Vitamins: definition/classification essential, non-caloric organic nutrients needed in very small amounts cofactors (helpers) in cell

functions fat soluble: Vitamins A, D, E, K water soluble: B Vitamins, Vitamin C Note: you do not need to memorize the RDA, AI or UL amounts (adult ranges given) Vitamins ‡ Organic molecules required in small amounts ‡ 2 broad groups of vitamins ‡ Fat soluble ± Absorbed and transported with lipids ± Can be stored, often in the liver ± Toxicities possible ± Most not produced by gut microbes ± Only contain C, H, and O ± Vitamins A, D, E, and K

Vitamin A RDA: 700-900 ug/d; UL: 3000 ug/d chemical forms: retinol, ȕ-carotene (can be converted to Vit. A but need 6x amount) food sources: liver, milk (fortified), vegetables (ȕ-carotene) status determined by blood retinol concentration lower levels indicate lower stores primarily liver storage

Have carotenoids.dark green effective antioxidant may reduce risk of chronic diseases atherosclerosis cancers macular degeneration (blindness in elderly) 2 . acute 100x RDA) headaches. Which species cannot? ‡ Expressed as International Units ± 1 IU from 0. deep orange. edema. fatigue.g. digestive and immune systems ‡ High in liver ± predators do not have problem ‡ Plants have no vitamin A.6 ug of B-carotene ‡ Eating livers of marine mammals can cause vitamin A toxicity Vitamin A Overdose (chronic 4x.3 ug of retinol or 0. skin disorders Retinoic acid as a drug. Renova: antiwrinkle highly toxic: serious birth defects if taken during pregnancy supplementing Vit.Vitamin A ‡ Functions in rods of the eye.vitamin A precursors which most animals can convert.anorexia. Also affects respiratory. A does not help acne ȕ-carotene Vitamin A precursor Plant sources: brightly coloured e. directly applied to the skin results in rapid turnover of skin cells Retin-A: acne.

including bone formation and maintenance status by blood concentration deficiency: rickets and osteomalacia (bone disease in children and adults.Vitamin D ‡ Necessary to maintain plasma Ca ± Promotes Ca absorption from small intestine ± Increase rate of bone resorption ± Increase Ca resorption in kidney ‡ Vit. D toxicity 3 .Also made from cholesterol and UV light. ‡ Active form produced in response to low plasma Ca.fortified milk and margarine Sunlight: UV radiation converts precursor molecule (cholesterol backbone) in skin duration specific to race: facial area for 15 min 3-7 x/week 3 h for dark-skinned Manitoba latitude: April to Oct. eggs. respectively) very toxic: calcium deposits in heart & kidneys death. D Vitamin D chemical name: cholecalciferol function: regulation of calcium and phosphorus. ‡ Some plants contain the active form of Vit. D precursors in animal and plant tissue. use liver stores in winter risk of skin cancer. butter. UL: 50 ug/d (10x RDA) Enjoying a resurgence in interest especially as rickets is making a comeback Vitamin D: 5 ug/d AI Food sources: liver. not Vit. fish.

ǹ-tocopherol most active form. integrity of cells (lung. RBC. ‡ Only produced by plants and microbes ± Several forms. Fish based diets may be deficient (High fat. anemia. Other forms 1-40% as active. Expressed as IU. storage. ± Lipids part of cell membrane. impaired reflexes (muscle & nerve function) fat absorption and storage problems Toxicity is rare Latest evidence is that is does not protect against heart disease Vitamin E ‡ Antioxidant for lipids. WBC) exposed to high oxygen concentrations Status: blood concentrations and breakability of RBC Vitamin E Deficiency is rare hemolytic anemia (premature infants) weakness. muscle lesions. in addition to general signs of deficiencies. eviscerated) 4 . Oxidized lipids threaten integrity of cell membrane. ‡ High amounts in vegetable oils.Vitamin E Chemical name: tocopherol Function: antioxidant in cell membranes. ± Discolored body fat. Less in animal fats.

K and blood clotting: test before surgery Deficiency: rare except newborns (easy bruising) Toxic in excess (infants.Vitamin E: 15 mg/d RDA Food sources: plant foods e. so deficiencies unlikely ‡ Gut microbes can meet a large portion of requirement. milk beans Vitamin K ‡ Necessary for blood clotting ‡ Produced by plants and bacteria ‡ Widespread in nature. In humans about ½ of requirement met by gut microbes. cabbage family liver. grains associated with linoleic content in vegetable oils Vitamin K Danish ³koagulation´ Function: blood clotting & bone synthesis Status: by blood clotting test dicumarol (drug) interferes with Vit.g. 5 . pregnancy): sold as single vitamin by prescription Vitamin K: 90-120 ug/d AI Bacterial production in colon (~1/2required) affected by absorption problems/illness antibiotics decrease production Food sources (~1/2 required) green leafy vegetables. eggs.

g. or Co (Vit C is exception) The B Vitamins (8) Involved in energy metabolism thiamin. S. O. and N.Summary Fat soluble vitamins dissolve in lipid require bile for absorption stored in tissues e. polyneuropathy Functions: 6 . B12 (& red blood cell function) Thiamin Deficiency disease: beriberi (polished rice) depression. riboflavin. weakness. folate. H.niacin biotin. adipose may be toxic in excess caution with supplements Water soluble vitamins ± Not fat soluble ± Absorption typically high ± Readily excreted in urine ± Cannot be stored ± Continually required in the diet ± Generally not toxic ± Many produced by gut microbes in sufficient amts ± Contain C. liver. pantothenic acid B6.

high physical activity. pregnancy. may exist with other B vitamin deficiencies (same food sources) affects skin. FAD) in energy production:releasing energy from glucose and fat Niacin Deficiency disease: pellagra (4 D¶s) dermatitis. dementia. eyes.coenzyme (TPP) reactions involving CO2 releasing energy from glucose & fat synthesis of acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) synthesis of ribose (RNA component) alcohol metabolism Riboflavin Deficiency disease: ariboflavinosis 2 months to evolve. diarrhea. Niacin DRIs: based on energy requirements higher in growth. death diet: cornmeal. molasses Functions: coenzyme (NAD. mouth. lactation. salted fat pork. NADP) in energy production:releasing energy from glucose and fat synthesis of fatty acids & steroids (cholesterol) Thiamin. tongue Functions: coenzyme (FMN. Riboflavin. athletes 7 .

Riboflavin. nausea. dermatitis and neuromuscular dysfunction 8 . diarrhea Body adapts to high doses. eggs *milk & milk products (especially riboflavin) corn tortillas: lime water increases bioavailability of niacin from corn Thiamin. but monitor for liver damage Biotin Deficiency: feeding raw egg white protein (contains avidin) to rats resulted in hair loss. Niacin Food sources (*also sources of tryptophan): enriched (added back to the natural level) & whole grains. fish.NE (niacin equivalents): niacin (1 mg) synthesized from tryptophan (60 mg) priority: protein/neurotransmitter function Supplements do not stimulate energy production unless one is deficient in one of these vitamins Thiamin. mushrooms *meat. red skin rash tingling sensation in hands/feet stomach pain. Niacin Toxicity of thiamin & riboflavin is rare Niacin is used as a drug for lowering blood cholesterol and treating schizophrenia Niacin toxcity (supplement linked): flushing of skin. cereals and baked products *legumes leafy green vegetables. Riboflavin.

linked to energy needs Food sources: widespread Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Deficiency: weakness.microcytic anemia. and neurotransmitter synthesis 50+ steps in energy metabolism synthesis of hemoglobin 9 . hemoglobin AI: 5 mg/d. greasy dermatitis e. convulsions. general failure of body Functions (100+ steps) cofactor (CoA) in energy metabolism.g. & synthesis of fatty acids. heating infant formula & destruction of B6 Functions (coenzyme = PLP): NB.neurotransmitters. cholesterol. steroid hormones. irritability.avidin binds biotin & denatured by cooking rare in humans (malnutrition) Function: cofactor in energy production from glucose and fat gluconeogenesis amino acid metabolism Biotin: 30 ug/d AI Produced by bacteria in colon Food sources: widespread No increased needs or toxicity described Pantothenic Acid Deficiency: rare. amino acid & protein metabolism.

fish. macrocytic anemia nerve function & neural tube defects (NTDs) 1/1000 births. premature infants elderly (folate interacts with medications) alcoholics ( folate absorption) smoking (folate inactivation in lungs) Folate Functions: coenzyme for synthesis of DNA. 2nd most common birth defect At risk: pregnant women.numbness due to nerve damage. fruits. meat. legumes. a risk factor for cardiovascular disease 10 .poultry. RBC) Low folate status may contribute to hyperhomocyteinemia.3 mg/d. early embryonic life and tissue turnover (intestine. reversed when quit supplements Supplements: may be some benefit in carpal tunnel syndrome? Folate (Folic Acid) Deficiency: affects rapidly dividing cells. aminoacids NB. skin. linked to protein intake Food sources: green leafy vegetables. RNA. whole grains Toxicity from supplements: >1000 mg/d.synthesis of niacin from tryptophan Vitamin B6 RDA: 1. Growth.

4 ug/day) If no intrinsic factor.improves anemia but progressive malfunctioning of nerves and muscles.e. fermented products. fortified soymilk Risk of deficiency: breastfed infants of vegan mothers (Adults have body stores for 5 yrs) Folate supplementation masks B12 deficiency i. asparagus. seeds. fungi.fruit. creeping paralysis Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Deficiency: scurvy 11 . liver Folate fortification of flour Potential problem: masking Vitamin B12 deficiency Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) Deficiency: pernicious anemia (macrocytic). algae. legumes.neuromuscular dysfunction Functions: myelin in nerve fibers (nerve transmission) coenzymes in energy & amino acid metabolism B12 binds intrinsic factor (IF) in stomach &facilitates absorption in small intestine IF & B12 absorption in elderly Vitamin B12 (RDA: 2.Folate (³foliage´) RDA: 400 ug/day additional 200 ug/day during pregnancy recommendations for folate supplementation before pregnancy Food sources: leafy green vegetables. injections of B12 Food sources: animal origin.

skin. altered insulin response to carbohydrate Vit.tendons) antioxidant protection promotes iron absorption enhances immune function synthesis of thyroxine (regulates basal metabolic rate and body temperature) Vitamin C RDA: 75-90 mg/d (old RNI: 20-40 mg/day) additional 35 mg/d for smokers (and passive smoke) Food sources: citrus. C supplements & common cold: ?? Placebo effect Summary Water soluble vitamins dissolve in water are easily absorbed & excreted are not stored extensively in tissues seldom reach toxic levels Controversy Dietary Antioxidants: Food or Pills? Epidemiological studies show protective effects of food sources (diets high in fruits and vegetables) 12 . e. teeth. vegetables Low toxicity but problems if >2 g/day .g.Function: collagen/connective tissue (bones.

elderly 13 .g. antioxidants and disease Research on supplementation: Positive outcome (last year-now debateable):supplementation of Vitamin E may provide additional antioxidant protection and decrease chronic disease risk e. pregnant.g.g. phytochemicals The theory of free radicals.Foods contain many protective chemicals in addition to vitamins e. heart disease or may increase mortality in some susceptible individuals Negative outcome: supplementation of ȕ-carotene increased incidence of lung cancer in smokersĺresearch study stopped Who needs a supplement? Those who routinely fail to obtain recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals from the diet Those with special needs e.

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