Sensors and Actuators 79 Ž2000. 36–45 www.elsevier.


A fibre-optic grating sensor for the study of flow-induced vibrations
W. Jin

a, )

, Y. Zhou b, P.K.C. Chan a , H.G. Xu


Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic UniÕersity, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China b Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic UniÕersity, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China Received 24 March 1999; accepted 4 June 1999

Abstract A fibre-optic Bragg grating sensor for flow-induced vibration measurement is described. The sensor is based on monitoring shift in the Bragg wavelength of a fibre Bragg grating. The fibre Bragg grating, when bonded onto a structure, can measure local axial strain variation of the structure. The sensor was used to measure the flow-induced vibrations on a circular cylinder in a cross-flow. The measured strain ´ is consistent with the transverse structural bending displacement Y obtained from a laser vibrometer in terms of the natural frequency of the fluid–structure system and the vortex shedding frequency. The experimental data further indicated that ´ and Y are linearly correlated when the bending displacement is small. It is expected that the fibre Bragg grating sensor, because of its physical uniqueness, has an important role to play in the study of fluid–structure interactions. q 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Optical sensors; Fibre-optic sensors; Bragg grating sensors; Flow-induced vibrations

1. Introduction Since Hill et al. w1x first discovered photosensitivity in optical fibre, Fibre Bragg Grating ŽFBG. has been a subject of intense research and development at many institutions around the world. Although the development of FBGs has been led primarily by their applications in telecommunications, FBG sensors have attracted considerable interest from various fields because they are simple and intrinsic sensing elements which can be photo-inscribed into a silica fibre and have all the advantages normally attributed to fibre-optic sensors w2x. One application of the FBGs is for smart structures where FBG sensor arrays can be embedded into materials to allow the measurement of parameters such as load, strain, and temperature, from which the health of the structure can be assessed on a real time basis. Numerous papers have been published in the area of FBG sensors and the state-of-the-art may be found in a recent review by Kersey et al. w3x. In this paper, we report the application of the FBG sensor for the measurement of flow-induced structural vibrations. Flow-induced vibrations on a structure in a cross-flow are complex and complicated, involving coupling between the structural dynamics and the turbulent flow field. Since
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the vibrations have a significant impact on the fatigue life of structures and may even have disastrous consequences, interest in documenting and predicting the vibrations under different flow conditions is rapidly growing. To understand fluid–structure interactions, instrumentation for accurate vibration measurement is essential. Common techniques used to measure flow-induced forces are the piezoelectric load cell technique w4,5x and the dynamic pressure transducer method w6,7x, which traditionally employed strain gauges to measure the acceleration. Alternatives to the dynamic pressure transducer are the displacement transducer w8x and the accelerometer w9x. The displacement transducer of the capacitive type could be used to measure the oscillation of cantilevered structures in a cross-flow w8x. However, the load cells, the dynamic pressure transducers, the displacement transducers and the accelerometers all have finite masses. Therefore, all these techniques suffer from one common drawback, that is, the introduction of lumped mass into the structure, which alters the structural integrity and the dynamic response of the structure. As such, the measured fluid–structure interactions will be different from the true free vibration problem. A number of techniques are available for the measurement of strain and displacements of a vibrating structure. These include the use of strain gauges w10,11x, which could either measure strain or the amplitude of vibrations, and the laser vibrometer w12,13x, which could measure the

0924-4247r00r$ - see front matter q 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 9 2 4 - 4 2 4 7 Ž 9 9 . 0 0 2 4 5 - 9

or simultaneous measurement of many structures. the laser vibrometer. r Sensors and Actuators 79 (2000) 36–45 37 bending and torsional displacements.W. to resolve the true fluid–structure interaction effects is not very suitable. is a non-intrusive technique. w13x to study the dynamic behavior of an elastic cylinder in a cross-flow and the fluid–structure interactions at synchronization. a brief discussion is given in Section 5. Using wavelength division multiplexing andror other multiplexing techniques. Generic concept of Bragg grating strain sensing. Therefore. where the structural natural frequency is approximately equal to its vortex shedding frequency. the FBG sensors may be used to measure fluctuating strain at any point on a structure even when it is positioned within an array. The FBG is photo-inscribed into an optical fibre using a high power UV laser beam and is associated with a small periodic refractive index variation in the fibre core. overcoming the drawback of the laser vibrometer. On the other hand.. Its use with LDA or hot-wire could represent a unique tool for the study of fluid–structure interactions. FBG sensors are unique in a number of aspects. given by: lB s 2 n L . 1. the FBG sensors have potential to be used for simultaneous multi-point measurement on a single structure. The principle of the FBG sensor for the measurement of fluctuating strain will be presented in Section 2. just like the LDA. Secondly. Jin et al. However. 1 shows the generic concept of strain sensing using an FBG. Firstly. Ž 1. it is difficult to use the laser vibrometer to characterize a structure within an array because adjacent structures could block or contaminate the laser beamrsignal. as light is guided by optical fibres which are flexible Žcan be bent. . and light in weight. experimental details and results will be reported in Section 4. they are small in size Žthe diameter can be as small as 80 m m. This new tool has been employed by Ching et al.1. The use of strain gauges again suffers the same drawback as the load cell method in that the presence of the strain gauges alters the structural properties of the structure and thus its dynamic characteristics. Sensing principle 2. These measurements may be of significance in determining the instantaneous operational mode shape of a structure in a cross-flow and in studying flow–structure interactions. a narrow band component as indicated by the spike in the reflection spectrum is reflected back at the Bragg resonance wavelength lB . 2. its use with laser Doppler anemometer ŽLDA. When the light of a broadband spectrum is guided through the optical fibre to the FBG. Concept of FBG strain sensing Fig. the performance of the sensor will be presented in Section 3. Their attachment onto a structure should cause a negligible effect on the vibrational characteristics of structures. which make them ideal for flow-induced vibration measurement. The Bragg wavelength is strain-dependent through Fig. where L is the grating pitch and n is the fibre refractive index.

. we obtain the light intensity: I s Ip exp yd l2 nor . R G Ž l . and Ž8. Detection of waÕelength shift Dl B Assume that the reflection coefficient of the FBG and the transmission coefficient of the tunable filter as function of wavelength are R G Ž l y lB . Is Hy` P Ž l. the relationship between ´ and D lB is given by w3x: D lB s 0. For a uniform sinusoidal index variation. TF Ž l y lF .. TF Ž l y lB y lF . f Pl Hy` R G Ž l . A detailed description of the FBG sensor system is given below. The wavelength shift D lB can be detected by a number of techniques w2. Ž4. where R G is the peak reflectivity of the grating and BG is the full-width at half-maximum ŽFWHM. Fig.78 lB 0 ´ . Ž 7. Pl. Ž 4. and d lnor is a normalised wavelength mismatch defined as: d lnor s ž( 2'ln 2 2 2 BG q BF / dl. 2.38 W. Ž6. 2. The transmission spectrum of the Fabry–Perot filter may also be modelled to have a Gaussian shape given by: T F Ž l .2. and TF Ž l y lF . Ž 6. grating bandwidth. Ž3. The power spectrum of the broadband source is normally by far broader than the tuning range of the grating and hence. Jin et al. B F .3x. and Ž5. T F and R G are fixed. a strain of 1 m´ will result in a shift of D lB s 1. . where P Ž l. Dependence of normalised output Ž I r Ip . For a standard single mode silica fibre. Ž 5. R ` G Ž l y lB . where lB0 is the Bragg wavelength of the grating under strain-free condition.Substituting Eqs. i. Ip is a peak output light intensity given by: Ip s 'p PlTF R G '4ln 2 (B 2 2 G q BF . would cause a shift D l B in lB . r Sensors and Actuators 79 (2000) 36–45 physical elongation of the sensor and through the change in the fibre refractive index due to photoelastic effects w14x. The reflection spectrum of the FBG depends on the exact profile of the refractive index variation within the fibre core. s R G exp y 4ln 2 2 BG 2 Ž l y lB . Ž 8. and can therefore be used to measure the wavelength variation D lB .2 pm. the FBGs are designed to have a reflection spectrum of approximately Gaussian shape w15x. BG .. For many applications. to a voltage signal that is amplified. 2. the reflection spectrum has been derived analytically and was found to be a rather complicated function of grating parameters. The output light intensity is a function of l B y l F . Based on Eq. An applied strain Ž ´ . The intensity signal is converted. indicate that the intensity I will vary only with d l and can therefore be used as a measure of D l B . . d l Ž 3. The light intensity at the output of the optical filter may be written as w15x: ` where BF is the FWHM bandwidth of the filter and TF0 is the transmission coefficient of the filter. l B s lB0 q D lB is the Bragg wavelength of the FBG when a strain is applied. respectively. for a nominal Bragg wavelength of lB0 s 1556 nm as used in the present study. s T F 0 exp y 4ln 2 2 BF 2 Ž l y lF . it may be assumed to have a constant spectrum power Pl over this limited range. Eqs. where d l s l B y lF s lB0 y lF q D lB is the wavelength mismatch. For a particular sensor system. is the power spectrum of the broadband light source. B F BG In Eq. sampled and processed to recover the applied strain signal. d l . through a photodetector. where lF is the centre wavelength of the tunable optical filter.e.. Ž6.. Ž2. Ž 2. and evaluating the integration. on normalised wavelength mismatch d lnor . into Eq. The dependence of the normalised light intensity Inor s IrIp on d l nor is illustrated in Fig. A tunable Fabry–Perot optical filter is used in the present study to convert the wavelength shift to a light intensity variation.

it can be seen that K nor and therefore. Ž12. For a sinusoidal strain modulation. They are related.e. we eventually obtain: Vac s 0. Eq. where K is the wavelength-to-intensity conversion factor that depends on the operation point.W. The normalised scale factor K nor s ŽŽ BG . respectively. Measurement range of the sensor From Fig. K depends on d ldc or the operation point.. where v is the angular oscillation frequency. and Ž8. < F 1.. Ž15. f Ž t . the amplitude and the profile of the fluctuating strain modulation. viz: Ks dI d Ž d lnor . viz: Vac s K e r o Iac s K e r o K lm f Ž t . the intensity modulation may be approximated by: Iac s K lm f Ž t .. Ž 10 . The working point corresponding to K max may be obtained from Eq. The wavelength mismatch d l can be expressed as: d l s d ldc q d lac . For a small l m .1r 2 Ip . s sinŽ v t q f .. . while K and K V r ´ depend on the operation point. the relationship between response Iac and d lac may be approximated by a linear relation. where D lB0 is the DC component and lm is the amplitude of the fluctuating wavelength shift. r Sensors and Actuators 79 (2000) 36–45 39 2.Using Eq. to ´ 0 and ´ m . Ž8. K er o and l B0 are constants. (B 2 2 G q BF Ž 13 . point A in Fig..1r 2 .78 K e r o K lB 0 ´ m f Ž t . and Ž16. and Ž8. Ž2. Ž 16 . 2 .. the wavelength modulation will be converted to intensity modulation ŽFig. Ž 9. Ž 11 .. 8ln 2 The optimal value of K can be derived using Eqs.1r 2 KrŽ4Žln 2. through Eq. Ž 14 . d Ž d l.3. Ž 17 . 4'ln 2 sy d Ž d l nor . as a function of d l nor is shown in Fig. opt ´ m f Ž t . ´ m and f Ž t . 3. 2 q Ž B F . To optimise the sensor performance. 2 q Ž BF . Ž12. where d ldc s lB0 q D lB0 y lF represents a DC component which determines the operation point. . the use of Eq.78 lB0 K er o K max ´ m f Ž t . Near the optimal working point. Ž6. The system output after photodetection is a voltage with an AC component. D l B may be written as: D lB s D lB 0 q lm f Ž t . d lopt s lB 0 q D l B 0 y l F s . Ž15... The function f Ž t . 2. In fact. where ´ 0 is the DC component of the strain. K is equal to K max and the wavelength modulation is converted to intensity (B 2 2 G q BF Ž 15 . because different parts of the waveform see different values of K .. Ž2. When passing through the optical filter. . respectively. i. 2. where K V r ´ s 0. would cause errors. and can written as: K max s Ž 12 .. the corresponding sensor output is Vac s Ž K V r ´ . i.. we must adjust the operation point so that K or K nor is maximised.e. i. (B 2 2 G q BF .78 K er o K l B0 is a scale factor that relates the output voltage variation to the fluctuating strain. . Measurement of dynamic strain Assume an applied longitudinal strain: ´ s ´ 0 q ´m f Ž t . s 0. Ž15. Ip exp Ž yd l2 nor . i. 3. are. the optimal working condition or d l opt can be achieved through the adjustment of lF . For a particular sensing system. 2. Sensor performance 3.e. .4. For a large wavelength modulation.. Optimisation of the scale factor From Eqs.1. '2ln 2 e 2 Ip where K er o is the light-intensity to electric-voltage conversion coefficient of the photodetector. 3. K equals to the first derivative of I Ž d l. s 0. and d lac s lm f Ž t . For a small wavelength modulation. This results in an optimal value of d l. d l nor d l s d l dc . however. 2 . Jin et al. is an AC component due to the fluctuation of strain.e. that can be derived from Eqs. In practice. it can be seen that the sensor response Iac is a non-linear function of d lac . l m < ŽŽ BG . has an average value of zero and satisfies < f Ž t . . Dependence of the normalised scale factor K nor on the normalised wavelength mismatch d lnor . 2. Fig. s K V r ´ ´ m f Ž t . by setting d KrdŽ d lnor .

. Ž8. Obviously. It is therefore important to specify the measurement range over which the sensor can be used for a specified error allowance of the scale factor. 4a. point B.. Ža. 4.. d lnor. the closer the value of K is to K max and the better the system performance. For a % . Assuming working at the optimal operation point. i.2 < and a %.2 . may be determined from Eq. Jin et al.g.1 and d lnor. 2 Žor Eq.. the maximum measurement range in terms of < d lnor < may be estimated from Fig. 4b. can be solved using a graphical method as shown in Fig. Ž15. how- . < lm < n is therefore also dependent on the filter and the grating characteristics. This will introduce a distortion in the output waveform.076 nm. Ž19. however. or lm F 38 pm. 2 . i..e. 2 2 D l s 0.e. is Vn . Ž18.135ŽŽ BG . The noise may be originated from various sources such as quantization error during ArD conversion. 2 q Ž BF . yields: '2 e d lnor exp Ž yd l2 nor .27 BG q BF .1. The measurement range may then be defined as a magnitude of lm Ždenoted as < lm < max . For practical applications. the fundamental noise limit of the Bragg sensor is.1 y d lnor.40 W. 2 . as illustrated in Fig. This results in D l s 0. if the noise level Žin voltage.x1r 2 s 0. into Eq.1r 2 . Ž6..1r 2 . 2 q Ž B F . Substituting Eqs. can be determined from < lm < max using Eq. Take a % s 90% as an example. 3. we have D l nor s 0. etc. 4a as a function of a % is shown in Fig.. Fig. 2 q Ž BF .. and Ž17. Like all types of optical sensors. Graphical method for solving '2 e d lnor expŽy d l2 nor s a % ŽEq. 2 q Ž BF . The measurement range in terms of the fluctuating strain Ždenoted as < ´m < max .1 y d lnor. Ž 21 . thermal noise in the receiver.425 ŽŽ BG . Eq. The measurement range in terms of lm may be estimated as < lm < max f D lr2 s 0. Ž13. corresponding to a strain range of ´m F 37 m´. and is found to be 1r62.2 nm. r Sensors and Actuators 79 (2000) 36–45 modulation very effectively. and can therefore be adjusted by choosing appropriate BG and BF .. SensitiÕity of the sensor Another important parameter is the sensitivity of the sensor in terms of the minimum detectable wavelength or fluctuating strain. The larger the value of a %.2. some parts of the waveform will see a K-value smaller than a % of K max . Ž 18 . the measurement range should be smaller than this value and must depend on the allowance of the scale factor error.e. Žb.rŽ2ln 2. < lm < f < d l <r2 F 0. e. For the parts which are far away from the optimal point. Ž19. s a %.e.. 2 .1r 2 . We are interested here in the measurement range in terms of the amplitude lm of wavelength modulation that is related to the amplitude of the applied fluctuating strain. < K < F a % K max .2 <. Ž 19 . Assuming working around the optimal operating point. ( Ž 20 . by measuring the horizontal distance between the operating point and the peak point of the response curve. i. 2 . Beyond this value. The maximum measurement range in terms of lm is approximately half of < d l <. Ž8. i.45. the wavelength detection accuracy in terms of noise equivalent wavelength < lm < n Žcorresponding to a signal-to-noise ratio of 1. < lm < n s Vn K e r o K max .85ŽŽ BG .. The corresponding wavelength range D l s < d l1 y d l2 < can be calculated from Eq. K may be significantly smaller than K max and the wavelength-to-intensity conversion is less efficient.. The normalised wavelength range D lnor Žs < d lnor. two values of d lnor . Ž2. D l depends on the bandwidth of the filter and the grating. The measurement range in terms of d l can then be derived using Eq. beyond this magnitude. the sensor output will be seriously distorted and will not increase as the amplitude of the wavelength modulation increases. and expressed as < d l < F wŽŽ BG . Relationship between D lnor s < d lnor. The bandwidths of the FBG and the Fabry–Perot filter used in our present investi- As K max is related to the bandwidths of the Bragg grating and the optical filter. satisfy Eq. Ž19. gation are BG s BF s 0. .

The photodetector used was a New Focus Model 2001 Photoreceiver with a responsivity of j s 1 ArW. Y and u were simultaneously offset. Since the streamwise displacement does not result in strain at the point where the FBG is located. The structural vibrations are primarily due to the bending moment. The streamwise fluctuating velocity u was measured by a single hot-wire ŽTungsten.. a dynamic strain of the cylinder. This implies that drag and lift or the streamwise and lateral displacements are responsible for strain. Ž 22 .1. Ž 23 . r Sensors and Actuators 79 (2000) 36–45 41 ever.. and expressed as: I0 s 'e .01 m´. viz. 5. 3r 2 2 p ln 2re PlTF R G j BG B F ' Ž 24 . An acrylic circular cylinder of 6 mm in diameter was vertically mounted in the mid-plane of the working section.35 m. The cylinder in a uniform stream will vibrate due to excitation from the vortex shedding. we have used Vn s K er o Ns . The FBG is about 1 cm long and has a centre wavelength of l B s 1556 nm. negligible. The FBG was located at the mid-span of the cylinder. The signals ´ . the FBG sensor was calibrated to obtain the value of the scale factor K V r ´ that relates the output voltage to the applied strain Žsee Eq. located at xrd s 2 and yrd s 1.2 m from the exit plane of the contraction. 1. and a photodetector ŽFig. The spectrum of the FBG is approximately Gaussian with spectral width BG s 0. The strain is a resultant effect of torsional and bending displacement. The fibre-optic Bragg sensor system presently used consists of an FBG. Flow-induced vibration is associated with a varying displacement and hence.5 m long working section Ž0. the fibre and hence. When an optical fibre built with a FBG sensor is bonded along the cylinder span. filter has also an approximately Gaussian spectral profile with a bandwidth B F s 0. Experiment and results 4. At optimal operation point. after hydrogen loading. a commercial laser vibrometer ŽPolytec Series 3000 Dual Laser Beam Vibrometer.. To measure the lateral displacement. the photon shot noise. where n is the fluid kinematic viscosity. Ž6. The LED has a spectrum density of Pl s 6 mWrnm at 1556 nm. j is detector responsivity in AmpererWatt. the Reynolds number Re Ž' U` drn . a Fabry–Perot tunable filter. and was found to be 3 = 10y7 nmr6Hz or 0. For a detection bandwidth of 1. The FBG was written directly onto a standard telecommunication fibre ŽCorning SMF-28. The laser vibrometer was arranged in such a way that one laser beam measured the displacement at the same point where the FBG was located..35 m = 0.5 kHz per channel. < d lm < nr BN s ( Ns K max s ) 2 2 q Ž BG q BF . the shot noise limited sensitivity of the sensor is found to be 0. Ž2.6 kHz Žthe bandwidth used in our experiment. in general.. amplified and then digitised using a 12-bit ArD card and a personal computer at a sampling frequency of 3. the FBG sensor. For a cylinder subject to a cross-flow. a light-emitting diode ŽLED. varies from 800 to 7200. The mounting was designed to provide a fixed support at both ends so that the cylinder deflections at the supporting points were essentially zero. was used to measure the lateral fluctuating displacement of the cylinder so that the relationship between the two quantities can be quantified. 4.. To compare the measured strain and the lateral displacement. 0. Experiment details Fig. the associated torsion is. The duration of each record was about 15 s. Ž24. source. the optical fibre built with a FBG sensor was bonded along the cylinder span at 908 from the leading stagnation line. where q is the electronic charge. 125 m m diameter. and BN is the bandwidth of the detection circuit.. The minimum detectable wavelength variation can be determined using Eqs.. The differential signal Y from the two beams grossly reduced the contamination of tunnel vibration to the displacement measurement. the strain ´ measured by the FBG sensor was entirely due to the lateral displacement. follows the deformation of the surface and therefore provides a measure of the local strain at a point where the FBG is located. I0 depends on the operation point. The Optical Fabry–Perot ŽF–P. using a standard phase-mask UV written technique w2x. This was done by tuning the Fabry–Perot filter wavelength lF through varying the applied control voltage around the . In the derivation of Eq. The minimum detectable strain can be calculated from the value of < lm < n using Eq.2 nm and a transmission coefficient of TF s 50%. Jin et al. a 50r50 fibre coupler.2 nm and peak reflectivity R G s 80%.. Ž24. The sensitivity of the sensor limited by the shot noise can be calculated by substituting the above-mentioned system parameters into Eq. I0 may be calculated from Eq.5 ŽFig.. – Ž23. Before measurement.8 with a constant temperature anemometer ŽDISA Type 55M10. Ž7. Ž14.. The aim of the experiment was to test the viability to apply the FBG sensor for the measurement of flow-induced vibrations on a cylinder in a cross-flow.W. Ž21. Experiments were conducted for a range of the free stream velocity U` . 5 shows the experimental set-up. The shot noise in terms of light intensity Ns is given by w15x: Ns s ( Ip 2 qI0 BN j . I0 is the mean optical power at the detector.27 n ´r6Hz. The hot-wire was operated at an overheat ratio of 1. the other beam monitored the tunnel vibration. Experiments were conducted in a suction-type wind tunnel with a 0.

6. 6 displays the time histories of ´ Župper trace. meanwhile. 4. an average of the results from the five calibrations was taken as the estimated value of the system scale factor K V r ´ . Time traces of Ža. as determined from the calibration experiments.. the streamwise velocity u from hot-wire Ž Re s 6100. measuring the voltage variation in the system output.. and the streamwise velocity u Žlower trace. The fluctuations have the same frequency as the Fig. for Re s 6100. The discrepancy between the values of K V r ´ obtained from the five calibrations was found to be less than 16%. The ´ signal was calculated by dividing the measured voltage variation from the FBG sensor by the scale factor K V r ´ . Žb. Experimental set-up. Y Žmiddle trace. r Sensors and Actuators 79 (2000) 36–45 Fig. The ratio of the output voltage variation over the change in lF gives K er o K . Both show quasi-periodical fluctuations. This will cause an error in the calculation of the scale factor K V r ´ .78 lB0 K er o K ŽEq. the bending displacement Y from laser vibrometer. All signals were measured simultaneously. 5. Jin et al.. and is estimated to be around 10 pm. Žc. Experimental results Fig.. The signals of ´ and Y exhibit some similarities. Calibration was repeated for five times.2.42 W. The calibration accuracy in determining the wavelength tuning was limited by the accuracy in tuning the control voltage applied to the filter. the fluctuating strain ´ measured from the FBG sensor. The value of K V r ´ was then derived from the value of K er o K using K V r ´ s 0. The uncertainty in ´ is largely attributed to that in K V r ´ and is estimated to be less than 16%. optimal working point and. . Ž14.

quasi-periodical u signal.205. displacement Y . Spectra of measured signals: Ža. One occurs at fs s 512 Hz. but less sensitive to the excitation of the vortex X shedding.0096. 8. This is an advantage of the FBG sensor technique over that of the laser vibrometer. of displacement Y . 7. r Sensors and Actuators 79 (2000) 36–45 43 Fig. the structural vibration at f n is dominated by the first mode that has a maximum vibration Fig. of strain ´ and Yrms Žv . Žc. which has been experimentally verified to be the same as the wind tunnel vibration frequency. Relative to the peak at fsU . the tunnel vibration should not affect the FBG sensor measurement. Jin et al. the peak in EY XU corresponding to f n is larger than that in E´ . of the system w16x or its harmonics. However. E´ is quite similar to E Y in terms of major characteristics. indicates that the vortex shedding frequency fs at Re s 6100 is 512 Hz. which is approximately equal to the fifth harmonic of X fn . all frequencies are made dimensionless by U` and d and are denoted by an asterisk. It appears that the ´ signal is less sensitive to this noise than the Y signal. Fig. strain ´ . Both signals of ´ and Y show the occurrence of beating at about the same time. thus leading to a strain of the cylinder. The beating appears when the forcing frequency is close to the natural X . Another prominent peak occurs at f n s 99 or f n s 0. both exhibit two prominent peaks at identical frequencies.041. Perhaps. a consequence of the excitation due to vortex shedding. or fsU s 0. being fixed on the tunnel wall. The frequency is consistent with the calculated XU natural frequency f n s 0. the cylinder would vibrate with the tunnel and an inertial force associated with the vibration could cause a bending displacement. 7 presents typical spectra at Re s 6100. From this point on. The frequency Ž f n spectra of ´ and Y Žshown later in this section. indicating X that the Y signal is more sensitive to excitation at the f n frequency. streamwise velocity u. In general. In principle.W. identical to the vortex shedding frequency as indicated by X XU Eu . Žb.039 of the combined fluid–structure system. The peak associated with the transverse vibration is not seen in the spectrum of ´ . E´ . In spite of the use of the differential signal. E Y exhibits a peak at f s 24 Hz or f U s fdrU` s 0. . Comparison between the root-mean-square values ´rms Ž'.

e.. there is no displacement corresponding to the second mode at mid-span. The accuracy of this technique may be estimated as follows: at the optimal operation point. When Yrms ) 8 m´ . Further increase in Ur resulted in a very violent vibration and the signal-to-noise ratio of the laser vibrometer worsened substantially. 9.27 ŽFig. The variations of Yrms and ´rms show a similar trend. This is of significance since in most practical applications one is more interested in small displacement vibration. The optimal operation point was coarsely maintained by tuning the control voltage of the Fabry–Perot filter so that the AC output signal is maximised as seen from an oscilloscope. As discussed in Section 3. Around this optimal operation point. and Ž16. particularly at high Re. Any mode of vibration will incur a strain on the structure and hence. r Sensors and Actuators 79 (2000) 36–45 Fig. Discussion During experiments. 8 shows the dependence of the root-mean-square values of Y and ´ . and therefore cause errors in measurements. In view of this. amplitude at mid-span. Jin et al. or Ur ) 27. tends to be less sensitive to the higher modes of the structural vibration. As a result. or Ur . Ž6. . 5. This was done for each wind speed or Reynolds number before taking data. The optimal operation point was more accurately maintained by monitoring the DC component of the sensor output and adjusted it to a pre-determined constant value corresponding to the optimal working point. < DVDC < s dV DC dI dI d l nor D lnor s '2 V DC D l nor .. the measurements were not as reliable. This implies that for small displacement. X component relative to the fs the amplitude of the f n component is larger in the Y signal than in the ´ signal.8 m´ .. 9. the fluctuating lift is not perfectly correlated along the cylinder w7x. a drift in the operation point away from the optimal point will result in a decrease in the value of K Žhence. For example.44 W. the vibration at fs is more likely to be associated with not only the first mode but also the second or higher modes. consequently. V DC s K e r o Ipr'e . can be measured by the FBG sensor. typically 2 d to 3 d. The displacement measurement. Yrms and ´rms appear linearly correlated for Yrms . K V r ´ . the DC voltage can be determined from Eqs. it was noted that the operation point varies from time-to-time. i. This may be due to a drift in the Bragg wavelength of the grating and also in the centre wavelength of the Fabry–Perot filter with environmental effects such as temperature. the variation of the DC components due to a change in wavelength mismatch may be obtained based on Eq. Note that the measurements were conducted only up to Ur f 30. probably as a result of the increasing importance of the non-linear vibrations as well as the higher modes of vibrations.. Ž6. It is therefore important to adjust the system parameters so that the system is always working around the optimal operation point. Ž 26 . the strain measurement can provide us with the same information on vibrations as the displacement. This is due to the fact that the vortex cells in the wake have a limited span-wise width. Ž 25 .. viz. Yrms and ´ rms on the reduced X velocity Ur Ž' U` rfn d . Both increase as Ur increases and their local peaks generally occur at the same Ur . Fig. Ž8. the relationship between the two quantities starts to deviate from the linear relation. On the other hand. Empirical correlation between Yrms and ´rms . however. thus ensuring that the operation is always around the optimal point.

3rd edn. Applications of fiber grating sensors. West. H. S.. and a grant from the Research Grant Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region ŽProject No. Fluctuating lift and drag forces on finite lengths of a circular cylinder in the subcritical Reynolds number range.. K. Current research is directed at developing a multi-point sensing system and using it for the study of the flow–structure interaction. R.W. A. in: R. Ž26. Mechanical Vibrations. Journal of Fluids and Structures 11 Ž1997. A dual beam laser vibrometer for measurement of dynamic structural rotation and displacements. Journal of Fluids and Structures 9 Ž1995. FEDSM98-5188. w7x G. H.J.036 m´. Conclusions A fibre-optic Bragg grating sensor system has been described and experimentally tested. 1998 ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting. VDC is around 140 mV.J. Patric. Measurements of the wake and transverse displacements of a flexible cylinder in a cross flow. The discrepancy may be partly caused by the electronic noise after photodetection. is relatively non-intrusive. The measured strain variation is consistent in terms of the vortex shedding frequency and the natural frequency of the fluid–structure system. H. Mazouzi. and partly by the noise due to the background vibration.H. 2–7. G.P. because of its very small size and light weight. 55 and 638. J. Kawasaki. Trethewey. especially when the structure of interest is located within an array of structures.B. From Eq. Kersey.M. 67–84. Morey. to a value of a % ) 98%. S. Its attachment to the cylinder should have an insignificant effect on the structural integrity and the flow field near the cylinder. Fujii. Fiber Optics and Laser Sensors XIV. Li. So.S. Apelt. This value is three to four times the theoretical performance estimated from the photon shot noise ŽSection 3. with the bending displacement measurement by a commercial laser vibrometer. Hill.Z. H. K. while the voltage measurement accuracy DVDC is about 20 Ž"10.S. J. DC ŽPaper no.G. Geiger. we obtain: < D l nor < s '2 VDC s 0. w5x R.W. H. Ching. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 78 Ž1976.M. E. 1442–1462. w13x A.. Journal of Sound and Vibration 164 Ž1993. w4x A.A.K. Buffeting forces on rigid circular cylinders in cross flows. 350r657 and 350r070. C. Fluctuating forces on a rigid circular cylinder in confined flow. Koo. DVDC sity ŽProject Nos.. Engineering Structures 19 Ž1997. The noise level of the FBG system was measured when the wind tunnel was switched off. Y. The measured strain and displacement appear to be linearly related for small displacement. 165–185. 394–425.W. 561–576. Journal of Lightwave Technology 11 Ž1993. Naudascher. Journal of Lightwave Technology 15 Ž1997.J. M. J. This is much smaller than the 16% error in K V r ´ . 647–649. was found to be 0. 409–425. 6.S. E. Fleeter. 4b.C. Acknowledgements The work described in this paper was supported by research grants from the Hong Kong Polytechnic Univer- . The sensor. Yeung. Richter. from Fig. This is of significance for the study of flow–structure interactions. Mizrahi. caused from the calibration process.M. So. Davis. 1995. D. w12x M.1. Johnson. M.E.K. Cafeo.C. w8x A. M. Laneville.D. B. 1513– 1517. Journal of Fluids and Structures 3 Ž1989. w16x S. w6x J. Feireisen. Rao.. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 105 Ž1981. K. Singh. Y. Modelling and performance analysis of a fiber Bragg grating interrogation system using an acoustic– optic tuneable filter.C. Leung. Applied Physics Letters 32 Ž1978. The noise equivalent strain Žrms value.P. C. Stability effects in a normal triangular cylinder array. Fiber grating sensors. Unsteady aerodynamic forcing functions: a comparison between linear theory and experiment. 391–396.W. Yam. D. Andjelic.G.. 135–158. w9x L. pp. NY. w2x W. De Paula. The fibre grating sensor provides an alternative technique for the measurement of the flowinduced structural vibration. Ž 27 . Jin et al. pp. Journal of Turbomachinery 116 Ž1994. Addison-Wesley. References w1x K. 145–150. 1996. M. w10x D.. This wavelength tuning error corresponds. 729–745. Montgomery. r Sensors and Actuators 79 (2000) 36–45 45 In our experiments. Sommer.O. Savkar. Zhou. LeBlanc. T. Putnam. Ovalling oscillations of cantilevered cylindrical shells in a cross-flow: new experimental data.A. Use of ambient response measurements to determine dynamic characteristics of slender structures. Photosensitivity in optical fibre waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication. w14x V.C. Friebele. Berthod III ŽEds. Ball. mV.D. Optical properties of photosensitive fibre phase gratings. 676–685. Dakin. Xu. Sipe. Washington. smaller than 2% reduction in K from the optimal value.P. Experiments were conducted to measure the flow-induced fluctuating strain due to the lift of a cylinder in a uniform cross-stream. w3x A. w11x M.S. Xue. Popp. Journal of Lightwave Technology 14 Ž1996. 2839. Askins. The effect of tube mass on the flow induced response of various tube arrays in water.P. w15x H. Weaver.D. J. Journal of Sound and Vibration 93 Ž1984.J.A. SPIE. PolyU 5215r98E.

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