10 Street Lighting Design240
Chapter 10 Street lighting Design
(1.0)Introduction (2.0)Factors affecting the design of street lighting ( .0)Street lighting arrange!ents (4.0)Street lighting design process (".0)#$pes of la!ps used in Street lighting (%.0)ðods of s'itching of la!ps ((.0)Street lighting s$ste! ().0)Lighting control and *iring s$ste!
10 Street Lighting Design241
(+.0)Design of the street lighting sche!e
Chapter 10 Street lighting Design
Lighting is a ,ital rule to descri-e the i!portance of !a.or and !inor roads/ 'hich constitute the lifelines of co!!unication in the !otori0ed 'orld toda$. For these roads/ to fulfill their function properl$/ the$ !ust -e !ade as safe as technological and econo!ic resources 'ill per!it. 1nd one of the !ost effecti,e instru!ents in the constant stri,ing to create sa,er roads is light. Lighting for guidance/ lighting to re,eal all the features of roads and point up ha0ards. Lighting to aid perception and pro,ide clear ,isual infor!ation for -oth dri,ers and pedestrians. So 'e can sa$ that the -asic purpose of street lighting is to pro!ote safet$ and con,enience on the streets at night through ade2uate ,isi-ilit$/ and to pro!ote ci,ic progress. Statistics sho' that good street lighting installations results in: • • • 3educe traffic accidents Co!-at cri!e 3espect the en,iron!ent
(2.0)Classification of factors affecting the design of street lighting:
.$ .ing li-raries/ co!!unit$ recreation centers/ large apart!ent -uildings or neigh-orhood retail stores.1)Free'a$:
It7s a di.
(2.elop!ent or a !i6ture of residential and co!!ercial esta-lish!ents is characteri0ed -$ a fe' pedestrians at night.it$ such as in -loc5s ha.10 Street Lighting Design240
(2. #his definition includes areas 'ith single fa!il$ ho!es/ to'n houses/ and4or s!all apart!ent -uildings.$ nightti!e pedestrian acti.eloped -usiness areas outside/ as 'ell as 'ithin/ the central part of a !unicipalit$. #his definition applies to densel$ de.ehicular and4or pedestrian traffic on a fre2uent -asis.
(2. #his definition applies to toll as 'ell as non8toll roads.1.1)Co!!ercial:
#hat portion of a !unicipalit$ in a -usiness de.
(2. #he area contains land use/ 'hich attracts a relati.or road'a$ 'ith full control of access and 'ith no crossings at grade.
(2.olu!e of nightti!e . )3esidential:
1 residential de.el$ hea.ided !a.2.2)Inter!ediate:
#hat portion of a !unicipalit$ is often characteri0ed -$ a !oderatel$ hea.elop!ent 'here ordinaril$ there are large nu!-ers of pedestrians during -usiness hours.
#he$ do not include road'a$s carr$ing through traffic.
( .2.ing traffic -et'een !a.10 Street Lighting Design240
It7s a di.")Local:
3oad'a$s used pri!aril$ for direct access to residential/ co!!ercial/ industrial/ or other a-utting propert$.
(2.ehicular access to the rear of a-utting properties. #he routes connect areas of principal traffic generation and i!portant rural high'a$s entering the cit$.0)Street lighting arrange!ents:
.or and local road'a$s.2. ) 1rterial:
#he part of the road'a$ s$ste! that ser. Long local road'a$s 'ill generall$ -e di. #hese are road'a$s used !ainl$ for traffic !o.ided into short sections -$ collector road'a$ s$ste!s.
#he distri-utor and collector road'a$s ser.
#hese are narro' pu-lic 'a$s 'ithin a -loc5/ generall$ used for . 96press'a$s for non8co!!ercial traffic 'ithin par5s and par58li5e areas are generall$ 5no'n as par5'a$s.2.or road'a$ for through traffic 'ith partial control of access and generall$ 'ith interchanges at !a.
(2.es as the principal net'or5 for through traffic flo'.or crossroads.ided !a.e!ents 'ithin residential/ co!!ercial and industrial areas.
Fig 10.10 Street Lighting Design240
( .1)Single sided:
#his t$pe of arrange!ent/ in 'hich all lu!inaries are located on one side of the road/ is used onl$ 'hen the 'idth of the road is e2ual to/ or less than the !ounting height of the lu!inaries." ti!es the !ounting height of the lu!inaries.1: Single sided arrange!ent
( .1)#'o 'a$ traffic roads:
#here are four -asic t$pes of street lighting arrange!ents/ 'hich 'e can su!!ari0e in the follo'ing points.
Fig 10.1.2: Staggered arrange!ent
#his t$pe of arrange!ent in 'hich the lu!inaries are located on -oth sides of the road in a staggered/ or 0ig0ag/ arrange!ent is used !ainl$ 'hen the 'idth of the road is -et'een 1 to 1.
Fig 10. ):pposite:
#his t$pe of arrange!ent/ 'ith the lu!inaries located on -oth sides of the road opposite to one another/ is used !ainl$ 'hen the 'idth of the road is greater than 1.e -uildings on -oth sides. :pposite arrange!ent
( .1.10 Street Lighting Design241
( .4)Span 'ire:
#his t$pe of arrange!ent/ 'ith the lu!inaries suspended along the a6is of the road/ is nor!all$ used for narro' roads that ha.1." ti!es the !ounting height of the lu!inaries.
Cur.isual guidance.2)Cur.oided.10 Street Lighting Design240
Fig 10.0)Street lighting design process:
#he illu!ination design process in.es of large radius (in the order of 00 !) can -e treated as straight roads and the lu!inaries can -e sited in accordance 'ith one of the sche!es outlined a-o.es the selection of the proper lighting e2uip!ent and the esta-lish!ent of the geo!etr$ of the
. For 'ider roads an opposite arrange!ent should -e used since the staggered arrange!ent gi.e the outside of the cur.er/ should -e such as to ensure -oth ade2uate road8surface lu!inance and effecti.e.es .
(4." ! less than the !ounting height/ the lu!inaries should -e placed a-o.es of s!aller radius/ ho'e.isual guidance/ and should therefore -e a. *here the 'idth of the road is 1.4: Span 'ire arrange!ent
( .ol. #he locations of lu!inaries on cur.e in a single sided arrange!ent.
residential 0.1)96isting conditions:
Deter!ination of road'a$ facilit$ and land use area classifications.+ 0.4 2 1.el:
#he reco!!ended a.ide the !ost effecti.
(4.1.2)Selection of illu!ination le.9<IC=L13 3:1D*1> CL1SSIFIC1#I:?
Co!!ercia l e 0.2 1.+ 0.4
Free'a$ 96press'a$ &a. #a-le 11.1 sho's the reco!!ended a.erage !aintained illu!ination (In foot candles).4 0.or ( arterial ) Collector Local 1lle$
.4 0.or steps of the design process are outlined as follo's:
(4.% 1.1)#he !a.2 0.erage intensit$ of hori0ontal illu!ination !a$ -e deter!ined -ased upon the classifications of road'a$ facilit$ and area t$pe.% 0.% 1 1 0.% 0.e lighting s$ste! to satisf$ the needs.10 Street Lighting Design240
s$ste! in order to pro.
erage lu!inance to pro!ote ci.apour resisting high densit$/ pol$cr$stalline alu!ina. Its $ello' light is suita-le for such 5inds of lighting/ e.eness of lighting s$ste!.
(4.1 reco!!ended a.erage intensit$ of hori0ontal illu!ination.e a 'hite colour/ 'ith enough le. :n high'a$s/ 'here there are no pedestrians/ 'e use high8pressure sodiu! la!ps. #he la!p !ust -e con. #he hu!an e$e is .ic progress/ and ensure pedestrians safet$.e to $ello' light/ e.g. #he difference fro! the for!er lo'8pressure sodiu! la!p is that the sodiu! pressure/ 'ith high .e to choose suita-le 5inds of la!ps for different streets.erage !aintained illu!ination to !ini!u! !aintained illu!ination/ co!!onl$ referred to as the unifor!it$ ratio/ 'ith the reco!!ended criteria in order to deter!ine opti!al effecti.0)#$pes lighting:
*e ha.ehicles and pedestrians.1. )S$ste! characteristics:
Detailed calculations using selected lighting source t$pes and si0es and lu!inaires !ounting heights and spacing locations are e!plo$ed in order to deter!ine the a.iding the highest efficienc$ in a light source 'ith a good colour rendition. #he unifor!it$ of illu!ination is chec5ed -$ co!paring the ratio of a.en in cloud$ 'eather.er$ sensiti.1)<igh pressure sodiu! la!ps:
#he high8pressure sodiu! discharge la!p is a la!p pro.
(".elope of high te!perature/ al5ali8.10 Street Lighting Design241
. #he high8pressure sodiu! discharge is enclosed in an arc8tu-e en. S<@8 400 'att/ 4(000L!/ 11) L!4'att.els of le.erage !aintained illu!ination (in foot candles).enient for .els of a. In internal streets 'e used !ercur$ la!ps to gi.olu!e loading/ results in a 'ell sta-ili0ed discharge and !a6i!u! efficienc$.
(". &edian la!p li.eral t$pes of !ercur$ la!ps such as high8pressure/ lo' pressure and co!pound !ercur$ la!ps.er$ strong light under s!all po'er.g.e relati.e. )&etal halide la!ps:
#his is a . <igh efficienc$ 'ith accepta-le color and a s!all/ high -rightness source 'ith lo' ultra.er$ slo' 'hen turning off/ i.es a -right 'hite light thus places such as large stadiu!s glass/ the$ should -e put 'hen poles and !ust -e used in clear it could -e used in illu!ination of open since this t$pe of la!ps ha.4)&ercur$ la!ps:
#here are se.e as a lighting source for street/ road'a$ and area lighting.e 'ith i!pro. it turns on 2uic5l$ and turn off slo'l$.iolet radiation !a5e the high8pressure sodiu! la!p attracti.antage that it can response . #his t$pe of la!ps has dar5 $ello' light and is used in tunnels and closed pu-lic places. e.el$ long life.
(".e strong the$ should -e hanged o.10 Street Lighting Design240
#he high8 pressure sodiu! discharge la!p has an initial efficac$ in e6cess of 100 lu!ens per 'att. It gi.
. #he$ also ha.er large ar! 'eather.
(". <SLL8A*8400/ 400 'att/ 2 00 l!4'att.er$ fast to electric po'er 'hen turning on and .ed construction techni2ues.2)Lo' pressure sodiu! la!ps:
#his t$pe of la!p has special purposes -ecause the$ gi.e . #his t$pe has special applications. #hus this t$pe of la!ps could -e used in !edical operation roo! and flood lighting.e is in order of %000 hours -ut !a$ -e e6pected to i!pro.er$ special purpose la!p it has special ad.
. -) Four outgoing circuit -rea5ers.0)Street lighting s$ste!:
#he distri-ution lighting net'or5 consists of: 1. Lighting distri-ution -o6 @oles Lighting lu!inaires Ca-les
((. 4. a) :ne inco!ing C.0)ðods of s'itching of la!ps:
#here are . 2.1)Lighting distri-ution -o6 (LDA):
#he LDA is a pad8!ounted8e6plosion proof t$pe pro.10 Street Lighting Design241
(%. .ices.ided 'ith the follo'ing e2uip!ent and de.A.arious !ethods/ so!e of 'hich are: a) @hoto cell -) Control s'itch c) #i!er
"." :Lighting Distri-ution Ao6
Fig 10.10 Street Lighting Design240
c) :ne B*< !eter d) 1uto!atic contactor (photocell or ti!er) #he lighting distri-ution -o6 is sho'n in fig 10.
/ or round).2) @oles:
#here is a 'ide range of street lighting poles 'hich can -e classified according to their height (1"!/ 12!/ 10!/ )!/ CC !) or according to their t$pe (stepped/ octagonal/ C.
. For high'a$s/ higher poles are used to fulfill the re2uired lighting characteristics.% sho's the !ain construction of poles used in street lighting..10 Street Lighting Design242
((. #he poles of 10! height are used in lighting s$ste! for !ost of streets in the neigh-orhood/ and the poles of ! height are !ainl$ used for gardens lighting. Fig 10.
Fig 10.%: Construction of street lighting poles
#he total pole heights depend on the !ethod of installation. #he !anufacturer should increase the pole height -$ at least 18"! if it7s directl$ !ounted in soil or in concrete.10 Street Lighting Design240
Fig 10.( sho's the reco!!ended t$pe of lighting poles (10! high)
( : #he 10! high pole used in street lighting
.10 Street Lighting Design240
).10 Street Lighting Design241
#he ! poles are of decorati. #his is sho'n in fig 10.) #he ! high poles used in gardens
.e or round t$pes.
((. #heir t$pe of la!ps is: • • 2"0/ 400 'att high pressure sodiu! .10 Street Lighting Design240
9ach pole should -e pro.apour la!ps.
Different shapes of lu!inaires are sho'n in fig 10.el. 1%0 'att !ercur$ la!ps.ided 'ith a door opening for ca-le connection at a height not less than )0 c! fro! ground le.
.eral t$pes of lu!inaires. )Lighting lu!inaires:
#he street lighting designed here is to use se.
().el appropriate for the installation in order to 5eep 'ire si0es and .4)Ca-les:
• Ca-les of alu!inu! t$pes should -e used to connect the lo' .0)Lighting control and *iring s$ste!:
().er/ central control !a$ -e !ore econo!ical for lu!inaires ha.oltage side of distri-ution transfor!er to the lighting distri-ution -o6 (LDA)/ and the cross sectional area of ca-les is chosen according to the lighting loads and the rating of the lighting distri-ution -o6 (LDA). Circuits for !ultiple lighting 'ill -e designed to utili0e the highest lo'8 .oltage le.1):n8off control:
Lu!inaires for dus5 to da'n operation 'ill nor!all$ -e controlled -$ a photoelectric cell installed on each lu!inaire/ ho'e.+ Different shapes of lu!inaires
((.oltage drops e6ceeding that per!itted for !ultiple lighting s$ste!s 'ould occur.2)#$pe of s$ste!:
&ultiple 'iring s$ste!s 'ill -e installed/ e6cept for e6tensions to e6isting series s$ste!s or for long access roads 'here . Ca-les of 28!!D copper are used to connect po'er ca-les and lu!inaires.10 Street Lighting Design242
Fig 10. 1n auto!atic s$ste! using a ti!e s'itch 'ith an astrono!ical dial or a !anual on8off control 'ill -e used for such cases.
().ing fi6ed hours of operation.oltage drops to a !ini!u!.
% &F: is the !aintenance factor/ ta5en a-out 0.( S: is the space -et'een the poles in !eter. #he illu!ination le.F . 1lso protection and disconnection of lighting circuits 'ill -e pro. 4.ided.ed -$ the ?9C/ and 'ill -e -onded to the non8current8carr$ing !etal parts of each lighting standard and lu!inaire. Su-stitute in follo'ing e2uation: 9F
F × C.10 Street Lighting Design240
La!ps 'ill -e connected phase8to8neutral rather than phase8to8phase.aries according to the street 'idth and is ta5en fro! ta-les 9E> L=G catalogue
. #he e2uip!ent grounding conductor !a$ -e an$ conductor appro.
(+. 9: is the illu!ination le. × M .0)Design of the street lighting sche!e:
1.e other loads. )Erounding:
1ll lighting circuits 'ill include an e2uip!ent grounding conductor.el of street in lu6
.el . S ×W
*here: F: is la!p flu6 in lu!ens CF: is the clearing factor/ ta5en a-out 0.
(). *here practica-le/ units 'ill -e connected to transfor!ers/ 'hich ser. *e specif$ the 'idth/ 'e ha. 2.F .e in our plan. #: is the street 'idth in !eter. #he Span is ta5en fro! ta-les of 9E> L=G catalogue according to
the street t$pe .
"/ 2.erage of 208 0 !eters. 1lso the span !ust not -e !ore than 4" !eters and for an a.). (. Eardens and green area doesnHt o-e$ these la$s of illu!ination since the$ are illu!inated for decoration onl$/ so 'e put their poles according to pu-lic . ). %.ie' of the place ta5ing a la!p of (0 'att for each lu!inaire." or " !eter. &a5e sure that the pole length is / %/ )/ 10/ 12 or 14 !eter for high pressure sodiu! la!ps 'hile the ar!s are 0/ 1.ed port of street !ultipl$ the calculate space -$ a factor 0. *hen passing -$ cur.10 Street Lighting Design240
". 1s 'e 5no' the street 'idth fro! the plan 'e can calculate the la!p flu6/ then 'e go to the ta-les and find !ost suita-le la!p 'attage to the nearest standard lu!en.
. Chose a s$!-ol for each t$pe of pole then plot the chosen design on the plan of the area.