians,

vol. iv. p. 395.


Coleman, Ind. Mythol.,

p. 34.


^ 5 7

Humboldt's Mex. Res., vol. i. p. 228. See the whole account in Hislop, pp.
p. 56.

60, 61,



Hislop, pp. 60, 61.

Suidas, tom.

pp. 1133, 1134.


Berosus, from Bunsen's Egypt, vol.

p. 709.


Kennedy, Hindu Mythol., pp.

221, 247,



Gillespie says. note. p. ^ 4 5 7 pp. p. vii. the rites were invariably funeral rites in commemoration of his death. Nevochim. iv. and throughout Scandinavia there were similar lamentations for the death of the god Balder.. vol. vol. " The images of the gods. pp. p. p. 94 . and p.e. 71 * Herod. and to invest his memory with a false sanctity for when the emotions have been powerfully excited by such means. note. Res. Gillespie. vol. 93. Nimrod). ii.s This dirge is said to have been singularly sweet and mournful. in Asiat. Hislop. Fasti. i. Ovid. and JSneid. " Religious Ceremonies of Hindus. Sinim.. or the weeping for Tammuz mentioned in for Adonis. that which evoked them. lib. i. and The rites ' More. lib." the Greek Osiris.THE RESUSCITATION OF PAGAN IDOLATRY instituted. lib. 58. according to Herodotus. and especially the dirge of Linus. and hence first day of the month of Thammuz mourn and weep for Thammuz. 785-794 Colebrooke. wept and lamented all away each to own the night long and then in the morning flew temple again to the ends of the earth. vol. which. and " his wife and sister Isis " is also represented as lamenting her brother Osiris. sented to be for the purification of the soul from with which the god was worshipped were also represin. 179 ." or the Phoenician so did Bacchos. " is something like the bewailing of Adonis. 22. Venus Scripture. Hislop.^ Nothing could have been better calculated to excite an emotional sympathy and sentimental reverence for the slain god. 79. p.. 321 and when his worship had become general. was sung in all countries. Maimonides describes in metaphorical language the consternation and grief at Babylon on receiving the news of the death of the false prophet " Thammuz to his {i. 400."^ Just also as Isis wept for Osiris. Hislop. X . when the people go out to search for Watyune. c. ii." who is the same as Bacchus and Osiris. p.. 3 There is the same thing even in China. . people do not stop to inquire whether they are based on truth and righteousness. Scandinavia. - Hesychius."" The same lamentations took place in Egypt for Osiris. means " The arose the custom every year on the lamented one." 4 These lamentations were accompanied by singing. "weeping. at the dragon boat festival. but will rather turn with anger against anyone who ventures to cast a doubt upon the justice and reality of by " . and. The name "Bacchus. i. p. Hislop." he says. 11. 426. Servius in Georg. 21. 57. p. 57. 273 . p." from Bakkah.^ and thus the idolatry in its revived form appealed to that consciousness of sin and ill desert and fear of future retribution which is general in man." . vi. 197 .. referred to its original Chaldean source. "to weep. 156.

as in the case of many of the North American tribes. . or set free. 11. . while still But not only was the mend his worship. s 2 Sam.'* The Ark was recognised The suming it. < 1 Sam. the waters of which rolled back at its presence.^ just as the presence of ' Hence the name Phoroneus..' 322 its THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD by the supposed efficacy followers were set free from this burden of its rites to obtain forgiveness and purify the soul from sin. * See Catlin's North American Indians." ^ front to battle. 11.' while the same presence was a blessing to the house of Obed Edom. to " set free.^ and all places were holy where it had been. or Feronia. vi. and men are always ready to believe on the slenderest evidence in any source of forgiveness which will relieve their conscience. symbol throughout Paganism. and connected with the death of the god. the god of the Philistines." and this was the effect for which these rites were designed. 33-36. ' Numb. and note. Hence "The Mysteries" were declared to be "Emancipated. being a type of the people of God in all ages. ' Ibid. were led in all their wanderings and underIt was carried in their takings by " the Ark of the Covenant. Spiritual effects which are wholly future cannot be disproved. vi. " The Emancipator. 19. were more or less emancipated. Christ. 52. or anti. and as if to show that it alone had effected the result. v. a false. it was directed to be placed in the midst of the bed of the river until all Israel had passed over. ^2 Chron." which was given to the god. x. and not until it also had passed did the waters as a divine return." from Pharo. 6. was similarly " the goddess of liberty.^ We may therefore conclude that its sacred symbolism was known and understood from the first. * 2 Sam. but the events of the Deluge were made use of." but it was a liberty which was practically licentiousness and lawlessness Hislop. Hence Israel.^ sanctity of the to touch it. and was borne before them in their passage through Jordan. 7. by these means. even at the present day. fell down at its presence. and which they tended to produce on the minds of the devotees. The goddess Pheronia. from the fear of God as the punisher of sin. In Scripture the Ark is a symbol of Christ. in countries where remains of the old Paganism still exist. chief god of Paganism made. of sin. and to think they are freed from the the initiated into under the power. 4 Joshua iii. who. and it is so recognised. 13-17 iv. vi. p. in order to further recomguilt.5 Ark was such that Uzziah was slain for preand the men of Bethshemesh for looking into Dagon. viii. 18. by participating in them. 3-5. .

in his prayer to and that strength. which was on the fourteenth. iii." Nevertheless she was also ' Exod. 7. xxviii. beseeches His presence." ^ and "the rod of thy strength. ex. Ixxiv. " Thou didst divide the waters by thy arm of his strength. to be "in Christ. it was perverted to the service of the revived idolatry. 5 7 9 Heb. 13-15. "Passover. and of salvation through Him. Ixii." ^ used in the New Just also as it is stated to be necessary for the Christian to "die with Christ " to the present world. and it is so recognised by the Apostle Peter. " Prepared an ark to the saving of his house." ^ and the same word is used to denote the Ark." strength. ^ ^ ' Ihid. iii. xi. vi. 2). 13." referring to the passage of Jordan." as denoting salvation. so Noah." ^ all which refer to Christ." and to receive a new life thereby. and the seventeenth was therefore the very day on which Christ rose from the dead.^° Thus the history of the Ark and the Deluge was symbolic of Christ in His relation to the Christian.. The simple word "strength" is also used with a similar signification." Peter 20. 21. ' 2 Chron. the Ark rested on Mount Ararat on the seventeenth day of Nisan. and he and the Ark emerged again from that symbolic death to a new life. which had been the seventh month. 4. 8. pg. xvii. Thus the Goddess Mother was identified with the Ark as that from which the human race had been " born again. Compare Gen. on the first reappearance of the new earth out of the waters of death. " 1 viii. But what. Isa. It is evidently a metaphor taken from the Ark which saved Noah." Solomon. 2. 5. of his strength" "Thou and the ark of thy The term used has evidently a similar meaning to " the Ark — 3 "the rock of thy strength. ever was known concerning the tjipical character of the Ark. . 41. " Smith's Diet. Nisan. It is also clear that something of the sacred symbolism of the Ark was recognised throughout the postdiluvian world. passed through a symbolic baptism of death. first month at the institution of the Passover (Exod. 3 Isa. so often Testament. when. " Let him take hold of my strength that he may make peace with me. xii." THE RESUSCITA TION OF PAGAN IDOLA TR Y God before Moses and Joshua ^ 323 made the place where they stood " holy ground." while " the Ark of the Covenant was a clearly recognised type of Christ. it is said. so did Noah die to the world in which he lived and just as the Christian is said to be " baptised into the death of Christ. in the Ark. was made the Ps. of Bible. Joshua v." of "^Ae ^ God for Israel. who.7 From this we perceive the meaning of the expression. 5 . 10.9 This was three days after the Passover.

" and the Hebrew name for Thebes. ii. yet in accordance with the Pagan principle of giving double significations to words. vol. Ibid. while its ' Faber's ^ 3 Wilkinson. vol. as Noah was "born again" out of the Ark." it should exoterically mean the Ark." the " Ape. becomes " Tape. pp. 211. 265-267." the abode or habitation of Amon. it would seem that the name was chosen in order that. 210. became the type of woman throuo-h whom man fell. pp. the god was identified with Noah. " the City of God. passive source of that natural of spiritual life which Paganism glorified instead and she was regarded in consequence as the goddess and patron of sexual lust." But in this he He says that " Thaba. and was associated with that sexual immorality which is a prominent feature of human sin." or "Ark born." was the name of the is incorrect." or " Taba. Pagan Idolatry. and that "Ape. or Thebe. "No amon. were bestowed on the goddess.. 211. Therefore.324 identified THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD with the earth and the female principle in nature." ^ The name of the city Thebes. and that it had no connection with the Hebrew " Thebh" " the Ark. of whom Osiris and then Horus were supposed to be reincarnations. . through whom man was to be redeemed. viz. the type of Christ. while all the attributes of the true Christ as the friend and saviour of sinners. Therefore. that it was derived from "Ape'' or " Aph" which. although the etymologies of " Thaba. as the house. or house of God." was carried at his festivals with the other sacred emblems of the god in a box which was called " the Ark.^ Thus " Thaba " was the name of the mother of the gods. as in the case of Bacchus. the " sacred Bel. iii.whom we have seen was identified with the Ark. by Birch." had the same meaning. the Ark. In this way. from which the gods were born." . Similarly. who was called "Thebe genus. In the same way Thebes was called " Amunei.." was " the mother of the gods. and the mother of the gods was identified with the Ark." and his heart." and " Thebh. Wilkinson says that the name was derived from " Taba" which at Memphis was pronounced " Thceba. are difierent. and mediator between God and man. the life. appears to have been given to it to identify it with the Ark. with the feminine article T prefixed. or Thebe. or habitation." the Ark." or " Thebe. and was therefore called by the Greeks Diospolis. the title "Ark born" was given to many manifestations of the god." or " Aph. guardian goddess of Thebes. as " Thebe." pronounced "Taba'' or "Thaba"." or "Aph. p." converted into " Thehai " by the Greeks.

. 212-214. under which form recognised as such throughout the ancient world. and " Baal Berith. and the initiates into the lesser mysteries of Paganism were plunged underneath the waters'' in imitation of the death of the god." " The Lord of the Covenant. which it gradually The god was called also by many of the same titles as the true God. Plate XLV. it identified with the goddess. and thus make use of it. For. • WilJdmon." "the great producer. Thus the revived idolatry appears to have been wholly It Gush and Nimrod. pp." "The Lord of Heaven. and Osiris. 46. p. as in the case of "Rannu. religion." was a title equally applied to the true God. . as a basis on which Hence the Ark was introduced to gradually rebuild that idolatry. by Birch. For." seems probable that. baptism by water was the rite of regeneration. vol. If so.e." the "Aph." which was the ordinary expression for God among the Israelites. its memory is preserved by nearly every nation under the sun.^ The death also of Osiris was represented to have been on the seventeenth day of the second month. So also "Baal Shaman. both among Jews and Pagans. obtained the respect with which the latter was regarded." was a title which unquestionably had reference to the God who had made the covenant of mercy with Noah for Baal . both in memory of those who had perished and as a thanksgiving for their own preservation. into the mysteries. quite apart from the idolatry instituted by in solemn remembrance by the postdiluvians.^ which was a type of regeneration. and XLI. For "Baal" and "Adon" were merely Phoenician terms for " The Lord. and Serpent." or mother of the gods. was represented to be the necessary preparation for his regeneration and reincarna/' / tion as Horus. invimrsion was the distinguishing feature of Pagan baptism. and were then pronounced to be "regenerate and forgiven all their perjuries. the Deluge was held founded on the Patriarchal faith and perverted. the restorer of the worship of the gods. 2 3 Hence Ante. and Plates XL. like that of Noah. and of the reverence in which it was held. was as an avatar of Noah. while his death.THE RESUSCITA TION OF PA GAN IDOLA TR Y secret esoteric 325 meaning should be "Thaba. iii. by which it was identified with the symbolic death of Noah." i. as we have seen. it was important for the revivers of the primary idolatry to connect their own religious rites with it. the female the Egyptian goddess is constantly represented.

the material type for the spiritual reality. and the other a God of vindictive cruelty. 48. Sacrifice by fire was the recognised mode of seeking the favour and mercy of the true God.^ 326 Berith THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD is represented as seated on a rainbow. ^ gee ante. p. falsehood. vol. and p. the sign of that covenant. and that the offering " purified by fire " was made acceptable to God. the in its ritual and to revived idolatry was not dissimilar the Patriarchal worship. and identified with. like everything in the revived idolatry. and that the "truth" was a belief in idolatry and superstition. p. It was not in these names and outward characteristics that the true God could be distinguished from the supreme God of Paganism. Thus. These titles and epithets constituted that garb of outward righteousness with which error ever clothes itself in order to quiet the conscience of those whom it seeks to deceive. 15. by Birch. of truth and of righteousness. The outward ' similarity of ritual between the true and the ii. false See illustration of Baal Berith . 243.s Nor need it be said that the " goodness " ascribed to him was goodness according to the Pagan idea. grace and truth. Herod. little success. were offered on the Pagan altars.." But this did not prevent the latter being recognised as the Phallic god. and worshipped as. 3 Jhid." and said to be "full of goodness. There were the same being that sacrifices by fire for sin. superficial aspect. it would have . mystery his and false righteousness. . p. pp. an animal. Cnouphis was called " the Creative Spirit. p. ii. the only difference human victims. and put their trust in. iii. \Yilkinson. the sign was substituted for the thing signified by it. 70. from Thevenot. which gave the ritual of Paganism a still more solemn and efficacious aspect. as if it had some occult spiritual efficacy in itself. as well as animals. the type 4 or from being a god of cruelty to of natural life and generation whom human victims were sacrificed. and which caused In other respects. Voyages^ partie 2 chap. and wanting which. 614 ' * Hislop. 69.. the mere performance of the outward rite. vii.^ So also in Egypt. c. but in those actual moral characteristics which made the former a God of mercy. Such persons would be easily persuaded by the priesthood of idolatry that this spiritual efficacy lay in the fire itself. and it was natural that many should content themselves with. most devoted followers to become like him." Phthah was called " Lord of Truth. 244." ^ and Osiris was entitled " the manifestation of good. which sanctified natural life and the good of this world.

are a Israelites. vol. ' Gen. must be herself In other respects. of a priesthood and of temples among the Pagans.THE RES USCITA TION OF PA GAN IDOL A TR Y religion was. the solemnity and mystery of the Pagan ritual. in short. 327 much greater when the ritual of the Israelites had been ordained. and even that of the Israelites. who was the mother of a god. and in vesting a woman with the divine nature they had the seeming warrant that she. Eist. 22. able evidence of the power and majesty of their gods.^ while Joseph made special provision for a priesthood who could only have been for the services of the same God. the form of which appears to have been generally known. the only difference between them being that the Pagans represented him to have already lived and died and become re-incarnate. and yet based upon it. xlvii. fasting and self-denial was equally recognised in the Jewish and Patriarchal faith as a necessary preparation for invoking the assist- ance of God on great and solemn occasions. were in their exoteric aspect derived from the Cherubim. It was. of course. while it strongly appealed to the senses and imagination. . which far exceeded the simple worship of the the Patriarchs. It seems probable also that the winged lions and bulls with the heads of men. which were symbols of the Deity in Paganism. a subtle perversion of that truth. without the warnings • See the "Sallier Papyrus" . Thus Paganism. that it was eminently calculated both to attract and deceive. seemed to be unanswerdivine. Anc. Each believed in a Redeemer. of East. p. ii. instead of detracting from the Pagan ritual. wizards and necromancers. yet that succeeding generations. It is a proof also that although other nations may have at first rejected the gross idolatry of Cush and Nimrod. and the repeated lapses of the spite to its influence in spite of every who constantly succumbed warning and chastisement.^ Thus the principal features of the two rituals were the same. 223. previous to the ordainment of that ritual. and the undoubted powers possessed by their magicians. The triune form also of the Godhead was imitated by the Pagans in their god and goddess and the re-incarnation of the former. and in of the striking evidences of the power of Jehovah. sufficient proof of its fascination. We find also that Apepi when converted to the true God erected a temple to Him. and asserted that he might be beheld by those This who duly prepared themselves by fasting and self-denial. and recognised as a sacred emblem. had also so many features based on what all recognised as truth. but the existence. Lenormant. gave it an appearance of greater awe and solemnity.

this point had been attained. overawed the senses and imagination of others and impelled them to follow in their footsteps. worshipped the god of Set. In Egypt. a priesthood was instituted. as the mystery and solemnity of the worship appealed to the religious . the seed of the woman and when It would seem that the first step taken . At the same time. and the number and piety of its devotees. they were cautiously initiated into the secret. sentiments of the pious. when revived in this more insidious and deceptive form. however. Then was pretended that relics of paid to the he had died for the good of mankind. the dead monarch being represented to them as in reality an incarnation of the Supreme God and the promised seed of the woman that gradually. as in Babylon. while still retaining its principle of mystery which so powerfully impresses the imagination while its . as a recognition of his great achievements and a protest against the suggested injustice of his death that his actual worship was conducted under the cover of words and symbols having a double meaning. the solemn events of the Deluge were subtly interwoven with his worship. and the knowledge of the true God implanted by Shem must have been preserved in the minds of the people for at least two or more It is therefore probable that. and the reverence with which it and the Patriarch Noah were held was made use of to give a sanctity to the worship. the had growing reverence Son of memory would naturally develop into the belief that he was the God and God Himself. until at last. The conclusions arrived follows : at may be briefly recapitulated as was merely a homage it the dead monarch. . the revival appears to have taken a different form from that in Babylon. . was honoured to a late period. each of which was supposed to typify one or other of his attributes that when this religion of mystery had excited the curiosity and imagination of many. and the lapse of several generations obliterated the for his memory of his true character. while the people still generations. and temples for the secret worship of the dead monarch. the numbers of its adherents steadily increased. but that this was done at first under the plea of doing honour to his supposed relics. growing magnificence. we know. must have speedily fallen under its power. and that he was represented by various animals. who. It was in Egypt that the Cushite king was overthrown and condemned to death by the people themselves.328 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD and punishments received by the Israelites. and that he was really none other than the promised Redeemer.

honoured them as gods. which. at first. the Babylonian god. following forms of canonisation and inscribed their names in their sacred books and established a festival to each. identified Him with. This was probably something of the same nature as that which is termed barbarism tradition quoted of religion as The — 1st." or " Heaven Father." and were also worshipped after their death. or chiefs of the priesthood. it would be easy to introduce the worship of the mighty Nephilim Prince of Egypt and Babylon.. 2nd. introduced the mysteries. 3rd. But what must have chiefly favoured the propagation of idolatry ' Epiphanius and Cedrenus. When.' We may therefore suppose that the way was first prepared for idolatry by merely suggesting the duty of honouring the memory of heroes and celebrated men." and that they subsequently." " Jupiter. according to Cedrenus. only of honouring celebrated warriors and leaders with statues. 56. when the worship of the destinies of their faithful votaries. became general. as the incarnation of the Supreme God and the promised Redeemer of man. the worship of the dead monarch. consisted. such as the Vedas. and tender- ing them a kind of religious veneration. pp. those who could claim descent from the god were recognised as his sentatives on earth. kings repre- and as vice-gods. from Noah to the building of Babel. in after ages. is further evidence by Epiphanius describes the different forms Barbarism up to the time of the Deluge. and were therefore always the were spoken of as " His Holiness. and the fact that some of their sacred writings. but afterwards their successors " overstepping the intention of their ancestors. Babylonians. therefore. although encrusted with subsequent error. idolatry in other countries. Hellenism. THE RESUSCITA TION OF PA GAN IDOLA TR Y 329 of men. under various names." According also to Epiphanius. this worship had become established. Similar methods would be followed by the propagandists of High Pontiffs. . the Egyptians. which would gradually be developed into a religious homage paid to their statues and shrines. Scythism. This. It races at first worshipped the true God under evince more or less knowledge of the true God. and ascribed to Him the characteristics of. that the development of error was gradual. seems probable that the Japhetic the name of " Dius piter. Cory's Fragments. 53. by which is meant probably religion without specific religious forms. and a belief that their spirits were able to watch over and protect the interests and Then. Phrygians and Phoenicians were the first who made images and. dead had thus been established in principle. 55.

is among ment " the fact that it was in accordance with the of the develop- natural desires of man. and four-footed beasts and creeping things. But amongst the other nations of the world the process would be gradual. glorified God in him not their knowledge" that as God. At the same time it must not be forgotten that. there must have been of the errors Eom. and seek to forget Him. This was the character of the revived Pagan idolatry which assured its followers of all spiritual good through the agency of material and created things." ^ The consciousness of sin and consequent sense of ill-desert and apprehension of future evil causes men. having come to regard material agencies as of divine eflBcacy. and prepare the way for their acceptance of other and grosser superstitions. temple. the result of which was that they quickly lost all true knowledge of God. beginning in the race of Cain before the Deluge. 28. with and worship of the Nephilim. and their foolish heart was darkened — and changed the glory of the uncorruptible God W ^ man and birds.330 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD the nations. and which thus avoids the necessity of seeking them from God. and a religion which seems to promise him forgiveness and righteousness by means of material agencies and ritual acts under the will and control of man. is therefore readily accepted. of idolatry The Apostle Paul. Then. Such must have been the moral causes which. as implied by Scripture and confirmed by profane tradition. would darken their hearts and consciences. or even animal. and this was probably also the case with their adherents after their overthrow. while each error. they were easily persuaded that material representations of God had a divine sanctity. speaking the heathen. In to have been a bolder unbelief and rebellion against God (a heritage probably of antediluvian teaching) which led them to openly advocate the same worship and intercourse. eventually led to a general idolatry. and thence to associate Him with these representations. 23. neither were thankful into the but became vain in their imaginations. as in the case of our first parents. 21. At the same time the consciousness of sin is a burden which demands relief. as accepted. shrine. each generation adopting one or more finally to the intercourse and the case of Gush and Nimrod there seems and superstitions offered for their acceptance. . ascribes like to among " its initial principle to the fact that they did not keep when they knew God they . and with the priesthood ordained by Semiramis. i. and to regard Him as inhabiting image of corruptible in some special manner the consecrated image. to shrink from God.

• See remarks of Professor Eawlinson. Together with the gradual introduction of the worship of the dead monarch there was the restoration of the Sun and Nature There was no natural connection worship instituted by Cush. or devils. which must have been that initiated by the Cushites. whose guidance and assistance they sought in every time of need. being afterwards worshipped under a variety of names. idolatry. the worship of Nimrod and was probably suggested because of their Nephilim origin or associations. was also the worship of spirits. of — Scripture. It was the same with the goddess. Sun worship.THE RES USCITA TION OF PA GAN IDOL A TRY an active propaganda emanating from the central 331 seat of idolatry at Babylon. to Sanchoniathon. Yet they were always the two distinguishing features of pagation. or between the personal and human attributes of the gods and the powers of nature with which they were identified. and allied to this was the worship of the Phallus as the manifestation in the animal world of the life and generative power of which the Sun was the supposed source. was put to death. according to Maimonides. although it was fully recognised by the initiated that they were only so many forms of the persons of a Trinity. p.^ and neither was dependent on. that is Nimrod. 19. Tammuz. and with whom they In both this and the antediluviau invited sexual intercourse. each representing some different attribute. because he taught the worship of Sun. which. 7). between these two forms of idolatry. the spirits whose aid and communion were sought do not appear to have been merely the supposed spirits of dead men. mother and son. his father In the case of the revived idolatry. but beings whom they had spirits of the same nature as the Nephilim the inhabitants of powers. vast reason to believe were possessed of the spirit world. consisting of But the worship of the Sun. or gave support They must therefore have had a separate mode of proto. was the initial feature^ and the antediluvians also worshipped the The spirits of those whom they believed to be of Nephilim origin. idolatry. according of antediluvian idolatry. li. and identical with the daimonia. gradually established idolatry throughout the ancient world (Jer. . ii. Moon and Stars. Moon and father. But one of the principal features of the primary Accadian worship. acting on the receptive spirit of human nature. ante. came to be regarded as so many different gods. cliap. idolatry instituted by Cush and Nimrod appears to have been similar. and these two. the other.

and. chap. vol. The divine institution of sacrifice for sin by fire must be regarded as the foundation of the supposed spiritual efficacy of fire to purify * * I f the soul. thou dost expiate a sin against my own soul. then the Sun was the source of all that is divine. iv. 247. and therefore God Himself. Colebrooke's " Religious Services of Hindus." ^ \ concave mirror of polished metal. etc. " Thou dost expiate a sin against the Gods. were kindled anew every year from the rays of the Sun by means of a stated that " divinity. while the goddess was identified with the Moon and the Earth. p. as an emanation from the Sun. the manifestation of the female.. iii. in the case of the Incas of Peru. lib." says Ovid. in that it was comthe worship of the above Trinity. simultaneously with the homage paid to the memory of the dead kino-. p. 805. which explained all phenomena by supposing that they were due ." 4 So also in the sacred books of the Hindus fire is thus addressed." 3 " Fire. p.." 5 The supposed spiritual efficacy of fire and the apparent connection between Fire and the Sun as the source of the world's heat would furnish an argument for Sun worship. For if fire. THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD which was equally a feature of the revived idolatry. have cautiously and gradually revived. was divine. 11. must been therefore. thou dost expiate repeated sin.332 Stars. Conqv£st of Peru." in Asiat. • The Sun is also used in Scripture as the material type 3 5 ^ Taylor's Jamhlichus. the source of spiritual life and regeneration. Proclus in Timoeo. teaching. 785-794. thou dost expiate every sin which I have committed may this oblation be prowhether wilfully or unintentionally . 4 Fasti. Continual fires were kept burning before all the altars of the Sun god. thou dost expiate a sin against the Manes (departed spirits). had this from the previous form of idolatry. Water. all the gods being with bined difference ultimately recognised as the Sun or incarnation of the Sun. Res. vii. the material type being substituted for the spiritual meanThe supposed spiritual efficacy of fire was recognised throughing. This and the Earth. to the action of a male and female principle in nature the Sun. It seems evident also that it was supported by certain perversions of truth. Fire and Force in general being the manifestation of the male principle.^ In the rites of Zoroaster it was He who approached to the fire would receive a light from and again that " Through fire all the stains produced by generation would be purged away. 260. out Paganism. " purifies both Shepherd and Sheep. . 46. Sun worship was a prominent feature of the Hermetic philosophy. pitious. p.

pp. that or that shall be. and that if he. or Rhea. xii. when the Sun had come to be regarded as the manifestation of God. This has been the history of error in Christendom." This combination of the worship of the dead king and queen with that of the Sun and powers of Nature gave a human personality to the latter. as Isis. led those who sought their aid and guidance. he was supposed to become re-incarnate as Horus. each of which became the basis for a further development. i. Now. who either directly.THE RESUSCITA TION OF PA GAN IDOLA TRY 333 of God. " the spirit which worketh in I which have brought forth the children of disobedience " (Eph.). It seems probable that this was not the case at first. and willing to aid them in the attainment of their desires. or veil. or with the Moon. Wilkinson argues that Osiris was not with the Sun or Isis with the Moon. See Appendix A. and therefore able to sympathise with. and hence the term given to him." ^ my The fruit For as the Son was the reincarnation of the Father. the son of Isis. It was a work of gradual development carried out by men who were probably ignorant of the ultimate tendency of their errors. from error to error. of course. or law. or through his ministers. and gradually carried out by It must rather have their successors from generation to generation. No is mortal has removed the Sun. should be identified with the Earth. " I am all that has been. the gods were regarded as having passions and feelings like men. the dead king. and the two forms of idolatry would be combined. unafiected by the necessities and desires of man. It was also a natural consequence that when Nimrod was worshipped as a god. the Goddess Mother. 9. It would be absurd to suppose that the ultimate form taken by the revived idolatry was the result of a scheme carefully prepared and premeditated from the first by evil men. the daimonia. identified . Isis is represented as saying. we can trace the gradual resuscitation ' Bunsen's Egypt. been the work of the guiding spirit of evil. she. but it is quite certain that they were so eventually. in which. if the Sun had become once incarnate as Osiris. his wife should be regarded as a goddess. a fact which might be expected from what has been said. so might he become again. Hence. 387. 2). he was identified with him. vol. and the general recognition of the type was no doubt made use of to give authority to the belief that the type was the reality. of him " who deceiveth the whole world " (Rev. be identified with the Sun. " the Husband of the Mother. would. was identified with the Sun. and is. viz.. from little beginnings. and in place of an abstract power. ii. 386. for the purpose of overcoming Typhon. as Osiris. as the promised seed of the woman and the incarnation of God. Moreover.

and a person who believes in a Christ to whom he attributes moral characteristics and offices which are opposed to those of the true Christ. with the true God and the promised Messiah. believes in a false Christ. and men sought his favour by inflicting without remorse the most terrible sufferings on their fellow-men. at the outset. For not only as the Phallic god did the god of Paganism sanction immorality and vice.334 of the THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD same idolatry by a process of " development" the initiators of errors in one age often opposing and protesting against the errors which were fully adopted in a later age. whom the Israelites succumbed. natural man seeks to attain. So also it must have been with the ancient Paganism. as in the case Finally. and therefore of all those things which the So also he was the God of the Phallus. he was the approver of cruelty. which became one of his distinctive emblems. and it was an essential feature in her worship to prostitute This sanctification of vice tended. Messiah. as well as to to make of the resuscitated Israelites idolatry attractive many. to blind the conscience and prepare the way for a more sinister the supposed source of natural the honour and glory of this world. tyranny and deceit. and finally to worship the Prince of Evil. the Pagan god was identified by name. ^ Numbers xxv. no doubt. Baal Peor. the Yoni was a distinctive emblem of the goddess.2 god was ultimately identified with the Prince of Evil. life was and generation. The Sun. but of which errors their own were the foundation. virgins in her honour. and a huge image of which was carried by the priests in the rites of Osiris. and it would seem that the anthropomorphic character given to the gods of Paganism was merely in order to introduce and recommend the worship of the Sun and the powers of Nature. and in other respects. the the who worshipped Baal Peor. which was the ultimate For it was through Sun and Nature worship object of the system. and of worship. although.. c. that men were led to sanctify sin. as related by Herodotus. moral characteristics. He was the god of We ' Herod. was the Phallic god .^ Similarly. but as represented by his priesthoods throughout the world. ii. have seen that. to the worship of of Canaan. that his moral characteristics were wholly diflferent An unseen God can only be known by his from those of the latter. 48. to whom a human personality had thus been given. and this was the He worshipped a false Christ or case with the Pagan worshipper.

which was wholly in accordance with men's inclinations and desires. so Hence we may conclude that. + - Gen. ^ ^ Deut. 6. " The iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full. was supposed god . XV. and the ." instead of seeking the meaning. and approver of everything which pertained to natural life.THE RESUSCITA TION OF PA GAN IDOLA TRY 335 murder and falsehood. Gen. Then as the source of natural light he was regarded as the ' John viii. was in full force. became the manifestation of and natural light he was life and light.^ Thus the material fire fire of . who are said to have been guilty of " every abomination. each error being the foundation for the introduction of other and worse delusions. Nations who were thus under the guidance of would rapidly adopt all the worst features of the system. and this was evidently the case with the Canaanites. evil spirits of of development. and these are the two salient characteristics by which Christ has especially identified the Prince of Evil." 4 shows that the ultimate result was reached by a process been long carried on. The principle of this development has already been noticed. became the god of lust and of worldly power and ambition.' These also must have been the moral characteristics of the Pagan god from the first. 31. and then as the symbol of the Sun. just in promore and more identified with the Prince were these nations conformed to the image of the god they it worshipped. and thence became identified with the Sun. xiv. and had evidently been long established in Canaan when the Israelites came there while the mention of the Rephaim." ^ Yet the remark made by God to Abraham. 2 Ck)r. the natural. 5. Zuzim and other Nephilim races. 16. 6." and the natural and spiritual being thus confused. satisfaction of the lusts of the flesh received the sanction of religion as the source while the god. 44. iii. and those who worshipped became like him. the Serpent was introduced at first as a symbol only of life and regeneration. interpreting every spiritual symbol according to spirit of its " the letter which killeth. putting the sign for the thing signified. and may be briefly defined as the materialisation of spiritual truth. with all its lust and cruelty. Similarly. or "the divine life became the only object of attainment. namely. and that full intercourse with the daimonia must have . xii. .^ shows that it was then well established. The system. portion as the god became of Evil. the supposed source of life and generation. as early as the time of Abraham. to be itself of spiritual efficacy the burnt sacrifice then the Sun as the supposed source of the purifying then as the source of natural regarded as the source of spiritual wisdom.

ii. . 108 . Egypt. chap. when. from the first. 24). and the symbol of evil.336 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD was source of divine wisdom. the Gospel imitates the sacred power of the serpent when He says that as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness even so must the Son of Man be lifted up. 114. Barker and Ainsworth's Lares and Penates of Cilicia. at the time of great pestilence. 736-745 Lactantius. lib. in dying. 280. serpents became sacred. Hislop. p. p. he says. Metam. 82. 9. that there were many who sought to combine " These heretics " (the Oppiani). Moses was induced to erect the brazen serpent to which Christ Himself. evil. But although.). Babylon and Phoenicia.'^ They introduce it when they bless ' lib. 278. whither the Chaldean priesthood had fled on the capture of Babylon by Cyrus. 237. De Origine Errons.^ But in Pergamos. c. and Christ. for he. Ovid. p.^ Hence the significance of the statement in Rev.. . 11. and they multiplied so fast that they I became a nuisance. ^ ii. that old Serpent " (Rev. ^sculapius. who in the form of a serpent had given to man the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil. 10). and to have borne "our sins in his own body on the tree " (1 Pet. the Serpent seems to have been worshipped from an early period. " magnify the serpent to such a degree as to prefer him even to y^ good and that Christ Himself. vol. p. is said to have "died unto sin" (Kom. xv. the Child of the Sun. gave us the first knowledge of It was from a perception of his power and majesty.^ In the time of Tertullian.. "TT/iere Satan's seat is. 279. In consequence of the worship of the Serpent god in Rome. ii. was brought to Rome in the form of a huge serpent and became its guardian deity. they afiirm." In the great centres also of idolatry. and 16. so that in nearly every house a serpent of a harmless sort was kept. so firmly was the worship of the Serpent established. pp. and who is the adversary and enemy of both God and man. Hislop. it with Christianity. 115 Hislop. viz. 13 with regard to Pergamos. p. xii. morally identical with the Prince of Evil. the great enlightener of men. iEsculapius had ever since been worshipped under the form of a serpent. and finally identified with him. 4 It may here be remarked that the brazen serpent was not a symbol of Christ . It does not appear that the Serpent was formally worshipped in Rome until a comparatively late period. pp. ii. 3 Pompeii. viii. yet as moral charac\teristics are the principal evidence of the identity of a God. 236. but of sin crucified by Christ. the Pagans openly worshipped him whom Scripture calls " Satan. in whosoever looked was healed. when this was the case. 232 . vi. The serpent was the author of human sin in itself. the Pagan god was. say they. 237.

2 Cor. Euseb. thus verifying the statement of the Apostle that he was in truth " the god of this world.. it is Octateuch of Ostanes.. and how the idolatry eventually developed into his worship. i. 64 . 63. i. . it is laid down that supreme of all gods and princes of the Universe. 50. Hislop. in the were the was done by professed Christians. cap." I 337 If this no wonder ''Serpents that. pp.THE RESUSCITA TION OF PA GAN IDOLA TRY the Eucharist. iv.. vol. lib. p. Proeparatio Evang." ^ This shows clearly how the Serpent. was regarded in the Pagan world. vol. ii. Her. p. and indeed Satan himself. De Presa'ip adv. 4. xlvii." 3 ' ^ 3 TertuUian. 278.

the servants of the great enemy of the human race. the master-spirit by which the development of the ancient Paganism was guided. in short. but it was very difierent when he believed that they were the spirits of his own race and ancestry. who whose prince was Satan. of these beings. Paganism became the worship of "gods many and lords many. by the priesthood. and each person selected one or other of demi-gods as their particular patron. allied to him by the experience of common infirmities and common hopes and sympathies. Man would have shrunk at the outset from intercourse with alien spirits.CHAPTER XVI GENERAL FEATURES OF THE REVIVED IDOLATRY In consequence of the number of different attributes under which Nimrod and his father were deified. the daimonia. whose power and mediation he implored in times of need and distress. observers of times. wizards. as stated by Scripture. and with whom the chief gods were identified. In consequence also of the deification of these first monarchs. and the others as inferior gods. and by adding to the number of gods and demi-gods the supposed spirits of other men. enchanters. by leading men to worship the dead Cushite monarch and his father under a multitude of deified attributes. men and Thus the system became essentially and professedly the worship of the dead. that. to the rank of demi-gods. It would seem. used this worship as a stepping-stone to induce them to worship himself and his subordinate spirits. called into play by the diviners. although the beings replied to the invocations addressed to them were. sorcerers and necromancers 338 The powers . or They were regarded as mediators between these the higher gods. the custom arose of elevating other men. remarkable for their position or attainments. their sacred college of apotheosis being decreed pontiflTs. or evil spirits." some of which were regarded as superior gods and identified with the Sun and the Serpent.

or chief Pontiff. the worship of idols or images). These powers. and the great mass of its followers so regarded it. Eidolon.^ The principal feature in the worship of the gods and daimonia of Paganism was that they were worshipped through. enabling men through them to obtain the accomplishment of their natural lusts and desires. viz. 11. their images. from the fear of the true Scripture.e. which. and asserted that they " the spirit of the god was called into the image image. that gave such influence to the ancient Paganism. It is important to notice the real underlying reason of the acted. as clearly intimated U ^ no doubt. Yvom. God. Hence the necessity for some local habitation The Pagans denied that the images for them. and in which the constructors no doubt.(i. in short.e. and therefore. and to have invoked their aid at all times and in all places would therefore have been useless. It seemed to give the priesthood control over the powers of the unseen world and the powers of nature. who in Egypt. although limited. grove. Image worship. caused them to be regarded as second only to the king himself. the priestly) "consecration. or sacred symbol. were real." or "worship.. the heathen gods). " Emancipated.e. etc. although the ancient Paganism was the worship of the spirits of the dead.e.. or other symbols and representations of them. "service. was regarded as having in himself " the spirit of the holy gods " {i. of the gods were the gods worshipped the god through the themselves. to become in short that which initiation into the mysteries professed to make them. it and was this. "image. construction of images for the worship of the Pagan gods. and by means of.9.FEATURES OF THE REVIVED IDOLATRY of 339 by- Paganism. Hence. under the guidance and teaching of the spirits they worshipped. might become the special abode of some when consecrated ^ Dan. was inseparably connected with the worship of the Pagan gods." The spirits which they worshipped were neither omniscient nor omnipresent. a temple. and to be seemingly independent of a God from whom the consciousness of sin caused them to shrink. 18. by the priestly adept who had already established communication with them. like Daniel. iv. This it was in its outward aspect. and that by the divine" {i." and Latvia.. such as an image." i.. being wielded by the priesthood. Babylon and Rome was their head. any extraordinary diviner. and confined to the temples and shrines of the gods. v. and Daniel was exalted in consequence to be the third ruler in the Kingdom.." . it received the name of " Idolatry " .

which have been once used as mediums of communication with the spirits. viii. and which have power to inflict harm or to fulfil the desires of those by whom divine honours and services are rendered them. but when once established. viz. or the symbol. and which therefore abounds in images and temples. as before remarked. and may The same thing is also recognised at any time evince its power. and since then have gradually disappeared. a thing to establish communication with the spirits. and the relation established by it with the human race. Hence it is asserted by the followers of modern Theosophy and Buddhism that the idol.^ wickedness. Augustine quotes Hermes Trismegistus as saying that.— 340 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD who one spirit who would then be ever at hand to reply to those sought his aid. when overthrown by Typhon. deduce a further conclusion which has already been that houses or places which have been the abode of phenomena. 178-180. pp. chairs or planchettes. will always remain so. becomes " accursed " haunted. or spirit. but by the evil spirit to whom their wickedness has given power. is retained. and they are loth to surrender the power of exercising the influence which is thus afibrded them. would be more or less subject to those manifestations which are associated with Paganism and Spiritualism and . as in the case of Judas. 23. We may also referred to. that an evil spirit them and possesses them. and that there dwelt in them certain spirits which have been invited to come into them. the gods. Dei. by Spiritualists. and the locality. * 3 See a7ite. which has once been the habitation of a god. enters into persons of exceptional wickedness might become the scenes of similar For when men give themselves over to such exceptional it is implied. chap. having of mention From the The development I ^ De Civ. and " the place " thus given to that spirit. experience proves that this difficult is the case. of image worship seems to have been gradual. are always more susceptible to their influence than similar articles which have not been so utilised. we might conclude that any country or place where the people are idolaters." ^ 1 This being the case. .. 27). " Visible and tangible images are. iv. not by the spirit of the wicked dead. who find that particular tables. viii. as it were.^ It is. "'place is given to them" (Eph. or house itself. only the bodies of the gods. This is also illustrated by the fact that witchcraft and sorcery abounded before the Reformation.

426. Prescott. This was also the principle of the image or statue. Thus. divine efficacy. Plate XXIII. throughout the Pagan world." 2 3 ^ Maurice. There was a golden image of the Sun in the temple of Belus at Babylon." More Nevochim. p. and supposed to be. Indian Ant. the sacred signs of the Sun god and both were supposed to possess a . the special symbol of the Serpent god.. where an image of the sun. See also Wilkinson. it is probable that these were regarded at first as symbols only of the god. and even the spires of Christian churches. in Peru. in Upper Egypt. and 309. chap. xxxiv. sacred trees and groves of the gods. p. by his spirit. vol. The principle was also extended to other material things symbolic of the gods.4 The obelisks. The principle of the image is manifestly the same as that of the temples. as servants " Maimonides. and that they then were looked on as sacred. the former surmounting the latter.3 Similar disks of the Sun were also placed for worship in the Egyptian temples. and in a grotto near Babian. a representation has been found of priests worshipping an image of the Sun placed above the altar. then a simple circle used in a religious sense was also holy. by which their assistance could be invoked.^ and a similar image of gold was found in the temple of Cuzco.^ Brilliant metal reflectors. in some sense. p. the Sun god of the Canaanites. its symbol. as representing the same principle of generation. or inscribed in it. iii. See margin. Amenophis III. in some sense. Hislop. the cross and circle. p. If the brilliant metal images of the Sun were worthy of worship. Consequently. shrines." were placed over the altars of Baal. as the tree was divine. " Suu Images. which were also regarded as their particular habitations. 2 Chron. or " Sun Images. The same principle was involved in the case of images of the Sun. and also of the Phallus. which at first seems to have been regarded only as a memorial of the individual it represented. possessed by them. 41. were originally symbols of the Sun's rays.FEATURES OF THE REVIVED IDOLATRY 341 taken flight and assumed the forms of certain animals.. and the worship of the dead Babylonian king under similar forms. 4. iii. and were therefore regarded as amulets or charms. 162. or pointed columns of masonry. became. and afterwards was supposed to be inhabited. as well as minarets. and eventually as special forms or manifestations of the god in one or other of his attributes. From ' this also arose the " tonsure " of the priests. there was a virtue in the cross. Conquest of Peru. his family are represented worshipping .

^ is also was the recognition that the dead had passed into the hands of the Sun god. Thus also The nimbus was commonly of the images of the gods Virgil. c. " Buddha.^ and throughout India and China. " The Arabians acknowledge no other god but Bacchus. and is defined by Servius to be the luminous fluid which encircles the heads of the gods. . xxiii. 9 Deut.. . p. 5 . v. but round those of the Roman Emperors. Pantheon. speaking of " one of the is paintings representing Circe and Ulysses. ii. Herodotus says. of the priests of Mithra. 11. speaking of Latinus. shaving it round the temples. . . 87." pp\ 1105. It was regarded as betokening the divinity of the person represented." ^ who in their tonsures imitated the solar Reference Israelites are made to the practice in Leviticus. 1. where the It forbidden to make any baldness for the dead. 616. pp. lib. 165 Hislop. says : " Twelve golden beams around his temples play To mark his lineage from the god of day.'" The author of Pompeii. and Urania. disk. p. vii. 775." says Maurice. 264. c. and the " nimbus. lib.s directed his disciples to shave their heads. On yEneid. 28 . wherever ' ^ 3 Herod. referring to the practice in India." in Hindu Mythology. Plate LIX. viii. lib. and did so himself in obedience to the command of Vishnu. Dryden's Virgil. 1106." or glory. 27. note. where the dead were always spoken of as "in Osiris.^ and so also did those of Pagan Rome. vol. round the heads of images and other representations of the gods and demi- Concerning the tonsure. 851.. Indian Ant.. " Carmina. as was the case in Egypt. 245-248 vol. Maurice. i. p. * s ^ ^ ^ Tertullian." placed. Moor's. Kennedy." ^ The priests of Osiris in Egypt likewise shaved their Guatama Buddha heads. ii. Macrobius. to whom. xix. Levit. not only round the heads and heroes. Now they cut it in a circular form. iii. the Queen of Heaven and they say their hair is cut in the same way as Bacchus' is cut. i. p.'^ " The ceremony of tonsure. book xii. " was an old practice gods. xiv. says. as teaching us the This picture remarkable meaning of that ugly and unmeaning glory by which the heads of saints are often surrounded. iii. divine honours were paid. vol. xxi. or circle of light. vol. 263. This glory was called the nimbus or aureola.— 342 of the ' THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD Sun god. after death." ^ In India the infant Chrishna and his mother Devaki are both represented with a glory round their heads.

Hislop. or symbol. p. pp. By that fthe old world was purified of its wickedness and regenerated. 147 . note. 189. and " Bel. Conquest of Mexico. being torn out from the living victim by the sacrificing this arose the From and waved aloft as an offering to the Sun and Serpent god. i. p. ' Bryant remarks. by Brock. and " by a new regenerafilled tion again emerged. 25 215. those objects. the word for " heart " was priest. 190." This was heart-shaped. 214.^ and things. the names of which had a double meaning. " born again. his when he was torn to heart was preserved by Minerva. 88. pp.FEATURES OF THE REVIVED IDOLATRY Buddhism The prevailed. The value attached to Holy Water by the Pagans seems to have event I originated in the symbolism deduced from the Deluge. where the ancient idolatry seems to have been retained with little modification. so that the human race was. See illustrations given. bk.4 the esoteric reason of the heart being thus reverenced. 5 . chap. Papal. the sacred language. called the " bulla. veil of which the priesthood of Babylon introduced the revived idolatry. 21. iii." The Apostle speaks lof the event as a sign. principle of the image was an especial symbol of the god. ^ 1 Pet. chap. 301 Barker^s Lares aiid Penates of Hislop. the worship of JBel. 190. and the hearts of human victims were especially sacred and pleasing to him. 300. 191. and one of which referred to the god. It is stated of Dionysius Eleuthereus. way throughout In the Babylonian mysteries Cilicia. and being restored to pristine life and integrity up the number of the gods. Now >v ' and on the principle of using words with a double meaning. was that in Chaldee. * Kennet's Antiquities. The Roman youth wore a golden ornament suspended from their necks. ii. were regarded as sacred. .^ and it was regarded " in a similar fthe ancient world. of Christian regeneration similar to that of baptism. Rome Pagan and ." as a distinctive symbol of the god. that pieces. 141-147. p. both the 343 god and goddess mother were similarly represented/ (< ({ / and symbol was extended to other Thus. iv. bk. pp. In Mexico. This is exemplified in the case of the worship of the Sacred Heart. to the initiated." 5 under the ^the worship of the Sacred Heart was. afterwards goddess. iii. ^ Taylor's Mystic Hymns of Orpheus. the heart became thus a symbol of the god. pp. so to speak. one of the names of Bacchus." ^ Here is the old story of the death of the god and his re-incarnation by the aid of the worship of " the Sacred Heart. » Prescott. the imao-e of the great god wore a necklace of alternate gold and silver hearts.

came to be regarded. pp. " If he survived. + 5 ^ Mallet on Anglo-Saxon Baptism. 1205 . iv.\o\. Noah. For Vishnu is the Sanskrit form of " Ishnuh. mysteries. ii. viz. Vishnu the Preserver is celebrated as having saved one righteous family when the world 1^ was drowned. bk.344 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD •the commemoration of the Flood. . i." or " The f Man of Rest. p. Greek Antiquities. 84 Hislop. and to purify houses and temples. . both before the I Flood and after it." Hence the Indian |Brahmans." says Potter. at the entrance of the temples.' and was I represented as a god with two heads looking in opposite directions. claim to be "twice born" or regenerated. vol. Appendix. 21.^ * The same idea is found in the rite of initiation into the Lesser Mysteries. Be Baptismo." The name of Indra. Antiquities. 21 Potter. i. p. and was promised regeneration and the pardon of all his In token of this he was clothed in white. " who came to the solemn sacrifices was purified by water. TertuUian. 223. 135. The Pagan I Anglo-Saxons baptised their new-born infants. the Ark and the great events in the life of Noah were mingled with the worship of the Queen of Heaven I and her Son." 3 has been imitated by Eoman Catholics and Ritualists. as "Ishnu. " Every person. p. and in certain cases wells. who represent and claim the prerogatives of the god.' or 'twice born. 1204. Holy "there was commonly placed a vessel full of holy water." ^ In India. and believed their children to be regenerated by the rite. like fire. i. Prescott's Conquest of Mexico. 335. pp.. Bryant. a custom which I perjuries. Gregory Nazienzen. was called 'Diphues. and he is also identified with Noah himself. Opera." ^ water was also used to sprinkle the dead. born babes were also offered to Baal and Moloch. after which the a initiate. which were called " holy wells. p. They were especially ofifered Newto Kronos and Saturn. were I regarded as having a divine efficacy. ii. in accordance with the genius of idolatry. . To which end. p.s Thus water. chap. is also found in precisely the same form. 465. 245." " The Man Noah. vol. as in the familiar case of the Ganges in India. was then admitted to the knowledge of the . ' = 3 iii. bk. pp. 134. Hislop. as having lived in two worlds. the king of the gods. The sacrifices of the Pagans were of two kinds those offered to the Sun god consisted largely of human victims. under which names Cush was deified." and rivers. as having an occult spiritual efiicacy. 136. the one old and the other young. which was a baptism by immersion. ."* and the Pagan Mexicans did the same. and in certain cases men immolated themselves. chap. p. of which Cush seems to have been the originator.

cap. 353. lib. exercised an extraordinary fascination over the people.^ and in Greece and were gradually disused. chiefly. Wilkinson's Egyptians. who had sided with Antony. Historia. how much more efficacious might be the sacrifice of a human being These victims."* and the usual oflering was a round cake. pp. note. however. wherever the ancient religion remained in its original form. "Moloch. the symbol of the Sun. as far as this seen. 106 . or son. a sacrifices ' 2 3 Smith's Diet.). or tree. the cross being the altar of the god ." says Wilkinson. was concerned. however. Augustus sacrificed 400 persons. who.3 There were no bloody allowed on her altars. " occurs on all altars. cap. the victims of such It was. " The thin round cake. as we have was identified with Satan. and thence led him to conclude that suffering expiated its guilt." in Babylon. slaves and criminals. or cut off from God. Herod. the manifestation of their being wholly given over. and the mode of death throughout the East was either crucifixion or burning. and that the greater the suffering the more the anger of the gods would be appeased.ibolishing them. 190. on the altar of Julius Csesar. if so. but. were sacrificed. The Romans B. .. Senate . lib.^ This showsj that death on the cross. offering. to whom divine honours were paid. to the power of the god of Paganism. of Bible.C. p. as with other nations. and. She was known as " Mylitta.! » ' } ' FEATURES OF THE REVIVED IDOLATRY t) 345 I O These sacrifices appealed to the consciousness in man that sin deserves punishment. i. p. v. offered Rome human sacrifices human sacrifices until made by the the year of the city 657 (90 when a decree was In spite of this. p. these were chiefly criminals and prisoners of war. Moreover. . on account of her milder attributes. This idea was used. The sacrifices offered on the altars of the goddess were quite Her worship gradually superseded that of the god. i. were usually confined to captives taken in war. life death were held to be accursed. Hislop. iii. and note. 156. was a sacrificial death. These being regarded as enemies of the State. ii.. vol. which was a symbol of the Sun god. either as a propitiatory thanksgiving for victory. no doubt. 191." ^ This round cake was. vol. the of human victims sacrificed to propitiate the god was enormous. no doubt. Tacitus. or as a . and as the Mediatrix for the sins of the people with her sterner husband. to lead men to believe that the value of the sacrifices ordained byGod consisted in the suffering of the animal put to death. and different. Hislop. which f may explain the fact that." Eawlinson's Egyptian and Babylonian Hist. of course. in fact. as in Mexico. • 5 iii. vol. and number therefore enemies of its god.'' " The Mediatrix. in the Levitical law. 157. cxcix. p.

4 and Juvenal says that in Rome." which shows that.. ^ 7 Gredati Antiquities. lib. cap. . v. . 224. 1673. . Francf Lug. bk. and was called " The I sis was worshipped in Mother of Corn. i. 25 Ed. like the goose. Potter and Boyd. 540. Seb. p." a word derived from immolare." Bar being a name of the god. could As these were only be pacified by a large goose or a thin cake. ii.. iv. i. The round cakes were also offered on all the Grecian The Israelitish women are also altars. 3 5 • Wilkinson's Egyptians. much of the mystical sense was lost sight of. note. ' Hislop." ^ Rome as Ceres.3 " the Son " was a goose. 217. Osiris. . s." "promised seed. 1103. p. 353." But " Bar " also meant " Corn. 18. 9 . and Ceres was regarded simply sacrificed to the •or as the goddess of plenty. 160. " the Son. cap. for the circle represented both the Sun's disk and " The Seed. which was regarded as the favourite offering to Osiris. In Greece and • Rome. just and branch with which Bacchus was represented led them In Egypt another symbol for to regard him as the God of Wine." the false Christ of Paganism. "to sacrifice. xvii." ^ 1 But though this unbloody sacrifice may have been sufficient to Pagan worshippers under ordinary circumstances. whose religions were derived from Babylon and Egypt.^ Hence the round cakes made of flour which were I goddess represented in their mystic sense." which was its exoteric meaning. they were a propitiatory offering. p. Bat. Hence Virgil. vi.. or of the fruits of the earth generally. vol." known by them as " Ashtoreth. Satires.s both symbols of a Son. if offended. it would seem that both god and goddess were supposed to be propitiated by the symbolic offering of the promised seed. or incarnation. then the sufferings of the sinner after death would in time expiate his own sins. vii. pp. chap. speaking of the after existence of sinners." The reason of this was that she was known in Babylon as " The Mother of Bar. satisfy the conscience of the says ' : Ante.— 346 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD symbol. Alex. 539. p. 1608. Ante. p. and in fact this sacrifice was as the cup said to " efface the sins of the people. ab Alex. ^ lib. 38. both of the Sun. Jer. 227. and were called " Popana" ^ spoken of as offering cakes to "the Queen of Heaven. and of his Son. the whole spirit of Paganism was characterised by that perverted idea of sacrifice which led them to suppose that the anger of the gods could be appeased by the sufferings of human victims. They naturally concluded that if such sufferings could expiate sin. and signifying " The Son. Pollux in Onom." ^ In Rome they were called " Mola. p. iv.

114. A gold and silver and other things " should be given by the dying man. of the soul remains. 240. p. 113. " These ceremonies consisted of a sacrifice similar to those ofiered in the temples " (i. as the dead. p. pp.FEATURES OF THE REVIVED IDOLATRY " 347 For this are various penances enjoined. A. 239. vii. Asiatic Journal. 364. are very expensive. cess. pp." |. it is urged that " donations of cattle. to bleach in water. vol. in the services of " The Sraddha for the repose of the dead. purged in fires." ' But the pure ether So likewise Plato says.. vol. ii. Phrcsdrus. and numerous demands were made upon the estate of the deceased for the celebration of prayers and other services for the soul. land. prayers for the dead are characteristic of ' all Buddhist countries. ^ 5 Suidas. 995-1012 . no doubt.. 879." ^ The Gurgumi. Ante. ' " " Asiat. ii. Hislop. Then are they happy when by length of time The scurf is worn away of each committed crime. v. or arranged to be made by the person himself before he died. 94 . " was ofiered for the sins of the living and • dead. and vol. by another in his name." says Suidas. " the priests induced the people to expend large sums For." and was supposed " to free them from all the evils to which " In Egypt." ^ ^' " f. 383. . ii. ii. besides the embalming proion the celebration of funeral rites. pp.e. and those manes bear The few so cleansed to those abodes repair. p. " if he be too weak." ^ The supposed existence of a Purgatory suggested. vi. that of those who are judged after death some must first proceed to a subterranean place of judgment where they shall sustain the punishment they have deserved. the tomb itself was purchased at an immense expense. vol. pp.B. In Tartary also at l^or. prayers for their performance. 249. ' 3 Plato. 384. others No speck is left of their habitual stains. vi. 11. " the greatest and most expensive sacrifice was the mysterious sacrifice called Telete? This. vol. bk. " In Greece. pp. All have their manes. p." the wicked are liable when they have left this world. vol. 143. p. 365. according to Plato. And breathe in ample fields the soft Elysian air." He adds. vol. xvii. chap. the possibility of appeasing the anger of the gods by costly sacrifices made by the friends of the deceased person. Till all the dregs are drained and all the rust expires. and. Plato.the present day the ^ we have seen. Wilkinson's Egyptiam.^ Dryden's Virgil. the sacrifice of the round cake). 536. 167. Res." I says Wilkinson. and " they con" "* tinued to be administered at intervals as long as the family paid for In India. B. or that says Journal Asiatic |. 168. And some are hung Some plunged upon the wind. .

p. ^ " is generally voluntary. some crawl on their hands and knees for years. •» Kings xviii. expiation of their own sins and sometimes those of others consists in the The Sunayases have their most rigorous penances and mortifications. cap. lib. others suspend themselves with their heads down for a certain They imagine. 1 cap. 137. 6. the is that the greater the cost and suffering to the more will the sacrifice propitiate God. The Egyptians at the feast of Isis at Busiris. vol.348 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD belief. ' " This penance. and the Balusses in their nightly processions also scourged themselves. others undertake to carry a cumbrous load. x. after the ceremonies of sacrifice. p. Ixi. "that the time over the fiercest flames. ii." 3 priests of Baal. " shall I come before the Lord and bow myself before the high God ? shall I come before him with burnt offerings. " Of the first. some vow to continue for life in one unvaried posture." 4 The Corybantes. 251. Micah Herod. or priests of Cybele. p. the the galling whip lashed thrice around thine altar. vi. Hence it was that." he adds. with calves of a year old ? Will the Lord be pleased with thousands of rams. 52 Hurd's Rites and Ceremonies. with Similarly. i. p." ^ done by the " Fakirs " and " Sunayases of India. or with Another expiated : ten thousands of rivers of transgression. iii." says Nightingale. " cried aloud and cut themselves after their manner with knives and with lancets until the blood gushed out. some swing during their whole life in this torrid clime before a slow fire. king of Moab says. and by these they are suspended from a pole twenty or thirty feet high with a horizontal beam by which they are swung Speaking of the penances " '^ round. i. " tongues and sides split. lib. speaking of sailors who visited the shrine of Apollo." he is very exactly expressed by Balak. 318-321. 398. the fruit of oil ? shall I give my body for the sin of my first-born my soul " ? for '^ my Here the idea expressed sinner. v. The whole principle " Wherewith. throughout the Pagan world. chap. " Nor do the crew presume to quit thy sacred limits till they have passed a fearful penance. ^ Niglitiiigale. . 28. Nightingale says. springing directly from the idea that suffering was that a man might expiate his own sins by undertaking voluntary suffering during his lifetime.. the priests of Bellona. assembled themselves to the amount of many thousands and scourged themselves. to propitiate their god. vol. men sought to propitiate the gods by self-inflicted penances and self -mortification. or drag a heavy chain.^ So also Callimachus. Religions and Ceremonies. Lactautius. 3 5 Callimachus. ii. or hooks are placed through the skin of their shoulders. . sin. says. 7.

p. while it served to conrefuse to crawl over the floor on and thresholds. to prostrate myself in the temples to give kisses to the consecrated floors my my wretched head against the holy door posts. i. 132. . Religions Satires. bk. i. if I had done wrong. and Ceremonies. vol. chap. pp. and the secrecy and mystery which surrounded them. "• Initiation into the Greater Mysteries preceded by fasting and by confession to the essential part of the rite.. then naked and shivering she will go and crawl on bleeding knees over the whole extent of the Campus Martins. Naz. " from Delphi to Thermopylae. Greg. or of a baptism by immersion. 83. and were divided into "The Lesser" and "The Greater Mysteries. which was an question put to the aspirant was questions related chiefly to whether he was ' fasting. vi. 5 IV. xx." says Salverte. S. p. . knees and to beat I and would not when they were first established. at the same time tended to impress and awe the minds of the initiated. a confession which caused them ' ^ 3 Nightingale. The first was more solemn. 4 Tertullian. Orat. Potter. Opera. They were the principal features of the resuscitated idolatry.. and were evidently designed to place the person in the power of the priest lest he should be tempted afterwards " All the Greeks. ." ^ The worship of the Serpent and the Prince of Evil himself seems to have been chiefly propagated through the celebrated Mysteries. were initiated into the mysteries of the temple at Delphi." 349 some ^ religious vow. and was priest. as has been said.s taking of the sacred The other patters of sexual impurity. both by the penalties threatened to a perjured revelation." ^ So also Tibullus says. Gregorii Nazienzeni. river in the depth of winter she will dip herself three times in the Tiber and bathe her timid head in its very eddies.FEATURES OF THE REVIVED IDOLATRY in performance of of sins committed. Tibullus. Pagan Rome. They were conducted with great solemnity. 522-526. this being considered indispensable before parrite. Juvenal. . 379-385 and 399. describing a woman seeking t6 " She will break the ice and go down into the . Eleusinia. or inflicted for the expiation So also in expiate her sins. which was often ceal their real significance of a dangerous character. De Baptismo. Oreek Antiquities. " I would not hesitate. and by the general confession exacted of aspirants before initiation. x. Their silence in regard to everything they were commanded to keep secret was secured. chap. ii." the former being the preparation for the latter. 1204 Elife Comment in 245 Hislop. of a purification by holy water. ii. to divulge what he saw or heard. says. p. and consisting.

and says it was unlawful to do so. xi." p. etc. preceded as they were by prolonged fasting in darkness. the Alexandrians honour it as Osiris or Adonis. sometimes thunders were heard. xxvi. ii.These things. which broke down the mind and spirit of the initiate. while giving the name of the god as known to the general public. . p. Cod. ." the carefully-preserved secret revealed in the Mysteries." The Greater Mysteries themselves were accompanied by everything calculated to awe the mind and impress the imagination of the initiate: "The place seemed to quake and to appear suddenly resplendent with fire. Eleusinia. Herodotus. as the Serpent the world. who was an initiate. chap. Apud Photium. * Compn. the revelation of the god. p. however high his position. the writer takes care not to reveal the real secret." . lib. into a great distance. of an aspect severe but with a touch of sweetness.: 350 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD him reason ^ greater dread of the indiscretion of the priest. 242. 234. and was put to death without mercy. clxx. was the revelation of the god in his ultimate aspect. while unfolding itself. . the god. visage. 7 Damascius. which might apply to " an angel of light. did he do so.3 It was " the revelation of a worshipped by the masses. 428 Hislop.. clxxi. Bihliotheca. and it is said that the secret has never been divulged. Herod. refuses to mention the name of the god. p."'* Jupiter. 5 * is . Des Sciences Occultes. Lemprifere. 343.^ Following the teachings of a mysterious religion." 7 Here. and prepare him for what was its chief object. Bacchus. and Potter. invest the rite with awe and solemnity. It seems evident that the "Apporeta." quite in accordance with the statement of the Apostle.. The initiated were supposed to be made partakers of the nature of .. than gave to fear their indiscretion. 2 Cor.e. or flashes of lightning appeared on every side. could not fail to impress him powerfully. At other times hideous noises and bowlings were heard and the trembling spectators were alarmed by sudden and dreadful apparitions. of 666. 9. 329. p. " Apporeta. evidently divine and supernatural. and as a serpent was placed in the bosom of the person as ' ^ 3 Eusebe Salverte.s The appearance of the god is thus described by au ancient initiate " In a manifestation which one must not reveal there is seen on light of which appears at first at a verythe wall of the temple a mass It is transformed. This severe but sweet aspect. a god different from those known as The initiate was bound by the most solemn oaths never to reveal it. cap. 14. Eleudnia. who had brought sin and death into God superior to all those i. Osiris. Ante. and immediately afterwards to be enveloped in gloomy darkness.

vol. Bryant. considering the character of the god. pp. is sufficient to indicate the general nature and character of the ancient offices filled and the various oracles through idolatry. diviners. through the same aid. ' Pausanias. or professed to cure. Attica. 194. pp. or the numerous temples of health under their direction. " Phoroneus Liberator.. lib. Deane's Serpent Worship. Attica. 52.FEATURES OF THE REVIVED IDOLATRY t 351 the token of initiation. and which was symbolised by the fruit of the forbidden tree in Eden. . and other priesthood. xliv. by the Pagan which they sought the aid and guidance of the gods.. with what has been now said. Pagan god. These things have already been fully referred to in a former chapter. who was symbolised by a serpent." and "Bacchus the Bacchus a serpent may also be remarked that in the rites of was and mysterious symbol. from the fear of the God the as the ^Hence the Deliverer. 186 . 188. magicians and necromancers. p. 189." '^ Judge and Punisher of sin. called " the cup of Agathodsemon " (the good demon). they cured. v. was the Serpent god. cap. emancipated. while the worshippers carried a serpent in baskets with honey cakes marked with the sacred " omphalos. he was freed. p. being ^ supposed to be freed from the consequences of sin. Similarly.. Apud Gronov. cap. XX. all diseases. and. ^ it is evident that the god whose nature the person was supposed to receive. De Pdtu Bacch. and note. . or it \. So also in the Mysteries a consecrated cup of wine was handed round. 53. vii. i. 25 . The initiated was also declared to be " enlightened " and " emancipated " and . by which. . the initiate." It significance of the title given to the ''Jupiter Emancipator. = Hislop.^ carried in a box as the great It is not necessary to allude further here to the augurs. Nicola. and small pyramids symbolic of the rays of the Sun." the symbol of the goddess. seems evident that the I enlightenment referred to that knowledge of evil which was the ^ subject of the Hermetic teaching. Pausanias.

which constantly placed the more thoughtful in a position of antagonism to their religion.. which. sought to check the excesses and abuses of the priesthood and religious houses who obeyed the See of Rome. in much the same way as the kings and parliaments of England. should not The poets and classical authors of much to cover the ancient . especially in the later periods of their history. we consider the true moral aspect of the ancient Paganism Scriptures. etc. Sorcery and methods of the Pagan priesthood. there are the constantly.CHAPTER XVII THE MORAL ASPECT OF PAGANISM Reference has already been made to the numerous forms in which the ancient Magic. in conclusion. the system had lost much of its pristine influence. are identical with the arts by which the ancient sorcerers and magicians sought the aid of these daimonia. from Alfred the Great to the Reformation. and many of whom appear to have settled there. who dwelt so close to Greece. just laws and remarkable history of the people of Israel. Nor are these characteristics in the Greeks and Romans difficult to explain. and who seek the aid and guidance of spirits. can only be the same daimonia who gave the Pagan priesthood their powers while the associated practices of Church of . Hypnotism. Faith-healing. in the For. not to mention the Saint worship practised Rome.increasing numbers of those who follow modern Spiritualism and Theosophy. are being revived at the present day. In both peoples there was a recognition of the claims of justice and righteousness. and which led their rulers to check and modify the excesses of its priesthood. 352 . » » Mesmerism. although asserted to be the spirits of the dead. and to conceal its more sinister features but both amongst the Greeks and the Romans. and the consultation of the supposed spirits of the dead. as it is regarded in both the Old and New Testament Greece and Rome have done Paganism with a mantle of romance. for it is impossible that the fame of the power. It |i may be therefore of some interest and importance to many if.

but the Scribes and Pharisees and the priesthood. befriended the common people were only too glad to read the newly- printed Bibles and seize. when it was still This was the case with the nations of Phoenicia or Canaan. The Phoenician idolatry was preeminently one of blood. but were filled with a vindictive malice towards Him who while the told them the truth. So likewise and pitied in Reformation times. Z . not only raised the moral standard of Greece. 37." ^ and were open to receive the truth. and it its full evil must therefore be sought in those countries where in the reigned supreme. - period. murder. and that Roman Catholics at the time of the Reformation. its priesthood and devotees. were not only deaf to the demands of truth and true righteousness.^ and it was against this idolatry that the God of Israel so solemnly warned His people. and of Rome who obtained her laws from Greece. The stringency of the commands to Israel with regard idolatry and the idolaters is to this remarkable. but prepared both peoples in later times to listen to and accept the precepts of Christianity. ' Israel was commanded — Both were to be utterly " Ye shall utterly destroy all Mark It xii. who manifest This is illustrated and especially by that of of by the whole history of the world. lives. This was equally true of the priesthood and devotees of Paganism. and of every unnatural lust and crime. and are more or less indifferent to its demands. was probably much the same in Babylon and Assyria at the same and the tortures inflicted by the Assyrians on their prisoners exceed belief. It must be remembered also that the evil effects of a false religion are not seen in those who pay little attention to it. and all martyrs. and by so doing have. by which time the resuscitated idolatry appears to have attained full power. It is rather those with whom it constitutes the business of their its full evil.THE MORAL ASPECT OF PAGANISM 353 have spread abroad those principles of righteousness and justice which appeal to the conscience of man. the devotees of a false righteousness and of the ritual and ordinances which they had made idols of. consumed. the priesthood and devotees burnt every Bible they could and without remorse tortured and burnt who taught its doctrines. the Jews at the time of Christ. Testaments. when conquered by Israel. and at those periods zenith of its power. In the former case the publicans and sinners and the common people heard Christ " gladly. and consequently fail to come fully under its influence. and remorseless cruelty.

xvi. — not after their gods. snared therein Neither shalt thou bring an abomination into thy house lest thou become a cursed thing like unto it. saying. not a single custom or rite was to be adopted and used in the service of Jehovah. but thou shalt utterly abhor and detest it for it is a cursed thing " (Deut. and burn their groves with fire. for every abomination to the Lord which he hateth have they done unto their gods" (Deut. 31). take heed to thyself that thou be not snared by following them after that they be destroyed from before thee. and break down their images. the Lord thy God. 2-5. Thus every symbol of idolatry was to be destroyed. xii. and cut down their groves and burn their graven images with fire. The very presence feature of an idolatrous symbol might bring a curse. and the person in whose possession it was might become a cursed thing like unto . So also with the Ritual of Paganism. vii. Again they were commanded "Thou shalt not plant thee a grove of any trees near unto the altar of the Lord thy God " (Deut. not a was to be retained. Thou shalt make no covenant with them nor show mercy unto them neither shalt thou make marriages with them thy daughter shalt thou not give to his son. as well as their molten images. and ye shall hew down the graven images of their gods and destroy their names out of that place" (Deut. 354 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD the places where the nations which ye shall possess served their and ye shall overthrow their altars. and "quite pluck down all their high places" (Numbers xxxiii. and break their pillars. How did these nations serve their Thou shalt not do so unto gods. the anger of the Lord be kindled against you to destroy you suddenly. as symbols of The prohibition shows that the least symbol their chief god. 3.— . of idolatry was regarded as a danger. This was on account of the sacred significance which the Pagans attached to these groves and to trees generally. thou shalt smite them and utterly destroy them.) " And when the Lord thy God shall deliver them before thee. Thou shalt not desire the silver or gold that is on them. 26). : — — . xii. But thus shall ye deal with them. Ye shall destroy their altars. 2. 52). and that thou enquire gods. nor take it unto thee. nor his daughter shalt thou take unto thy For they will turn away thy son from following me so will son. lest thou be for it is an abomination to the Lord thy God. " When the Lord thy God shall cut off the nations from before thee. 21). 25. Thus we read. even so will I do likewise. . So also the Israelites were told to destroy all the "pictures" of the idolaters. .

and. extendeth not to thee (Ps. but the necessary But if decreed consequence of the sin itself. Canaanite nations. to the fact that " religiousness" has come to be more esteemed than righteousness. what givest thou unto him ? or what receiveth he of thy hand ? Thy wickedness may hurt a man as thou art and thy " My righteousness may profit the son of man " (Job xxxv. we consider the matter. " Have ye not asked them which go by the — .) It is true that God does sometimes visit sin in this world by eternity. religious zeal.: THE MORAL ASPECT OF PAGANISM it." live." .) asks Job. direct punishment. having given themselves up to idolatry. 2. were commanded to be destroyed. 355 What was being. 29." says the Psalmist. is regarded as the evidence of a person's holiness. become old. what doest thou unto him ? If thou be righteous. in no small measure. we shall see that the judgments and the curses pronounced against certain sins are not the arbitrary inflictions of an offended judge. xvi. are mighty in Job power way. as in the case of the Pharisees of the Jewish Church. however misdirected. and if the people of God were so " replies. and condemn and despise those who are more scrupulous. the reason of this? Why was the idolater his an accursed and even the senseless symbols of idolatry ''cursed things"? The excuses made for idolatry and idolatrous piety at the present day are due. "do the wicked ? prosperous " Wherefore. yet this is rather the exception than the rule. supposing that in commanding the destruction of the idolaters and pronouncing a curse against those who tampered with idolatry.) " " goodness. and the If then a curse was pronounced on the idolater. and as representing God in a way which repels them. 7. Hence there are those who see no harm in adopting the ritual and many of the surroundings of idolatrous worship. yea. is The ordinary lot of the unrighteous in this world " They have more than heart can wish" (Ps. 6-8. It is natural that such persons should be inclined to view the commands given to the Israelites as unnecessarily harsh and severe. 30). and do ye not know their tokens ? That the wicked is reserved They shall be brought forth to the to the day of destruction ? day of wrath " (Job xxi. The sin of a created being cannot affect " If Him " who dwelleth in thou sinnest. 7. Ixxiii. He did so to satisfy His anger and offended majesty in the death and sufferings of the transgressors. what doest thou unto him ? or if thy transgressions be multiplied.

" and this is the state of the idolater. It is the most powerful evidence of sympathy. to be "anathema. when perfect.. and therefore bond of union between moral beings. just as unbelief the characteristic and evidence of man's spiritual death or separation from God.356 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD solemnly warned against that idolatry. the uniform testimony of Scripture is to the effect that God regards with especial favour the poor and needy. But there is nothing which so calls forth the pity and sympathy of perfect goodness towards need and suffering. is Hence. so is faith the characteristic and evidence of eternal life and union with God. by solemn warning and chastisement. 5). eternally unites the creature to the Creator. xvii. may be awakened." I did He not place a limit on that malignity. So also the pity and compassion. Hence. " cursed is the man who trusteth in man. and the most irreligious. It is not until a person has transferred all his religious hopes and dependence to beings other than God. f and temporal evils. so is power attracted to weakness. He keeps them of especially of all men. is to be cut off from this protecting power. . are not without some latent consciousness of their dependence on an unseen God. But to be " accursed. who. and a bond which. as trust and dependence on the part of the sufferers. and whose heart departeth from the Lord " ( Jer. which are ever the accompaniment of goodness. . that he can be said to be wholly cut off from God. acts of The Pagan rites were regarded as a service done to the gods. or cut himself off. by I It is a condition of the moral law. and maketh flesh his arm. in times of earthly trouble and extremity. from God. sought God is said to be " the Preserver (soter) to preserve His people. to which they dangers innumerable I from those would be subjected by the malignity of the powers of darkness. it implies that there must have been a proportionate evil in it to the souls of men. And the followers of Paganism came under the condemnation of both. I those who believe. and so sharply and severely punished every time they fell under its influence. the broken in spirit. which. and whose aid and guidance he will therefore seek in times of trouble." i." Hence. are called forth by that weakness and need. but it is also written. has separated. 15). from which God. as homage which satisfied their demands and appeased their .e. and those who tremble at His word. " cursed be the man who maketh a graven image (Deut. Yet the greatest sinners. i or given over to destruction his own act. and to have become " accursed. that just as weakness and need are attracted to power. it is " not only stated xxvii.

both temporal and to visible. incantations and ritual acts were the ordinary objects of dependence. were merely spectators of the ritual performed by the priesthood. spiritual. as all . righteousness consisted of ritual acts and ordinances or self-mortifications Holy water. and. . Hence they necessarily obtained the entire trust. dependence and obedience of the people. life from that which is without life (Isa. and men were actually encouraged in sin by the ease with which the gods could be propitiated. 19). who. to the good of righteousness. The Word of God and the Spirit of God appeal to the heart and conscience and the moral and spiritual part of man. charms. For all guidance in religion. and to the mercy of God. and as mediators between the gods and men. or even thought of. and placing followers. signs. Thus the mind and affections of the Pagan and his entire dependand this is the whole spirit ence were confined to created things " worshipping and serving the' is idolatry. practically obtained the dominion of the world. for the most part. localised in that temple. the pious Pagan depended on a human priesthood. It and principle of spirit from' seeking i. who. images. he did so by appealing to them through The special presence of each god was also connected their images. while they were 357 rites also which were supposed to purify the souls. could be left at will. to the promises of the future. nevertheless.THE MORAL ASPECT OF PAGANISM anger. the sacrifice of the round cake atoned for his sins. in short. charms. The priesthood. as arbiters of their spiritual destinies. viii. and a reverent credulity in the efficacy of the ritual was all that was demanded. creature rather than the Creator " (Rom. opening his the dependence due to eyes to the truth. Holy water purified the sinner. stood in the place of God to their knowledge and spiritual effects were to be obtained. grandeur and power. the sole channel through which God on men and created things. changing thereby his mind . matter. In like manner. and obtain pardon for the sins of the worshippers. But no moral change in the sinner was required. impressed the worshipper's mind with the idea of a being of material. material or created things. all dependence for assistance. on whom also devolved the whole performance of the ritual and the interpretation of the oracles. for instruction or advice. was transferred relics. with the inhabitant of a mighty temple. 25). relics and holy signs preserved him from worldly danger. but therefore of finite. the surroundings of which . auguries and oracles revealed the will of the gods and if he wished to pray to them.

if. . but his mind and affections were absorbed in that which was natural and sensual. It is not to be supposed that the ancient Pagans. imagination. The Pagan devotee was thus wholly separated from the true God. . but the feelings and sentiments evoked by music and art and anything of merely rnaterial This was the character of the ancient beauty and grandeur. its air of mystery and awe. not moral faculties. 201. calling forth in the more religious those temporary emotions and passing sentiments of piety. I Paganism. and the psychical or natural part of man." or " natural life.— 358 THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD and affections. or cut off. from His guidance and protection and Scripture implies that there are legions of evil spirits ever ready to enter into. whose vast and silent aisles and " gloom impressive told a god dwelt there. and thus complete and confirm their separation from God." ^and it is the term used by the Apostolical writers to distinguish that which is natural." It refers to the passions. But the ritual of idolatry appealed only to the senses. were those very evil spirits. His very piety was the outcome of imagination and psychical feeling. ii. not merely the grosser passions. and blind him to the demands of true righteousness. Its splendour and It appealed solely to the senses. Potter. and whose guidance and assistance he sought. " the soul. and producing in him hope in. the minds of those deprived of that protection. or delude and pervert. which men. accursed. bk. its sumptuous surroundings. its mighty temples. not only was the trust and dependence of the Pagan placed on material and created things. which is the effect of religious truth. and it is usually translated in the New Testament by the word " natural. ^ and includes. iii. p. but entirely by these appeals to the senses and imagination. and love towards God. lib. have mistaken for spirituality. and the greater his devotion the more effectually did this false piety shut out from his mind everything of a moral and spiritual nature. at all times. . any more than ^^ ' .e. the stirring: and solemn strains of its music. Fasti. ii. Hence. chap." or characteristic of man by nature. by any appeal to the conscience and i. ' Ovid. from that which is spiritual.. feelings produced." ^ had a powerful effect on the senses and imaginaHion. The word '^psychical " is from -^Zyjxog. but which are purely psychical feelings. sentiments and affections which are called forth by the things of time and sense. maofnificence. But that which made the Pagan devotee still more hopelessly accursed or cut off from God was the fact that the gods he worshipped and trusted in.

willing and able to assist their descendants in the flesh. was the result of a deliberate and sinister design by a succession of wicked men. ignorant of the true God. The worship of the dead. little by little. were sufficient warnings against such intercourse. and placed their trust in that which was not God. on the supposition that thej^ were the active and ' powerful inhabitants of the unseen world. the device of the guiding spirit of the ancient idolatry. ii. But it was very different with spirits which were supposed to be those of the human race. were the cause of the wickedness which brought on the destruction of the antediluvian world. 2. . as stated by the Apostle. and it was. and became in very truth." who were " in the earth " in the the days before the Flood. iv." ^ The foundation of the system was manifestly the worship of the ^ spirits of the dead. xii. and who." "the I spirit which worketh in the children of disobedience. was I alien spirits. 4. Men would have shrunk from seeking the aid of alien and unknown beings who might be spirits of evil. avowedly worshipped evil spirits. thus became a stepping-stone for bringing the human race under the influence and guidance of evil spirits the great enemy they fell spirits of the ." ^ and who by this means obtained for himself the open worship of the bulk of the human race. and possessed of common sympathies and experience. ^development. Everything points to the fact that it was the result of a process of gradual development. men forsook God. working with one accord from generation to generation with that purpose in view. were led to t^adopt. the different features on which the system was and that the guiding spirit. This delusion was carefully inculcated I to the last. and whose aid might therefore be reckoned upon to avert the hostility of |built up. But in seeking the aid of these supposed spirits of the dead. under the influence of evil spirits personating the supposed dead who could neither hear nor aid them. 9 . related to them. it is implied. when its chief god was identified with the Prince of Evil. or that Paganism in its ultimate form. without doubt. The memory of the deception of their first parents. ' 2 Cor. hostile to the human race. " the god of this world. and having thereby cut themselves off from His guidance and protection.THE MORAL ASPECT OF PAGANISM 359 modern Spiritualists. In short. ' Rev. and of the " Nephilim " or " fallen ones. was fully recognised in the Pagan system. the existence of evil spirits. from first to last of this him "who deceiveth the whole world. Eph. which consisted largely of incantations and other methods for averting their hostile influence. in which men.

is to say murder." fact. proud. in their enthusiasm. Hence the Apostle's description of them as "given over to vile affections. Their conscience became. and to the demands of true righteousness as evil (Heb. the only unpardonable sin was speaking against the gods and the established religion. prostitution and unnatural crimes by them as fornication. " Every abomination to the Lord which He hateth. unmerciful " (Rom. it was remarkable with what blind tenacity and aff"ection the people clung to their delusions. being filled with all unrighteousness. as good. have they done unto their gods"." leading them to regard the reject X. 32). which their religion demanded. despiteful. covetousness. " Great is Diana of the Ephesians. . deceit. is This description of the moral effects of the ancient Paganism sufficient evidence of its evil. human practised were an essential feature of the service of their gods. aflfection. 14 evil. as in the case of the people of Ephesus. cried out In for upwards of two hours. that sacrifices. 24. to murder. . knowing well that. such as those of Christendom before the Reformation. without understanding. . in short. whisperers. while every kind of sin was permitted. once men could be separated from the guidance and protection of God. and being "past feeling. as God said to Israel. fornication. they gave themselves over to lasciviousness to work all uncleanness with greediness. without natural implacable. ix. the conscience and moral perceptions of the idolater became utterly darkened. maliciousness . full of envy. showing how completely its it perverted the minds and destroyed the conscience of followers. malignity God. who would. Even amongst the Greeks and Romans. fall most completely under the influence of the beings they worshipped. disobedient parents. covenant breakers. backbiters.36o of THE WORSHIP OF THE DEAD man. condemned to death by the Athenians. to do those things which are not convenient. to a mind void of judgment (margin). i. as was illustrated by the case of Socrates. or condoned. haters of of evil inventors things. they could easily and rapidly be led to give their entire trust and dependence to himself and his subordinate spirits of evil. an ''evil coiiscie^ice." or. Under the influence and teaching of these spirits of evil. characteristic was the extraordinary fas- cination and strong delusion which this religion exercised over the more especially in the case of its devotees. wickedness. But the most marked minds of its followers . who. as well as other civilised but idolatrous nations. debate. 32). of necessity.

and truth. but to the already referred nature. 38). sensible. to. therefore the nations are mad. Man. and endangered the life of the speaker. distress and human The those whose exercise of faith has perplexity. The Scriptures therefore liken idolatry to drunkenness and madness " Babylon hath been a golden cup in the hands of the Lord. and the images which represent them to his imagination. feedeth on ashes. Truth and righteousness produce no effect upon him. the characteristic of all who sought the satisfaction of the lusts and . " He most intellectual. and such persons find it impossible to trust to the promises of an unseen God in time of danger. " It is the land of graven images. on which to rest his hopes. and the Word of God which condemns his idolatry. he demands something visible. and they are mad upon their idols" (Jer. so that he cannot deliver himself or say." carried no weight to their " a sign from heaven. a word spoken against the Virgin or Saints in some Roman Catholic countries. while blasphemy against God would have been passed over. to make all the earth drunken." Again. the idolatrous devotee is completely hypnotised by spirits of evil. The nations have drunken of her wine. i. it is said. In other words." and. tangible and So it was with the Jews. xliv. speaking of Babylon. and no power on earth can prevail upon him to recognise and resist his : . only arouses his anger and hatred and this is true. would have aroused the fury of the populace. in consequence. a deceived heart hath turned him aside. on the supposed spirits of the dead.THE MORAL ASPECT OF PAGANISM 361 Nothing illustrates the power of this fascination or delusion more than the blind adoration bestowed by the idolater. but of the Hence the description of the prophet. The devotee of idols is thus beyond the reach of argument and reason. whether Pagan or Romish. For it is well known that. which conrighteousness Christ's The moral evidence of " the Son of the Christ. the prophet says. 20). living God. the was He vinced His own disciples that of Him demanded They minds. li. delusions. not merely of those who have little capacity for reflection. The fact. " looketh on the outward appearance. fascination exercised by it idolatry is not merely due to the influence of spirits of evil on the minds of its followers. Is there not a lie in my right hand?" (Lsa." some palpable and sensible evidence to convince them of His authority and mission and Christ said that this was . a few years ago. that appeals to the natural inclinations of always been a stumblinginterests and aflections are absorbed by the block to things of time and sense. 7.

5). and the sinner finds more satisfaction from the authoritative "/ absolve thee" of the priest than from the most explicit promises of God to those who seek His mercy. and which. and instead of having to seek the help of an unseen God. . there was one of these images which were believed to be inhabited by the spirit of a god. human obtain spiritual results visible and authoritative source of truth to instead of having to seek the guidance of which all may appeal. the effort required to seek their assistance might deter the person from doing so. and not without reason. the thought that help might possibly be obtained from them would present a temptation. This. for the remarkable i The word it is " adulterous " seems to be used by Christ here used in other Scriptures. that the spirit of a god dwelt. " An evil and adulterous generation. the Pagan had before him a visible and tangible image in which he believed. For if the Christian has to fight against " the hosts of wicked spirits in heavenly places. when the mind is overwrought or unstrung. which professes to by physical acts and material means under human priesthood which claims to be the and a control. the fountain of living waters. and who are guilty of spiritual adultery with regard to God. as "fiery darts from the ^ wicked one. which those without true faith in God would certainly succumb to. has always had a fascination to the majority of mankind who seek their portion in this world. seeketh after a sign.362 I . we may be certain that these spirits would seize the opportunity thus afforded % them to delude and " hypnotise " the mind of one whose " heart had departed from the Lord " (Jer. the ancient Paganism to every unspiritual Israelite to whom faith was a stumbling-block. or the interests and pleasures of this world. xvii. and to possess strange and remarkable powers. It appealed to the senses of men. as we have seen. Were these images at a distance." and to resist steadfast in the faith the suggestions and temptations which. Herein lay the danger of. once fully yielded to." Hence. a religion of sacraments and signs." He said.