Monitoring systems, such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, which
provide information about the process state to the operator;
Sequencing systems, used where some process must follow a predefined sequence of discrete
events;
Closedloop systems, which is widely taught in engineering course, are typically implemented to
give some process a set of desired performance characteristics
The history of feedback control system begun as early as in 1769 when James Watt’s steam engine and
governor are developed. The Watt stem engine often used to mark the beginning of the Industrial
Revolution in England. The revolution of automatic control system continues in which the first ever
autonomous rover vehicle, known as Sojourner was invented in 1997.
But before we go into further details, we have to know control systems’ terms and concepts. The
frequently used terms and concepts are as follow:
A system is said to be an open loop system when the system’s output has no effect on the control
action. In open loop system, the output is neither measured nor fed back for comparison with the input.
An open loop control system utilizes an actuating device (or controller) to control the process directly
without using feedback as shown in Figure 2.4.
The advantages and the disadvantages of an openloop control system is tabulated in table 2.1 below
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Simple and ease of maintenance Disturbances and changes in calibration
Less expensive cause errors
Stability is not a problem Output may be different from what is
Convenient when output is hard to desired
measure
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A system that maintains a prescribed relationship between the output and the reference input is called a
closedloop system or a feedback control system. The system uses a measurement of the output and
feedback of the signal to compare it with the desired output.
In a closedloop control system, the actuating error signal, which is the difference between the input
signal and the feedback signal, is fed to the controller so as to reduce the error and bring the output of
the system to a desired value.
The table below shows the comparison between the two systems:
The transfer function of a linear system is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output
variable to the Laplace transform of the input variable, with all initial conditions assumed to be zero. The
Transfer function of a system (or element) represents the relationship describing the dynamics of the
system under consideration. A transfer function may be defined only for a linear, stationary (constant
parameter) system. A nonstationary system often called a timevarying system, has one or more time
varying parameters, and the Laplace transformation may not be utilized. Furthermore, a transfer
function is an inputoutput description of the behavior of a system. Thus the transfer function
description does not include any information concerning the internal structure of the system and its
behavior.
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The transfer function of a LTI system is defined as the Laplace transform of the impulse response, with
all the initial conditions set to zero.
G(s) L[ g (t )]
The transfer function is related to the Laplace transform of the input and the output through the
following relation:
Y ( s)
G( s)
R( s )
where all the initial conditions set to zero, and Y (s) and R(s) are the Laplace transform of y (t ) and
r (t ) respectively.
Although the transfer function of a linear system is defined in terms of the impulse response, in practice,
the inputoutput relation of a linear timeinvariant system with continuous–data input is often described
by the differential equation, so it is more convenient to derive the transfer function directly from the
differential equation.
Let us consider that the inputoutput relation of a linear timeinvariant system is described by the
following nthorder differential equation with constant real coefficients:
To obtain the transfer function of the linear system that is represented by Eq. (2.3), we simply take the
Laplace transform on both sides of the equation and assume zero initial conditions. The result is
s n
an1s n1 a1s a0 Y(s) bm s m bm1s m1 b1s b0 R(s)
Y ( s) b s m .............. b1 s b0
G( s) nm
R( s) s an1 s n1 ...... a1 s a0
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The transfer function is said to be strictly proper if m n . If m n then the transfer function is proper.
It is improper if m n .
Characteristic Equation: The characteristic equation of a LTI system is defined as the equation
obtained by setting the denominator polynomial of the transfer function to zero. Thus, the
characteristic equation of the system described by the Eq. (2.4) is
Later, we shall show that the stability of a linear singleinput singleoutput system is governed
completely by the roots of the characteristic equation.
The definition of a transfer function is easily extended to a system with multiple inputs and outputs. A
system of this type is often referred to as a multivariable system. Figure 2.6 shows a control system with
two inputs and two outputs.
Since the principle of superposition is valid for linear systems, the total effect on any output due to all
the inputs acting simultaneously is obtained by adding up the outputs due to each input acting alone.
Thus, using transfer function relations we can write the simultaneous equations for the output variables
as
Y1 ( s) G11( s) R1 ( s) G12 ( s) R2 ( s)
Y2 ( s) G21( s) R1 ( s) G22 ( s) R2 ( s)
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where G ij (s) is the transfer function relating the ith output to the jth input variable. Thus
Yi ( s)
Gij
R j ( s)
In general, for j inputs and i outputs, we can write the simultaneous equations for the output variables
as
Y(s) G(s)R(s)
where
Y1 ( s )
Y ( s )
Y (s) 2
Yi ( s )
R1 ( s )
R ( s)
R( s)
2
R j ( s )
is the j 1 transformed input vector; and
G11( s ) G12 ( s ) G1 j ( s )
G ( s ) G ( s ) G ( s )
G( s)
21 22 2j
Gi1 ( s ) G i 2 ( s) Gij ( s)
is the i j transferfunction matrix.
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A stable system is defined as a system which gives a bounded output in response to a bounded input.
The concept of stability can be illustrated by considering a circular cone placed on a horizontal surface,
as shown in Fig. 2.7 and Fig. 2.8.

The stability of a dynamic system is defined in a similar manner. Let u(t), y(t), and g(t) be the input,
output, and impulse response of a linear timeinvariant system, respectively. The output of the system is
given by the convolution between the input and the system's impulse response. Then
y(t ) u (t ) g ( )d
0
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This response is bounded (stable system) if and only if the absolute value of the impulse response, g(t),
integrated over an infinite range, is finite. That is
0
g ( ) d
Mathematically, Eq. (4.24) is satisfied when the roots of the characteristic equation, or the poles of G(s),
are all located in the lefthalf of the splane.
A system is said to be unstable if any of the characteristic equation roots is located in the righthalf of
the splane. When the characteristic equation has simple roots on the jaxis and none in the righthalf
plane, we refer to the system as marginally stable.
The following table illustrates the stability conditions of a linear continuous system with reference to the
locations of the roots of the characteristic equation.
Marginally stable of marginally unstable At least one simple root and no multiple
roots on the jaxis; and no roots in the
righthalf splane.
Unstable At least one simple root in the righthalf s
plane or at least one multipleorder root
on the jaxis.
The following examples illustrate the stability conditions of systems with reference to the poles of the
closedloop transfer function M(s).
20 Stable
M ( s)
s 1s 2s 3
20( s 1) Unstable due to the pole at s = 1
M ( s)
( s 1)( s 2 2s 2)
A system is openloop stable if the poles of the loop transfer function G(s)H(s) are all in the left hand
side of splane.
Controller Plant
ysp
+ e(s)
H(s) G(s) y

A system is closed0loop stable (or simply stable) if the poles of the closedloop transfer function (or
zeros of 1+G(s)H(s) are all in the left hand side of splane
The following six basic control actions are very common among industrial automatic controllers:
In a twoposition control system, the actuating element has only two fixed positions which are, in many
cases, simply on and off. Twoposition or onoff control is relatively simple and inexpensive and, for this
reason, is very widely used in both industrial and domestic control systems.
Let the output signal from the controller be m(t) and the actuating error signal be e(t). In two position
control, the signal m(t) remains at either a maximum or minimum value, depending on whether the
actuating error signal is positive or negative, so that
Where 𝑀1 and 𝑀2 , are constants. The minimum value 𝑀2 , is usually either zero or −𝑀1 . Twoposition
controllers are generally electrical devices, and an electric, solenoidoperated valve is widely used in
such controller. Pneumatic proportional controller with very high gain act as twoposition controller and
are sometimes called pneumatic twoposition controller.
Figure 2.10 show the block diagrams for twoposition controller. The range through which the actuating
error signal must move before the switching occurs is called the differential gap.
For a controller with proportional control action, the relationship between the output of the controller
m(t) and the actuating error signal e(t) is
𝑚 𝑡 = 𝐾𝑝 𝑒(𝑡)
or, in Laplace Transform
𝑀(𝑠)
= 𝐾𝑝
𝐸(𝑠)
Where 𝐾𝑝 , is termed the proportional sensitivity or the gain.
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Whatever the actual mechanism may be and whatever the form of the operating power, the
proportional controller is essentially an amplifier with and adjustable gain.
Example 2.1:
x
k
M F
b
a) The second order PDE is:
b) Taking the LT
c) The TF is therefore:
d) Let M=1kg, b=10N.s/m, k=20 N/m & F(s)=1, therefore X(s) / F(s):
e) From the Transfer Function, the DC gain is:
f) Corresponding to the steady state error of:
g) The settling time is:
0.045
0.04
0.035
0.03
Displacement (m)
0.025
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (sec)
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P control (K) reduces the rise time, increases the overshoot and reduces the steady state error.
1.2
1
Displacement (m)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (sec)
Rise time and ss error reduced, slightly reduced settling time but increased overshoot.
In a controller with integral control action, the value of the controller output m(t) is changed at a rate
proportional to, the actuating error signal e(t). That is
𝑑𝑚(𝑡)
= 𝐾𝑖 𝑒(𝑡)
𝑑𝑡
𝑡
Therefore; 𝑚 𝑡 = 𝐾𝑖 0 𝑒 𝑡 𝑑𝑡
𝑀(𝑠) 𝐾𝑖
=
𝐸(𝑠) 𝑠
If the value of e(t) is doubled, then the value of m(t) varies twice as fast. For zero actuating error, the
value of m(t) remains stationary.
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load disturbance
ysp 1 y
+
e K u
sTi plant

Figure 2.11: Automatic reset action
K
load disturbance
ysp 1 y
e K u
sTi plant
+

Figure 2.12: PI control
The integral term may be expressed in (i) 𝑇𝑖 and (ii) 𝑘𝑖
The integral term 𝑇𝑖 is known as the integral time constant. 𝑇𝑖 = ∞ corresponds to pure (proportional)
gain.
𝑘𝑖 𝐾
=
𝑠 𝑇𝑖 𝑠
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Example 2.2:
a) I control reduces the rise time, increases both settling time and overshoot, and eliminates the
steadystate error
b) The closedloop transfer function of the system with a PI controller is: X(s)/F(s) =
______________ .
c) Let k = 30 and ki = 70. P gain (k) was reduced because the I controller also reduces the rise time
and increases the overshoot as does the P controller (double effect).
1.2
1
Displacement (m)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (sec)
A derivative controller may able to provide anticipative action but derivative action can make the system
become noisy.
ysp KTd s y
c
+ 1+sTd /N plant

Figure 2.12: PD control
The integral term may be expressed in (i) 𝑇𝑑 and (ii) 𝑘𝑑
𝑘𝑑 𝑠 = 𝐾𝑇𝑑 𝑠
Example 2.3:
1.2
1
Displacement (m)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (sec)
d) Reduced overshoot and settling time, small effect on rise time and ss error
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1.2
Displacement (m)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (sec)
In some system the commonly implemented controller consist of the P, I and D control action. We call
this type of controller as PID controller.
Tds
1/(Tis)
ysp + e u y
K G(s)

1
𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝐾(1 + + 𝑇𝑑 𝑠)
𝑠𝑇𝑖
𝑘𝑖
Or 𝐺𝑐 𝑠 = 𝐾 + 𝑠
+ 𝑘𝑑 𝑠
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Example 2.4:
a) The closedloop transfer function of the system with a PID controller is:
X(s)/F(s) = (kd s2 +ks+ki )/(s3 + (10+kd)s2 + (20+k)s + ki )
b) Let k = 350, ki = 300 and kd = 50.
Closed Loop Step : K = 350, Ki = 300, Kd = 50
1.2
1
Displacement (m)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (sec)
Introducing the P, I and D controller has certainly proven to contribute some effect to our system’s
response. These effects are summarized as in table below.
When you are designing a PID controller for a given system, follow the steps shown below to obtain a
desired response.
1. Obtain an openloop response and determine what needs to be improved
2. Add a proportional control to improve the rise time
3. Add a derivative control to improve the overshoot
4. Add an integral control to eliminate the steadystate error
5. Adjust each of K, Ki, and Kd until you obtain a desired overall response referring to the table
shown previously to find out which controller controls what characteristics.
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6. It is not necessary to implement all three controllers (P, I & D) into a single system. For example,
if a PI controller gives a good enough response, then you don't need to add D control to the
system. Simple is better.