Diet in Hinduism

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Diet in Hinduism is traditionally governed by the rules laid out in the Dharmaśāstras, a genre of Sanskrittexts pertaining to Hindu religious and legal duty !he Dharmaśāstras has put much emphasis on "ho#ana$%that &hich is en#oyed%' (thers

0. 9gni. pierce &ith thy flame his vitals as he meets thee )et the fiends drink the poison of the cattle> may 9diti cast off the evildoers .- Contents [hide] 1 ood in the Vedas ! ood in the "harma#$stras % ood and asceticism & Ve'etarian (indus ) Non*ve'etarian (indus + . ( 9gni. the kinds of foods and drinks allo&ed or also .andala . Who steals the milch4co&8s milk a&ay..an4regarder let not the <ātudhāna ever taste it =f one &ould glut him &ith the biesting.eferences / 0iblio'raphy Food in the Vedas[edit] !he oldest Hindu text .igvedic verses in .A.74.ākṣasas in fight o@ercome thee "urn up the foolish ones. &hat causes food defilement. and mention that the beef eating &as common in the /edic times +B-+C.37 . &ith flesh of horses and of human bodies.+3.0 12 .34. from days of old thou slayest demons never shall .and .ig /eda $. the flesh4devourers let none of them escape thine heavenly arro& : .+1.5' speaks about the flesh of the cattle and the horses6+7- !he fiend &ho smears himself &ith flesh of cattle. &hose food &as to be eaten.contain references to the slaughter of cattle.ig /eda $.ay the ?od Savitar give them up to ruin.have attached additional Hindu )a& instructions and taboos to food !ogether.. ( . including 1C .:tear off the heads of such &ith fiery fury !he co& gives milk each year. these address areas such as ho& many times food &as to be taken..0 12 . and eti*uette and ceremonies before taking food both at the time of taking it as &ell as after taking it +.37 B+2.ultiple other . and be their share of plants and herbs denied them 9gni. horses and other animals.5' Some consider this as a disapproval of the co& slaughter and meat eating in general +A- (thers put it in the context of demons and evil spirits $<ātudhāna' stealing the cattle and the milk.A. as &ell as meat eating .34.

the evil deeds of man resort to their food Whoever eats the food of another partakes of that man@s sin I+.7- Food does.0- Food in the Dharmaśāstras[edit] /egetarian thali from Delhi. =ndia Food is the essence of life. &hen eating. except &hen the diner@s mother is alive +. preparation. and social stratification. each of &hich play a huge part in Hindu society Food plays a central role in explaining the Hindu conception of the cosmos and creation itself 9ncient creation stories portray the creator god of the "rahmins as the creator as &ell as the actual food for . are explained here in a &ay &hich relates food to both everyday life for Hindus as &ell as life in the cosmic realm !he production. ethical values. play a useful role in the concept of life for Hindu society .B!he in#unctions found in the Dharmaśāstras are summariKed more clearly by Latrick (livelle in his article %From Feast to Fast6 Food and the =ndian 9scetic % =n his &ork. long4haired.. ritual. (livelle breaks do&n more clearly &hat the Dharmaśāstra prescribes for individual parts of Hindu society 9ll the topics that Jane touched on. and those &ho eat the bleeding flesh of men. from &hich things unfold GHverything is centered in food. Feeders on babes unborn. mentioned above.. . far from this place &e banish these : 9tharva /eda $1 3 7A'+5!he Dpastamba ErautasFtra from <a#urveda has clear references to proper preparation of beef in certain occasions +. ho&ever. exchange and consumption of food have very particular processes of execution !hese aspects of food are all commanded in order to protect kinship.anu says that one should face east &hen partaking in food and the /isnu JH S 31 goes on to say that a man is allo&ed to do so facing south.A=t is also instructed that one &ho is about to eat food should greet the food &hen it is served to him =n performing this act. and never find fault in it +. and so on +.!he 9tharva /eda bans only the eating of the ra& flesh and the human flesh6 !hose &ho eat flesh uncooked. purity.=t is because of this that elaborate restrictions are laid out for =ndian society about everything relating to food Some obscure commands do exist in the Dharmaśāstras about food For example. promotes &hich asset in life Someone facing the south &ould eat food that &ould lead to fame. as one &ho faces &est eats food to produce &ealth.anu == C goes on to tell &hich direction. he should pay honour to it.

connect creation.anu %From the sun comes rain. from the very beginning . since the cosmos represents a giant food cycle. the elite caste. archetypal renouncer begs randomly. but rather begs his food from seven other houses !he highest. the interdependence of all beings is expressed in the transaction of food 9lthough in most Dharmaśāstra texts the behavior to&ards food is described more for "rahmins. each of &hich.29s &ell as being the source of creation. is a vast food chain %+. according to the Dharmaśāstra. ho&ever. four of them involve transaction of food =n this &ay.umbai. and from rain food.his creatures +. food is also seen as a danger in Hindu society 9s food is the source of creation at the cosmic level.C. &ith each different method pertaining to a different subclass of these mendicants !he lo&est class eats at the house of his son or his relative.!he production of food is the immediate concern after the creation of the very first beings (ther creation myths exist. store. that one cannot exist &ithout the other G!he &hole of creation. the next class does not go to the house of his relative. food. so is it the source of immorality at a social level Food is central to sacrificial offerings to the gods Hven of the five daily sacrifices. and therefrom the living creatures derive their subsistenceI+. and sacrifice Food &as held in high respects. recent studies of these texts sho& that similar behavioral patterns existed at all levels of Hindu society !his culture has formulated many prohibitions and classifications &ith regard to food as a critical mechanism for the formation of social groups and the expression of leadership (ther such social classes in society that are to obey in#unctions of food are the mendicant &orld renouncers and the sedentary forest hermits Food and asceticism[edit] /arious vegetarian dishes from. but obtains #ust a morsel from each of the houses from &hich he begs 9s these classes of people cannot . therefore. =ndia !he &orld renouncer is not allo&ed to produce. or prepare food He obtains his daily food solely by begging "ecause there is a proper time for this begging. &hich is after the householders of the upper classes have finished their food. his meals consist of their left4overs Distinct types of begging exist.3Jane and (livelle both reference the command that G(ne should not speak ill of food !hat is the ruleI to further the point that food is established upon food Food being established upon food in this text is the ancient &ay of describing the correlation bet&een food and eater.

and the conviction that non4vegetarian food is detrimental for the mind and for spiritual development . only reception +. is a dangerous substance. storage. becomes a social as &ell as cultural endeavor for &hich to practice !he rules of the ascetics sho& that they take and eat only that &hich is enough for their sustenance !he creation myths at the cosmic levels sho& that the ideal &orld &ith provide everything humans need.%+77. and consumption =n these areas. &ith mouth only and so on (bserving ascetical food codes and habits allo&s scholars to make generaliKations regarding food according to these patterns For instance.)ike the renouncers.a#asthani vegetarian cuisine Some ma#or paths of Hinduism hold vegetarianism as an ideal !here are three main reasons for this6 the principle of nonviolence $ahimsa' applied to animals.5.. such as the . are not mediated in their food habits by culture !heir food is &ild and uncultivated !heir diet &ould consist mainly of fruits.the intention to offer only %pure% $vegetarian' food to a deity and then to receive it back as prasad. preparation. then. so long as humans take only &hat is necessary to them !aking more than one needs or &hat is commanded of one@s caste results in greed and the overall deterioration of the &orld Food then. state that MHe shall not step on plo&ed land> he shall not enter a village @ +. or only roots. leaves. is his relationship to the cosmos Vegetarian Hindus[edit] . and anything that gro&s naturally in the forest Forbidden to them is anything that is cultivated ?aut === A7 and "audh == 3 .. roots.ahabharata8s maxim that %Nonviolence is the highest duty and the highest teaching. and so on for those that cook For those &ho do not cook their food.+70.+7. on the other hand.produce or store food.any Hindus point to scriptural bases. (livelle claims that four distinct areas of Hindu relationships to food exist in ascetical food practices !hese &ould be procurement. their five classes are based more on ho& they eat their food6 &ith hands only. as &ell as the source of all things in being !he relationship bet&een a man and his food. their relationship to this entity is one4&ay !he renouncer does not engage in any form of food transaction. the forest hermits are further subdivided into those &ho cook their food and those &ho do not cook their food Hach of these subcategories are even further divided into five classes based upon &hether they only eat advocating a vegetarian diet .1- !he forest hermits. humans put forth much effort and energy to follo& them correctly !his then.

&hose follo&ers Gnot only abstain from meat. Jhatka. and seafood +7B/egetarianism is propagated by the <a#urveda and it is recommended for a satvic $purifying' lifestyle +7C. dependent on the village culture 9lthough killing co&s is prohibited in Hinduism. =ndia is not presently a predominantly vegetarian country +73-+72- "rahmins of Hast =ndia and Jashmir and the Saras&at "rahmins of the South&est are allo&ed fish and some meat +71- Historically and currently. but some may abstain from beef andQor pork.+75. as influenced by some Shakta doctrines. and is regularly consumed there +AC- "uffalo meat is popular in Nepalese national dishes like . such as the Ohamar community of Lun#ab. a favourite of meat consuming population of =ndian subcontinent Further information: History of Brahmin diet.. in Nepal some Hindus sacrifice and consume meat from the"uffalo +AB.!here is a disagreement on buffalo meat consumption bet&een =ndian Hindus and Nepalese Hindus on this topic as co&s and buffalo are seen as related species..anyShaivite Hindus engage in #hatka methods as part of religious dietary la&s. &hile in =ndia buffalo meat is largely re#ected . another reason thatdietary purity is so eminent &ithin Hinduism is because Gthe idea that food reflects the general *ualities of nature6 purity. and their relative demographic predominance +A7. fish./edic rituals such as 9gnicayana involved the strangulation of sacrificial goats +A. inertiaI> it follo&s that a healthy diet should be one that promotes purity &ithin an individual +7A- Non-vegetarian Hindus[edit] "utter chicken. &hich permit the consumption of meat During Durga Lu#a and Jali Lu#a among some Shaivite Hindus in Lun#ab.!hus. "engal and Jashmir. and Animal sacrifice in Hinduism Oontrary to popular belief. Phatka meat is the re*uired meat for those Shaivite Hindus &ho eat meat .omos and "urgers.ovement !he follo&ers of this Hindu group also staunchly adhere to a diet that is devoid of meat. ho&ever.any dalit communities eat meat. energy.9 second example is the S&aminarayan . &ith Nepalese holding that buffalo consumption is an old tradition in their country.any /aishnava sects prohibit the consumption of meat. eggs.!his is a common method of slaughter &hen "ali Sacrifices are made to some Hindu deities.!here are many Hindu groups that have continued to abide by a strict vegetarian diet in modern times (ne example is the movement kno&n as =SJO(N $=nternational Society for Jrishna Oonsciousness'. but also avoid certain vegetables that are thought to have negative properties. mushrooms and garlic I+7A. such as onion.those Hindus &ho eat meat prescribe #hatka meat +A0. and fo&l.over some non4vegetarian Shaivite sects leads to a common stereotype that all Hindus are vegetarian +AA.

See also[edit] Sattvic diet From Wikipedia. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on thetalk page. but also butter. (September 2012) 9 sattvic diet.) 3hole 'rains 1. and yogurt $lassi''. legumes.eeds1 and 2ils 1. cream. and overly4s&eet foods are considered ra#asic !oo much spice. cereal grains. but the organism gave the food &illingly and &ith blessings Contents [hide] +citation needed- 1 . and fruit fallen from a tree !his is because there is absolutely no harm done to the organism from &hich the nutrients came.1 Nuts1 .attvic foods o o o o o o o 1..+ 4e'umes 1. also referred to as a yoga diet or sentient diet..& Ve'etables 1. &hile those that harm the mind or body aretamasic +citation neededFoods that are kept overnight $leftovers' are considered tamasic. are strong in the sattva guna.% "airy 1. as they lose their vital essences and may have gro&n microorganisms 9ny foods that involve the harm of another being are also considered tamasic. (March 2010) This article relies on references to primary sources. and lead to clarity and upeksa $e*uanimity' of mind &hile also being beneficial to the body +citation needed- Such foods include &ater. unpasteuriKed and unhomogeniKed fresh milk and fresh milk derivatives $mostly ghee.weeteners . the free encyclopedia This article has multiple issues. and ra& honey +citation neededFoods that this system considers neither positive or negative are rajasic. cheese $paneer'. This article needs additional citations for verification.! ruit 1. or salt may render &hat &as a sattvic food to become ra#asic or tamasic +citation needed- Foods that are considered the most sattvic of all are fresh milk from a happy co& $see the dairy section'. nuts. sugar. fruits. vegetables. is a diet based on foods that: according to 9yurveda and <oga.

ilk that is freshly milked from a happy co&. as are gas4forming foods such as mushrooms $tamasic. &ater to drink. people in &estern countries often choose to follo& a vegan Sattvic diet +citation needed- Vegeta!les[edit] .attvic herbs ! . and is great for cooking Freshness is key &ith dairy . leek. pine nuts. from milk obtained that day "utter must be fresh daily as &ell.1 . palm oil.o o 1.a6asic 7stimulant8 foods % Tamasic 7sedative8 foods o %./ .(s and pesticides are all considered poisonous to humans 44 as is the consumption of milk from co&s that are treated poorly.sesame seeds. but some oils like ghee. coconuts.criptural references & . pumpkin seeds and flax seeds (ils should be of good *uality and cold4pressed Some choices are olive oil. and the use of ?. is nectar to man and &oman . .eferences + E9ternal lin:s Sattvic foods[edit] Nuts. and consuming cold milk 9s finding milk that surpasses these standards is extremely rare.5 . sesame oil. is treated &ith love and care. hemp seeds. sesame oiland flax oil .ee also ) .pices 1. Seeds. and coconut oil can be used in cooking Fruit[edit] Dairy[edit] !he milk must be obtained from an animal that has a spacious outdoor environment.ilk that is not consumed fresh can be refrigerated for one to t&o &eeks in its ra& state. an abundance of pasture to feed on. and drunk &hile still hotQ&arm LasteuriKation. and ra&> but ghee $clarified butter' can be aged forever. still &arm. homogeniKation.ost oils should only be eaten in their ra& state. &alnuts. garlic and onion are excluded. and ils[edit] Fresh nuts and seeds that have not been overly roasted and salted are good additions to the sattvic diet in small portions +citation needed-Ohoices include almonds $especially &hen soaked in &ater overnight and then peeled'.ost mild vegetables are considered sattvic Lungent vegetables like hot peppers. but must be brought to a boil before drinking. and is not pregnant !he milk may only be collected once the mother8s calf has its share Dairy products like yogurt and cheese $paneer' must be made that day.

peppers. but most consider the 9llium family $garlic. liveenKymes. eggplants. aduki beans. sprouting.ung beans. kheer $rice cooked &ith milk and s&eetened'. common beans. chapatis $non4leavened &hole &heat flat bread'. not iodiKed salt . molds. cinnamon. depending on the understanding and needs of practitioners Sometimes the given nature of certain foods can be neutralised by careful preparation 9 practice is to drink freshly made vegetable #uices for their prana. a ra& sugar $not refined' =n some traditions. both to clear channels blocked by mucus and to counter tamas Salt is good in strict moderation. cardamom. grinding. chickpeas. oatmeal and barley Sometimes the grains are lightly roasted before cooking to remove some of their heavy *uality <easted breads are not recommended. like Himalayan salt or unbleached sea salt. the easier to digest Lreparations include splitting. fresh ginger and turmeric . and 4 even then 4 individually. lentils. but are sometimes used in small amounts. fenugreek. cumin. coriander. onion. &hole &heat. and bean sprouts are considered sattvic if &ell prepared =n general. and easy absorption +citation needed- "hole grains[edit] Whole grains provide nourishment Some include organic rice. as &ell as fungus $yeasts. and potatoes' as not sattvic. and G"ibleI bread $sprouted grain bread' Sometimes yogis &ill fast from grains during special practices +citation needed- $egumes[edit] . ghee and mild spices'. shallots'. sugar andQor honey are excluded from the diet. unless toasted Wheat and other grains can be sprouted before cooking as &ell Some preparations are #icharee $bro&n or &hite basmati rice cooked &ith &hole or split mung beans. cooking and spicing )egumes combined &ith &hole grains can offer a complete protein source Some yogis consider the mung bean to be the only sattvic legume S%eeteners[edit] Some yogis use ra& honey $often in combination &ith dairy' and #aggery. along &ith all other s&eeteners S&ices[edit] Sattvic spices are mild spices including basil. and mushrooms' as not sattvic !he classification of &hether something is sattvic or not is defined largely by the different schools of thought.porridge $sometimes made very &atery and cooked &ith herbs'. the smaller the bean. organic tofu. fennel. are all fungi' and potatoes Some consider the Solanaceae family $tomatoes. spelt.a#asic spices like black pepper and red pepper are normally excluded. yello& split peas. leeks. but only unrefined salts. soaking.

opium.gingko. calamus. are foods that often provoke mental restlessness !hey are not completely beneficial. #atamansi. onion. and unfertiliKed egg +amasic )sedative* foods[edit] Sedative foods.Sattvic her!s[edit] (ther herbs are used to directly support sattva in the mind and in meditation !hese include ash&agandha. to body or mind Foods that cannot be categoriKed as either sentient or static are classified in this food group !hese foods are thought by some to cause aggressive and dominating thoughts. shankhapushpi. spicy food. niyama. energy drinks. especially to&ards others+citation neededStimulant foods energiKe and develop the manipura $navel' chakra and body but do not promote advancement in the higher chakras Such foods include6 caffeinated drinks such as coffee. ho&ever. cola drinks. &hich is a personal discipline. allo&ing the body to repair itself Such static foods may be deemed necessary in times of &ar or great distress Static foods stimulate and strengthen the lo&er t&o chakras. purnarnava. also called mutative foods. chive. salt. shatavari. bacopa. fertiliKed egg. less refined state of consciousness "odily harm includes any foods that &ill cause detrimental stress to any physical organ directly or indirectly $via any physical imbalance' +citation needed- !hey are. garlic. muta!le foods or ra(asic foods. blue cheese. are harmful to either mind or body Harm to mind includes anything that &ill lead to a duller. bro&n or black chocolate. alcoholic beverage. but &ill not assist in beneficial development of the higher chakras =n fact they are usually detrimental to the advancement of the higher chakras Such foods include6 meat. tulsi and rose 'a(asic )stimulant* foods[edit] Stimulant foods. durian $fruit'. saffron. fish. nor are they harmful. includes . or tamasic foods are foods &hose consumption. there is a &ord called tapas !apas here includes ahara niyama:right food but in limited *uantity So. tea $both black and green'. scallion. according to <oga. and stale food Scri&tural references[edit] =n Latan#ali8s <oga sutra. gotu kola. also called static foods. mushroom. in the section on niyama.gingko biloba. leek. sometimes necessary during times of great physical stress and pain !hey help dull the pain and lo&er consciousness.

before talking about pranayama. like Hatha <oga Lradipika.regulation of food habits =n other texts. insists on proper food habits +citation needed- . the author.

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