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**Rubble Mound Breakwater Design
**

Given:

Design Conditions

Water depth (SWL)

: 5.0 m

Beach slope

: 1:20

Structure slope

: 1:2

**Design high water (DHW) : 1.5 m
**

Design wave;

Hs = 2 m

H1/10 = 2.5 m

Tm = 6 sec

Allowable overtopping

Armor unit

:0.4 m3/sec/m

: Dolos stone

Soil Data;

1

COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING

Assume:

Armor and under layer material is quarry stone: γ a = 2.5

t

m3

Structure slope: 1:2

Structure will be symmetric (this may be changed to reduce structure size in

necessary)

Specify Design Condition:

SWL = 5.0 m, DHW = 1.5 m;

h = 5.0 + 1.5 = 6.5 m

Assume listed conditions are at structure toe.

Significance Wave Height, Hs = H1/3 = 2 m; Period, T = 6 sec; Deep Water Length,

Lo = 100 m

Lo = 1.56 T2 = 1.56 (6.0)2 = 56.16 m ~ 57 m, h/Lo = d/Lo = 6.5/57 = 0.114;

From Table of functions;

d/Lo = 0.114, so get

**d/L = 0.153 (Deep Water);
**

L = 6.5/0.153 = 42.5 m ~ 43 m

2

7450 0. Hs = 2m at DHW at SWL : Hb = 0.44 m ~ 4.5/ (9.7 m : Hb = 0.88 x 5.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING Wave Conditions Method 1 h/L ≤ 1/7 tanh kd = For wave criteria being Non-Breaking h/L ≥ 1/7 tanh kd = For wave criteria being Breaking So.4 m Both wave heights are greater than Hs so waves are not breaking and design H = Hs = 2 m. and use the lesser of the two as the design wave. m = 1:20 so Hb/hb = 0. = 2. hence non-breaking wave condition.02 Given slope. Method 2 Calculate depth limited breaking wave height at structure site. compare with the unbroken storm wave height.81 X 36) = 0.0/43 ≤ 1/7 x 0.72 m ~ 5.5 = 5.0465 ≤ 0.1060 .88 x 6. Take Hs = 2 m. Set Break Water Dimensions (controlled by height & slope): Set-up: waves are not breaking per the previous calculations no set-up 3 .0 = 4. Hb/ hb = hb/gT2 = 6.018 ~ 0.88.

smooth. Rc = Free Board ϒr = Surface roughness reduction factor Based on Owen Model. q Rc = a exp − b gH S TOM HS S OM 1 2π γ r From Table VI-5-8: 4 . =0 Allowable Overtopping Discharge Hs = Significant Wave Height Top = Wave period associated with the spectral peak in deep water. Rc = (Rc/Hs)(S om/2∏)0. Owen model in Table VI-5-8. but this will be neglected and considered an added factor of safety unless required to reduce the structure size. rough. Irregular and Head on waves. Subjected to structures via following specifications such impermeable.5 (1/ϒ) Straight & bermed impermeable slopes ( Figure VI – 5 – 14a & b). Q = a exp (-bR) Dimensionless discharge. straight and bermed slope.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING NOTE: there will be a set-down. Q = q/ (gHs tom) Dimensionless freeboard. Overtopping model.

9 m Allowable Rrun-up = 0. indicates the type of breaker regarding the wave run-up and run-down on a structure.55 Solving equation Owen Model.99 m ~ 0. relative freeboard = (-0.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING Slope 1:2.0355 x √((9. q = 0. b = 22 . Sm = Hs/ Lo Rc = R/Hs √(Hs/gTm2 Rc = (-ϒr/b) Ln (q/agHs tom) . ϒr ~ 0.81x62)/2) = 0.0355 R = Hs Rc √(gTm2/Hs) = 2.4 m 3/s per m Rock Riprap with thickness greater than 2D 50.55/22) Ln (0. a = 0. Rc = R/Hs √(Sm/2∏) .013 x 9.9 Wave Run-up Surf similarity parameter also referred as breaker parameter of Iribarran number. ξ om = tan α S OM = 2. α = Slope angle 5 .0 x 0.81 x 2 x 6) = 0.4/0.013.79 Where is .

the Rover-top also to be recalculated in order to indicate actual (over-topping height and allowable over-topping discharge).8 0.9 m ~ 2m R = Hs = 2m Since calculation of Rover-run.1 = 8.55 x 1 x 1 x 1 = 1.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING So = Deep water wave steepness (Ho/Lo) Ho = Deep water height Lo = Deep water wave length (gT2/ 2∏) T = Wave period G = Acceleration due to gravity = 1.5 + 0 + 2 +0.6 m Design of Structure Cross-Section 6 . The smallest set-down will be neglected.17 x 2. ῃ = 0 ~no wave setup since no breaking has been encountered.46 = 1.045 = 1.1 m. The design elevation is determined to Rdesign = DHW + ῃ + R + ptotal = 6. q = 0. assume total settlement as 0.9 x 0.1 m3/sec/m.

5-1)3 X 2) = 20/94. For non-breaking wave & 0~5% damage.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING A rubber mound structure is normally composed of a bedding layer and a core of quarry-run stone covered by one or more layers of larger stone and an exterior layer or layers of large quarrystone or concrete armor units.9 m 7 .81m ~ 0. W = Median weight of armor unit D = Diameter of armor unit ϒa = Unit Weight of armor H = Design wave height Kd = Stability coefficient α = Slope angle of horizontal W = 2. Ns = H/ (SG-1)(W/ϒa)1/3 W = ϒa H3/ (kD)(SG-1)3 cot α Where is.2/2. n = 2 ϒa = Weight of individual armor unit W = Specific weight of armor unit k∆ = Layer coefficient thickness So. random placement.5 X 23 / (14 X (2. SG = ϒa/ϒw = 2.5 t/m3 Armor thickness.5)1/3 = 0. t = 2 x 0.2 ton So. Number of concrete armor units in the thickness. Where is. t = nk∆ (W/ϒa)1/3 .94 x (0.5 = 0.

5)1/3 = 2 m Where is.2t/10 = 0.6+2)2) = 39.9/2.9(2 + 2(8.02 x 1000 = 20 kg 8 . B = nk∆ (W/ ϒa)1/3 = 3 x 0.2)2/3 = 4. B = Crest width N = Number of stones/ armor concrete (min = 3) k∆ = Layer coefficient W = Primary armor unit weight ϒa = Specific Height of armor unit materials Number of armor units per unit surface area.56)(2.94 X (1-0.94 x (0.96 ~ 40 m3/m Design First under Layer (using Quarry stone) Minimum two stone thick (n =2) Under layer unit weight = W/10 = 0. P = average porosity for Dolos = 56 % Na/A = nk∆ (1-(P/100))(ϒa/W)2/3 = 2 X 0. V/L = t(B +2(h + R) cot α = 0.5/0.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING Crest width.45 ~ 5 units/m2 Volume of armor per unit length.

2) = 1.45m 2 A =B crest = 2m.68 kg ~ 22.6 m t ul1 = t armor = 0. t = nk∆ 1/ 3 0.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING Next larger available size is = 22. 20 9 .6 α ) = 2 + 2(0.42m Volume per unit of breakwater.9m = 7.csc 1+ cot 2 α = 7.0.7 +2(17)) = 18 m 3 /m L First under layer ul1.7 kg t ul1 = 0.0277 = 2 ×1× 2.5 m V = 18 m 3 /m Lul1 Second Under Layer Minimum two stone thick (n=2) Under layer unit weight = W of the layer above.9)(2-2.7 m 1 + 4 = 17 m V = t (a + 2c) = 0. W 10 = 22.5 = 0.7 kg 1/ 3 W γ a Thickness. cot α = 2 a = A + 2 T (cot c=h α .5m .5 (1.5 m – t armor = 8. H = 8.

2t = 0.2) = 0.15 m 2.13 kg Thickness.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING W W X 20 10 = W 0.5kg ≈ 2. H = 8.68 kg 10 .5 m = 7. t = nk ∆( W γa )1 / 3 = 2 x 1 x ( 0.2t of armor layer = = 1 kg 200 200 Next larger available size is 1.1 m a = A + 2T (cot α − csc α) = 0.5 m -0.1 1 +4 =16m V = t (a + 2c) = 0. W 20 = 1 kg t ul 2 = 0.5kg W 4000 = 0.t ul1 −t armor = 8. W ≤ 15 ≈ 25 Wcore W = 1 kg → W core =1.5)(2 − 2.05kg 4000 Next larger available size is 0.15(0.9m – 0.9m + 2(0.001 1 / 3 ) = 0.7 m c = h 1 +cot 2 α = 7.9m 3 / m L Second under layer ul2.5m .15 m V = 4.5 Volume per unit length of breakwater.7 + 32) = 4.9 m 3 /m Lul 2 Core Design Dynamic load requirement.

4 h = 0. W 4000 = 0.4h) .5m − 0.9m − 0.44m Trapezoidal.001 = 0.4 x 5.9 m 11 . Assume height of toe = t armor = 0.15m a = A + 2T (cot α − csc α) = 0. 0.7 m + 2(0. cot α = 2.5m −t armor −t ul1 −t ul 2 = 8.0 = 2 Bt = 4 Assume B t = 4 m.15 2.7 m + 2(7.64 + 28.44) = 102m 3 / m d 2 2 Core.95 × ( 0.1× 2 − 0. h = 8.1m.05 kg V = 102 m 3 /m L Toe Design B t = toe berm width ≈ max (2H.64m b = A + 2( H cot α −T csc α) = 0. V 1 1 = h( a + b ) = × 6.5m − 0. h = SWL 2H = 2 X 2 =4 0.2) = 0.9m hb = SWL − Height of toe = 5m – 0.15 × 2.2) = 28.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING W Thickness. T = Tul 2 = 0.95m A = a ul 2 = 0. t = nk∆ γ A 1/ 3 = 2 ×1× 0.5 Volume per unit length of breakwater. H = hul 2 = 7.7 m.15)(2 − 2.15m = 6.

9 × ( 6.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING h b 4 .8.38 = 0. θ = Wave incident angle ( LP θ = 0 0 for head on) K = K1 K 2 K' = 2π 2π = = 0. K = K1 K 2 K1 = 2K ' h ' sin 2 K ' h ' { K 2 = max 0.82 → N S ≈ 60 h 5 W= γ SH3 N S ( SG − 1) 3 W D = γ S 3 = 2.5 HS K K 1/ 3 h' H Where is.5m −1.3 1 / 3 + 1.5 − 1) 3 = 0.4 m (guess) h ' = 6.5 × 2 3 60( 2.9 × ( 6. 1.76 < 1.4 ) ) Assume height of toe = 1.4m ) = 57.5 −1.5 sin ( 2 × 0.5m −1.1 3 = = 0.14t 1/ 3 = 0.4m = 5.9 × 4 × cos 0 ) = 3.4m 2 1 − K h ' ( 1− K) N S = Max 1. K = 2π .9 × 10 −3 K = 0.1t → Nearest size are 136 ≈ 0. cos 2 0 sin 2 ( 0.23 12 . K ‘ = Wave number.38 → 2 Stone height = 2 × 0.9 L 57 K1 = 2 × 0.455 sin 2 θ cos 2 θ ( KB cos θ ) .455 sin 2 θ cos 2 θ ( KB cos θ ) .1m { } K 2 = max 0. cos 2 θ sin 2 θ ( KB cos θ ) } h ‘ = Water depth on top of toe berm (excluding armor layer) B = Width of toe berm.8 exp − 1.

1 ( 1 − 0.8.2m → h b 4 .21) ( 2.8 = 4.2 m Assume trapezoidal.8.8( 4 + 7.5 − 1) 3 3 = 20 = 0.08ton 252 Used W = 0.84 h 5 3 So → N S ≈ 60 Toe .17 + 0.21 W= γ SHS N S ( SG − 1) 3 3 = 2.8 exp − 1.5 3 ( 4.3 + 1.2 = = 0. V = ( SWL − hb )( Bt + base ) = 0.1 2 N S = Max{1.4.8) x 2 = 7.21} ⇒ 4. W toe = 136 kg Toe height = 0.0 − 0. h = 5.23) N S = Max 1.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING 2 1 − 0.2) = 9m 3 / m L Toe-to toe width W = 2 Bt + 2( SWL − hb ) cot α + B + 2(hb + DHW + R + ρ ) cot α 13 . ( 4. 23 0.8m Bt = 4m Toe Volume Assume slope is 1:2 → base length = Bt + 2( SWL − hb ) cot α = 4 + 2 (0.231 / 3 5 .04 )} = {1.8.14t and recalculate with.23 5. 1.5 1/ 3 2 0 .

C 2 .0 m 2. 2. 1995 B = C 0 M C1 f t C2 HS C3 Where is.4m Cross-Section of Breakwater Design 2. C1 . 2 ≤ FT ≤ 4 H S = Significance wave height C 0 .1) × 2 + 2 + 2( 4.0 m DOLOS STONE DESIGN Breakage formula for Dolos → Burcharth.5 ≤ m ≤ 50 FT = Concrete static tensile strength in Mpa .7 m = 4.5 m = 4.5 + 2 + 0. 1993b and Liu.1 m = 6.1) × 2 = 44.0 m = = 1. C 3 =Fitted Parameters 14 . B = Relative Breakage M = Armor unit mass in ton.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING = 2 × 4 + 2( 5 − 4.1 +1.

01306 -0.143 3.507 4.37 Design Method 15 .749 -0.507 -2.325 0.65 -0.1782 -0.147 2.66 2.871 0.42 0.00973 0.025 -0.00546 0.22 -0.37 0.58 -1. Co C1 C2 C3 Waist Ratio Trunk of Dolosses 0.42 Round end Dolos 0.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING ∴This formula considered the effect of static and impact stress.

COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING Type of Armor Stones 16 .

COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING Dimension for Dolos Stone Wave Height vs Max. flexural tensile stress for several Dolos waist ratios 17 .

43 in.28 in.13 in. B = 58.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING Dolos mass vs Max. flexural tensile stress for several Dolos waist ratios Dolos Dimension Assumption(inches) A = 36. D = 10. C = 182.38 in n(σ S ) P < f T Where is. 18 .

(σ S ) P = Static principal stress in model Dolos with probability of an exceedence. n W n = 9.7 M cr ) γ ST K T σ 1 < φ ( 0.3 − 0. (φ ) −1 p =Tabulated inverse normal variation W = Prototype armor unit weight W a =Armor concrete specific weight −1 Assume the probability of an exceedence = 0.43 0.91α + 0. Dv Log (σ S ) est = −2. DV = Vertical distance from crest to stressed Dolos location.7Tcr + TS ) Where is.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING N = Model Scale Factor. 1 for bottom) = in here since top = 0. p f T=Prototype concrete static tensile strength (Mpa) So. =Layer ( 0 for top. ( σ S ) P = 10 ( log( σ S ) est ) + ( 0.1 → (φ ) p = 1. α = tangent of seaward armor slope.28 Checking Criteria For Mcr and Tcr γ SM K M σ 1 ≤ φ ( 0.1549W a 1/ 3 .34 .31[ φ − 1( P ) ] ) Where is .28 + 0. 19 .45 + 0.

6 m Slope (tan α) : 1:2 Crest Width (B) :2m Freeboard (R) :2m Estimated overtopping (q) : 0. C= Dolos fluke length.1 m (assumed) Toe-to-Toe width : 44.1053 ( rc ) 3 → Section modules for flexure 3 S T = 0.2 m3/sec/m Settlement (ρ) : 0.4 m 20 . As = Total area of steel intersecting the crack Rh = Distance to the center of the section Fy = Yield Strength of the steel ∴Bending reinforcement design needs to be calculated by Whitney rectangular stress that is out of this calculation for this project.7 f ct → Critical strength of concrete in moment and torsion TS =Strength contribution from the torsion steel σ1 = Principal stress reinforcement Check Steel Reinforcement For Torsion AS > γ ( S T K T σ 1 ) − φ ( 0.2105( rc ) → Section module for torsion V = Dolos waist ratio.7Tcr ) φf y Rh Where is.6 → Moment and torsion distribution factor M cr = Tcr = 0.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING S M = 0. K M = K T = 0. Structure Summary: Total height (h + R) : 8.

5 t/m → Submerged Volume & Weight.5 (1 – 0. B = 2 Width at WL = B + 2hcot α = 2 + 2×3.0 = 3.7 kg n = 2.6 m3/m Weight of material = Wabove WL = γ (1-P/100) V/L = 2.1 = 204 m3/m 21 .8 m Bt = 4 m toe base width = 7. Submerged.6 m horizontal length = 47. t = 0.5 kg thickness = 0.6 = 54.37)34.6 m.9 m3/m Core: W50 = 0.1 m3/m Check Settlement & Bearing Capacity: Breakwater Load → Volume & Weight above SWL (dry.5 m V/L = 18 m3/m Second Under-Layer: W50 = 1 kg n = 2.2 m V/L = 9 m3/m Bedding: W50 = 4.4 m V/L = ½ 3.99 t n = 2.2) = 34.6×2 = 16. unsubmerged load): Height = 8.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING Armor: W50 = 0.15 m V/L = 4. t = 2 m Na/A = 5 units/m2 V/L = 40 m3/m First Under-Layer: W50 = 22. V/Ltotal = (V/L)armor + (V/L)ul1 + (V/L)ul2 + (V/L)core +(V/L)toe + (V/L)bed = 40 + 18 + 4.6(2 + 17.9 + 102 + 9 + 30.1 m below SWL toe height = 0. t = 0.05 kg V/L = 102 m3/m Toe: W50 = 136 kg hb = 4.6 – 5.4 m V/L = 30.

submerged soils. ∴Strip foundations: q ult = q c + q q + qγ = cN c + qN q + 0.5 + 329)/[44.00.5(1-0. Δσ = (Wabove WL + Wbelow WL)/(foundation width) Sand Layer: Δσ = (54. qu. Terzaghi Table: Nc = 37.4 + 2×(5. but simple) For saturated. for each level (very conservative.19 t/m2 γ' = 4kN/m3 c = 50kPa Bearing Capacity Evaluate the ultimate bearing capacity.5 + 329)/44. Sand Layer: γ = 17 kN/m3.6 = 169.4 m3/m W = [γ(1 – P/100) + γw(P/100)] V/Lsubmerged = [2.4 = 8. Δσ = (54. c = 0.6)×2] = 6.5γ ' BN γ NOTE: This formula is not for multiple layer soils.37]169. Nq = 22.4 Wbelow WL = 329 t/m → Total Load. φ = 30°.46.13 22 .COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING ∴V/Lsubmerged = 204 – 34.16. Nγ = 19. This calculation will only give a rough approximation.37) + 1×0.6 t/m2 Clay Layer → correct for distribution of load through sand layer (see diagram) Clay Layer.

7 = 285 kN/m2 q= γ'DfNq = 0 q qγ = ½ γ'BNγ = 0 qu = 285 + 0 + 0 = 285 kN/m2 = 28.13 = 2973 kN/m2 qu = 0 + 94 + 2973 = 3067 kN/m2 = 325 t/m2 Δσ = 8.6 = 35.7.6×22. Nq = 1.46 = 94 kN/m2 q qγ = ½ γ'BNγ = ½ ×(17-10) ×44.7 FSsand = 36 Clay Layer: γ = 14 kN/m3.2 FSclay = 2.5/12.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING Df = Foundation depth (bedding layer thickness) = 0.5 t/m2 clay layer also supports the sand layer: Δσsand = 0.4×19. Nγ = 0 Df = 0 qc = cNc = 50×5. φ = 0.02 t/m2 Δσ = 6.7×8.6 m Assume γw = 10 kN/m3 Breakwater foundation width (neglect bed) = 44.3 ∴Preliminary Safety Factor .21 t/m2 FS = qu/ Δσ = 28.02 t/m2 = 12. c = 50 kN/m2 Terzaghi Table: Nc = 5.19 t/m2 + 6.3 23 .21 = 3.4 m qc = cNc = 0 q= γ'DfNq = (17-10)×0.6 t/m2 = 6. FS = 2.6 t/m2 FS = qu/ Δσ = 307/8.

∆z = 4.6 − (1.2t / m 2 I zp = 0.7 × 44.6 = 8.5 + 0.2t / m 2 Check settlement in Sand.2 = 0.9m 24 .4 = 178m Assume one layer.5 + 0. B Depth of I zp : z = z10 = 1.6t / m 2 Clay Layer: ∆σ = 6. Assume L > 10 .1 ∆σ z σ zp ' = 0.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING Settlement Sand Layer: ∆σ = 8. I Z = I Z 10 = 0.7 − 1) B = 0.55 31 Depth of influence: z = 4 B = 4 × 44.1 8.0 B → Z = 1 σ ' zp = σ zp − u = γ ' ZB = (1.7 − 1) × 0.4 = 31t / m 2 ∆ σ ' Z = q − σ ' 0 = 8.2 .

5 (1.9 + 1 (1.5 = 7.06 25 .7 −1) × 4.2 + ZP z = 0.9 = 0.22 ∴ρ = C1C 2 ∆σ ∑i =1 Z ∆z i = 0.2 log 10 C 2 = 1 + 0.2C C = 0.2 = 2.2 4. γ =14 kN / m 3 .22 + 2. e 0 = 2.9 0.2 log 10 = 1.2 .45 = 0. assume 25-year life.5 × 50 = 175t / m 2 B (Note: E table in notes gives E 10x higher for loose sand) σ 0' = 1 − 0.55 − 0.2t / m 2 σ 0 ' = (1.7 − 1) 0.1 n I 0.5q c = 3.7t / m 2 2 Assume C R = 0.5 × 4.45m →I Z = 0.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING z= I − 0.6 = 0.3 ∆σ = 6. φ = 0 0 .97 . ⇒ Primary consolidation settlement ( ρ c ) a = 3 × 10 − 3 m 2 / kN . c = 50 kPa.5.01m 175 E i Check settlement in clay. v C C = 0.5 ∆σ ' 8. C1 = 1 − 0.4 −1) × 21.97 ×1. k = 10 −5 cm / s .2 Z t yrs 25 = 1 + 0. 0.1 0.4 Assume qc ~ 25bar = 50t / m 2 (see table in notes) N 60 L = 10 → E = 3.24 2 zp 44.

Total Settlement.55 yrs cv 336 ⇒ Secondary consolidation settlement ( ρ S ) Assume Ca ~ 0.07 m 1 + 2. C H ρ S = α 1 + e0 t log F t p 0.5 2 = 1.09 + 0.7 + 5 .07 = 0.01 Cc Assume t p = 2 yrs and the breakwater lifetime is 25 yrs.16 = 0.17 m ~ 0.5 7 .2 7 .2 ) = = 336m 2 / yr −3 γ W aV 10 × 3 × 10 N = 1 . ρc = − 0.06 × 21. TV ( 95% ) = 1. ρ = ρsand + ρclay = 0.0 log = 0 .15m / yr cV = k (1 + e 0 ) 3. k = 10 −5 cm / s ×10 −2 m / cm ×3600 s / hr × 24hrs / day ×365days / yr = 3.01× 21.2m vice 0.16m So that.15(1 + 2.01 + 0.03 → C a ~ 0.7 Consider time to consolidate.129 = 1.1 m 26 .129 TV = cv t H N 2 → t = TV H2 21.2 m It should recalculate design with ρ ~ 0.5 25 = log = 0.2 2 ∴ ρ = ρ1 + ρ c + ρ s = 0 + 0.9 m 1 + 2 .COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING Over-consolidated.

1 August 2008 .Coastal Engineering Manual .2005 27 .Part IV.300-5 / IRAN Ministry of Transportation. USACE.Iranian Coastal Engineering Code manual – NO.COASTAL AND HARBOR ENGINEERING REFERENCES .

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